- Lesson details
In this series, artistic anatomist Rey Bustos brings you a fun, unique introduction to anatomy of the human body. In this fourth lesson of the series, Rey shows you anatomy of the front torso. Rey will begin by lecturing on the blackboard, breaking down each bone, muscle, and tendon of the region.
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again, what we’ll do is we’ll go to the blackboard. I’m going to layer muscles little
by little. Try to make everything make sense to you. The front is actually a lot less complicated
than the back. But it’s also so recognizable that, if you have things wrong, even somebody
who doesn’t know anatomy will see that it’s not quite right. So, let’s just get to it.
good things about that and bad things about that. The good thing is everybody has a really
good memory of what the front is. So, if you see somebody like in an ad or something, and
it’s a guy and he doesn’t have his shirt on, and you look at the front of his body.
You’ll notice it’s like, oh, I recognize that. You know, the pectoralis majors, the
abs, you know, the six-pack muscles, etc., etc. It’s very recognizable to all of us.
That’s a good thing. That makes today’s lecture fairly easy. The bad thing is the
same thing. It’s that because it’s so highly recognizable for us artists, if we
don’t depict it correctly anybody and everybody can tell there is something not quite right
about that body that you just drew, whether it’s like a superhero or you’re just trying
to draw a figure from one of your workshops or something like that. There is something
funny going on with that front.
Conversely, when I lecture about the back it’s the other way around. It’s so complicated
a lot of artists just don’t know what’s going on. Anyway, so what I’m going to do
is I’m going to start with just a few muscles. Now, one of the things that you’re going
to notice is that there are very few muscles that I’m going to talk about today. That
is not to make the front torso seem simple because it’s not. When I look at a cadaver
there are layers and layers like an onion. The tricky thing about that is that there
are many more layers than we need to know as artists. But many layers that you need
for us to be alive and to move around and to dance and to do the hula and walk around
and jump and reach up and all this.
There are a lot of muscles around here. They’re basically designed kind of like a piece of
plywood. You have muscles that go like this, like the rectus abdominis. You have external
oblique muscles which are almost like you’re putting your hands in your pockets. You’re
going like this. That’s what oblique means by the way. You have this. You have chest
muscles that fan out. You have this stuff, but underneath you have layers that oppose
all of that. So you have a layer like this, a layer like this. It’s like a piece of
plywood. What makes plywood really strong is that we took a natural product, which is
wood, and it was beautiful to begin with, but we made it even better by opposing the
direction of the fibers of the—or the grain, the fibers of the muscles or the fibers, in
this case, of the grain of the wood. So by opposing them it makes us stronger.
And guess what? We’ve already had this nature. It’s our bodies. Let me just start with
this. Let’s see. Where am I going to go? Let’s just start with something like this.
Okay, so we have a body, and what I want to do is I want to kick the head out of the way
just a little bit just because it’s not quite as important in today’s lecture as
in later lectures. So we have a body like this. I’m going to kind of kick this out of the way.
Okay, so like this. The ear is like over here and you have this kind of configuration. This
will be a little bit easier just to make sure that we have all of this out of the way. This
is the neck opening. This is the sternum. So far so good. So here is the sternum right
down here. I’m going to make this kind of blurry because a lot of this stuff we’re
going to just kick out of the way. The important part here will be the clavicles. These are
really important. I’m just going to try to simplify them. I usually draw them as if
I’m drawing a bicycle handlebars. Like if you have an old 3-speed kind of like this.
I’m trying to see if I made them somewhat symmetrical. Eh, they’re okay. And then
this is the manubrium of the sternum, the body. And then this little thing called the
xiphoid process like this. Basically, with all of this I’m going to extend this a little
bit, and there is a reason why. I want this to be really good for you. This is kind of
wavy like this. It looks like a dagger.
Anyway, so that triad is very important because I can rotate that around and create a little
perspective. On the backside is the scapula. I’m going to depict the scapula in very
simplistic terms right in here. I’m going to just kind of soften this up just to give
it a little bit more volume kind of like this. There is a stairstep down, so it’s important
that you guys take note of this little configuration here because all of this is really important.
This is the acromion process of the scapula.
Let me just write this down right in here because it’s
a really nice little landmark right there. You can see the end of the clavicle fits right in
it, and they touch like this. Except that the clavicle is up a little higher so you
have that recognizable bump above people’s shoulders. Not always. Sometimes more than
others just like anything else with anatomy. Then the rib cage, let me just kind of draw
it first before I go too far with this drawing. This is the base of the skull right in here.
A little bit of twisting, but I’m going to keep this almost like an x-ray. This is
like an x-ray board like this. It helps me make things a little bit clearer for you.
I’m going to take the size of the head and multiply it by 1.5, one and a half, roughly.
And then this is the opening right in here. All this stuff that that we have to know is
basic figurative stuff. I’m just going to kind of do this just to give me an idea of
where that rib cage is. You have to always know where that 10th rib is. You know that
we have 12 ribs on each side. But basically what we do is we call this the 10th rib because
that’s when you take a deep breath you can feel that on your body. The other thing that
is going to be really important is to make sure that we know that there is a ball of
the humerus in here. I’m not sure if I need to do this on both sides, but I’m going
to start by putting it on both sides.
This is your humerus, and the humerus has a little arc on it right there. It’s a deltoid
tuberosity. Where the 10th rib is, is basically where the elbow is, the bend of the elbows.
