- Lesson details
In this series, instructor Rey Bustos brings you a fun, unique introduction to anatomy of the human body. In this first lesson of the series, Rey shows you anatomy of the lower leg and foot using a variety of methods. Rey will begin by lecturing on the blackboard, and then move to photo references to illustrate key points. Next, Rey will apply muscles and tendons of the leg and foot to an ecorche sculpture, allowing you to view what you’ve learned from a three-dimensional perspective. Finally, Rey will end with an ecorche drawing demonstration over photo references of real legs and feet.
- Blackboard Chalk
- Digital Tablet
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the area between the knee down to the foot.
We’ll also talk about some major tendons of the feet.
We’re going to do this in a variety of ways. First we’re going to go into my classroom,
and I will lecture on a blackboard. Then I’m going to do some draw overs over some fabulous
photographs. Then we’re going to be doing one extra thing, and that is a three-dimensional
version of those muscles on an ecorche.
With all that together you should be able to get a really good feel for the leg.
that. When we say the leg that means actually from the knee down to the foot. We’re also
going to be including the foot today. So knowing that, it’s almost like if you think about
chicken; chicken has a leg and a thigh. So right now we’re going to be talking about
the drumstick part of the leg.
That will start with the skeleton. The skeleton of the leg consists of two bones. One that
is a heavy, weighbearing bone, the tibia, and this by the way is a right, front view
or anterior. I’m just going to use front because we all know what that means. So what
we start with is the bone. With anything that has to do with the figure, one of the things
that’s going to be always important is knowing the skeleton.
Now, you’re going to notice that I’m going to draw the main parts of the bone over here
a little bit harder, but the center section right here I’m going to fuzz out a little
bit. I do that in purpose because I’m going to be laying muscles on here, and I don’t
want to fight one with the other. Meaning, right now it’s almost like a little x-ray.
What’s nice about this, though, is that the parts that I’m leaving right now such
as this, and such as this. Don’t worry, I’ll be really specific as to what this
is and that. Right now I’m just going to use that terminology because I don’t want
to talk about everything specifically too quickly.
What I’m showing you right now, these harder yellow marks, are basically landmarks of the
skeleton. This is the head of the fibula because this bone right here, the smaller of the two
bones is called the fibula. And the fibula is kind of like a stabilizer bone. It’s
almost like finger thick. It’s very small. It’s very light. What’s really interesting,
evolutionarily, those bones are two so that nature knows when to decrease the weight of
something. What it does is instead of making one big heavy bone is it gave you two, meaning
you have a big airspace in between both bones, decreasing the weight of it, keeping the strength
integrity. It’s just fabulous. One of the other things I’m going to tell you about
this bone is that it’s basic design is like a prism. It’s a triangular bone. If you
were to cut that in cross-section, which is what anatomy means, by the way. So cross-section
or anatomy is basically seeing this bone as almost like a triangular extruded form or
prism. What’s interesting about that is why do you think that there is an edge on
the front of the bone? The answer is that edge gives it strength on the front. The back
is just a little bit weaker. The front is stronger.
The interesting thing about the femur, which I’m going to talk about, is that on the
femur that edge is on the back because with that bone the strength is needed on the back
for us to walk. This one is needed in the front. So basically what you have is you have
a prism-like bone. We all know this because we’ve hit this part of our shin or tibia
on low tables. And the other reason it hurts so much is that this whole section is exposed
bone on our bodies. It’s a very interesting thing that when you see any diagrams of anatomy
you’ll notice that there is this whole section on your shin where there is no muscle on there,
and that is also why it hurts so much when you hit a low table.
So knowing that, watch; I’m going to put the ridge, this tibial ridge on this bone.
Unlike this simple, little, almost mechanical example, this one is a little bit more organic.
That ridge is not just a straight line; it’s actually an S-curve. Now, you may not know
these terms, but I’m going to tell you what these terms mean. This is lateral and this
is medial. All I’m trying to do is I’m going to tell you to just take the language
that you already know and just tweak it a little bit. So there is East/West. We know
what that means. We know left/right means. All I’m trying to do is switch your way
of thinking so that instead of staying East/West, left/right, inside/outside, is we’re calling
this medial, and that’s lateral. So this could be just as easily called inside. This
could be outside. But in anatomy we don’t use those turns. We just tweak it a little
bit, and it’s lateral. So it’s the same thing. Make sure that you ease up on some
of the terms and terminology and names. A lot of times when you don’t understand something
it seems a lot more complicated, but when you think of it this way it’s really simple.
The other good thing about knowing what medial and lateral means is a lot of times the names
of muscles have that in them, telling you oh it’s this muscle but the inside one.
This muscle but it’s the outside one. It’s almost like North and South Dakota or east
and west or anything like that. Lateral/medial. Now, that ridge right here starts laterally.
It’s almost like it comes in from the heavens, hits the bone, and creates this beautiful
S-shape. Take a look at that, you guys. Isn’t that beautiful? So now you have this S-shape
curve. It’s a very slight curve, but it’s very beautiful. What’s really interesting
is it creates a rhythm line.
When you actually see the model—a lot of this stuff, it’s one of those things where
a lot of times young students or novice students are like why do we need to know the skeleton
so much? I don’t see it. Well, that is my point. The expert does see it. The expert
will look at the body and see a skeleton, whether it’s a cat or a human being. That
is going to be the key to all of what you’re going to be learning figuratively. So here
is the ridge. I’m going to hit this with a little bit of light right in here just so
you can remember that this part of the tibia is visible. It’s something that you can
feel with your finger right now. If you reach down and touch your shin you’re going to
feel this. What’s really important about this, everybody, is I can draw this hard and
finished simple because no matter how many muscles I put on here, that is going to be
free of muscle. So remember that. This nice beautiful, little, bright yellow facet of
a bone is going to be visible. This is your inside or medial ankle or malleolus. It’s
a big fancy word that just means hammer. Your medial ankle. I’m just going to use the
words that we use in the street. Okay, so street lingo is this is the medial part of
your ankle, and this is your lateral part of your ankle or lateral malleolus.
So I’m going to hit this hard because I want to remind you that this is a bone that
you could reach down and feel with your fingers. This is a bone that you can reach down and
feel with your fingers as well as all of this. So anything that I’m hitting with this bright
yellow chalk is going to be something that if you could feel with your fingers, more
often than not you can see it with your eyes. Okay, so I’m going to leave this like this.
The other thing I’m going to show you is this. Remember how I used this little example
of a prism to show you the main design of the tibia. What I’m going to do now is I’m
going to show you an aerial view of a pyramid at Giza, let’s say. What you’re going
to see is this little almost like a , I’m just going to tweak it a little bit. But this
is a point coming toward you. Okay? And I kind of pushed that center line just a little
bit more. So from the air this little pyramid, I know it’s not exactly square. Does it
need to be? It’s a little bit more of a tapered form. That little point is closer
to you than the base.
What I’m doing is I’m going to take this. I’m going to put it up here because your
tibia has a point that is coming forward. You’ll see once I turn this around, this
bone around, that there is a little peak right there. Okay, so remember this because that
is called the tibial tuberosity. I’m going to write that down because I think it’s important.
First of all, let’s write the words. That’s a tibia. It’s the bigger of the two bones.
Then you have your fibula. So let’s see what we’ve covered so far. Tibula/fibula
is the smaller bone of the two bones. You’ll recognize also that your arm, your forearm
has two bones as well, one that is a little bit bigger than the other. This is a constant.
Basically, us animals, we start with one bone, then two, then multiples. Then finally you
have these little almost like smaller branches with leaves at the end. If you look at a tree
it’s the same thing. This big branch comes off from the main part of the tree, and it
branches off into smaller. Then finally the little branches with the leaves. We’re built
basically the same way. So now we have these little simplistic little forms. Let me get
rid of this only because we don’t need this any longer. I’m going to need a little bit
more of this blackboard.
So remember, this is a basic prism shape. And this a little pyramid with a point facing
you. So we’ve covered the tibia, the bigger of the two bones. Fibula, which is the smaller.
The head of the fibula—we’ll write that here. The head of the fibula, and that’s
this little guy here. It’s a pretty simple name to have named. You have this bone.
You have like this little head on top of it. Fabulous. This one is a little trickier. The ancient
Greeks seemed to think that that looked like a hammer, so they called it that. That is
the lateral—remember what this means; it means outer, lateral, or off to the side.
If you guys know anything about football is off to the side. So lateral malleolus.
Two L’s. Lateral malleolus.
I’m going to put little dots here just to remind you that this is one area. This is
one, one, one. Okay, so tibia, fibula, head of the fibula, lateral malleolus. And of course,
the medial malleolus. And that’s the inside ankle. Here’s another thing I want you to
take note of. The tibia and the fibula are basically the same length. It’s just that
the fibula starts lower so it ends lower, and because of that, your ankle always has
a slant to it. Remember that, this is one of things that when I see the drawing of a
foot area, you have the leg and the foot on anybody’s artwork or paintings or whatever.
This is where I could tell if they know the body or not. If the ankle is slanted correctly.
