- Lesson details
In this series, instructor Rey Bustos brings you a fun, unique introduction to anatomy of the human body. In this second lesson of the series, Rey shows you anatomy of the thigh and gluteals. Rey will begin by lecturing on the blackboard, breaking down each bone, muscle, and tendon of the region. Next, he will use photo references to diagram key areas of the thigh and gluteals. Finally, Rey will end the lesson by doing an ecorche drawing demonstration over the photo references.
- Blackboard Chalk
- Digital Tablet
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and gluteal muscle. As before, what I’m going to do is I’m going to start on the
blackboard just like if you were in my classroom. The neat thing about that is that we’re
just going to layer each muscle one at a time. I’ll explain everything really, really carefully.
Then, as before, what we’re going to do is show you some images, both male and female,
and show you on actual people what some of these landmarks look like.
So, if you’re ready, I’m ready. Let’s get to it.
to break down that part of the body into four segments.
or the hamstrings,
and the gluteals.
Okay, here we go. Start with the anterior superior iliac spine. And you
find the ilium like this. It’s almost like it has a peak just off center. By the way,
in case you’re wondering, I’m facing it that way as if I was turning the leg that
way. Okay, this will be a really quick drawing of the skeletal region of that part of the
body just for clarity’s sake. This is the anterior superior iliac spine. The A.S.I.S.
that you hear about often. It’s like this. This is the ilium. I’m going to fuzz out
a lot of this because I’m going to be putting muscles. So don’t worry about the fact that
everything is kind of fuzzy.
Okay, this is pubic bone right in here, which is on the same vertical plane as the anterior
superior iliac spine, which is always good to know because the belly comes to that spot.
So you kind of start getting an idea of what I’m showing you right now. These are the
back muscles and then the thoracic area like this. Okay, so I just wanted to put a little
bit of the torso as it comes into the bowl of the pelvis. We call the trunk the trunk
because it’s like a big tree. So in essence, if you think about the pelvis as the pot,
the trunk fits right in to the pot. So now what we have is we have this line here, this
horizontal line, and this is where the major landmark of the gluteal area is going to be.
This little area is the great trochanter of the femur. If you really want to see this
clearly, this is the socket and the ball going into the socket. Okay, so socket, ball.
I'm going to fuzz that out because it’s not going to be that important. It’s this bony
landmark that I can hit on the side of my hip, and it’s like knocking on a wall. That’s
this right here. So I’m going to keep that a little bit brighter because it’s exposed
bone. It’s one landmark that you have to see all the way through.
Okay, now what I’m going to do is I’m going to draw a very fuzzy femur.
I’m going to blur this out because I don’t want it to stand out too much. It has almost like
a rocking chair kind of bottom to it. This is the shaft part of it, and it kicks up like
this. There is a part of the condyle here that sticks out. The reason I’m hitting
this hard with yellow is because it’s a bony landmark. This is something that you
can actually—once again, I’m going to hit my knee and it’s like hitting bone.
The other major landmark. Let me fuzz this out because I don’t want this to be dominant.
I want it to look like an x-ray. It’s the patella. I’m going to put the patella in
front of the femur like so. Now, from the lesson that we did of the leg you know that
the tibia has a nose to it, and that is the tibial tuberosity, the other landmark. And
I’m going to fuzz these out again because I don’t want these to be dominant like this.
But the other landmark is the head of the fibula. All of these things now are going
to fit with the last lecture I did. This is the head of the fibula and then the fibula
just disappears into oblivion. So far so good, eh? The curvature of this femur is very slight,
and in some ethnic groups that’s a little straighter. Some a little bit more curvy.
But I give it a little bit of an arc like that. It helps with suspension.
Kind of an interesting thing.
Now, I’m going to hit this brighter. So I’m going to take my handy-dandy 89 cent
chalk and just put a nice little landmark right there. This is the anterior superior
iliac spine which sticks out on our models. I’m going to hit this really nice and hard.
Hard right there so it’s the pubic bone. Nice and hard. Right there. And even the posterior
superior—remember the little dimples on your backside? I’m just going to hit that
but not quite as dominantly because they’re actually closer together. If you could picture
like me turning this around it would be like that, whereas these two are further apart.
They’re at your hips. But this all at the same belt line. At least as far as men go.
With men it tends to be tilted down like this. With men you could just put this belt line
going across like that, and now you have this beautiful little scaffolding.
One horizontal, one vertical, and voila. There we go.
Now, what I’m going to do is I’m going to turn this toward the front now because
it’s important that we see all of this stuff in the round. So from this point of view is
I’m just going to show half of this diagram. Watch what I’m going to because I need to
once again push that back into deep space, way back into the horizon, disappearing far,
far away like distant hills. That is the ilium. The anterior superior iliac spine is coming
towards us like this. I’m going to hit that nice and hard and leave that as our landmark.
Then I am going to find where the pubic bone is. Well, in this case if I’m rotating this
it’s easy for me to just rotate it because now it’s going to be on the same plane right
there. I’m going to put a little mark right here. This is where the pubic bone is. There
is another one on this side, but I’m not going to draw that. I’m only going to draw
the right side so I could put the back as well. The great trochanter happens to be at
the same belt line or equator as the pubic bone. So the great trochanter is farther out
from the anterior superior iliac spine. I’ll put like little lines like this just to remind
us what those guys are. There and there. Got it? Super-important landmarks.
Great trochanter of the femur will be this rocky formation right over here. If you look
at Michelangelo’s David you’ll see this very clearly as almost like a fried egg. This
is where this disappears into the acetabulum of the pelvis. Over here you would see the
ischium, the sit bones, and the little opening. But I want to keep this almost as if it were
an x-ray. Can you kind of understand that? See that? Then the shaft of that femur comes
down like this. So at an angle, and then it flares out down at the bottom.
Once again, just to remind you I’m going to do this lightly because I want to make room for the ability to
be able to put muscles on here. You could still see the bone in there.
So I want it to look kind of like an x-ray.
Let me use my thumb to kind of help facilitate that. Pretty interesting, eh?
Remember this little guy right there? These come forward like this. It’s almost like
a wagon wheel like this. Notice I’m only doing it on the outside, the lateral side.
There is a reason why. You’re not going to feel the bone of that part of the femur
quite as much as you will over here. Over here you’ll have like a little bit of bone
hitting the skin here and popping out. It’s kind of like this. So from the side it looks
like this is like this bony little protrusions. Of course, the patella is so prominent that
I’m going to hit that really hard. So now I’m hoping that this reads clearly to you.
That the areas I’m hitting with that bright 80-cent yellow chalk are going to be prominent
landmarks. Okay, and here as well. This especially on men.
With women it’s harder to find because there is a fat pad that covers that up. I think
I might talk about that in a little bit. Of course, the patella. The patella is kind of
like a little shield shape. Not really round like a cap. Patella means pan, by the way,
like a little pan. If you really want to be particular about this, you’ll actually see
that it’s bumpy. It’s got a couple prominent bumps on it. It has a nice strong edge that
you see on some individuals. Okay, so right now it looks like I’m drawing a little alien.
It will remind you of how bumpy and rocky the patella is. The reason sometimes people
have trouble with knees is because they don’t realize that all of those lumps and bumps
are created by little bony protrusions, dimples, and fat. Fat is going to be one of the really
neat, important things I need to talk about today.
This is the patellar ligament. That attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity. And
from this point of view it looks like this. You’ll see this on very lean individuals.
I mean we’re going to just give you a little bit of a side edge like this. Now I’m going
to draw the tibia like this. It almost reminds me of a golf tee for any of you that golf.
The good thing about golf is that it’s an international sport. Everybody can kind of
relate to it. Even if you’ve never played it, you understand the sport. So, it’s a
golf tee. And I’m going to let this disappear like that into our x-ray. I like this.
And don’t forget about the head of the fibula. This guy right there. So from over here it’s
going to be like this. It’s a protruding bone. The neat thing about the bones that
I’m hitting with this bright yellow are things that you could actually feel with your
fingers and see with your eyes. This is that nice prominent portion of the tibial tuberosity,
which a lot of times actually kind of continues this look like this. Almost like the bottom
part of a cone. This, even though it’s not bone it’s such a prominent ligament that
I’m going to hit it harder.