I’m going to put that in there as well kind of like this. There is one blunt side and
one sharp side. I don’t need to do more because we’re not doing the arms. So as
the ulna on this side, the radius on that side, and a little bump right there for the
bicep like that. And then this is like your elbow kind of locking in kind of like a little
thumb locking into the elbow right in here into the humerus like that. But I’m going
to leave it kind of like this. But the part that’s important is to make sure that you
remember that there is a little mark right there. There are two bumps right in here called
tubercles because there is a little groove here for the bicep muscle. This I’m going
to hit hard and yellow because these are visible. This one is not so much, but this one is important
to know where that little, that tiny little bump is because that’s what your deltoid
is going to be attached to. So I’m going to keep it like a lighter mark because you’re
not going to really see that too clearly. But these are important for you to know.
All of this. These are visible landmarks. The pit of the neck is created right in here by
the manubrium and in between each clavicle. You have that pit that every teacher will
tell you about, the pit of your neck. Major landmark.
Then you have the opening, and you also have the ribs. In this case what I want to do is
I want to imply that there are ribs on the back side because there are. This the vertebrae
over here. We also need a pelvis. This is the vertebrae, but what I’m trying to do
is trying to make it look like it’s further back because it is, of course. It’s on your
backside. I want to keep it a little fuzzy.
Now, there is the 10th rib which is about here. I’m going to make this a little wider
right in here. This is the 10th rib right about there. And the rib is on the backside
of your rib cage like that. The other thing that I want to put on here is roughly where
the belly button would be. It’s below the 10th rib. If I go from this area here below
the 10th rib and roughly around where the acromion process is or the acromioclavicular
articulation, which is a union between those two bones, roughly you’ll find the anterior
superior iliac spines of the pelvis. Okay, so if you were to keep drawing through this
you would see this pelvis in here like this. That’s the ileum, etc., like this. Here
is where the sacrum would be back here way back into space like this. And the pubic bone.
Let me just get in your way for just a moment just to kind of like get this where it should
be, and that’s roughly where the pubic bone would be. It’s almost like a baseball diamond,
and it varies from person to person. It’s like 1st base, 2nd base, 3rd base, home. Then
this is the pubic arch so the genitals would be in this A-shaped, A-frame shape right in
here. This is the obturator foramen, which are the little hoops, loops. This is the rest
of the pelvis right in here. Like I said, I want it to be kind of ghostly because you
don’t need to see this. Then there is the opening right in here, the pubic rim—or
excuse me, the pelvic brim. Like in here. Like in here. That’s the sacrum way back
there. It’s roughly—yeah, you know, I’m doing the best I can. We’re trying to make
sure that it’s in the ballpark. This is where the great trochanter is. This is where
the great trochanter is.
Okay, so far so good. So here is the great trochanter. Here’s the great trochanter
of the femur, and you can kind of see the skeleton in there now. Like I said, the x-ray.
Like that. Like that. Like that. And here we go. Pretty neat, eh? So now we’re getting
somewhere. And this sacrum way back there. Okay, so one of the first things I want to
do is make sure that there is a rib cage in here. Right now most of you are saying that’s
not what a rib cage looks like. Yeah, I know. It will. These are the ribs on the backside.
Just want to give you a little bit of perspective so you kind of see what’s going on. These
are the floating ribs. They’re on your backside to protect your kidneys. This is your vertebrae
back there all the way down to the sacrum. Now do you see kind of like what I’m developing
little by little? Then there are those little foramen over here, 8-10 of them. Kind of like that.
And there you go. You’ve got a little bit of a pelvis in there and you can kind
of see it, but not too much. Very good because now I can do the rib cage. Are you ready for this?
So now what I’m going to do is draw the ribs. What they’re going to do is they’re
going to be coming in like this. Like this, like this, and like this.
Now you can see basically the rhyme and reason behind what I was doing or trying to do. Here
we go. This is where they kind of combine. I’m going to cover a lot of that up so here
they are now in all their glory. Isn’t this beautiful? Love the rib cage. Like this, like
this, like this. They change direction here because all of this is actually cartilage
right in here. Right in here, right in here, right in here.
I know that at about this level would be the 5th rib, so what I’m going to do is I’m
going to put little signifier here saying this is where roughly the nipple would be.
It’s roughly around where the 5th rib is. Now, in this case you don’t need to count
because I’m just making a quick little illustration, but basically this is it.
Okay, so now what you’ll end up with is a pretty good little skeleton, and we can
actually start dressing it now. I’m going to make these a little softer so that we can
cover them up, and they won’t be too distracting. I’m going to leave that a little bit clean
just to remind you how important the skeleton is. This is the 10th rib. So this is a really
good little landmark right in here, and all the other ribs kind of do this like this.
They congregate in this little area right in here, and then here is the xiphoid process.
The rectus abdominis. Those are your 6-pack muscles. Sometimes kids think that there is an 8-pack,
but that’s also just because there is like little strap at the bottom part that sometimes
makes it appear like there is actually more. The interesting thing about the rectus abdominis
is that they are attached really high up here by where the nipple is. Way over here.
Okay, so if I were to make a line. Remember, I’m going to get in front of you for just
a second. I want to make sure that this is roughly straight so that we have a line here.
Even though you’ll notice most of your models are not symmetrical. They’re asymmetrical.
If you draw a line down the center oftentimes you’ll actually miss the belly button kind
of like the way I did there. Did you notice how I did that on purpose just to make it
asymmetrical, just to prove my point.
Now, what I’m going to do is I’m going to just create a little bit more clarity with
this rib cage, and I want to make the line of the rectus abdominis. It does this, does
this, does this. Remember, I’m only going to do the muscles that are most clear to us.
In this case it’s just the top layer because I’ve already explained that there is a lot
more complexity than just the muscles, the handful of muscles I’m going to talk about
today. Now, in the case of these muscles, what they do is they do this. One cuts across
here. Another one cuts across here. So there is one section here that’s actually in a
soft squishy center of the belly. Do you see that? And then there is one roughly over here.
This one a lot of time almost looks like it’s coinciding with the rib cage. That’s why
a lot of times erroneously people will just assume that this area here is all rib cage,
and that the rectus abdominis muscles are attached to this hollow.