These bones are never even. They’re at a slant. Okay, remember that because it’s
One of the other things I want to put in which is a very important part of the tibia, and
that is the patella. What is the patella? If you don’t know what it is, the patella
is simply the kneecap. I call it a part of the part of the tibia even though many people
think it’s part of the femur. It’s not. In some cases you might, in your own classroom
or in your own studio might have a full-size skeleton, a plastic skeleton. Depending on
the factory the one thing I look for, and I tell my students or anybody that might want
to buy one, is I want them to look at the knee area of that skeleton because the bones
may have been accurate. You know, like they cast them or whatever and put them together.
The problem is when things are put together in a factory they’re never going to be exactly
the way they are on your real body. If you saw an x-ray of yourself, and then you look
at the skeleton that’s in the room it’s put together by all sorts of screws and bolts
and wires and all this and that. Oftentimes the thing is just sagging
or there is something wrong with it.
But here is one thing that always bothers me, and that is when the company will put
a kneecap and it’s stuck onto the femur. And if you have something like that in the
room or in your classroom or studio, just remember that it’s just annoyance because
it actually should be attached to the tibia. Because as your knee bends like this, like
this is a side view of that knee area. As it bends the patella is constant with the
bend of the tibia. That little separation between the patella and the tibia is constant.
It’s always going to be the same. I’m going to draw it that way so when I do get
to draw the femur, if I were to draw the femur right now I would put this in front of the
femur, this little kneecap. If I were to show you a bent knee,
this little proportion right here is constant.
ligament. Oftentimes my students will, somebody will
have a hand raised. Rey, sometimes you mention tendons, sometimes I hear the word ligaments,
tendons, ligament. What’s the difference? Well, I’ll tell you. It’s very interesting
because the structure itself is exactly the same. It’s almost like saying I’m going
to use this rope or tether or line, but it’s all the same product. When it comes to a ligament
or a tendon it’s connective tissue. I think you knew that. Well, this ligament connects
bone to bone. A tendon connects muscle to bone. But the structural aspect, the actual
physiology of that connective tissue is exactly the same. It just has a different purpose.
This is a really great example. This is bone. This is bone. The patella is bone. The tibia
is bone. So this connector has to be called a ligament.
Now, here’s where it’s really interesting. Up here on your thigh you have these muscles
called the quadriceps. For any of you that work out there are exercises for the quadriceps,
quadriceps. Okay, there are actually four muscles obviously for quadriceps, but there
is a quadriceps tendon. And it too goes to the patella. But it’s the same exact material
that this is. In other words, the quadriceps tendon the patella is inside it. And then
over here it’s a continuation of the same tendon. But from here to here it changes its
name because all of a sudden it’s bone to bone. So the same exact element changes names.
It’s almost like being on a freeway, and all of sudden it changed numbers but you never
got off the freeway. So that’s the difference. So a ligament connects bone to bone. And this
is a major and beautiful ligament. I’m just going to give a little bit of a blue just
to remind you it’s not bone. It’s what connects the patella to the tibia.
Now, every once in a while you’ll look at somebody’s knees, and a knee is very much
like a nose. Everybody has a nose but everybody has very different noses. Everybody has different
knees. So what I’m going to have to do is I’m going to have to talk about the skeletal
knee, and then I’m going to talk about the differences between people’s knees. It always
has to do with the amount of fat around them because this area is very fatty. When I look
at cadavers at UCLA oftentimes what I’ll see is, or I’ll take my students and I’ll
have them feel that area and it’s very squishy. It’s very squishy. There’s a lot of fat
around here. If you’re watching and athlete and you look at their knees, whether it’s
somebody playing soccer, you know where the athlete’s knees are exposed, and oftentimes
they are. You’re going to find that some people’s knees are very skeletal. In some
people’s knees it looks like the patella is inverted, and that’s because there is
a lot of fat around it, so it becomes almost like the donut hole of that fatty area. So
this is a beautiful, beautiful area. Oftentimes when you look at the drawings of
Leonardo da Vinci, you’ll notice that almost all of these guys from that time will almost
always draw two little spheres, two little balls right there. And that’s because there
is fat behind that patellar ligament that kind of pops around on each side. So you’ll
see, it’s like that’s an interesting drawing of a knee. You’ll see this often. You’re
going to find that the more you study anatomy you’re going to find that artists of the
past and of today they interpret things differently, and certain muscles in certain areas of the
body, certain artists do the same thing consistently. It’s very interesting. So I notice that,
you know, I could almost say Leonardo da Vinci knees by the way he draws knees or quadriceps,
etcetera, etcetera. So this whole area is really quite beautiful. So the patella is
a very important part of the whole knee area because it gives you mechanical advantage.
I will explain all of this. Don’t worry about it. The more interesting this is, the
better you’re going to draw the next time you have a model in front of you. So start
looking at all this stuff as incredibly interesting. Here’s that ridge again, the S-shaped ridge,
right in here. Okay, this is going to be important because later on I’m going to throw a muscle
on there that fits in there just like two puzzle pieces. It just fits right in there,
and then the tendon is going. Remember, I used the word tendon. The tendon is going
to go underneath the foot. So this is a really, really neat little area. So it’s important
to get this right. Remember why I fuzzed all this out. Just so that you don’t see the
bones quite as much. Because when you look at a model you’re not going to be able to
see their fibula; you just cannot. I mean somebody would have to be near death for you
to see either the radius and the ulna, the two bones of your forearm, or as much as you
think you’re really, really thin, you have tiny little bird legs, if you look at your
legs you won’t see two bones there. So because of that I’m just going to fuzz that part
out. It also reminds you that the bulk of the muscles are going to be a little bit of
the side and the back, but not so much on the inside.
So what I want to do now is I want to show you that there is little area in here. I want
you to think of this almost like a doll. Okay, we have a pin going through here that is going
to go through here. There is going to be a foot in here that can swing back and forth
like this. So this is like this imaginary pin I’m putting through here as if we’re
making a doll. This is for the talus bone that is going to fit right in here. And don’t
worry about these terms. The foot fits in here. It’s almost like this two bones create
a little block right there where the foot fits right in here. Even if you’re making
a doll out of wood, you would need some kind of device here for you to put something so
it could swing. Okay, so what I’m going to do is I’m going to put this fabulous
little foot in here. I’m going to kind of block it out a little bit and keep it really
simple at first like this. Quite simply. And that’s a foot just facing you directly.
The next thing I’m going to do, I call this the arcade. What all that is is I just, it’s
almost like a little kid is doing this drawing. That’s about as simply as I could draw it.
It’s the arcade. You see there are five little arches here. What I’m going to do
is I’m going to just show you how simplified I can draw this. I’m drawing the toenail,
and then over here I’m just going to draw the separate little toes, because when the
toes are coming right at you they basically would do something like this. Toenails, toenails,
toenails. Very simplified but it’s effective, and it work out for our purposes today.
Later on I’m going to talk about certain tendons because when it comes to the feet
the muscles aren’t as important as the tendons, so we’re going to have to get into certain
tendons. Now I know this seems a little simplified, but that’s the way I want you to actually
see the body. It’s going to be a tendon here. I’m going to draw it first and explain
it later. It’s a division between the foot. It’s not a 50/50 split, as you can see,
but what I’m going to do since I’m putting the light from that direction is I’m going
to light up this little facet. Because from now on I want you to see the foot in two parts
from the front. You’re going to have this area here, and you can see that I’m using
blue to kind of signify that this is getting less light than that side of the foot. And
then the toes come into the light, so I’m going to put a little bit of this in here.
All of this before we even start talking about muscles because we need to know the structural
aspects. Otherwise, the muscles on top of no structure mean nothing.
Okay, so what I want to do now is I want to turn this. This is a right leg, and what I’m
going to do is I’m going to actually turn that way. You’re going to be able to see
the little peak right there. It’s called the tibial tuberosity. Tibial because it’s
of the tibia. A tuberosity just means a bony protrusion where a tendon or a ligament is attached.
As opposed to a process. You’re going to see this in all your anatomy books as well.
It’s like, oh what’s that? It’s kind of like what I said before about ligament
and the tendon. A tuberosity and a process are almost the same exact thing. All it is
is a bony protrusion. You look at a bone there is going to be a protruding little bump or
something on there. This one is not a small bump. It’s a big bump. So this one is an
easy one to categorize. It’s like the peak of a mountain. It’s like the Mount Everest
of the tibia. So this is the tibial tuberosity. All that it is is the bony protrusion on the
tibia. And because the ligament, or yes, the patellar ligament is attached to it, it has
even more significance.
The other thing I want you to look at when you look at the knee, especially somebody’s
bony knees is that it looks kind of like an ice cream cone. Remember that. It’s almost
like this is the cone, and this is the big dollop of ice cream. I actually like that
proportion. Little cones, big hug dollop of ice cream. So if you look at that sometimes
one of my students actually thought it looked kind of like an earless elephant. So it’s
the same thing. Elephant head, trunk. You’re going to see this. You’re going to see this
even with fatty knees sometimes you see a little bit of the bottom of the ligament,
but you have to know that it’s always there regardless. Okay, so I’m going to put the
tibia in. The tibia actually has almost like a golf tee look about it. You know, it’s
got this kind of like blockiness about the top of it like this. Then it goes down to
the shaft area. I want to get rid of that because I want to keep this area clear so
I can put muscles on. But you get the idea.