And over here, the tibial tuberosity, hardest still. Let me take my little blender and blend.
There, there, there. Then you have, of course, the crusts of that tibia. The front edge.
But since we did that already, I’m going to leave that alone. I’m going to hit this
just a little bit because sometimes this bone is visible. I’m going to hit that as a softer
yellow saying, you know, depends on who your model is that day. Sometimes you’ll see this.
Sometimes you won’t. There is a lot of fat undererneath this.
I don’t know if you can picture what I’m trying to tell you, but my finger can go underneath
here and come out here, so there is a little bit of space between—you can see the femur
and the patellar ligament. But in life there is menisci here. There are these little discs
that your bones hit. They’re not bone to bone, but there is like a little bit of padding.
This is something that maybe a grandparent or somebody that’s done a lot of sports
in their lives or whatever, you lose that and then you start grinding, and you have
to have a replacement of the knee. Same thing happens with the hip.
not much. The areas I’m hitting yellow are definite areas that you can see or feel or
at least visualize as bones protruding through the body. This is the sit bone so you can
feel this when you’re sitting on a hard chair right in here. Remember, these are just
inside the body. Remember, it’s like an x-ray. That’s what I’m trying to portray
there, the x-ray of the pelvis. It looks kind of neat, doesn’t it? I’m going to put
the sacrum in here. This is the bony aspect of this. There is a little notch right here,
but none of this is going to be that important because we’re going to cover all that up.
Here’s that sit bone over here. You can see a little bit of it back here. This is
going to be important because we’re going to attach your hamstrings to that point. That’s
the back end of your ischium, the ischial tuberosity. I’m going to let it kind of
sit back there as a little blurry blob to remind us that’s bone, and it needs to be
further back than the socket or acetabulum of the femur and behind further back than
the great trochanter of the femur. There is also a lesser trochanter. It’s a little
bony prominence that’s kind of like on the back of the femur, but it’s poking its head.
It’s almost like a little sun coming over the horizon. Everything is reverse like this.
If I have it like this there would be like a little sun coming over the horizon. So this
little bone, even though you can’t see it or can’t feel it, I’m going to hit yellow
because I want to remind you that’s an important little spot on the femur. All of this I could
blur out because it’s not going to be that important, and it’s going to disappear underneath
the thickness of all those beautiful thigh muscles. So far, so good.
Okay, so we have a center line that I’m splitting just so you can see that I’m only
doing that half. Now, what I’m going to do is show you the backside of this. Now,
I need to go to the P.S.I.S., the posterior superior iliac spine, and those are closer
together. Remember, if you forget what those are it’s really easy to locate on the model.
It’s the dimples on your backside. Now what I’m going to do is I’m going to draw it
here. It’s the prominent bony landmark like this. Look at what happens with the ileum.
It goes this way now. Get a little bit more chalk on my fingers. Like this. Then you have
the sacrum, which is in-between like this. But remember, I’m only going to show you half.
Then your coccyx or your tailbone, but as you can see I’m leaving
everything very minimal like this. There are these little holes that you have on your sacrum.
Then your vertebra comes out of here so you can see where I’m at.
These are big prominent vertebrae then they get smaller as you get up a little higher.
I know it’s very simplistic but you get the idea like that. Now you can kind of see
where I’m at. These are the prominent tuberosities right in here, and there is even one down
the middle of the sacrum. This notch you can sometimes see on some people. This is a really
easy little thing to locate because if you think about it, this is where your gluteal
cleft starts. I’m going to leave it like and just draw a little ghostly butt cheek
like this because it will help orient you. It’s like being at the mall and somebody
saying you are here. Once you see this you could actually see
the whole rear of this person in x-ray.
Now the other thing I want to remind you of is getting the placement of the great trochanters
of the femur. I’m going to actually raise this. I don’t like that I have it so low.
I’m going to bring this up a little bit more like this. I have that prerogative. I
want to just change this. I want to get this just a little bit more accurate for you because
you deserve it. Here is the sacrum underneath. I’m going to put the little butt cheek right
in here. Later on when we put the muscles it will be even clearer for all of you. Here
is the posterior superior iliac spine, and it disappears into the body like that. You
can kind of see where this goes right there. And over here is where the great trochanter
of the femur is going to be. Alright, kind of like that.
Then I’m going to put the shaft. We’re almost ready to start putting all these muscles
in their various important groups. I’m going to keep this a little soft, little soft, little
soft. Again, like an x-ray and get that femur to come down. Excuse my back for just a moment
while I get this down here like this.
Then there are these two prominent condyles.
They're like wheels. They’re big and prominent like this. Remember about what I said.
This part you could actually feel.
Then the tibia. Again, trying to get that look like an x-ray like this. And one of the
most important landmarks of this knee area is the head of the fibula like this. And then
the fibula disappears along with the tibia because this is something we’ve already
talked about. Let me get rid of some of this. Okay, here we go. Now, we’re just about
ready. One of the other things I really want to remind you of is if you look very carefully
at the back of a femur, perhaps in your classroom or when you look online and look up skeletons
you’ll notice that there is a line called the linea espera or aspera; you know, toma-to,
tomah-to. There is a ridge on the femur like this. Right now it’s kind of important not
because you’re going to see it on the model, but because I’m going to put muscles on
here. The other thing I need to put in is the ischial tuberosity, the back part of this
pelvis. This is the ischial spine. Here’s a little notch. I’m trying to keep this
really nondescript on purpose because I don’t want it to stand out too much. This is a pretty
prominent little landmark right there.
The other one, remember, is this one. I’m going to raise this just a little bit, this
one. That little bony protrusion right there. That’s going to be important and so is this:
Even though I’m having this yellow, they’re bony protrusions. But these, unlike the others,
you can’t really feel very easily. This one when you sit and go back and forth on
your but you could actually feel it pretty well. This one you’re not going to see,
but it’s going to play an important role. You go from the great trochanter. It swings
down, and it becomes the lesser trochanter like this. If you want to look at the entire
femur that’s kind of what it would look like. But again, I want to blur this out because
I want this to be clear to you. The great trochanter still very dominant.
I need to get rid of some of this.
Now we’re ready for the muscles. We’re going to start with the quadriceps. The quadriceps,
I’m going to start with this front view. The reason I have all these is because I hop
around. In some cases it’s going to be easier to start with one than the other than the
other. Some of the muscles are going to be a little bit more prominent on the backside.
In this case I’m going to start with the center one, the front view. Okay, now, one
of the things I want to tell you, though, is this little X: X marks the spot.
It's a very important little spot on the pelvis. I don’t know how much you need to know about
this, but I’m going to tell you anyway. This is the anterior, inferior iliac spine.
It’s important because one of the quadriceps. Let me actually explain something because
this has been asked of me many times in my own classroom by my students. Quadriceps,
what do you think of? I think most people think four. In fact, that’s how these muscles
got their name. But there is this vastus intermedius muscle that’s underneath. It’s almost
like if I showed you my fingers. There are three, but how about if there is one underneath it?
That’s why it’s like that. That one I usually just throw out. Quadriceps is going
to refer to three muscles. There will be three that we need to know. It’s going to be four
over here. It’s going to be basically three over here. So all of a sudden it doesn’t
really take that much. It’s going to be basically three there, but there is going
to be another part of that’s really important.
It’s not muscle but it’s an important aspect of this.
So now what we have is something that’s a lot more manageable. So what I’m going
to do is I’m going to teach this just as I do in my classroom, my brick and mortar
classroom. That is, to teach this in groups first and then break it down. Okay, so the
quadriceps start here, but there is only one that actually starts there. That is the rectus
femoris. The rectus femoris starts here, which means that there is only one of the four muscles
that actually crosses over two joints, the hip joint and the knee joint. Other than that,
they all start here and they cross over the patella into the tibia creating the ability
for you to be able to stand at attention. If you lock your knees and just stand like
this like you’re ready for role call in the morning. But the rectus femoris because it also
crosses over to the pelvis can actually lift your leg.