It’s really not like that.
I’m going to make these little compartments. These little intersections here in between
are actually tendinous, fibrous little beely-bobs that separate each one of these compartments.
Then there is one more. This one pushes up against the chest muscle like here. Then there
are like straps that hold on to ribs like this.
Basically, what you’re going to see are these three on each side. I’m going to leave
the other side alone. There are muscles fibers that do this.
Hence, the 6-pack muscles.
If you mirror that you’ll see that these muscles will create six little compartments.
If you’re very lean—a lot of times people thing if you do a lot of crunches you’ll
show off your 6-pack muscles, but it’s not really a matter of that. It’s how much subcutaneous
fat you have over them. If you’re very, very lean and have very little muscle mass
then what happens is that these muscles become very clear and evident. And from my lecture
that I did of the thigh you’ll notice that it’s the iliopsoas muscle that actually
creates more of the sit-up type action rather than this one. For this to develop you actually
have to do more twisty kind of things and also just lose a lot of subcutaneous fat.
These muscles actually make and implied line because you won’t see this because there
is going to be muscles on top of this right. They go all the way up to the nipple. And
if you think about the nipple to this area, this arc. That’s actually called a nipple
line. So remember that because we are mammals. We have mammary glands. The females have
mammary glands. We all have nipples. In other species—there are certain species, of course, as you know,
if you have a dog or a cat that they have multiple births on average so they have more
nipples. What that tells you is that this line is an implied line of where the nipples
would be if you just kept going down. You’ll notice if you have a pig or something in your
yard that the nipples actually curve towards the pubic bone right in here.
What I’m going to do here is I’m going to hit this hard just to remind you that that’s
a pubic bone. And the genitals are in this area in here in this hollow created by the
two sides of the pelvis coming together and creating this little hollow. That’s a pubic
symphysis right in here. Okay, so all of this is very important physiologically, but right
now you just need to know that this muscle goes down to that little area right there.
Okay, so now what I want to do is I want to actually talk about a muscle that is attached
on your backside. It originates on the front though. That’s how I got its name. I’m
going to put the scapula in. Do you see that? That’s a scapula. Once again, I want to
try to create a little perspective so you can see that it’s solid but it’s also
going back like that. So the ribs kind of come around like this, like this, like this
still. They want you to forget that the ribs are there. The scapula is very important because
on this inside part, this inside like my hands were in there is the muscle called the serratus
anterior. Serra means saw. So serratus is like a serrated knife. And anterior just reminds
you, because anterior means front, that the attachment point is on the front of the skeleton.
Serratus anterior. Now we have two muscles: Rectus abdominis, serratus anterior.
When I talk about the back torso I’m going to refer to these again because they’re
important for the back, the front, the side, everything. They’re attached to the first
through the 9th ribs. This is the best little hint I could give you. Watch this imaginary
line. See that? It goes from the pit of the neck. You make this arc. Do the nipple.
That gives you a position of where those fingers because the serratus anterior looks like fingers
like this. If you could imagine my hands but with nine fingers, and they’re arcing just
like my hands are, and they’re grasping the front of the skeleton. I don’t need
to show you all of them because you’re not going to see them. But over here you will.
So what you’re going to see is something like this. Oops, sorry. I have to change the
color. Like this. I want to color code to make things clearer for you like this and like that.
Okay, so what you end up seeing is something that appears to look like fingers coming from
the back, but they’re actually originating right here where I’m putting them. These
little digitations are attached to ribs. I’m only going to show you four of them because
that’s what you’re going to see. These are attached to the inside edge of the scapula.
You will see this when I lecture about the back.
The next set of muscles I’m going to talk about are—see what pretty color I’m going
to use. I’m going to use this one. External obliques. The external oblique muscles are
really kind of neat because to me they resemble a picket fence like this. I’m going to just
draw this little picket fence over here. Specifically, that’s a vertical picket fence. Then here
is one that would be horizontal. But oblique means this. It’s at an angle. The picket
fence is going to look more like that, and they fit right in here. So if you notice these
little fingers have a flat top. So if I extend this flat top they create the picket fence.
These are flatter muscles. Notice that they start becoming more and more vertical until,
all of a sudden, they become the flank portion of the external oblique. They end abruptly
right here. Right here. Right here. They’re not attached at all to the rectus abdominis.
I’m going to have to explain something to you that is so wonderful that very few people
really understand this or know this or even care about this, but I’m going to explain
something that is really quite stunning. And that is what these are attached to. I’m
going to blur this out so you don’t see the skeleton as much anymore. But you have
to always remember that you should be able to always feel that there is a skeleton in
here. I’m going to put little shadow lines right in here kind of like that. Maybe I can
do it in black. Let’s see if that’s going to work. I want you to still see that there
is a rib cage in here even though you’re putting muscles over them. It’s like water
going over rocks. You got to still be able to feel that there is a rib cage in there.
I hope that translates to you, that there is still a rib cage in there. Got it? Okay,
because these muscles are actually attached to the center of the body by a thin sheet
of tendon called an aponeurosis. Like this. Believe it or not. See this? That’s why
I’m going to have to blur this out like this. I’m going to just try to put some back of that.
Okay, so this is this, and this is the abdominal aponeurosis.
And aponeurosis is just a flat, sheet-like tendon.
Abdominal aponeurosis. It connects this external oblique to the center
of the body. So it most of your anatomy books, it’ll look like there is a tendon that runs
down here, and then it turns into this diamond shape, but that’s not right. What they’re
trying to show you is that they had to cut away this aponeurosis like a piece of tape
and peel it back to expose the rectus abdominis underneath. Okay, so I’m going to draw the
rectus abdominis in its entirety over here to remind you that this is still one muscle,
and it’s attached up there. Over here you can see it covered up. So now I can cover
this up without being in too much danger of confusing you. I’m going to put these little
lines because there is an aponeurosis covering that up.