So when I turn this around watch what happens. I’m going to draw it lightly again because
this part of the bones I want to keep clear so I can put muscles on. It comes down to
here. Now, it’s this bone, the fibula, that I want you to take note of because I can’t
say it’s on the side, and I can’t say it’s on the back. It’s on the back little
corner office. It’s got this really need little spot on the back corner of the blockiness
of that bone. That’s kind of important also. Once again, I’m going to hit this bright
so you can see it as a major landmark. You can see it here, and you can see it here.
The head of the fibula. The rest is not quite as important. Remember the shaft of it. But
it comes down to the lateral malleolus. Notice that there is a slight angle. It’s not vertical.
It’s slightly off. It’s like it’s falling towards me, and the end of it, the lateral
malleolus to me always looks kind of like a little diamond like this, little diamond
shape. I’m going to hit this hard. Again, I’m going to just do this almost like invisible
bone. This is going to be important because later on there is going to be two important
muscles that lay right on that.
The tibia, the same thing. I’m going to keep this very clean and free of too much
chalk so I can put the muscles on there. So what you’re going to notice is the bottom
of the fibula, the top of the fibula. The beginning, the end. Okay, so now the other
thing I want to put on is the patellar ligament. This guy right there. This because it’s
a ligament, ligaments do not stretch. So when you bend this lever, this bone, the patella
goes with it. So now you’re going to see this a little bit more clearly as a patella
from this point of view it’s going to appear to look kind of like this. It’s a pan, and
that’s what patella means. It’s a little pan. And I’m going to hit it with the yellow
because, again, it’s a very visible bone. You can feel it very easily with your fingers,
and you can see it very easily with your eyes. The patellar ligament I’m going to just
keep kind of like in this blue just to remind you that that’s not bone. But this relationship
does not change. This is between the patella and the tibial tuberosity is constant.
Now, I’m going to put the foot in. Again, I have to simplify this. I’m going to put
these tarsal bones. I like this and together combined they appear to be something like
this. Okay, there is a little peek back there. That one is kind of important because you
could actually see that in the back of your heel. You’ll see a little bump perhaps.
Okay, I always have to say perhaps because some people have very kind of bony feet, tendinous
feet, and some people have very kind of squishy, Hello Kitty feet. I like this. Those are tarsal
bones. Okay, so those are tarsal, which just means ankle bones.
All of these turns we got from the Greeks and later on when the Romans are trying to
conquer the world, since they spoke Latin, they Latinized a lot of these things and kept
a lot of the Greek words. Sometimes they’re Greek words, and sometimes they’re Latin
origin or Roman origin.
to really know that. I just want you to know that looks kind of
like a little Derringer pistol. Okay now these are tarsal bones
and one of the words that you're going to learn is Greek
it means it means beyond and they use the word meta. Meta
M-E-T-A, meta just means beyond, beyond, meta, beyond. So
beyond the tarsal bones are just that the beyond the
ankle bones and because we're going to use the word
tarsals and meta, the next
set of bones are going to be called metatarsals and there's
five of them. Why? Because you have five toes. It's just like you
have carpus, carpal bones metacarpals and phalanges ,same
thing here on the foot. You have the tarsals then the
And because I'm drawing from the outside, I have to start
with the pinky toe side. This is the metatarsal of that pinky
and because it happens to be the fifth one, one - this is the
way we count in anatomy. This is one, two, three, four, and five. Same thing
with your big toe, your big toe's number one which means your pinky
toe is number five. So now what we end up with is something
that looks kind of like this and of course because I'm drawing
in perspective you're going to see these toes like this. Okay,
not like that. So I'm drawing this one first and so on and
what ends up happening is that you end up with a bump right
here that's going to be really important and I will tell you
that has a name and I will tell you what that is a little
Okay, so there it is.
Now over here you have the actual toes. So what I'm going
to do is I'm going to draw each toe, but I'm going to just do
something very specific.
I don't know if you noticed but I did but when it comes to the
toes classically this is the way we draw toes. The little
toe faces down. It doesn't matter what your toes look
like. Whatever. Okay, we always have to start with like the
basic guideline and then you can look at that particular
person's feet, you know, on that day that you're drawing him or
her and the interesting thing to me is that often times even
if they don't have toes like this I still draw the toes
classically. And you'll see this with Michelangelo's David or
Bernini or anything, all those Old Masters. They tend to
elongate toes to make them a little bit more finger like so
they can actually add expression and they had a very
systematic way of drawing them and what that is is that each
is facing a certain direction, almost like you're taking cards
and fanning them. So you go like this from the pinky toe to
this one, to the one next to the toe is going to be
straightest, and then the big toe is going to be
facing up. Doesn't that already kind of look like a foot and
that's just what I drew there. So now you have the tarsal
bones, metatarsals, and the phalanges. And phalanx is a row of
soldiers in Greek speak, so we have the row of soldiers at
the very end. So now you have the basis of really good
structural leg for god sakes. And remember that leg means
this. Okay, just like the drumstick, this is going to be
the drumstick of the human.
Now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to turn it around to
show you the back before we start putting muscles on here
because I need you to be able to see the muscles from this,
this, and the back view. The inside view will take care of
itself when I drew just a general drawing of making up a
leg on the inside because the neat thing about knowing the
anatomy is that if you ask me to draw a person I can, I don't
need somebody to sit for me or model for me because often
times, especially if you get into a profession where you
need to just kind of on the fly make stuff up whether it's - I
storyboarding for example or you're going to make a
comic book or something like that. It's really really handy
and it's just something I think it's essential as an artist to
be able to do that. Okay. So what I'm going to do is I'm
going to turn this around and show you the back view.
Okay, so the basic, you know, T like golf tee design.
And now the fibula is on this side. So I'm going to draw the
head first like this and of course, you know, it's going to
come down all the way down to your
outside angle, right in here. And as I said before, the inside
ankle is higher than the outside ankle. Okay, and I
once again have to hit this with a bright yellow just to remind
you I can feel these with my fingers.
fingers, fingers, eyes, eyes. Doesn't matter if I can feel it with
my fingers often times if I look at the model I could see
it with my eyes. So these areas I'm hitting hard are going to be
just that hit really hard. I'm going to soften all this up so
that when I put muscles on there
you're going to see how everything has this beautiful
beautiful rhythm and almost like a dance between
the bones and the muscles. This might surprise you but what I'm
going to do is I'm going to put like a little center line right
here. Can you see that? I know it's just a smudge. It's a
center line that your heel is actually off-center. It's a very
interesting thing. If you look at your heel it's actually way off
to the side
This is the back of your heel.
kind of like a perspective view of your foot and over here on
your little toe side there's more showing right over here.
Sometimes you can even see the bump of the little toe. If you put
just a little bit of perspective. The other thing
I'm going to add for you is the Achilles tendon. Remember I
used the word tendon, which means
that it's attached to muscle.
One or more
in this case. What I'm going to do is I'm going to cut it
I'm just going to leave it like that because what I'm going to
do is I'm going to put the muscles on there and then
reattach them on to that beautiful, thick tendon. When I
look at a cadaver at the lab,
oftentimes it - any kind of University that has cadavers
for a medical research and stuff like them for training,
for education, they're almost always cut. Okay, they're cut
so that the students can actually look inside and you'll
see that it's very plasticy. It's got like
a grayish clear almost translucent it, you know, it
reminds me of it reminds me of hot glue gun. The six of glue
is very much like that and just about as strong too, they're
incredibly dense and very strong. It won't stretch. The
Achilles tendon in particular is very very strong. Okay. So
now you have the three views, you have the front view, the
side view, the back view. I will draw an inside view. It's just
in the case of like drawing the or the education of the leg,
the inside part has the least number of like moving parts. If
you want to use that term. The outside has the most, what I'm
going to do is I'm going to focus a lot on the side view
because when it comes to the leg muscles, most of the
beautiful muscles that we see on the leg are seen best from
the side. It's almost like my hand. It's almost like I'm
going to be teaching you about this, but from the front it's
going to look kind of like that and you'll see that often
times it's just difficult to see the fingers way over here.
So even when I'm teaching this with my students and they have
to redraw like a classic
reference, they have to find classic reference from
Michelangelo or Peter Paul Rubens or somebody like that
I tell them try to find an art piece
that has a little bit more either 3/4 front or side so
that you can see those muscles much more easily since they
have to label them. So I would ask you to do the same thing.
When you look at your models, when they have like a side view,
when you can see the side, that's when you can really
study this stuff. Alright now, we're going to start with -
and the way I teach anatomy is very much the way
you get dressed. You put on the first things first, you know
sock before the shoe kind of a thing. So I'm going to
teach you about the deeper muscles first. The other thing
that you're going to learn with all anatomists is we don't go
over 600 plus muscles. There's no reason for it just there's no reason for
it and it's not necessary. And the reason I say this is with
any anatomy book, you're going to find the total number of
muscles is way short of 600. We have 600 plus muscles in our
body. There's no way we're going to be talking about,
you know, we'll be here for three or four years, you know, every day.