It actually moves this rather than just locking this.
What I’m going to do is I need to draw this all as one shape first. Watch because it’s
really important that you get the major idea first. I go from here and watch this because
I’m going to draw what is going to appear to be balloon or a water balloon being pushed/pulled
by the wind. This windblown teardrop are the quadriceps. You’ll notice that on the inside,
the medial side, these rest on the patella. What I’m going to do for you is I’m just
going to shade this in as one group of muscles. Don’t worry; I will split them up for you.
I’m going to color code this. Okay, so now what I did is I used this color for the quadriceps.
You like that? Here we go. Like this. Now it may look funny to some people, and some
people that teach anatomy this might look a little weird to them also. I can’t worry
about that. This is just the way that I most effectively get the point across.
It already looks like the thigh.
So because the major muscles of the thigh, especially when you look at it from the front,
are going to be the quadriceps. Remember, I can’t say that the quadriceps are front
muscles because they’re front and side. That’s why now that little bump right here,
that little X is a little protrusion right over here. It’s important for us anatomists
to know why. Watch what I’m going to do. I’m going to draw what the pelvis actually
looks like, like this. So it’s a little bump right there. Again, I’m just going
to kind of like put that little X. X marks the spot.
these are the quadriceps: our vastus lateralis.
Think about what that means. Vastus
refers to anything that is vast. It’s big. Lateralis refers to the lateral side. Remember,
we don’t use left and right or east and west. We use lateral and medial. So the outside
part of my arm is lateral. This is medial. Lateral-medial. It’s the outside part of
the leg. Vastus lateralis which is the other one. The vastus medialis, so that tells you
something already. And rectus, which means straight. All these things actually help you.
If you know the meanings of these things. Femoris refers to anything of the thigh is
of the femur. Femur just means thighbone. So femoris, rectus femoris. So it’s straight
muscle of the thigh. And it’s right down the middle. What’s interesting that if I
were to draw the rectus femoris on here then you would see all three of the quadriceps.
At least all three of the quadriceps I consider to be important. All of these are connected
to the patella, actually to the tibia but by way of the patella. By the quadriceps tendon.
Do you see those two lines? If you fill those in that is tendon, and it does cover the patella.
The patella is buried inside. Then over here what ends up happening is it turns into the
patellar ligament. So it’s all the same thing. It just changes names because this
is bone and that’s bone. The difference between the tendon and a ligament is that
a ligament connects bone to bone. So this has to be called a ligament. Specifically
it’s a patellar ligament. This is muscle. This is bone. This is bone. So this, even
though it’s the same structure, is called the quadriceps tendon. Okay, so I’m going
to make sure that you can see this very clearly like that.
Now, from the side, though, this is what you’re going to have. This is the vastus lateralis like this.
The vastus medialis is way over here. Sometimes you can see a little bit like
that. But this is the rectus femoris. Now this could be fuller. This really varies from
person to person. Sometimes I’ve seen this vastus lateralis be very vast. So what I’m
going to do is I’m going to put form lines that just kind of help in helping me describe
that form. I’m trying to tell you it’s like a big fish. It’s bulbous but it’s
also somewhat flat if you saw it from the side like my hand.
This is the vastus medialis. It’s over here. It’s on the other side. I’m going to leave
it like that. It’s this one, the rectus femoris that kind of comes in like this. Then
it has its own tendon that kind of blends in with the quadriceps tendon, and it does
this. Now you end up with this kind of a look. This is them separated. This is nice and round.
The rectus femoris is actually kind of a complicated little muscle, so I’m going to have to explain
something to you. Especially when I show it to you from this point of view. Okay, are
you ready, because now what I’m going to do is I’m only to draw the rectus femoris
which is right in the center, and it ends here. It ends about here, about three-fourths
of the way down the thigh. It has a strong tendon. It’s kind of independent of the
quadriceps tendon. It’s also part of it as well. It’s kind of a confusing thing,
I know. But on a cadaver I know it all looks the same to me. It is important because this
helps kind of separate the little group. So this is the vastus lateralis coming from the
side like this. This is the nice teardrop muscle of the vastus medialis. Look at how
beautiful that looks now. So now you have one that ends up here, one that ends here,
and one that drops down really low. So one, two, three. Stair steps down. So you can see
that there is this really implied kind of slant to this angle, and I like that. I like
that a lot because when you see that, when you know that, it does make your drawings
better. Now you can also see why this bone is felt. It’s because the muscles kind of
bypass this. So all of a sudden you can still feel the femur. You can feel the tibia. You
can feel the head of the fibula. Over here it gets covered up a little bit more,
especially when I put other muscles.
This muscle right here, it’s called a bipennate muscle. The top part is like very tendinous
like this. This is all tendon. But what’s really interesting is pennate means feather.
To the Greeks this looked like a feather so they named it that. Why is that? It’s because
it has a furrow down the center like this. Then the muscle fibers do this. So sometimes
on very defined people it can actually look like two muscles. The lateral one, this one
is generally a little bit bigger. This gets really big and well-developed.
This one stays a little bit less. But basically, that’s it.
If I were to draw form lines it’s almost like there is this furrow, but remember this
is still just one muscle like that. This is on a very clearly defined male. I call this
the Captain America muscle or the Marvel Comics muscle. You know, all the superheroes have
this big, almost like a trout sitting on top of their thighs right there on their laps.
But that is one muscle. Okay, so if I were to number these this would be one, two, three.
This is one, two. This is three.
Sorry about my wet finger. It’s really the only way I like to erase, make little erasures.
For those of you that get kind of creeped out by stuff like that, I’m sorry about
that. But anyway, there is this. One, two, there. I’m putting this right in the middle
to remind you that this whole area here is the rectus femoris. Then you have vastus lateralis,
vastus medialis. How do you like that? So this is number one, number two, and number three.
You like that?
Okay, so far we’re doing pretty darn good. Now the adductors I’m going to keep—I
think I’m going to keep them that color. No, I’m going to change it up for you. Kind
of jazz it up. I’m going to use this color. It’s nice and bright and happy.
It’s a nice happy color.
Okay, so the adductors. Now, this is interesting. For any of you that work out, oftentimes,
you know, a personal trainer or workout equipment might be labeled very simply, kind of like
the way we just did it. The quadriceps, the adductors, flexors, gluteals, or hamstrings.
So the quadriceps, you know, you go on this machine and you start pumping iron. You’re
developing those. The adductors are really easy to explain. They’re the inner thigh
muscles. They are the ones that bring your knees together like this. If you think about
really, really great horsemen of the past especially if you think about way before fancy
saddles and stuff. A great horseman had incredibly strong adductor muscles because they would
clench around the horse like a clamp. An easy way to remember these muscles are the adductors
are adding the legs back to your body, so towards the center. Okay, so right now I’m
abducting my arm, for instance. You could abduct your leg as well when you go out or
do the splits. Adducting means you’re adding it back to the body. So adducting is a really
great way to explain this.
The adductors, the A group, okay, the adductors. I’m going to right add to remind you that
we’re adding those back to the body. The adductors are the iliopsoas—
the P is silent; it’s a combination of two major muscle groups—and the ilacus major—
but we just say it as one like that.
Okay, so the ilopsoas. Iliopsoas muscles are really fabulous because they’re tucked way
in here. I need to actually draw a little bit more vertebrae because this involves the
lumbar vertebrae. The ilacus is over here on the ileum. The psoas major, you might recognize
this if you go to fine dining. The psoas major is filet mignon. Not human, of course, but
cows. They don’t use it much so it’s very lean, and it’s already tubular in form.
It’s kind of need. So what I’m going to do is I’m just going to put that in here
like this. I need to do it lightly because these aren’t muscles that you’re going
to see at all. Kind of like this. There is this tubular form. I’m even going to draw
this big tube coming in like this. It’s coming towards this little areas right in
here of the pelvis. You know what this reminds me of? Then they keep kind of going like this;
watch. They go like this, like this, like this. But then over here they go away from
us. Can you kind of picture what I just did? Now, this is where this little guy comes into
play. This is attached to the lesser trochanter like that. This disappears and basically all
of these muscles are attached to that lesser trochanter right there.