I’m going to remind you that I label these.
to be the same as serratus anterior, but pectoralis major. Pectoralis major but there are two
parts to this: Pectoralis major A is going to sternal, the sternal head, and B is clavicular.
There is an abdominal portion, but I think I’m going to throw that in with the sternal.
Watch this. I’m going to put like a little magic spot over here over by the humerus.
On the humerus below the ball like this. I’m going to spray this out. Now, do you remember
the external oblique muscle? This muscle is actually going to almost be a part of it.
This is an abdominal portion. Then watch. I’m just going to attach itself to the aponeurosis
and go across the body like this until it finally hits bone right here. I’m going
to keep spreading this out. Spraying, spraying, spraying. It’s like a fan. Until you get
to the clavicle. So this part is attached to bone right in here. Right in here. Right
in here. Right in there. But then over here it’s attached to that aponeurosis.
Basically, if you think about it, the muscle fibers stay consistent with the external oblique.
You see how like they keep spraying from that fictitious little point right over there?
See that? They keep that until they become vertical. But you see that consistency.
Very few people really ever see this or explain this, but I’m trying to explain this to
you so that you get it. I’m going to just put that on there because it’s such a good
landmark. So now the nipple is going to be a really nice little landmark. I’m even
going to put a cast shadow just for effect. Isn’t that amazing.
Okay, so there’s the nipple. Now we’ve got ourselves a body. Now we have what we
recognize as the body. Here is like the navel like this and the split. I’m just going
to show a little bit of still the fact that there is a six pack group of muscles here
underneath all of that. You can still see that there little compartments. When you look
at this from the side. I’m going to do like a real small version like this, and you’re going to see
the rib cage kind of like this. Then the pelvis has an opposing kind of like going in that direction
like this. So you have like this, like this, and like this. And then the legs. What I wanted
to show you is this. Here is the nipple. Here is the pectoralis major. At least the sternal
portion. I haven’t done the clavicular one yet. But now what I want to do is I want to
put the rectus abdominis in. Here is the opening of that rib cage right in here like this.
So all this is exposed, right? This is all soft rectus abdominis. So you have the 6-pack
muscles going like this. Like this. Like this. And then a long one that goes to the pubic
bone. This is where your belly button is, just so you know where I’m at.
When you fold, we’ll kind of fold in these little areas right here. Okay, so now I’m
hoping this starts looking familiar to you because here is where the serratus anterior
comes to like that. I made that arc. Remember this? This is where the arm is right over
here. I’m just going to put this ghostly little arm like that. Then the external oblique
takes over like this. Like this. Like this. Until it becomes the flank portion of the
external oblique, and it covers up some of these muscles right there at the bone right
in here, and it buts up against, of course, the rectus abdominis. Remember, that there
is a sheet of tissue that covers up the rectus abdominis. It’s not really that it’s butted
up against it. It looks like it is. It really isn’t.
Now we’re getting somewhere. Now what I’m going to do is put the clavicular portion.
Just like it states, it’s attached here, but it will end up lower. So all of a sudden
you have the spike of muscle. It makes the whole pectoral muscle look like—a friend
of mine, Ron Lemon, called it the Pixar fish. Kind of like this. He drew it a little more
like a fish, but I’m just going to draw it kind of like that. Here is the nipple.
So it’s like a little fish like that.
Basically, what you end up with is these two little segments there like that. And that
is the pectoralis major. And it implies that there is like an arc here. It almost creates
an arc just because you’re fanning. You’re fanning all these muscle fibers like that.
And it’s perfect because what you need to do is create an opening here that’s right
for the bicep muscles and the muscles of the arm to come out of this little tunnel right
in here. Then these are just spraying out from that point right there. Remember that
this one is on top like that.
The other neat thing about this is once you have the trapezius, which we’re not going
to talk about today, but later on you’ll see that the trapezius basically does this.
It comes from the back. It’s attached to the clavicle. There is some of the neck muscles
like this. They spray out. This is the sternocleidomastoid. Don’t worry about all these. I’m not writing
them all down because they’re not part of today’s lecture for you to know. You will
get these later. The neck muscle is kind of doing that.
The reason I put this in there today though in this lecture is because the deltoid is
going to cover all this up. I’m going to draw this very lightly because I want you
to still be able to see all the muscles that we have been putting on. The deltoid goes
around from the back, and it does this. It will basically cover up that whole area and
create the shoulder like this. Once again we have a tunnel so these muscles are over
like that. Over the pectoral muscles like this. I’m going to make the contour hard
because I want you to actually see it. You can even see a bump right in here. You would
be drawing a bump and another one here. These are forms deeply buried underneath these muscles
so you’re still going to see it.
Acromion process, I need to re-label that and make sure that you didn’t lose that.
I’m going to put a cast shadow so you can really see it. This is the acromion process
right there. Clavicle. There is a hollow here that is really important. It’s so important
I’m going to label it for you. It’s a space between the pectoralis major, clavicular
portion, and the deltoid. It is called infraclavicular fossa. Infra means below. Clavicular, of course,
refers to the clavicle. Fossa means a shallow depression. How am I going to label that?
Well, I’m going to do this. How’s that? Infraclavicular fossa. It’s a hollow. You
could even feel it in between your deltoid or your shoulder muscle and your pectoral
muscle. It’s right in here. I can feel it right now. My finger gets stuck underneath
the clavicle and in between those two major muscles. I want to leave this a little bit
more like transparent like that because I want you to be able to see it like those plastic
models of humans. I want you to be able to see all of this stuff clearly like this. Remember
that this is all tissue that goes over and is attached to the center of the body by way
Isn’t this beautiful? I love the way the body comes together. This looks hollow because
of the latissimus dorsi. When I talk about that next we’ll basically kind of cover
this up like this. I’m going to leave this a little ghostly like this just to remind
you that I want you to come back and learn more from me.