And we're not interested in that, we're more interested in
what is pushing the skin out to create this shape. So I'm going
to be talking about this muscle, this muscle, this muscle, this
muscle. Why, because it's right underneath my skin. Okay, and
sometimes it is a deep muscle that pushes us way out. There's
a lot of back muscles that the deepest muscles are the ones
that push out the most in this case what I'm going to do is
I'm going to reduce the number of muscles to the
essential six. Okay, so that will make it a little easier
and it's basically the six muscles that you will see and
you won't even see those most often not. Sometimes to see
these muscles clearly the person, the model has to be very
lean, very sinnowy, you know, like almost like you look at
their leg and looks like they're spaghetti underneath our skin,
so you're not going to see that and often times you have to be
doing like squatting or one of those action shots that
you see in Sports Illustrated or in a magazine that has
sports, people - those really quick
photographs that capture somebody in extreme stress.
Okay. So to show you the 3D version of what we've been
talking about here is all the things I've been talking about
and now here they are. And you can see that little nice
beautiful S curve. Right in here. Okay of the tibia, I can
see the head of the fibula, the lateral malleolus of the fibula.
The other one I'm going to be talking about in just a moment
is this big protruding bone right in here. And you could
actually see this on your own foot. It's a tuberosity of the
fifth metatarsal. And the way - it's a big word but that's it's a big word for but
if you think about it, it actually makes sense. And I'll
talk about that in just a moment. I just want to rotate
this one more time. You can see the tibial tuberosity. Now
this is a good skeleton and you can see why we have it because
in this case the patella is attached to the tibial
tuberosity by this little plastic holder right there. In
real life the ligament doesn't look like this. It's actually much
bigger. This is just there to hold this up. But what's nice
about this is that it is aattached the way we like to see it as an away. We like to see it as an
anatomists. So that when this bends, see the femur would be like
And you can tell
that this would move away from the femur. So if the femur is
like this, you can see how this moves. Now right now what's
really interesting is most of us are born with either no
patella or it's very very small, like a little lentil inside
your knee. When you see little kids it's not only
that they're chubby it's that there's no patella in there. So
you're going to see that their knees look very different
than adults or big kids. And the reason is without a patella
you basically end up with a structure that looks very
square. So when you see a little kid on the ground
playing with their little toys and they're like two years old,
something like that, their knees actually look very square
because there's no patella in the front.
So this is a very important part of our anatomy and
visually and it's also incredibly important
structurally because it adds mechanical advantage to the
quadricep muscle. It uses this is like a little pulley. Now I'll
explain that in just a little bit as well. I do want to
explain this because this is a really major part of the foot.
Sometimes if you go to a pool, your pool, somebody's pool or
even outside of the tub, you look at your own wet foot and
you can actually see this as part of your footprint. The
other bone that sometimes you'll see is the navicular
bone. If you look at the inside part of the arch of your foot,
sometimes you'll see in some cases it's not even something
that you have to look for, you because you see it poking
through the skin. It'ss this bone right here. Okay, we don't
always talk about it, but it's necessary for you to know about
it simply because you may have a model where it's like what is
is that? There's like a bony weird thing that sticking through
their skin on the arch part of the foot. Okay, so just know it's
the navicular bone and because you can see it sticks
out often times it's there and if you're going to be really
really faithful about what you're drawing you can put that
in. Sometimes I don't really care. This one I do.
This one's really important. This is the tuberosity of the
fifth metatarsal and it's another one of the major
landmarks of the bony aspects of what we're studying Specks of what we're studying
Here is going to be another landmark that I'm going to
Remember the word tuberosity? Just means a bony protrusion
where a tendon or ligament is attached. So tuberosity of
And let's just go over that again just to make sure that
you're clear. Boy that's a big big word, big sentence just
for that one little thing. And all that is is that remember
your big toe's one, two, three, four, five. So, this is your first finger this is
your fifth finger. You have metacarpals, you have
metatarsals. This is the fifth one. That's a tuberosity of the
fifth metatarsal. So I want you to remember to relax about all
the terms that you hear because sometimes that's what keeps
people from learning more about anything, whether it's a
language or the language of anatomy and say oh, I can't
remember all those words. Just try to remember that they're
actually simple words just of a different people and just
tuberosity, not a big deal. You know that that just means a
bony protrusion. So something that sticks out. This is going
to be really important later on because there's going to be a
major tendinous attached to that you will see on your
foot perhaps. Some people are very tendony. You can see
like there's going to be a tendon very very clear.
dressing. And the order in which I do this is when I make an ecorche, which means an
anatomical sculpture that I put muscles on one at a time, and I have my students do that
as well. It’s important that the order the muscles be done in such a way where you have
to put number one before you put in number two. Because one goes over the other.
It's the sock then the shoe kind of theory.
So I’m going to start with the first muscle that is going to be really important. What
I’m going to do is I told you this, there is going to be six essential muscles that
you need to know. The good thing about is that then it doesn’t seem so overwhelming.
You’re thinking six; I can handle six. Good because I’m going to simplify it even more.
I’m going to pair them up so now you only need to remember three pairs.
So the first pair—let me see what kind of pretty color I’m going to start with. Okay,
so the first pair are what I call the peroneal brothers; the peroneus brevis and peroneus
longus. I’m going to write that down for you. Peroneus brevis. Brevis is just brief.
It means it’s shorter. It’s a little shorter. Peroneus brevis and its partner peroneus longus.
It’s just a slightly longer version of the brevis, no big deal. In some anatomy books
I think they draw it a little bit too long. When I see it on cadavers, it’s kind of
like the muscle belly ends about halfway down the tibia. They used to be called the fibularis
muscles. I kind of wish they would still call them that because it will remind you that
they are exactly right on the fibula. If this is a fibula, they are right on top of it.
And since you can still see my finger mark right in here where the bone is it’s going
to help us a lot.
I’m going to do the first ones first, peroneus brevis. I’m going to color code these to
make things a little easier for you. Now, I’m starting with this view because it’s
the easiest. It’s like describing my fingers. It’s easier for me to teach you this before
you do this or this or anything else. The other thing that you can’t tell right now
is when you look at it from the font like over there it’s actually very flat. It’s
a very flat muscle. So it’s almost like a fish. It’s flat here. It’s almost like
if you look at my hand, but then I do that you can see how then it is. Same thing here,
so kind of like a flat. What I’m going to try to do is I’m going to try to give you
little form lines. You can see that I’m just going straight across like this. Then
they start curving a little bit like that. Mainly the difference between that and a cylinder
form is that you would make them a little bit rounder. So it’s relatively flat. I’m
just going to give it a little bit of volume. Okay, so there you go.
Now, the most important thing about that muscle is that you can actually kind of forget about
it. I know it sounds kind of weird. I’m putting it on there, but I’m also going
to tell you that when you look at a person’s ankle area you’re not going to see that
muscle very easily. I see it on certain people. Sometimes I’ll have to point it out. Sometimes
I have to get my model to get up on their tiptoes, him or her, for that to kind of like
contract, and then you can see it. So it’s kind of like a hidden muscle.
But, I’m going to tell you something very important about this one, peroneus brevis.
It’s the tendon that you have to memorize and know. The tendon starts within the muscle
like this, and this is where you’re going to see it on the model. It’s here. It’s
like a big spike. Notice it’s easy for you to find it because it’s right above the
lateral malleolus or your outside ankle. This is a part that’s just right outside of your
shoe right now. You’ll notice that there is a spike, very defined spike, especially
if you get up on your tiptoes.
Now, watch what happens because I’m going to redraw that over here, and I’m going
to draw a little pulley. So this is a little pulley. This is a little wheel right there.
There is a cable going into that wheel. Now, like any pulley you need to have a stationary
point, and that stationary point—you guessed it—is the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal.
So that cable, in this case the tendon, goes right by that bone using that as a pulley
so that if I can track the muscle. Remember, a muscle can only contract, which means that
it can only shorten. All a muscle can do is shorten. Every movement that you make is a
series of muscles that are shortening. The opposing muscles shorten and straighten out.
So basically it’s—you know, I saw a photograph like from the 1800s, and it was really interesting
because it reminded me of the muscle relationship between one group and another group, extensors
and flexors. It was this picture of like this big huge tree being cut by two men, and this
is way before chainsaws and everything. One of the men had this big huge saw with big
handles on it. Can you picture that? But there was a tree, and on the other side was another
guy, and he had the end of the other saw. So one pulled then the other pulled. Little
by little they actually cut this tree down. That’s what I want you to think about with
muscles. If there is one that does this then there has to be one that opposes it. That’s
going to be true with everything.
You have flexors here. You have extensors here. These triceps extend your arm. Biceps
basically fold your arms or flex them. So you’re going to find that to be true with
all of this stuff. So this tendon is very strong, and it’s attached to that fixed
point. So guess what happens when you shorten this. It pulls. It’s almost like if I was
holding a rope right now. The rope doesn’t stretch, and there is a door or an easel or
something that this was attached to, and I pulled it; that easel would come towards me.
That thing that it was tied to would pull toward me because I am contracting. I am shortening.
So if you can use your mind’s eye, and your imagination and pull that, what would happen
is that this would straighten out, and all of a sudden you’re up on your tiptoes.
If you can imagine this straightening out, it bends the whole foot. Fabulous, huh? So
that tendon is actually more important to me than the muscle. But, you flip that around,
and the peroneus longus to me, the muscle is more important because you can see it.