So it’s kind of like the muscle that you use when you’re doing sit-ups.
Or, they call it the dancer’s muscle sometimes or Pilates or yoga.
So what number is that going to be? It’s going to be number 4. So muscle for today
is number 4, iliopsoas. What you’re going to see or what it reminds me of a little bit—and
I’m just going to blur this out because it does really disappear. It’s going to
be behind your gut. You’re not going to see that at all. It reminds me of this huge
muscle. It’s almost like a tea kettle full of water. Then you pour. All you see is a
stream of water. All you see is just a little stream of muscle. The muscle is really large.
And because it goes over this bony protuberance right in here of the pubic bone, that pubic
area right in there. It comes forward, and then it goes back. It’s almost like if I
had a weight on a rope, and the weight was in front of the table. I’m using the ledge
of the table as a fulcrum, and it helps me lift that leg up so that knee would come towards
you. It’s fabulous, a fabulous muscle.
I’m losing some of my detail over here so I want to just bring some of these back. While
you kind of take in some of that information because I know your mouths agape right now.
The next one is fairly easy because I think of it as a rectangle of sorts. It’s pectineus.
You know what? I don’t even mind if you forget the names of a lot of these muscles,
but don’t forget their shapes or what they do to make the—like this, for instance.
I don’t want you to forget this. You can probably forget from time to time and say,
ooh, what’s the name of that muscle? What’s the name of that muscle? I don’t care as
much as just remembering what the shapes are that I’m teaching you. What I try to tell
my students oftentimes, and I’m telling you this now, is don’t worry about memorization.
You feel like, oh, I can never remember all that stuff that Mr. Rey knows because they
don’t worry about it. It will come in time if you even want to take it that far. But
you can’t forget these major shape things that I’m trying to tell you because these
shape forms are basically what you’re going to be needing as an artist. I don’t mind
if you forget some of these names. As a matter of fact, most people do. Even doctors. My
doctor friends tell me that the first thing that they learn in medical school is anatomy,
and the first thing they forget is anatomy. A lot of them just become specialists, and
they forget what the brachialias muscle is because they don’t have to deal with it
anymore because they’re heart surgeons or whatever. Okay, so these are all really important
things for you to remember.
are—you can’t see this, but there is like this line is the line of the pelvis. I may
have gotten it in a little different place, but watch.
They are attached to that linea aspera
of the femur. Okay, so that’s this right in here.
That’s going to disappear in a little bit. The reason I’m going to do this lightly, kind of like it’s just like his
bubbled muscle, and the muscles just kind of flare in from this area. There is even
one that comes like this. So you’re going to even see evidence of that over here.
The reason I’m telling you that is because over here it goes behind the quadriceps, and you
can’t see this anymore. This is number five. It’s this. It’s this muscle, the pectineus.
It’s more of a rectangular muscle for lack of a better term. It’s just easier to remember
that. There is even a big spot for it on the pelvis. If you ever really look at a pelvis
carefully there is a little area for the pectineus that fits right in just like a puzzle piece.
So pectineus is number five.
Okay, now the next one is called the adductor longus. I’m just going to write ADD. No,
I take it back. Adductor longus. That’s number six. That one is going to be a cone.
Now you have this conical shaped one. I’m going to draw the form lines. It’s big.
It’s got a huge tendon right in here, like on the inside of your groin. This is number
six with a bullet. This one is a little bit flatter. Still, it has a little arc to it,
but it’s a little flatter. See how this is all coming together now?
It’s really, really nice.
Finally, the gracilis. The way I’m going to get you to remember the gracilis muscle:
it’s the inseam muscle. It’s also like a belt. If I held it up like this it would
like a 1975 belt, you know, nice and wide. Nice, big belt. From this point of view it
would only look like this. Disappears a little bit behind the vastus medialis. Okay, and
that’s number seven. It’s the inseam. The inseam of your pants. Think of the inseam
of your pants, and that’s roughly where that is. This is a nice, big muscle so I’m
going to just kind of get that. This is behind so you can’t see it. That’s a gracilis.
That’s what this one is here. I’m only going to label this one because the rest I
just want you to remember as a bubble like that.
Okay. So far, so good. You might even seen just a little bit of vastus medialis from
this point of view. The other thing I could put on is the vastus lateralis.
That was the first muscle that we talked about. Look at this. Little by little it’s starting to
come together. You like that? Now the flexors I’m going to probably keep in this same
kind of gray-purplish color. And those I need for you to remember the ischial tuberosity.
Your sit bone. If you’re sitting on anything hard right now or on the floor or something,
you go back and forth, you’re going back and forth on your sit bone. Back here you
have what’s called the hamstring muscles. I’m going to have to try to explain by bouncing
around just a little bit to make this a little clearer.
Those are—let’s see, which ones do I start with? Semimembranosus. These are the hamstrings
or flexors. The lower limb means the entire limb, from your waist down to your foot.
Flexors of lower limb. Semimembranosus.
When I write I give you, you know, it’s like a pause.
It gives you time to kind of like catch up with all this. Semimembranosus. The next one
is going to sound similar. So this one is number eight. And that’s a weird muscle,
and you’re not going to see a lot of it. What I’m going to do is I’m going to try
to show you kind of like what—it’s kind of a tricky one to draw. The tendon is here.
You see part of it over here, but then it kind of disappears, and the tendon ends up
over here. But what you might see, and this is the important part, is back here behind
your knee you’ll see it. So I know this is going to be a little unclear right now,
but what I want to tell you is just to relax about this. I’m going to blur this out,
and I’m only going to leave some of the things that are important. I need to blur
this out because it’s going to be clearer for you. You’re only going to see the parts
I’m leaving. Right in here and right in here. Guess what? From this point of view
you’re going to see this. You’re going to see this big bump like this. That is number
eight. I’m going to leave it a little unfinished looking for right now. I’m telling you it’s
going to help that I do that. And a little blurry. Okay, so you have to just be patient
and know that I know what I’m doing to make this a little easier for you.
The next two, numbers nine and ten, are—let’s see, which one am I going to do first? I’m
going to do this one because it sounds similar. Semitendinosus. And biceps femoris. I’m
going to have to right long and short. This is number 10. This is (a) short head because
there are two heads. I will explain this. I will explain it with the side view because
it’s kind of like my fingers. You can see them like this on the side view, but when
I show you the front view you’ll only see one of them. So I’ll explain the semitendinosus
first. Again, I need to kind of make this blurry, but I’m also hoping to make sure
it doesn’t get unclear. I still need to make sure that this is in here because this
is a part of this part of my lecture where these muscles are going to be kind of butted
up against one another. I’ll fill this in better as I put muscles on. I will try to
make things a little bit clearer.
Remember, semimembranosus is already on there. Okay, and what number was that? Eight. And
so is this. This is eight also. Make sure you can see that. The tendon does this. It’s
attached to the tibia. I’ll tell you why you don’t need to know that specifically
in just a moment. I’m going to go back to this spot right there, your sit bones. All
these muscles, eight, nine, and ten (a) and (b) are all attached—no, sorry. Only the
long head is attached up here. Watch what I’m going to draw because basically what
I’m going to draw—here’s that X. I’m going to draw muscles that kind of look like
pincers like this.
Okay, are you ready? This goes like that and you can see the tendon going off like that.
I’m going to draw the other one like this. Like this, like this. Guess what? The tendon
is going to go straight to the head of the fibula. I’m going to split these right down
the middle like this, like this, like this goes like that. This one ends like this. Then
the tendon is really strong. So this is nine and this is 10a. Now we got them. We got it.
We got it. The neat thing about that is—well, later on I’m going to draw something for
you that I think will help. These two muscles will end up looking like one, and it’s kind
of like when you’re making a bicep on your arm like a bicep muscle and getting it to
contract out. These two muscles basically will look like one, and they’ll ride up
like that and that creates a hollow right in between. It’s kind of a neat thing. I’ll
think you’ll like it once I do it.