Okay, let’s see. Let me just kind of recap and make sure that we got everything because
it’s important how we look at this. We start with the rectus abdominis which basically
kind of creates a line from the nipple down to the pubic bone. Then we put in the serratus
anterior, which if you remember, you can find it very easily by that implied line. Then
you interlace those muscles with the external oblique. They interlace this like my fingers
would, and the pectoralis major sternal portion is attached to the center of the body by a
sheet of tendon that also includes the external oblique. These are actually underneath all
of that, which allows—if you ever look at extreme twisty poses—these muscles to overlap
like this. They can actually overlap instead of bunching up.
right now is just what to look for. We need to look at the skeletal landmarks. These subcutaneous
little bones like right in here. We have the anterior superior iliac spine popping through.
With this particular individual, because she’s so lean you can even see her ileum right in
here. It’s good because her flank muscle is going to rest right on this little bone
right there. You can see her pelvis very clearly. Down here out of view would be her pubic bone.
Obviously her belly button right there. That’s not a skeletal landmark, I know. But it’s
a good little area for me to remind you of that little baseball diamond. The other will
be at the top of this photograph, and that is the clavicle which you can see very clearly,
especially on females. You can see them a little bit more clearly all the way underneath
here. This is where it attaches itself to the sternum. You can see the other clavicle
disappearing into darkness underneath her thumb there.
One of the things I want to remind you of, though, is this. This little area right in
here, this little hollow. That is the infraclavicular fossa if you remember that one. Infra meaning
below. Clavicular fossa. There. Infraclavicular fossa. That means that to the left of this
where I’m hitting hard is the deltoid. To the right over here is the clavicular portion
of the pectoralis major. Right above it, of course, is the clavicle. It creates that little
hole. If you were to jump to the other side you would see that this over here is trapezius
which will be another day, another lecture. This little bump up here is the acromion process
as it attaches and touches onto the clavicle. The little bony area here that to me sometimes
reminds me of a kneecap is actually the ball of the humerus popping through. You can even
see a little bit of the fibrous tissues of the deltoid as it comes all the way down to here.
We have the sternum and we have the beginning of the rib cage. The rib cage is very apparent.
All these things are really important. On this particular person you can even see her
11th rib popping right through there. One of the things that I wanted to remind you
of is this. See that very light line that I just drew from the pit of the neck through
the nipple? That is where you’re going to put the serratus anterior muscles. You can
see that right over here. Interlaced between those fingers is the external oblique. Now,
it’s very thin. Mostly you’re going to see on this particular individual the rib
cage. The external oblique isn’t going to be very overt here. It’s not going to be
yelling out at you. I’m going to draw it anyway just to remind you of where it goes.
The other one, of course, is you remember where the nipple is underneath all of that
tissue is the rectus abdominis. That’s what this is right in here. Here is the center
line, the linea alba. The linea alba is just quite simply the center line of the body right
there that splits the body into two, two sections. It’s this right in here. The area in between
both sides of the rectus abdominis. Right in here you can’t really see. You can on
this side, though. You see a little shadow there. That will help us in placing where
the six-pack muscles are. Here is one segment here. Here is another segment there. There
is the one that is pushed up against the pectoralis major, or in this case, the breast that covers
that area up right in here. I’m just trying to clarify certain things for you just so
you can see. What’s really neat is on this side because of the shadow you can see the
outline of those muscles. Down here where there ceases to be ribs that the external
oblique is attached to, what happens is that flares out and becomes the flank portion of
the external oblique. That’s what that is. You can see it on this side too. It’s the
pad right in here. That’s an external oblique popping into the light right there.
Then you have the tendinous tissue. This is actually a ligament called the inguinal ligament
right there. You can see it a lot more clearly on females. It’s that right there. This
is all tendinous tissue. Because this is softer sometimes it pops out like tissues from underneath
pop out. Even subcutaneous little markings like this and blood vessels will kind of pop
out. Remember that external oblique and the pectoralis major are attached to the linea
alba by way of an aponeurosis. That’s what these light rays that I’m drawing signify.
Okay, so when I jump over to the other side and look at the mail, let’s do this really
quickly. Go from the pit of the neck through the nipple. Sure enough, there are the digitations
of the serratus anterior and the external oblique. In this case, it’s much clearer.
You can also see the rectus abdominis down to the pubic bone like that.
This is the linea alba. You can see the meandering center line, pectoralis major. You can even
see just a little bit of the separation between the clavicular portion and the sternal portion.
But the muscle itself kind of radiates out. It ends like this, but it’s attached to,
as you now know, to the linea alba by way of the aponeurosis. You can even see a little
bit of the part that’s attached to the sternum, the sternal portion of the pectoralis major.
But remember that this part, along with the external oblique, is attached to the linea
alba. That’s why I’m going to put these very light little rays of light. This is what
I meant by the softness of that aponeurosis of sheath of tendon will allow some of the
internal forms to pop out.
This is the flank portion of the external oblique, and you can see a little bit of the
external oblique there. These are the fingers of the serratus anterior. You can even see
a little bit of the opening of the rib cage right in here. You have to always show that
the rib cage is in there. In this case when I jump over back to the female you can see
how clear it is on the stretch side of her body because one side is stretching. The other
side is compressing like this. You can see that rib cage like this. But because the other
side is in shadow, you’re going to see this kind of a thing happening, and only certain
forms pop out like that down to the pubic bone right in here. And voila. Nipple, nipple.
Linea alba. Belly button. And the breasts on top of the pectoralis major. This is where
the pectoralis major would be there because where the pectoralis major is on this side.