I can even see it on me. I’m like average Joe basically. I’m in my 50s. I’m not
a young athlete or anything like that, but if I actually get up on tiptoes I can see
that muscle very clearly. I can see this on my models as well. It’s another muscle that
looks just like a fish. The easiest thing about this one is where it starts. It starts
just below this beautiful, big, huge landmark saying look at me, look at me, look at me.
There is a big bone there. You’re going to find that you’ll have this other muscle.
Like I said, sometimes I think it’s drawn way too low in a lot of anatomy books. The
way I see it on the actual body, and the way I’ve seen it on cadavers is like this. So
I’m going to just tell you to kind of trust me on this one. Sometimes the muscle fibers
actually go lower, but when it contracts it creates a shadow halfway down the side of
your leg. See if you can see that. This is another one where if I have a model in the
room I’ll have him or her get up on their tiptoes. You can see there is a dimple right
there. In some cases you can see the whole muscle. But if I have like a long lady, just
average Jane, and she was either wearing high heels or she got up on her tip toes oftentimes
you’ll see a little dimple halfway down their leg. Sometimes you could even see a
whole line that is because of these muscles. But the tendon, now the tendon is very interesting
because I’m going to draw it very lightly. I’m reminding you that the reason I’m
drawing it lightly is because I want you to just kind of forget about the tendon of the
peroneus longus. It does this, and it basically kind of climbs on board with this one, but
it disappears underneath the foot. And it helps you avert the foot like this. So if
you can imagine your foot doing this, twitching, twitching, it’s that.
And the reason I talk about this even though I’m drawing very lightly is a want you to
remember that this is the dominant tendon. Over here they kind of double up, but you’ll
see the tendons collectively kind of create a big spike right there. This one you have
to just remember it’s there because perhaps on your foot or that particular model’s
foot you’ll actually see that little split of two tendons, one light than the other.
Or, the way I like to say it with drawing is like one is louder than the other. This
one is louder. So this one—and it’s also closer to us, and it’s attached to a very
big landmark, which means that it’s going to be visible. See if you can see that on
your own foot. The neat thing about everything that I teach is that you own this. You have
a body. You have what you can look at on your own body and see if these things are there
on you. In this case you see a little bit of a line like that. That’s a peroneus brevis
tendon, which is really important. So I’m going to put a T over here just to remind
you that the tendon is really important on that particular muscle. So those are the first
two muscles of the leg that you need to know. You just have to know them.
The next two are in the front. So the next pair is the extensors—I’m just going to
write EXT for extensor. It’s an extensor. Digitorum refers to fingers or toes. And because
there is two of them, meaning two muscles; one small and one big, one long and one short,
this one is longus. It’s almost like saying junior or senior. Longus. So extensor digitorum
longus. Sometimes I call them Ed. I call that muscle Ed, okay, extensor digitorum.
Okay, now, its partner is the tibialis because it’s on the tibia, anterior because anterior
means front. See, anatomy is simple if you just let go of the fact that a lot of these
words are not always very common to you. So tibialis anterior. This one is a great one.
This one is an easy one to explain because you can feel it very easily with your fingers.
The extensor digitorum longus, you’re not going to see very often on too many models.
Even classically when you see this drawings of Leonardo or Michelangelo, Peter Paul Rubens,
or even on a very clearly defined model that might be in my classroom, these two muscles
almost become one. But the reason that they’re really important is that the end towards the
foot, the tendons separate, and you can see them very clearly on the foot and help you
define the foot. This you’re going to see on Bernini’s sculptures very easily. He’s
beautiful when it comes to the tendons. Okay, extensor digitorum. Now, there are two of
them and they’re on this side—west, I don’t know how you want to say it. Anterior,
whatever you want to say, that way of these two.
Then the last two are going to be behind this, so this is going to be kind of like a mountain
ridge that separates two lands. So the next one is butted up right up against it, and
that’s the extensor digitorum. Now, like I said before, please don’t look for this.
You probably won’t find it. The muscle is very kind of squeezed. Because there is subcutaneous
fat over the skin, the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus always look like
one form. I don’t know if I’ve seen any exceptions. So don’t worry about that. But
the muscle does end about there. When I say about it doesn’t mean that, or your teacher
might say it’s about here or there, it doesn’t mean that we don’t know. It just means it
varies from person to person. I’ll talk about that in a little bit as well.
Now what we have is we have the extensor digitorum. This is where you really have to pay attention
because this part that I’m hitting harder is the tendon. I’m going to make this just
a little bit longer. The muscle blends into the tendon really, really smoothly, but it’s
the tendon that’s going to be really important. Once the tendon hits the foot. There is this
like strap. They’re called retinaculum. It’s not a big deal, but you can imagine
like your taped up ankle right in here. It keeps the tendons from going across town like
this. So when it hits the foot here it’s splits off. That tendon splits into four different
directions, and it goes to four toes, all except the big toe. So you’re going to see
that one, that one, that one, and that one.
It does kind of make that little change of direction like that.
That tendon comes in like this.
Let me put the other muscles just really quickly because it doesn’t take much. Peroneus longus,
peroneus brevis underneath, extensor digitorum. All of these are easy to find because they’re
basically right by the fibula. The muscle ends somewhere around there. Then it’s the
tendon that you’re going to be concerned about. Watch. Tendon splits off into four
toes all except the big toe. Oftentimes you’re going to see, I don’t
know how your feet are, but look at your feet. This is part of your homework. Pull up your
toes, and you can see—sometimes you can see the whole stretch of the tendon. Sometimes
you only see it right here. Right at the base of the beginning of your toes. But you’re
going to see them, okay, more likely than not. Some people really have very soft
Hello Kitty feet. That’s not what I’m talking about. I’m talking about the ones that really,
most everybody is going to have a little something showing, kind of like the tendons that you
see of my hand right now.
Okay, so the tendons will most likely show up right by the toes. Sometimes you can see
the whole length of them, depending on your own feet. So you have the peroneus brevis
tendon; you have the extensor digitorum longus tendon, and now I’m going to draw the tibialis
anterior muscle. This one is really important because remember how I said that your shin
has an edge on it, and you’re used to like being reminded of it because you hit a low
table and it hurts like heck. What happens is right now if you wanted to, do my favor,
put your fingers on your shin right here. You can feel that edge. It’s like, ooh,
that’s bone. It’s hard, hard as a rock. Hard as a bone.
So you’re going to put your fingers there.
But, now what I want you to is pull your foot up toward your face and what you’re going
to see with your finger still on your shin is that your fingers are being pushed forward
by a muscle. That’s the tibialis anterior. That one is the one that sure enough pulls
your foot up toward your face. You don’t realize how important that is until—if somebody
were to numb it you’d be tripping all the time because your foot, your toes would hit
the ground. What you don’t realize, perhaps, is when you’re walking your tibialis anterior
is very subtly and very beautifully without any trouble pulling your toes up and your
foot up towards your face, the sky so that it keeps from hitting things.
You know like if you’re tired, whatever, that muscle is just kind of relaxed. You trip
over things because it’s too relaxed. So that muscle, the other important thing about
that muscle is it creates a contour of the front of your leg. Watch when I draw it.
Remember that the muscle, the tibialis anterior along with its partner “Ed,” extensor digitorum
longus, almost always look like one muscle, one form in that area. It makes it easier
for you to remember these muscles because now you’re going to take two of them and—let’s
just make it one. The only thing I ask you to do, though, is remember that the tendons
are very important down by the foot. So the tibialis anterior will do this.
It creates a contour of your leg.
Watch what I’m going to do because I’m going to stop that abruptly right here. Why?
Because you can see that on the contour of the model. You can see that on the contour
of that piece of artwork that you’re seeing. So the muscle is nice and big and round, very
full. I’m going to just remind you that this is one muscle over here, extensor digitorum
right over here. So if I were to number these we have one and two. We have three—I don’t
want to get them confused with the pairs—three and four. That’s a couple three and four,
one and two. Then I can number these. This is three and this is four. Tibialis anterior.
This is number one and—pardon my finger—and number two. One, two, three, four. All we
need is five and six. Pretty easy.
Now, I need to do the tendon because the tendon of the tibialis anterior is really important.
Watch what it does. It’s bigger than any of the other tendons we’ve been talking
about. In this set of tendons next to the Achilles tendon that is the thickest to biggest
tendon. Remember, this is the Achilles tendon here, but I have to end it right here. I have
to just kind of let it flow just like I did there. Okay, so here it is over here. Here
it is there, okay, until I can reconnect.
Alright, so now the tendon of the tibialis anterior. I want you to picture something
for me because right now you see the foot like this. The arch is over here where the
thumb is, okay, where the big toe is, where my thumb is right now. Because that tendon
of the tibialis anterior is on the other side of the foot. It’s on the arch part. Remember
what I said about what’s called retinaculum or that strap? Let’s just say like your
taped up ankle. What happens, and you can see this with all the really good artists.