I’m going to put the flexors over here just to kind of remind you. Watch. This is the
biceps femoris long head, and then that’s the tendon. The muscle goes like this, and
there is a tendon that fits right in here and it’s really strong like that. I’m
leaving open on purpose. It’s attached over here on your sit bone. It’s big and it’s
round. Can’t help but to see it. This tendon you see and feel really easily if you bend
your knee and just like you pluck it like a big old base string. This is biceps femoris
long head, so it’s 10a. Where is 10b? It’s right in front of it. Right in here. And it
creates that nice bubble, and it also shares the tendon of the biceps femoris. But this
tendon is very dominant. This is 10b, biceps femoris short head. So all of a sudden you
end up with this beautiful kind of design. I’m going to hit this really hard with yellow
because I want you to see how dominant that tendon is. It’s very strong, very straight,
and if you remember from the last lecture right below it will be the peroneus longus.
Underneath it is peroneus brevis. Here are the tendons, tendons, etc., etc.
Now, you should be able to still see the semimembranosus. That’s this one right there. It’s a bump
behind the knee like that. Very prominent, very easy to locate. Here is this muscle right
there. Biceps femoris long head, biceps femoris short head. If you look at Leonardo da Vinci’s
drawings, he likes this muscle so he draws it like this big tubular form like a kielbasa like that.
These are really pretty nifty. The gluteal muscles consist of three major muscles. These
are going to be like this. This one is easy because I just kept it this same color. Now
I’m going to do the gluteals which are going to be in this nice bright yellow. Not to be
confused with the bony landmarks. The gluteals are these: Number 11, 12, and 13. Which one
am I going to start with? Gluteus medius; that’ll be number 11.
Gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae.
Sometimes you can say TFL because it’s tensor fasciae latae. You’ll
see that in some anatomy books. I ran out of space so I’m going to leave it like that,
and it doesn’t really matter. Sometimes you’ll see it just as tensor fasciae.
It's a neat muscle.
But I’m going to start with the gluteus medius because it’s the easiest one. If
I use the side view here it’s almost like a fan. If I think of a fan I’m going to
fan it out like this. The reason I’m going to do this kind of fibrous like this is because
with some people it almost looks like a bear claw or fingers.
Some of my models, the males in particular, are lean, and if they lean backward and they
are lean themselves, sometimes you’ll see this. You’ll see almost like these little
bundles like this. Now on cadavers you only see a little bit of this because the gluteus
maximus is going to cover this up. So this is number 11. Okay, now I’m going to leave
it kind of like unfinished like this. From the side it would be like this. It creates
that nice roundness. You’re flank muscle comes in. I’m just going to draw that very
lightly kind of like this so you could kind of start seeing the shape of the body coming
into this area, and this is number 11. Okay, so it comes in from the back and you can see
it right there. From this point of view you see more of it. I’m going to leave it soft
over here because the gluteus maximus will cover up a lot of that like that. And on males
the great trochanter is still exposed, but it’s attached to the great trochanter so
when it pulls on it it abducts your legs, so it’s the opposite of these muscles right there.
There is another muscle I haven’t talked about yet, but I’m going to save it for
last because it’s a good one. Okay, so number 12 is gluteus maximus. That’s the one everybody
has been waiting for. It’s the star of the show. It’s the biggest muscle that you have.
It’s huge. It’s a big muscle. It surrounds the great trochanter. All of a sudden you
end up with a shape that kind of does this. But the thing that a lot of times people don’t
realize is how far down it goes. It goes lower than what you see on the butt. It goes down
to here, and it’s obviously big and it’s round. It covers up a lot of the gluteus medius.
So it’s like this. It’s like this. It’s like I’m drawing a big donut or a bagel,
depending on what you prefer. Now you can see that starts covering up.
But there is a strap, a gluteal strap that pulls on the finger. I wanted to actually
make something clear. This is the gluteal strap. It pulls. It pulls on your butt cheek
like this holding it up. But, just be aware that the muscle is actually lower. You can
see this on very lean people. I’m going to just cover some of this up because I want
to remind you that it does cover up a lot of the stuff that we just did. You can still
see a little bit of that x-ray, that little bit of transparency where the flexor muscles
are still seen underneath there.
I’m going to make a nice little division here just to remind you that that is a separation
between gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. You can see some of these muscles here, here,
there. I’m going to do a lot more to make sure that you guys understand what’s going
on with this, but right now I really like where we’re going with it so far because
I think you’re starting to pull everything together that we’ve learned thus far. This
is the gluteus maximus. Remember that when we’re drawing anatomically, us anatomists,
me, we are allowing for the fact that there is always a lot of fat, subcutaneous fat on
these muscles, especially the gluteus maximus.
Now, over here it kind of goes around, and it drops down lower than you would think.
This is nice and almost like a big inner tube like that. This is going to be out like that.
This is number 12, gluteus maximus. Here is the strap that holds it down. You can see
evidence of it. Then there is gluteal fat underneath that. And voila, this goes around
the great trochanter like this, leaving that alone.
The next muscle is a teardrop muscle called the tensor fasciae, and it looks like this.
And it goes down to as far as down as you see the strap. You go across the strap like
this, and you’ll see that muscle end right here. It ends really abruptly. It’s covered
with like a fasciae or a sheath. It’s like a sausage encasing, and that sheath will take
you down to the tibia. Same thing here. That sheath is the iliotibial band. I’m going
to write that down because it’s really important.
And I call it the band. Some people call it the track.
I like band because it feels like a band when I’m feeling it
on a cadaver. I can put my hand between it and the vastus lateralis, and it feels like
a band to me. I’m not sure exactly what a track is. But I like this. I like calling
it a band because it’s—and notice that I’m drawing lines because it’s very fibrous.
If you do a squat and feel the side of your thigh you can actually feel it. For those
of you that are runners you know that muscle or that tendon is, it’s a really interesting
thing. I can’t call it a tendon. It really actually surrounds the whole thigh, but this
side of it is so thick that even when at UCLA when they take out the skin and stuff like
that the skin pulls the fasciae off because it’s so thin. It’s like a membrane except
for this because it’s so super thick. It covers up this muscle right here, and it goes
all the way up to the ileum. In most anatomy books you’re going to see that it ends pretty
much where I put it right now, which is just below the great trochanter. It comes down
and it becomes a really strong visual on the model down here where I’m hitting it over
and over and over again. That is because the vastus lateralis does this, does this, does
this. All of a sudden it looks like it becomes a part of that nice, beautiful structure.
Over here I’m going to make sure that you can still see the patella, patellar ligament,
So then when you start putting in the muscles that we’ve already done you can see that
there would be the soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus right in between
like this. Let me make sure I get all of this really pretty for you like that. You have
this. You have this. You can start putting it all together down to where the foot will
be. Make sure it doesn’t go too far up. You can see we start putting it all together.
Little by little, we’ll put it all together. It starts becoming a little bit easier the
more you do this.
Here is the lateral malleolus, extensor digitorum brevis. Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal, the
toes. Tarsal metatarsal articulation. Everything starts coming together really nicely. Okay.
I think we’ve got most of this in here. Let me just double check. The one muscle that
is missing right now, and it’s a really important one, is the sartorius. I’m going
to save this for last. Sartorius. It’s a good gladiator name. So now we have this beautiful
sartorius. I’m thinking of changing my name to Sartorius. Sartorius Bustos. There is this.
There’s this. I’m going to just really make sure that our contours are working, and
we can see everything that we’ve learned. We start just putting it all together at this
stage. The one muscle that’s really missing is the sartorius.
I’m going to just tell you a little bit about that sartorius. The sartorius is the
longest muscle of the body. It starts at the anterior superior iliac spine. The other one
I need to put in on this particular section is this. This is the tensor fasciae. This
is the iliotibial band like this. It does this and it creates a line that you see. It’s
attached to the tibia. It comes in like this. Then the other one is the tendon. It was the
biceps femoris. This is number 10a tendon. This is the iliotibial band right in here.