You can see the ribs popping out here, but over here they kind of go n to the body. So
the rib cage will pop out here. You will see the flaring out of the external oblique, and that's it.
Now, what I want to do is I actually want to do a drawing for you over these photographs.
abdominis on the female first. It’s something that’s easier or harder to see; it’s just
a lot of times with the breasts it tends to kind of throw people off. I’m just going
to start with an arc from that nipple, knowing that it’s underneath all of that. Over on
this side, what’s really nice is that you can see a really clear delineation between
the external oblique and the rectus abdominis just because of the shading. Especially like
in this area right in here, just lateral or just to the right of the belly button. The
linea alba is also fairly visible, and you can also see the rhythm line that has created
the center line. Then what I’m going to look for is any kind of visual clues as to
where the separations of the 6-pack muscles are. And this is a good one right here because
there is a shadow delineating that. Then there is another one over here.
Over here it gets a little bit more complicated because there is bunching up of forms. All
of this is going to be the last of those muscles. I’m going to separate them thusly like that
and like this. So the muscle fibers would actually run this way like this. The thin
sheet of muscle. Usually, if you were to look at my book Rey’s Anatomy you’ll see that
I actually use a ballpoint pen. Using the Cintiq, we’re mimicking that, but I’m
trying to keep it as neat as I do when I work with a ballpoint pen.
I’m also trying to create almost like a, like my vision is the light source, just to
give you at least a little sense of light and shadow. Here is the other section right
in here of the 6-pack, the middle section. The last section, which will take us to the
line across the belly button like this. She’s very stretched out. I happen to know this
model is about 6 feet tall. She’s a very stretched out young woman. It makes everything
really cool because it’s like elongated version of a lot of the people that you’ll
see. I’m going to try to make the linea alba a little bit more defined. Even these
little segments of the six pack. I’m going to give them a little bit more of a shadow
underneath, see if that is clearer for you. Same thing here. Then the longest piece, this
is the one that goes all the way down.
Sometimes there are people that think there is a 6-pack, and that’s because there is
a little line that sometimes people will see here. It’s a little membranous line that
I’ve seen on cadavers. If a person is lean enough it can kind of created this area here
of that mimicks the true six pack muscles up here. But what I don’t like seeing is
if I see like an action figure and it has like a 32-pack. That’s just not going to
happen. The 8-pack is kind of like this interesting little phenomenon that you’ll see on very
few people, but it’s very, very lean people, and it’s actually created by like a little
swoop right in here. There is also this pyramidalis muscle that sometimes you’ll see that covers
up this area right in here. It’s at the hairline. What I’m going to do is I’m
going to just put more shading here. The pyramidalis is a muscle that’s worked, noting because
I have seen it on a lot of models. Not always, but enough. I saw like just a little touch
of it on this particular model. So this is the way the 6-pack muscles would go. On the
other side what I’m going to do is I’m going to keep it a little bit more linear
just to show you where the separations would be right in here. Sometimes there is kind
of almost like a perspective to these where a lot of time they’re described as kind
of doing this as if they’re in perspective like this.
Here is the 6-pack. Here is the belly button. There is the muscle like this. Maybe I will
just draw this for you just to make it look a little bit more symmetrical or like more
finished. Remember, these are underneath an aponeurosis. So you would have to cut away
the aponeurosis to view these muscles. The other thing I’m going to do is I’m going
to shadow to remind you that there is a rib cage here. Do you see how I’m doing a little
shadow on these muscle fibers? The muscle actually goes higher, but I don’t want to
obstruct when I’m going to draw the pectoralis major. The pectoralis major is going to cover
up a good portion of all this. Then the breast covers up a good portion of the pectoralis
major. Then this is where the rib cage would be over here. See a little bit of the shadow
like that. These take a little while because it’s just, oh my goodness, it just takes.
It takes a long time to draw all these like little fibers, but I want you to see the direction
of the muscle fibers. As these contract they will fold the body. They’re flexors. Just
like making a fist, your whole body can make a fist right in this area, and it’s these
muscles that do that.
You can see how beautiful these muscles are. I’m trying to draw each segment. There is
a segment underneath the breast then this middle section. And then this section by the
umbilicus, the navel, the belly button.
Then the longest one, this one. This one just goes all the way down like this. Then there
is a split down the middle that you can see pretty often. There is a nice little donut
of fat around this area, around the belly button. From the side what you would see is
this, especially on a female like this. Then go down to where the belly button is. That’s
where the belly button would be right there. Then it bounces out like this. It bounces
out as far oftentimes more than the breast. The breast lies flat against the body like this.
You can see that the abdominal section below the belly button actually is out further
than the nipple. Okay, like that. It’s kind of an interesting thing to see. We tend to
kind of project the breasts out more than they really are.
It’s just not the way it is in reality.
Okay, so once I have that then I look for the serratus anterior here. I see a little
bit of the shadow there. This one is easy. This one is easy. A lot of times people think
those are actually ribs but they’re not. It’s just that they mimic ribs because each
one is like a finger holding on to a rib. There are nine of them, but you’re only
going to see roughly four on any individual. Sometimes if they’re taking a deep breath
or something like that, or if they’re really lean you can see it just a little bit more.
Usually there is—I just tell my students that there are four there that are visible.
Also, the latissimus dorsi covers up a good amount of them. The latissimus dorsi would
be on this outside line right there. But this female is so lean that I don’t even see
really that much of the external oblique. I see more of her ribs. But her external oblique—take
my word for it—would be like this. It sprays out as if was from this little area over here.
It radiates out like this until it becomes almost vertical. Over here when there are
no more ribs to hold on to it becomes the flank portion of the external oblique. I’m
going to try to draw that right here. It’s border edges on the rectus abdominis.