You’ll see that this tendon actually creates a diagonal like this, and it disappears on
the other side of the foot so that foot over here is still closer to us. I put an arrow
there to remind me to tell you that this has to be named. That little peak on your foot
actually has a name. Okay, so I’m going to do this right in here and explain that
in just a little bit when I start talking about the foot a little bit more. So now you’re
going to see that the study of the foot is actually really important. But more importantly,
not so much the muscles but the tendons of the feet are going to be critical in your
development as an artist. The peroneus brevis tendon is going over here to that spot right
there, and it’s going up like this. I don’t want to draw more because the muscles
of the back of the leg are going to kind of cover up most of that stuff anyway. So that’s
a tibialis anterior. How do you like that? Now, what I’m going to do is give you the
last two, so I’m going to change color here to make things a little easier. Of course,
it’s going to be number five and number six. Number five is the soleus. It kind of
reminds me of the world sole, like the sole of a shoe or a foot or anything like that.
The muscles itself kind of looks like that. Soleus. And number six, the gastrocnemius.
Now, what’s nice about the gastrocnemius is that it’s your calf muscles. Those you
didn’t need an anatomist to tell you about your calves. You can see them pretty easily
in the back of your leg, and the gastrocnemius are fabulous.
Okay, so gastrocnemius, soleus. What I want you to see, though, and this is something
visually you know but you may not have known the name is a soleus, the one that sounds
like a sole of a shoe actually almost looks like it. Watch. Remember this landmark, the
head of the fibula? It’s good that you remember that because it touches it. This is a soleus.
Watch what I’m going to do because I’m going to have to draw it softly in certain
places. Now, what I’m going to do is I’m going to kind of leave it like this because
it is attached to the heel by way of the Achilles tendon. But I need to draw the next set of
muscles because this is underneath the calf muscles. You don’t realize that, but underneath
your calf muscles is a big, huge bed of muscle. It looks almost like—I know it doesn’t,
you have to stretch your imagination. But to me, I want you to remember it’s kind
of like the sole of a shoe. So I’m going to draw this. Fuzz it out a little bit. The
reason I have to is because I have to draw on top of it.
The other thing I want to do for you is actually draw for you what it looks like from the side
because this is a really important view of the soleus muscle. It’s going to look kind
of like a wedge. Something that would keep your door open. Watch. It does this and it
squeezes in here. Now, I’m going to leave it kind of fuzzy like this. The muscle fibers
are actually kind of like this, but I’m just going to turn it all kind of like this
nice pretty blue. I hope it reads like that on camera, but it’s a nice pretty blue.
It’s like a cerulean blue, and that’s the muscle right there. So it looks like a
big wedge. This one is really easily seen especially when you get up on your tip toes.
All this, of course, I know it looks a little unfinished because we haven’t put the calf
muscles in. Guess what, I really need now to put the femur.
The thigh bone has two wheels. They look like knuckles. They look like this. They look like
that. Because of that the Greeks called them that, knuckles. No, they don’t use the word
knuckles because that’s English. To them they’re called condyles. So these condyles
look like two wheels. I’m going to put like a little highlight on them like this. I want
them to look kind of like what they are. The bone itself kind of surrounds them like this.
I want to try to do the best I can to make sure that this looks good and clear to you.
But I’m going to keep it a little fuzzy when it comes up to this because these go
out to your hip, which is actually that way. That’s why I’m drawing it an angle. Your
thigh bones or femurs are always at an angle like this when you’re standing at attention.
Here are the little condyles or little wheels. I want to put like a little shine on it like
that so you can kind of sense the look of them and a little reflected here, a little
reflected light there.
Okay, so now you can kind of see what I’m trying to show you because the calf muscles
have two heads. The calf muscles or gastrocnemius have a medial head. Remember, this is medial
and this is lateral or outside/inside, however you want to look at it. Medial is where the
big toe is. Lateral is where the little toe is. Lateral is where the little toe is. Medial
is where the big toe is. Got it? Pretty simple because it’s closer to midline. This is
further away from midline. So watch. I’m going to put a mark here,
and I’m going to put a mark there. That’s where the calf muscles are going to originate.
Watch what I’m going to do because this is something if you’ll look very carefully
at the back of your knee or somebody’s knees, you’re going to see this perhaps. You’re
going to see two almost tail-like forms like this. You’ll see this on a lot of people.
Your calf muscle now. I know it doesn’t look like, you know, I’m drawing calf muscles
but I am. This is the beginning of your calf muscles. They have two big strappy forms that
come in. You won’t see this on everybody, but on enough people you will see this. If
you’re a bicyclist or you’re a lean kind of a person. You look at the back of your
knees and you bend them or move around a little bit you’ll see that there are these two
big forms back there before you get to the two heads.
This angle. Remember your ankle has an angle to it. There is this little magic spot around
here somewhere. I’m just going to do this. It’s almost like I’m teaching perspective.
You know how like in perspective you have something like that with the little telephone
poles like that kind of thing. You’re going to do the same thing. Watch. Because each
head has a different height. Medial head is lower than the lateral head.
Okay, so watch. I’m going to draw the heads now, and the heads are just these bulbous
masses like this. And then here’s the other one like this. One of the things you’re
going to notice with the classic figure drawers like Leonardo or Peter Paul Rubens, and I
do this myself, is I always indent. You’re going to see that they exaggerate the indentations.
Peter Paul Rubens would actually draw it a little bit further out like this, for instance,
further out like that. Then there is a split down the middle. Then that is where one head
ends, and that’s where the other head ends. Now we can attach one, two, three of these
heads to the heel by way of this tendon called the Achilles tendon. It’s one of the few
tendons that’s so important it gets its own name. You’ll notice that the tendons
more often than not or just the name of the muscle itself. Remember the peroneus brevis.
The tendon doesn’t have a name except that it’s called the peroneus brevis tendon.
This is an exception. It’s such an exceptionally strong and big form that it gets its own.
Plus, there is a whole myth of Achilles and how his mother dipped him in the water that
protected him, but she had to hold him by the ankles and basically this was like the
weak spot or the Achilles tendon of the original Achilles or the weakness. Oftentimes in olden
days a prisoner might have his Achilles tendon cut so that they couldn’t escape. You can’t
run without the Achilles tendon. So now you’re going to see the look of the
leg is pretty much finalized now. You cans see the soleus and the medial head of the
gastrocnemius and the lateral head of the gastrocnemius finishing all that off. What
color did I use over here? This is going to be the peroneus brevis and the peroneus brevis
tendon going to there. There is one muscle that I haven’t talked
about yet. That is on the inside in your foot right in here. I’m going to draw it right
in here, the extensor digitorum brevis, and it’ the little bubble of muscle that you
see in between—if you see these landmarks, the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal and the
lateral malleolus, and you’ll see this little bubble. If you’re very fair skinned, if
you very, very, light, translucent skin you’ll see that this looks almost green. The interesting
thing about that is the tendons go to all except the little toe. So I’m only to mention
that because you may perhaps see that at some point. It doesn’t go to the little toe.
It just goes to the other toes. It is underneath the extensor digitorum longus, so you’re
not going to see the tendon as loudly as you will on the extensor digitorum longus. You
see them very loud. On extensor digitorum brevis you barely see those tendons, if at
all. But what’s interesting is that they go to the big toe and all except the little
toe. The extensor digitorum longus goes to all except the big toe. I have the put the
tibialis anterior muscle on this. But look, I already have drawn most of it
because it fits right into this group and then the tendon goes like this and underneath
the foot. So this big cable right in here, you’re going to see that. If you pull up
your big toe you’re going to see. If you pull up your whole foot you’re going to
see that big, huge tendon. Here is that muscle like this. It’s big and it’s round like
this. I’m going to draw form lines just to remind you it’s big and it’s round
and almost like, again, it will look like it’s only one muscle when you see that.
You want even see the extensor digitorum longus. You’ll just see one big form just like that.
The tendon is really big. The extensor hallucis longus, which I didn’t write down, but I’m
going to write that down now. I’m going to write a couple new ones down. Extensor
digitorum brevis. I’m just going to write it like that little bubble on side of foot. That little bubble right
in here. It’s really kind of neat. It actually feels really good if somebody rubs it. So
the extensor digitorum brevis. That’s the little bubble. Okay, I’m going to get to
that one as well because that’s a really nice little landmark.
Oh, and I have to put gastrocnemius in. So here is the femur, and from this point of
view it comes in from this angle. Like if you’re standing at attention your bone is
actually at a little bit of a slant. Watch this; you’re going to love this. So here
are those little bars that you see like this. But then all of a suddent it splits off, and
it becomes your gastrocnemius like that. Now I can attach the Achilles tendon. Let me just
put this a little fuller like this and smooth it out a little bit and give you a little
bit of form. You can see bounce, bounce, bounce, bounce, but then it bounces out like this.
So bounce like this. And then it starts becoming fuller and rounder, and there it is. This
one is pretty nice like this as well. And same thing with all these. I want to give
you a sense of volume is what I’m trying to do with these little form lines. I hope
that helps. The other thing I’m going to do is I’m going to combine these two to
remind you that these more often than not look like one form. This will make life a
lot easier until it gets down to this area where you see it is more tendinous. Then,
of course, you’re going to attach all of this, these guys, number five and number six,
to the heel by way of this beautiful and elegant and fabulous tendon, the Achilles tendon.