I’m going to try to make this a little bit clearer for you. You can still see—remember,
there is bone here and bone here. This is the iliotibial band like that, which blends
right into the tibia like that.
The IT band has an interesting little off-shoot. If I were to draw it off to the side it would
look kind of like this. Watch. It’s called the band—I’m going to draw this—of Richer
after Dr. Paul Richer in the 1800s. The Band of Richer cuts right across right in here,
and it pulls on the vastus medialis. That band does this, does this, does this. It disappears
like this. You can see evidence of this when you look at the model and have them relax.
You’ll see that it creates a little bubble. You won’t see much over here. But definitely
from the front, this is the Band of Richer, spelled like Richer.
So the Band of Richer. Again, named after Dr. Paul Richer, a famous French anatomist
of the 19th century. You can find a lot of his plates. Another neat thing that I found
out is that he was a really good sculptor. So look him up and look at the plates because
they’re beautiful. So anyway, Dr. Paul Richer. He has a fabulous book out that was edited
and translated by Robert Beverly Hale. Another great book. So with New Masters Academy we
have all sorts of really neat stuff for you guys to look at including some of the plates
by Dr. Paul Richer. So that’s just a little trivia for you or fun fact for today.
cent chalk there are only certain colors I have. The Band of Richer is important. The
tensor fasciae, the iliotibial band. All of the stuff is really very important and very
cool to actually understand. That’s why I drew it over here separately. If you think
about where everything is, this is like where the knee is. This is where the femur comes
in. The patella would be over here so you could see how like it wraps around the leg,
and it pulls on that little muscle right there, creating what looks like a little bubble resting
on top of your patella. You have to infrapatellar fat pad that sometimes softens this area up
right there. Obviously you don’t see the patellar ligament as clearly. That’s an
interesting thing about knees is how varied they are. A lot of times you’ll notice that
Michelangelo and all those guys, Leonardo, they draw two little balls right over here,
two little globules alongside the patella. That’s the fat pad squeezing out from behind
the patellar ligament. But sometimes you can see that that fat pad actually comes to the
front and attaches all the way from one side to the other. That’s why with some people’s
knees they look kind of puffy or dimply or whatever. It’s just that variation. So the
other thing I wanted to mention is that this whole area here, it’s kind of conglomerate.
This whole area where a whole bunch of tendons congregate. It’s almost like a funneling
of a whole bunch of forms. I call it the tendinous bundle, but it actually has a name. It’s
that round area on the inside part of the knee. It’s called the pes anserinus. It’s
one of those things that you can see different pronunciations. It means goose’s foot because
it kind of looks like this. I don’t think it looks like a goose’s foot, but it’s
the tendinous bundle that is created on the inside part of the knee.
Which reminds me, whenever I’m teaching about like the leg, this part of the leg I
draw like this. I draw one straight. The inside is round, relatively speaking. Don’t forget
about the teardrop that comes into this area. So the inside part of the knee is relatively
round on the outside because it’s more tendony right in here, like straight tendons of the
biceps femoris tendon tend to look a little bit more like this.
Now, there is also that recognizable little dip right there. A lot of that is created
by this next muscle, and that is sartorius. It starts right there along with right next
to the tensor fasciae which was—tensor fasciae is number 13, lucky 13 right in here. Along
with that one, it creates an A frame. There is a hollow right in between here because
rectus femoris played by right index finger is lower. It’s lower so that the sartorius
and the tensor fasciae are higher. So if I put my finger a little lower there is a very
recognizable dimple that you are going to see on the model.
Now watch because it’s like a big belt. It does this, does this, does this, does this
like this. It goes kind of towards the back of the knee, and it comes back forward right
over here. It dissipates and just blends into the tibia. Now over here it’s more belt-like,
like this. You can see the flat part of the belt, but then all of a sudden it turns to
edge. So here it’s like this then it turns the edge, and it comes back to face you again.
I’m just going to draw little flat lines just to remind you that this is like a belt.
That is the sartorius which is right here. Okay, the sartorius. Beautiful, beautiful,
beautiful stuff. There is a ligament, the inguinal ligament that kind of connects that.
All the muscles kind of go through that.
Now, let me actually show you one more thing that reminds me of Peter Paul Rubens. Don’t
forget about the hollow here. There is a really important part of when I teach about the leg
is that over here there is going to be a little hollow before you get to the rest of the thigh.
If you take this leg and squinch it. You’ll see the Peter Paul Rubens baby leg. What’s
interesting is, this is like something I studied just kind of—this is like a little baby,
like a little cherub kind of thing. You’re going to see this very, very often.
For any of you that have a baby or seen a baby or know somebody with a baby, you’ll
notice that up to the time that they’re about 18 months old they have a crease down
the center of their thigh. They have all these little bubbles and stuff like that. They’re
really kind of cute. Babies don’t oftentimes even patellas formed yet. They tend to be
really kind of squishy and globular. One of the neat things that you’re going to see
is that all the anatomy that we’ve learned thus far you’re going to see on old master’s
babies. It’s kind of funny to think of babies with anatomy but they do. They have anatomy.
The neat thing if you think about it is the old master’s really had to know a lot of
anatomy because it’s not like you’re going to get a baby to wear like a little cherub
outfit or a cupid or something like that and have them pose for hours and hours. The fat
around the patella just kind of surrounds the patella.
A lot of times they don’t even have one.
But what you’re going to see is you’re going to see a lot of the same stuff that
we just learned but almost like compressed. So one of the things that you’re going to
see is this. This crease that is halfway down between the knee and the hip is actually the
sartorial crease because underneath you’ll see the sartorius like this. So over here
it’s nice and big and bulbous. Basically what you do is you just take what we’ve
already studied and bounce it around. This is the gluteus medius. All of this is going
to be, you know, the adductor group. But you can’t see all those muscles on a baby. What
you’ll see is you’ll see evidence of all of that stuff. You can see the Band of Richer
and all that. But it’s this little crease. By the time a baby passes the 18 month mark
they start stretching out. All of a sudden you’ll see that same indentation on one
of your models, but it’ll be a little bit less, you know, bounce like that and like this.
I’m going to try to make some of these lines a little clearer so we don’t lose what we
labeled. There is that Band of Richer. Number seven was the gracilis. That’s still there,
and it’s also where the sartorius is. And I want to separate some of these muscles just
a little bit right there, right there, and then there is a sartorius there. The iliopsoas
or the filet mignon muscle. Tensor fasciae separating right around here. Sometimes you can see
it bulge right in here, but this is where that muscle ends. It’s where the gluteus medius takes over.
Fortunately, with New Masters Academy you’re going to get this amazing education in anatomy.
Okay, so now that we’ve seen the lecture I also want to, just like I did the first
time, show you the skeleton. You can see the beautiful pelvis from the side. First and
foremost, anterior superior iliac spine and the posterior superior iliac spine. The great
trochanter, the femur, and the linea aspera of the femur. When I rotate it around this
way I want to remind you of that iliopsoas muscle because it pours out just like my hand
is, and it’s attached back here to the lesser trochanter. So if you think about me taking
this and pulling it, it would raise the leg like that. Isn’t that beautiful? It’s
just a great design. Fabulous. Pubic bone. So now you can see all the things that we
just talked about, and you can see it on the skeleton.
Isn’t that fabulous? And the sit bone. The ischial tuberosity. That’s where the back
of the thigh muscles are. The flexors, the hamstrings that will bend your leg back and up.
obvious in this particular image would be to always find and look for the great trochanter
of the femur because that’s going to tell you everything. From there you’ll see the
lines of not only the gluteus medius which is right in here, but the dimples of showing
you the gluteus maximus right in here. The other thing that you’re going to see really
nicely with this particular model is how far down the gluteus maximus does go. You’ll
see that very, very clearly. As a matter of fact even this is a little bit of a part of it.
This right here, that shadow is the vastus lateralis. This bumpiness right in here in
this particular image is beautiful because this shadow tells you that is the tensor fascia.