Remember, it’s actually attached by an aponeurosis to the center of the body. And that’s really
important for you to remember. This is the way it radiates out like this. And it’s slat-like. These are
slat-like, almost like a picket fence. I think I’ve used that example. I’m also allowing
for the fact that there is subcutaneous fat. Not much on this person, but there is. She’s
still a healthy female so there is still fat on her body. This is the direction of the
muscle fibers. Remember, these end here, but they’re attached to the linea alba with
a sheet that covers up the rectus abdominis. But here, you could actually see all of this
would be tendon, all of this a sheet of tendon that covers the entire rectus abdominis. You
would have to peel that aponeurosis back to view the rectus abdominis. But it’s such
a thin film that you don’t notice it. It’s just something that you need
to know as an art student.
You can still see because everything is so thin. You can still see the ribs underneath
here. I’m going to draw those. I’m not going to draw it on the other side because
it’s in shadow, and it’s just being too redundant. But over here, as opposed to the
external oblique, the serratus anterior are more rounded. So they stand out above the
floor of the external oblique because the external oblique interlaced with them, but
they’re very flat. I’m trying to show the roundess of them. The pectoralis major
will radiate from this point, and they take on the same slant as I already have from the
external oblique. Then they start moving across underneath the breasts, across until they
hit the sternum. Like this. Then there is finally a point when there is no more sternum.
See that, right there? No more sternum and it becomes the clavicular portion, which I’ll
draw in just a moment. Let me just get these fibers going. They attach. Of course, the
breast lies on top of them. Then this part, when there is no more sternum, it’s attached
to the linea alba by way of that aponeurosis. So underneath this breast you’ll see that
the muscles do this. Then this is the abdominal portion so I’m going to darken that up because
sometimes you can see a little bubble. Usually you only see that on guys because of the breast
tissue kind of covering this up. In her case I’m going to draw through the breast.
But now what I need to do is put the clavicular portion which is actually lower like this.
It starts higher, but it’s going to end up lower so it will criss-cross like this
and end right there, because remember, anything to the left of this is going to be that infraclavicular
fossa. Like this. Like this. Like this. It takes so long, but it’s just a lot of like
little fibers. You get an appreciation of how we’re put together. Every one of these
fibers, think of them as like a little tow line, and every one of this little fibers
is pulling in a certain direction, and because this radiates out it gives you a pretty good
idea as to what these muscles do. These are like your hugging muscles. They are adductors.
They bring your arms together, your shoulders together. Remember, we talked about that with
the leg. We have adductors.
Then the deltoid. We’re going to talk about the deltoid again when we talk about the back.
It surrounds this whole area like this all the way to the back. They almost like take
over the pectoralis major. When it comes to like—if you notice this. This is something
that I like to point out. Look at the direction of the muscle fibers of this deltoid. See
that? I’m going to put a really clear delineation here because these pectoral muscles go underneath
the deltoid. You can see that the muscle actually bundles up here because there is a tendon
that actually attaches to and around the acromion process, the clavicle, etc. It goes around
to the back. Okay, so what we have is we have these muscle fibers that start radiating out
like this. Like this, like this.
Then, what happens—take a look at this. This is going to be really cool for you to
see. This radiation continues from the deltoid to the pectoralis major clavicular portion
to the pectoralis major sternal portion. Do you see how I’m still radiating? Like this,
like this, like this, like this, like this. Like this. Then they take on the radiation
direction of the external oblique. Do you see how I’m still radiating out like a fan.
And they keep going out like this. Like this, like this. And they keep radiating until they
become vertical right over here.
Do you see how amazing that is? In bulbous down here. Slat-like. Going in and out of
the ribs, still showing them off so you can still see ribs.
That’s why I’m darkening certain areas up.
Go through the nipple, and guess what? That’s right. You hit the digitations of the serratus
anterior. You’ll notice on him that there is like this big area right there and another
one right there. One that you won’t see, but I know it’s there, and that is the teres
major. I’m going to make this like this. Watch. I’m going to make it even better
for you. This is latissimus dorsi.
So these are actually two muscles. They radiate out like this. They come from back.
This is the latissimus dorsi. This is pectoralis major. In between the two is the hollow that
we call the armpit. It’s actually called the axilla
like that. This is teres major. I am going to just have you remember this because we’re
going to revisit that again and latissimus dorsi. I’m just going to write lat because
that wasn’t one of this lecture’s muscles. But because it’s so clear on him I needed
to explain. This is one of the fingers of the serratus anterior. Here’s another one.
Here’s another one. Here is another one. They interlay so you can see a little bit
of them with the external oblique right in here. You can actually see them. But because
we have like a three-quarter view or just like he’s rounding off, they kind of bunch
up a little bit. Then over here is a flank portion of the external oblique. I’m going
to put the rectus abdominis in here like this, remembering that even though the pectoralis
major covers this up, I still look for where the nipple is because that’s how I found
the fingers, the digitations, these guys, of the serratus anterior. Once I know where
the serratus anterior is then interlaced with them is the external oblique. And there they
are right there. I’m going to make these really clear so you have no doubt where they
are. Then the flank portion of the external oblique. There. Okay.
The external obliques are attached to—and I’m going to keep saying this—the linea
alba by way of an aponeurosis. It does this like this. Do you see those very faint, faint
lines? Okay, I hope so because the pectoralis major is attached to it. Therefore, it is
attached to the center line until you get to this area. Then it does attach hard to
the body, the skeletal part of the body. Even a little bit of the costal region right over
here, the ribs, cartilage part of the ribs. The clavicle is not seen, but the upper edge
of the pectoralis major clavicular portion is. This is where the clavicle is underneath.
The pectoralis major radiates from the humerus, and you can see that—remember what I was
saying with the female. I’m going to jump over to the female just to remind you that
this all radiates out like this. It’s tucked under the arm right in here, the shoulder.