Down here oftentimes if you have kind of thin anatomy they’ll be a membrane here. It’s
basically like you’re skin, and you’ll see a little gap. Then you have the bump of
bone. I’m going to finish this off a little bit more now that I have the tendon, the Achilles
tendon. So you see something like that, and because you’re stepping on a pad of fat
and thick skin you’ll see that there is two bumps on your heel. One is bone and one
is flesh. And then sometimes you’ll see a little dip there, etc. Then you go off to
the toes like that. So that’s basically the look of the leg. You can see it looks
like a drumstick. From this point of view you’re going to find that you’re going
to see the calf or the soleus, depending, like this. Here is a soleus. Number five and
number five over here and number six lateral and number six medial like this. But remember
this goes all the way up. The reason that it is important that you know that the calf
muscles as opposed to the soleus. The soleus only crosses over this joints, so it helps
you get up on your tiptoes. But the calf muscle not only helps you get up on your tiptoes
and your heel off the ground, but it actually helps you bend your foot up like you’re
looking at the back of your heel. Okay, so it’s important that you see that there is
a separation there between those two muscles like that. And then these are big and bulbous,
okay, big bellies. That’s what gastric means. Gastric means belly like gastrointestinal.
It’s belly related. So here it is. Here it is. Here it is. Here it is. Here it is.
The nice roundness of this big huge tendon. Take it like this, like this, like this, like
this, and it gets really nice and tight down here like that. It’s attached to your heel
very strongly. This spot right here—now, let me actually
draw before I do that. Let’s say kind of like a Peter Paul Rubens type of leg like
this. I’m just trying to get inspiration here from the old masters. I’m just trying
to get inspiration here from the old masters. Okay, you’re going to see something like
this. So you can see a leg coming in like this, a big old thigh, and then a patella
popping out and the tibial tuberosity. Then we see the tibialis anterior and then the
big old thigh comes in from over here, and it’s squeezed right in here. So you have
like a little donut right there. This is like you’re looking at the inside part of your
leg, kind of like this. You’re looking down. You’re going to find that you won’t see
as much, and then I’m going to do that. Remember that indentation that the old masters
did. I’m going to do the same thing as Peter Paul Rubens. I’m trying to channel him right
now. This is where the big old heel is down to the ball of the big toe, okay, kind of
like this. Alright, so far so good.
going to just put initials as well. Anything I can to make it easier for you. Number four.
You’re going to see because it’s a contour muscle whether you’re looking at it on the
other side of the blackboard looking this way. That’s a contour. Where you’re looking
at it the way you are right now that’s a contour. So from the other side to this side,
contour, contour. So since we’re looking at the inside part of the leg that is a contour
muscle, but watch how beautiful this is. It’s the tendon that you’re going to see very
clearly from this point of view. The other thing I need to do is make sure
that you could see that there is like the big toe like this, which means that the other
toes are basically like this. I’m drawing it big and heroic because that’s the way
Peter Paul Rubens draws, like that. So you’ll see something like that, and you can see the
tendons of the extensor digitorum longus kind of coming out like this, like this, like this.
The extensor hallucis—halux is a big toe by the way, everybody. Extensor hallucis longus. I’m going to write down
tendon because it’s the tendon that you’ll see. You won’t see the muscle, but you’ll
see a big old tendon going to the big toe. That’s it. I’m going to put a big asterisk
right in here and remind you that is what this is right there.
The medial malleolus is going to register kind of like as a big bony, kind of sharply
defined little thing here. The Achilles tendon is right there. But what you’re going to
see from this point of view is the calf muscle being squished like this because of the bend
of that knee, but this is the part that you’re going to see very, very clearly. That’s
the soleus. Okay, so that’s number five, and this is number six. Okay, now it just
gets kind of squished together, and it almost looks like a drumstick that you’re drawing.
This is the bone. This is all tibia right in here. This is muscle. Isn’t this beautiful?
All of sudden everything comes together so nicely. It just works. It feels great to like
eventually just know the stuff so well that you don’t even have to look at anything.
Just make this up, kind of like thinking about the way Peter Paul Rubens would draw something
like this if he was here. I kind of wish, you know, that there was something like this
with Peter Paul Rubens and stuff like that. But we don’t have that, but at least now
we have this opportunity for people like me to do this so centuries down the line hopefully
people could still keep learning from me. That’s a whole point of doing something
like this is that it’s there forever. The good thing about this information is it’s
forever information. Technology changes. This does not. We’re not evolving fast enough
where all of a sudden there is some new muscle that you have to learn, whereas you do have
to do that with technology. Every six months there is like a new this, a new that, a new
gizmo. But when it comes to this, this was here centuries ago. The old masters studied
this. We’re studying this now. And it seems to be more important than ever to have this
kind of knowledge. The foot kind of comes in here, and then there
is the heel. There are two bumps back there. One is for bone and one is for the heel itself.
This is interesting because when I think about a foot, watch. I’m going to just draw this
very simple little diagram for you. Okay, so that’s kind of like a shoe. I’m going
to draw the foot. Now, this is like the foot in a nutshell. So far so good. I know you
can draw that. What I want you to look at is where the little toe is. So I’m going
to draw a little toe like this. Maybe even a little bit of the fat behind it.
Okay, so why is Mr. Rey drawing this? Because I’m going to tell you to look to see where
the end of the little toe is the back of the heel is. Okay, so that’s pretty simple.
I can do that. Then find the halfway point. Do you know what the halfway point is? That’s
right. Tuberosity, 5th metatarsal. Just use that as a landmark. I don’t care if it’s
like that on the model or not. This is just starting with zero. Zero is just the generic
model. You know that even in head drawing. You know your teacher will draw that little
oval and put the eyes in the middle, the nose, the whole nine yards. That is zero. Then you
look at that particular person and then you go from zero and then you go this way, nose
is a little longer, nose is a little shorter, eyes a little closer, etc. All of this is
zero. As a matter of fact, I’m going to show you something very, very cool in just
a little bit about that. This is a male leg, but what I’m going to do is very quickly
show you how I can change the contour and make it look like a woman very easily. If
I drew this line right in here, from here down to here, down to the heel, it’s male.
When it draw it a different way, it’s female. Okay, watch this. Now, you have like the tuberosity
of the 5th metatarsal. Then you can add the other toes. Do you remember how I did that
kind of fanning effect? That’s how I got those toes. No big deal. Watch this. I’m
going to take an arc. Arc it off into the heavens like that. You’re going to find
that that little spot right there on your foot there’s a change of direction. First
of all, there’s this, and there is that change of direction because that’s the tibialis
anterior tendon, but over here you’ll notice that your foot does this. I’m going to do
this very hard so you can see it. That blue line and then all of a sudden it drops from
there because these are metatarsals right in here. Here is the joint of the little toe.
There is a pad right here. These are metatarsals. These are tarsals. So remember that section
over here of the seven bones, and then all of sudden it becomes the top of your foot.
Here’s your lateral malleolus. Here’s the tendon, peroneus brevis. Look how easily
this comes together. Then the other tendon of the extensor digitorum, one, two, three,
four; boy, you’ve got it. Then tibialis anterior tendon, all of that makes a difference.
This little juncture has a name. Think about where you come from. I don’t know if it’s
Germany or Mexico or whatever, but there is always like this distinction; we call it a
border. Whether it’s Mexico and United States, Kansas and Nebraska, United States and Canada,
you get the idea. There is always like a border, whether it’s a river or a line or a fictitious
line, whatever it is, mountain range. In anatomy we don’t call them borders, we call them
articulations. So every joint has a name depending on where it’s at. It’s almost like the
border? It’s the Mexico-United States border. There is a reason why we call it that because
when you cross that line you’re in Mexico. When you cross the line you’re in the United
States. When you cross this line you’re in Kansas. When you cross that line you’re
in Nebraska. Whatever it is, everybody in this world has that. Even a county has that.
In anatomy every joint has a name, and it has a name of both the bones. So these are
tarsals. These are metatarsals. Boy, I’m going to write this down, but it’s
going to take a while, watch. It’s the tarsal—hold on, because I’m going to draw two asterisks
to not get confused with the one asterisk. So far so good. Just to remind you that I’m
talking about that. That little spot, that little bend of your foot is the tarsal-metatarsal
articulation. Boy, I have to write a little more clearly. Articulation. How do you like
them apples? All that means is the border between two bony regions, the tarsals and
the metatarsals. We do that with everything so anatomy does the same thing. Tarsal-metatarsal
articulation. It’s the tarsal-metatarsal border. Got it? You have like an acromioclavicular
articulation because this is an acromion process. This is your clavicle. Everything has that.
That’s pretty good. This is a pretty full wonderful lesson, and I hope you guys understand
this and get it, and also look at it. Make sure that next time you have a model in front
of you that you start looking for this inside them. This is it. This is where it’s at.
If you can feel like there are bones and muscles and tendons in your drawing and your sculpture
and your paintings, even if you exaggerate, even if you stylize like I do, I don’t like
literal translation of the model. I like interpretation of the model. It’s just my thing. I like
to just plow through a drawing. But whether you do it mechanically, very mechanical where
it’s site size or organic, the way I like to draw, it doesn’t matter. It’s neither
right nor wrong. It’s your preference. It’s like a buffet. It’s like what you eat, what
you don’t eat. But what you gravitate towards is all going to be helped by this knowledge.
field. The field in this case, of course, is your figure drawing class or actually looking
at people. So when you look at these images one of the thing I want you to do is actually
look at them for a little bit before I start drawing on them and start looking for visual
clues. What that would be is any kind of indentations because any indentations on the body are going
to be signifying a change from one muscle to the another muscle, from one muscle to
a tendon, from one muscle to a bone, etc. I’m going to mark certain spots that you
need to always just look at. One of them is right there. There is an indentation right
there. If you look very carefully you’ll see that. There is one that’s very subtle.