These poles that you sense and feel right there, that’s the iliotibial band. You also
see the tendon of the biceps femoris. It’s going to one of our favorite landmarks, the
head of the fibula. From that you go see the peroneal muscles from before. The flexors
of the thigh ball up right around here create like one bubble shape. Then you can see the
tendons, the tendon of the biceps femoris long head, and in this case it’s fabulous.
You can see the tendon of the semitendinosus. You could tell from this point of view the
gastrocnemius coming out from those two little areas. It’s almost like a gate. You have this.
You have this. And then the gastrocnemius comes out from that. It’s always really
important to be able to visualize that. You can see the femur right there, patella right
there. This line is the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis.
When I jump over to this other image, what’s nice about this is now there is a lot more
of the tension that you see. You can see the pull of the iliotibial band right there. This
is the vastus lateralis. Right here, again, you can see the pull of the tensor fascia
going into the iliotibial band. Once again, you can see the little shadow right there
that is the great trochanter of the femur.
The other thing is—I forgot to mention I’m going to go back to this one because I want
to show you something right in here that’s very clear. That indentation right in here
tells you that’s a separation between gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. I always look
for the dimples of the sacrum to help me align where everything is. Because that tells you
where the sacral triangle is and voila. So now from this point of view you can see the
pull of these muscles. The gluteus maximus, the flexors of the back of the thigh. What
I’m going to do is I’m going to show you the tendon back here of the semitendinosus
and of the head of the fibula right in here. This is the vastus lateralis right there.
This right here is the iliotibial band. Look how beautiful that is. Over here what’s
really nice about this particular image is you can see a little arc. That’s the vastus
medialis. Right in here is the tendon of the rectus femoris as it attaches to the patella.
So this is vastus lateralis. This is rectus femoris. This is the tendon right there. Sometimes
you can even see the sartorius right there and gluteus medius. You can see how it’s
pulling in like that.
Okay, so now when we hop over to looking at the female, one of the things you’re going
to notice from this point of view right in here is the effects of the Band of Richer.
It’s very light but you’ll see a little shadow. See where I’m bringing it up little
by little? That is the Band of Richer creating this little bubble that’s resting on her
kneecap or patella. This is the pes anserinus. Of all of the adductors kind of meeting up
there and the sartorius, all of that right there. So I just wanted to show you that.
Right over here you can see the flexion of the flexors and how it just kind of planes
out right there where it becomes tendinous.
One of things that we need to look for is where the great trochanter is. This is a little
bit of the fat that’s underneath and covering that up. One of the things you’ll notice
on this particular model is the anterior superior iliac spine. This is the tensor fascia. You
can see just a slight shadow. It always just drops down anyway, whether you see it or not.
You’ll see a very slight shadow here. That is the separation between gluteus medius and
gluteus maximus, which actually comes down—once again, I will tell you—
further down than you realize.
Over here, this big shadow is the vastus lateralis, but you notice that it does this. It does
like an S-shape. Then it links up with the iliotibial band to create that beautiful line.
You may not see it but there is a slight shadow right there. I even see a little bit of the
pull right there of the iliotibial band. The rectus femoris up there and the vastus lateralis
right in here. The tendon of the rectus femoris. Patella. What’s striking in this pose is
the tendon of the biceps femoris long head. The biceps femoris short head would be in
this little dark area right in here that I’m shading in. And as usual, you know how much
I like these muscles. That’s peroneus longus, soleus, and gastrocnemius. Just to kind of
add to what we’ve already learned.
Achilles tendon. You can see the tendon of the peroneus brevis going to this particular
model’s tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal. On this side what’s very striking here is
the iliotibial band. You can see it as a spike. What I want you to really look at, though,
is this shadow right here. That’s the vastus lateralis. This is the rectus femoris tendon.
And, of course, you could see the little patella right in here. Tibial tuberosity. This bubble
right here that comes into light, that is the biceps femoris short head. This little
spike there shows you a little bit of the tendon. You can see the tendon right in here
of the semitendinosus and then the muscles bulge out. So basically, you have this and
then straight, and then you have the muscles of the back of the leg right in here down
to the heel. Okay, so that’s what I see there. I’m exaggerating these indentations.
Over here you see the pes anserinus, and on this particular model you could see a little
bit of the sartorius. That’s what all that is. Gastrocnemius to the soleus, to the Achilles
tendon. And this little shadow is the vastus medialis. This bump, see how it bumps up there
but then there is a little valley there? This is the rectus femoris. Then it levels out.
This is vastus medialis. The adductors just end up looking like a bubble.
Over here you see evidence of the great trochanter of the femur and the shadow here is the gluteus
medius. This little area, this right in here, that’s our tensor fascia. The indentation—see,
on her because she’s a woman the indentation tells me that this is where the great trochanter
is. All of this above it is the gluteus medius, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus right in here.
And the gluteal fat pad. And because she is a woman, she has a fat pad that covers this
whole area up right there. But she is a very lean woman so there is not going to be a lot of that.
you guys out. Let me just identify certain things like you have to see where the great
trochanter is and also the anterior superior iliac spine. I’m going to start with some
of these muscles over here. I’m also going to put in the posterior superior iliac spine.
Now, I need to just very carefully just draw some of these muscle fibers for you. The gluteus
medius is very like bundled. So a lot of these lines are going to be almost like cleaned
up versions of what you would really see. It’s almost like hair that’s parted in
a few different places. I am going to identify this right in here that I’m shading as the
great trochanter. So once you know where that is then watch what I’m going to do. I’m
going to just bring out the gluteus medius. It creates this little bubble right in here.
Like this. I’m trying to give it a little volume also, if you’re wondering what I’m
doing. I’m going to try to give you a little bit of light on here. It’s almost like hair.
I know that muscles aren’t this fine, but it’s easier for me to draw it like this.
This muscle is going to be butted up against the tensor fascia. So what I’m going to
is I’m going to draw a strong border just so you could see the difference between the
two. The gluteus medius overlaps the gluteus maximus. So I’m drawing the gluteus maximus
right now, which is attached to the sacrum all the way down to the coccyx. It even has
a little bit of attachment, even though it’s a little unclear, to the femur.
But just to keep this a little bit simpler, I’m going to draw the gluteus maximus, and
right in here where you see this really strong border just know that there is like an overlap
right there. The gluteus maximus you’ll see comes down a lot further if you really
look carefully. It’s really quite beautiful like this. It goes around the great trochanter
surrounding it, almost like a big old inner tube. I’m going to leave a little bit of
like his butt showing right there because I want to remind you that there is a lot of
subcutaneous fat around these muscles. A lot of times I tend to really push the muscles
right up to the contours. That’s also just to make things a little bit clear. There is,
I think everybody knows, there is a lot of fat underneath the skin, especially in certain
parts of the body. But this is where the gluteus maximus goes down to.
Then it’s going to attach itself to the iliotibial band. So I’m going to use these
muscle fibers. It’s kind of like hanging for a moment right there. I’m going to continue
with the gluteus medius and the tensor fascia. I see all of these as almost like a baseball
mitt, a first baseman’s mitt. I’m doing the thumb part. The reason I say first baseman’s
mitt is because it doesn’t have discernible fingers. It doesn’t have separate fingers
in the mitt. So the gluteus medius is the pocket. The gluteus maximus is the four fingers
inside the mitt. In here is the thumb part of the mitt. As I told you before with the
gluteus maximus I’m going to stop these muscle fibers right here at the lower end
because they’re going to be attached to the tibia by way of the iliotibial band.
Now, one of the things that you’re going to see is a little bit of a shadow right in
here, and that’s going to be the vastus lateralis. You also are going to see a lot
of very strong directional lines, and that’s because underneath the iliotibial band the
vastus lateralis and the iliotibial band create forms that are very, almost like transparent
forms, if that makes sense. I’m going to try to make sense of it. This is a band. It’s
almost like a big piece of tape that pulls. But also underneath it, because it is almost
like Saran Wrap or something like that, then what happens is that it’s also affected
by the muscle underneath it which is the vastus lateralis. But then the vastus lateralis can
also influence the form of the iliotibial band. Do you see what I mean? So it’s like
a transparency of forms. Then this also is the vastus lateralis. You could actually see
it coming out this way over here. You could see the shadows of it. This is all vastus
lateralis. You could even see little shadows right in here. These are all like just fibrous
tissues of the muscle. This over here is the rectus femoris. You could see a little bit
of it here and its tendon going to the patella. But all of this is mostly vastus lateralis like this.