I want to remind you of this because when I do it on him because his arm is up, I want
you to just still follow along with what I’m trying to teach you. All of this is really
beautiful because I want it to look like it’s really tucked underneath there and radiating
out like this. So that when I get back to him all of this will make sense. It kind of
disappears because of breast tissue that is in the way, covers that up. So this is the
way the muscle fibers radiate out like this. The muscle fibers end here, and with some
men such as this guy they can end very abruptly, making guys like this look really kind of
squared off. It makes it really complicated for people to try to understand that muscle
because it looks like it just ends right down here at the base of where
I just did all these little tiny lines.
But, as you now know, this is attached to the linea alba. Underneath the pectoralis
major... Actually, let me just draw this a little bit more because I don’t want to
leave it half-finished. These are all tucked under the deltoid and surrounding your bicep
muscle. You get the idea if I just leave it like at this. You can see some of the bundles
here, and you can see the pull on the sternum. The rectus abdominis is underneath here. First
of all, let me just jump to the belly button because I think it will be easier to find
some of these forms if I just start down here a little bit.
Okay, that’s going to be pretty good.
What you’ll end up with here is something that’s kind of confusing because this particular
person is bending at this area, and this is where the flank muscle is. So these muscles
are kind of meandering about. But this one of the 6-pack muscles right in here. I always
just look to see where the belly button is, and the bottom area is the long portion of
the rectus abdominis like this. It’s nice and long. I didn’t put in the pyramidalis
this time. I would be like about here like this, like a little pyramid. This would go
like this. And these go like this. Then there is tendinous tissue in between. Then you continue
with the sheet of muscle. I’m just going to put a little bit of shading in right in
here. Remember, the pectoralis major is attached to the center so you would see that there
is a sheet covering that up. I keep saying that because what happens is I just didn’t
know that for years and years. I didn’t know what was going on with that. It looked
like everything was butting up against one another, but it’s not. The pectoralis major
the external oblique are on one top layer. So if you think of like—I don’t know if
you do PhotoShop, but it would be layered. The rectus abdominis is on the lower layer
like this. Sorry, it takes a long time. But it’s important to get all of these right
just like that. All of this is tendinous tissue.
Here is the anterior superior iliac spine. Here it is on that side. You have the area
underneath the sheet of tendon that pops out. Then this is where the external oblique becomes
a flank portion like this. What I’m going to do with this other side—there is like
a little triangle here that you have to try to remember to see on the body. It’s in
between the breasts or the chest, depending on who your model is. You can see definitely
the lines of the external oblique and the flank portion of the external oblique. I’m
just going to diagram these a little bit more simply on this side. Then this goes down to
the pubic bone down here right above the genitals. Now you can see in a more clear fashion the
little segments that make up the 6-pack muscles like this. Now, I’m just going to hit hard
the areas that are tendinous. You can see a little bit of the fat going around that
area right in here. I just want to darken some of these up just to make them a little
bit clearer for you, separate them a little bit better. Latissimus dorsi. Teres major.
Serratus anterior, external oblique as it kind of waves around and the area in between,
which is called the axilla, the armpit. You can see the pull of the pectoralis major.
You can see it as it meanders about like this. This is where the muscle fiber is. And like
this, and then they attach themselves to, that’s right, the linea alba.
Okay, so muscle fibers radiate out.
I just want to do this quickly so you get the idea of that.
But this is where the muscle fibers kind of like congregate and get a little bit bigger.
Over here on this side I’m just going to diagram.
Keep it simple.
Okay, this is more sketchy, but you get the idea.
External oblique as it interdigitates with the serratus anterior.
You can see the latissimus dorsi way off to the side, and then these become more and more
vertical like this. They land and fit right on top of the ileum. Then that takes over
with the pectoralis major right in here.
You can see how they kind of spray out from that point of view like that. That is where
the sternum is. Depending on the individual there is space in between all the pectoral
muscles like that. I hope all this makes sense. This is all tendinous tissue as it finds its
way to the linea alba like that. Then the pit of the neck right in here is one of the
keys. You can see how you can find this serratus anterior, serratus anterior, serratus anterior,
pectoralis major, coracobrachialis, biceps, deltoid, teres major. All this latissimus
dorsi and the axilla right in here. This is the outer edge of the rectus abdominis and the serratus anterior coming out. And
that’s it. I’m hoping that this helps. Just keep looking through my lectures and
your lecture notes. Also, it always helps to have a good anatomy book nearby. Just keep
looking for all these things on the living model. You can’t really replace that. The
best thing to do is try to get to as many workshops as you can if you’re in a class,
or just look through all the material that we have here on New Masters Academy because
we have some fabulous models and some really amazing reference that I like to use when
you don’t have the model in front of you. It’s nice to either draw from life, of course.
But if not, oftentimes I look through the library that New Masters Academy has, and
I use those fabulous models. I also look through history and look at people I like a lot like
Peter Paul Rubens, people like that, and I just draw from their reference.
Okay, so that’s it for this lesson.
That was the front torso. So now that we have that out of the way, we have basically almost
the whole body. We just need to do the other limbs. So, of course, we’re going to be
talking about the arms next. That’s another one that scares people. But I’m telling
you, come back. You’ll see it. You’ll love it. Hopefully you enjoyed that,
and I’ll see you next time.
Free to try
1. Lesson overview46sNow playing...
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2. The acromion process, ribs, and pelvis16m 13s
3. The rectus abdominis, serratus anterior, external obliques12m 59s
4. The pectoralis major, infraclavicular fossa12m 41s
5. Analysis of the torso muscles over photo references9m 33s
6. Ecorche drawing over female model20m 10s
7. Ecorche drawing over male model20m 40s