I’m going to draw a very strong delineation between it and the rectus femoris. Notice
how much lower that is. I’m going to draw a dark little area right here because the
other form over here is the sartorius. Then when we color code these, these are going
to be really, really clear to you. This muscle ends very abruptly and it turns into—see
this tensor fascia—very abruptly and then it turns into the iliotibial band as well
as this muscle the gluteus maximus. All of this surrounds the great trochanter, so I’m
going to make it look like it’s dipping in there like that, just to make it a little
bit nicer and clearer for you.
Over here you’ll see the tendon of the biceps femoris right in here, the head of the fibula
right there. You can see the little indentation there right in here. I’m going to bring
out that tendon a little bit more. You won’t see this very clearly in this picture, but
there is a split between the biceps femoris long head and the semitendinosus on the other
side right over here. But the tendon of the semitendinosus is very apparent here because
they both create basically a gate in which the calf muscles, the gastrocnemius come out of.
Like that in the soleus. Do you see that? This is the knee area, in case you’re wondering
where I’m at. Like that. So these two create this over here. Then the muscle does that.
You kind of combine to almost create this, like a bubble muscle.
over here is rectus femoris. Vastus lateralis. Vastus medialis is sometimes seen from this
point of view. I’m going to tell you that a lot of times I put a little arc there just
to remind you that that is what all that is. On this side you could actually see effects
of the sartorius. That’s why there is an indentation there because the sartorius does
this. You could see the beautiful lines of the body. As I said, the outside is relatively
straight. The inside is relatively round. You can see how beautiful that is. In between
those tendons you’ll see the bulbous mass of the gastrocnemius. And voila! We have the
quadriceps tendon going over like this. It becomes a patellar ligament. This line right
in here is the tibialis anterior.
I’m going to jump over to this side because now you can see even more tenseness of the
iliotibial band. You can see the muscle fibers and the iliotibial band combined to kind of
create this. This is the iliotibial band right there. This is vastus lateralis. Now you can
see the bump of the vastus medialis. This is a straight—see, I’m just trying to
give myself little indications of what’s going on underneath here.
The tensor fascia does this.
You can see the pull of the iliotibial band. This over here is the sartorius. This is vastus
lateralis right in here. You can see it manifest itself right over here with that little shadow.
I think if you look carefully you would be able to see there is a little indentation
there between the sartorius, tensor fascia going off in this direction. I won’t draw
the split in between the rectus femoris, but the rectus femoris would be right over here
at this vastus lateralis.
And the iliotibial band.
There is a whole neat relationship between these muscles over here. The sartorius over
here, rectus femoris over here, vastus lateralis over here. I’m going to draw the vastus lateralis,
the muscle fibers, and give you a really good delineation between some of
these, as best I can. Sometimes it’s very abstract because the body is so fluid. There
is just a lot of movement, and every little movement can change. This is the iliotbial
band. You can see the pull of it even over here. It blends into the tibia.
This is the back end of the vastus lateralis right in here.
This is the iliotibial band, and it would pull like this.
And the vastus lateralis just disappears underneath it. So there is
a lot of the band showing over here. Gluteus medius.
There is a nice split right there,
but that is still gluteus medius. And tensor fascia right in here. I’m going to try to
make sure you can see the delineation.
The thing about the gluteus maximus is that it does cover up a good amount of the gluteus
medius, so I’m going to do that right now for you. This is the gluteus maximus. It comes
down further. Once again, I’m going to say this because a lot of times people are surprised
at how far down the gluteus maximus goes. It’s just that there is a strap that holds
up your butt making it look round, and it ends what we apparently
see as the butt right about there.
This is the gluteus medius. I didn’t realize how small the gluteus medius showed until
I started looking at cadavers. There is just a very little bit, a lot less than I see in
a lot of the artistic anatomy books. The gluteus maximus covers up most of it. Over here is
where it hooks up to the iliotibial band, and now again this is the vastus lateralis.
Then the tendon of the biceps femoris, and this is the head of the fibula, and the biceps
femoris long head splits off from the semitendinosus like this. Then here is the tendon back here.
It’s kind of hard to see in the darkness, but it’s behind the other side of the gastrocnemius,
which is right here. Look at how beautiful this is. These are the nice fibers and poles
of the gluteus medius, all of this right in here that I’m doing.
I’m just going to make a little shadowy area here just to remind you it goes into
the great trochanter of the femur, which is left along right in this little area right
there. I’m going to just make sure that I make a clear delineation as to what’s what.
This is tensor fascia, the teardrop. The muscle ends abruptly right here.
It's totally inside, completely inside the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is the fascia or
a sheet that covers this whole area. This is the iliotibial band right in here. Even
though I’m drawing it almost as if it was muscle, it is fibrous and it pulls, and especially
in a pose like this,, you can really see the pull very strongly.
Let me make this even clearer.
That's the iliotibial band right in here.
And over here. And it dissipates into the tibia. But what
is really important is when you can see this. This integration between the vastus lateralis—you
see this right there? I’m really making this stand out in the iliotibial band. It’s
a very recongnizable part of the outer knee. A knee is just like a name for like a big
region. It’s a really complicated little area.
Again, I want to make sure that this is clear.
So, vastus lateralis is underneath this dark line. Rectus femoris is over here. Sartorius
is over here. Rectus femoris.
This will be where the vastus lateralis is right in here.
The vastus lateralis down here. Then it too will hook up with the iliotibial band and
do that. So I’m going to make sure this is really, really clear. I’m going to separate
the iliotibial band from the vastus lateralis and make more of these lines for you.
Reminding you that this is a teardrop, I’m just going to darken up the bottom part of these muscle
fibers, and these attach to the anterior superior iliac spine along with the sartorius, which
is right in here creating that dimple underneath.
Rectus femoris is right up front right in here. Then its tendon takes you right to the
patella. Tendons of the quadriceps, quadriceps tendon will kind of go like this and the rectus
femoris tendon. But all of it basically covers up the patella and becomes the patellar ligament.
You could see in this little hollow a little piece of the femur. This over here you have
to remember is the vastus medialis. I want to make sure that you can see that. I’m
going to separate it. I’m going to draw around it like this just to show you that
it’s a bump. Then it’s straight because then it’s a patellar ligament. I’m going
to bump it up just a little bit more just to make sure that you could see it very clearly.
This is a front facet of it. Then the tibialis anterior. You can see where it ends right
there. It becomes tendinous, and then the tendon goes across like that. The foot is
closer to us than the tendon. So it’s important that you see this then the bulge right in here.
Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, peroneus tendon. You can see it right here. Peroneus
brevis tendon. Gastrocnemius and soleus. It’s attached to the heel by way of the Achilles tendon.
I just wanted to show you that.
Remember, it goes down lower.
It's just a strap that holds up that butt.
The tensor fascia again, teardrop. These are the
muscle fibers. What I want to do, though, is I want to shadow a little bit of where
the great trochanter is.
Make that stand out. Then the iliotibial band once again.
I told you that was going to be a lot of fun. I hope you enjoyed it. I know that you’re
never going to see the thigh and gluteal muscles quite the same way again. So, stay tuned and
come back because I’m going to be talking about the back muscles. You’re going to
love that. Okay, so I’ll see you next time.
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15m 44s2. Front and side view of thigh/pelvis bones
14m 37s3. Back view of thigh/pelvis bones and introduction of quadriceps
15m 13s4. Side view of quadriceps and introduction of adductors
14m 35s5. Adductors and flexors
16m 8s6. The gluteal muscles
9m 35s7. Wrap up of lecture, viewing the upper thigh/pelvis region on skeleton
9m 57s8. Diagramming key areas over photo references
8m 43s9. Ecorche draw-over of back view on male
14m 9s10. Ecorche draw-over of side view on male