It’s almost on the opposite side, and it’s there.
So now what I want you to do is actually just look to see what I’m looking at. The other
thing I want you to look at is this: From leg to foot there is always that diagonal
line. If you look at that diagonal line, if you look at that very carefully, if you remember
from my lecture that is the tibialis anterior tendon, and it’s really important that you
guys remember that from leg to foot there is a transition. The transition starts with
bony landmarks. The most obvious one that I want to draw right now is the lateral malleolus.
You know why? Because it’s one of the easiest ones for you to see. And it’s one of the
only landmarks that you already know. It’s your ankle, your outside ankle. The other
thing I want to remind you of is another bony landmark. I’m going to draw a little line
where the end of the toe is and the back of the heel.
Now, do you remember what you find at the
halfway point? In this case it’s not quite in the center, but it’s, remember when I
drew on the blackboard that was zero. In this case this is where his tuberosity of the 5th
metatarsal is. Isn’t that fabulous? You can see it is almost in the center. In my
drawing I did it in center because I call that zero. Then you look at this particular
person and you find it on him or her. Now, the other thing I’m going to point out is
where the head of the fibula is. Now, if you look at the area at the side of
the knee you’ll notice there isn’t like a big bony protruding bone. So you have to
look a little bit more closely to see where would it be. Well, one of the things that
you need to look at is what you do know. And I hope perhaps you could see that this area
here is the kneecap. The reason I’m telling you that is that the head of the fibula is
on the leg. The patella is on the thigh part of the knee. So it’s almost like having
a border, and that border is, whether it’s Mexico-United States, there is a border here.
That’s north up here or superior, and then there is south over here. If you wanted to
look at this like compass points. Okay, so because of that the other landmark,
the head of the fibula, is on the south part. So you would travel this way, this way until
you get to this area here. The reason I’m telling you that is without that circle that
I just put on there you probably didn’t see anything. So what was I looking for for
visual clues? Well, the muscles of the thigh and in particular this area here, which is
the tendon of the biceps femoris. Now, do you need to know that? Yes, you will. When
I tell you about the thigh muscles then you are going to understand that as well. So my
visual clue was this whole shaded area and this lighted area over here. That tendon is
attached to the head of this fibula. Now, going by the numbers that I gave you
before; one and two, three and four, five and six, the six major muscles of the leg,
and the leg I’ll remind you means from the knee down to the foot. The first ones I put
on where the peroneal muscles. In this case I’m going to start with two then go back
to one. One of the things that you’ll notice is this little indentation here. Right in
here. I’m drawing it very, very softly because I don’t want you to see it quite yet. If
you look very carefully you’ll see that there is a little form here right in here,
at that is a peroneus longus. Now, remember what I said about the peroneus longus.
The peroneus longus muscle will be a little bit more obvious than the peroneus brevis.
The peroneus brevis I see a little bit of light there and a little bit there. More importantly,
I see the tendon of the peroneus brevis right there. I can even see just a little tiny bit
of it over here. Got it? So now you have the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis. The other
thing that you’re going to see is this right over here. That indentation. If you take that
spot right there and draw a line to the head of the fibula you have yourself the soleus
and gastrocnemius. How do you like that for simplicity’s sake? Those all attach to the
heel by way of the Achilles tendon. As promised, the tibialis anterior and extensor
digitorum look like one form so I’m just going to draw this little arc to signify the
top of that. Down here what is going to be significant is the tendon of the tibialis
anterior and the tendon of the extensor digitorum longus. The tendons would be like this, like
this, like this all throughout the foot to four of the toes. The other thing you’re
going to see is this bubble that is that extensor digitorum brevis. Okay, this one is always,
this one is in the front. Notice I drew it a little bit bigger because I want you to
see it, tibialis anterior. I’m jumping over to the right image and looking at the inside.
This one is going to be much easier because all you have to remember are two muscles.
You can see these very easily.
First of all, let me just get this one out of the way. That’s the tibialis anterior
because that is a contour muscle. That means whether you see it from this side, from the
lateral side or the medial side, that is it. Then there is bone about right here where
I put that little dot. This big bulbous mass is the gastrocnemius. If you were to take
out the skin you’d see just a little bit of a split because one of them is the lateral
head and the medial head of the gastrocnemius. This over here is the ice cream cone, the
cone part of the ice cream. And the ice cream is the gastrocnemius, the cone is both the
soleus and the Achilles tendon. That’s it.
There is a muscle here called the flexor digitorum, but you’re barely going to see it. Sometimes
you see a little bit of the tendon here. If you see any bone over here it might be the
navicular bone, which would be right here. The other thing I want you to look for, and
this is really important. Remember the tibialis anterior? Now you’re going to see the effects
of its tendon. Watch. Like that. You can actually see that. I left just a little tiny bit of
skin showing so you can see that the tendon disappears into the foot. It’s actually
attached underneath the big toe, the ball of the big toe.
The other thing you’re going to see, it’s very subtle, is the tarsal metatarsal articulation.
I didn’t know how else to write it except just initials. Tarsal metatarsal articulation.
In classical figure drawing you would also even show on the toes the toe next to the
big toe like this.
What’s nice about what we’re doing for you here is we’re showing you—you know,
it’s easy for me to say, okay, let’s get this athletic male or whatever. Now we have
both male and female. So we’re going to look for other visual clothes. When it comes
to the male you’re going to see that the patella is always going to be one of your
major landmarks. There it is there. There it is there. You’re going to see the patellar
ligament. Look at that. Look how strong that is. Once again, it looks like an ice cream
cone. I like food so you’re going to find that I liken everything to food. There is
the dollop of ice cream, the cone of ice cream, which is actually the patellar ligament. Over
here now we’re going to be able to see the head of the fibula just a little bit better,
just a little bit more easily. I’m going to point out this little mark right here.
Can you see this by the calf? Inside part of the calf? Even over here on this side it’s
very subtle, but there is a slight indentation. That’ll be the separation between the gastrocnemius
and the soleus.
The important thing to see here is this line, and that separates the peroneal muscles. I
can see the end of one here because there is a little bit of shading right in here.
In this case because of the shadow this is where the tendon of the peroneus brevis is.
What’s nice about this foot is if you look at the contour of it, I’m just tracing the
contour that area that bulges out is the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal. So you can see that
the ankle would do this, and this is the tendon of the peroneus brevis. This is the tendon
of the peroneus brevis. It’s all you need to remember or to see from this point of view.
The indentation here that I already marked for you just marks the separation between
soleus, gastrocnemius, and they both join to the heel by way of the Achilles tendon.
This little mark here, if you were to draw it more fully you would see, again, the separation
between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus. All of this is bone, bone,
bone, with veins over it. And this whole bubble here is tibialis anterior.
The thing to note here is the tendon goes in this direction. Over here you’ll have
the tendon of the extensor digitorum longus, which goes to all except the big toe, okay,
in that area. When I jump over to the female you’re going to still see a little bit of
shading right here. And that will make a demarcation for the split between muscles one and two,
which are the peroneal muscles, extensor digitorum and tibialis anterior. You can see that there
is a light hitting that right there. What’s neat about her knees is unlike the male her
knees kind of get buried underneath a little bit of fat that surrounds the knee. Then you’re
going to see a little bit of fat with the patellar ligament right there. You can see
the patellar ligament right there and a little fat around it. That’s what all that stuff
is. The neat thing is is how buried that little patella is with all this like little fat surrounding it.
There, like that. Now, what other visual clothes. Down by her
foot, her right foot, the one where her toes are showing. One of the things I did mention
is I like to draw what I call the arcade. You can see how the arcade creates the toes
coming out of that arcade. I was taught to draw little circles or little ovals, but I
never liked that. So I came up with my own version and that’s just eliminating that
you don’t see and putting in what you do see, and that’s the arcade. Above her little
toe you’re going to see this area here. And that is the tendon of the extensor digitorum
longus, and the tendons, where you see them or not, are going to four of the toes. You
won’t really see it right now, but I’m going to draw it in. That’s a tendon of
the big toe, the extensor hallucis. What you will see is the tendon over here of the tibialis
anterior. You can see it right on her left foot right here. See that little lighted area?
That is the tendon of the tibialis anterior. So what you’re going to see here very subtly
is this arc. That represents both the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum. The low shadow
here is a separation between the peroneal muscles, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis,
and the tendon of the peroneus brevis, lateral malleolus tendon going to the tuberosity of
the 5th metatarsal. Over on this leg you’re going to see the
little split between calf muscles, bone, tibia, and tibialis anterior. I’m not going to
draw anything until you see it pop out again as the tendon.
Okay, with this slide of two images you’re going to see the tendons really clearly.
First of all, I’m going to draw the arcade again. Look at the image on your left. You’ll see
the toes coming toward you. What I’m going to do is I’m just going to draw the arcade
because this is going to be the best way I could teach you as to how to draw toes coming
at you. Just draw the arcade first. So all I did was this; this, this, this, this, and this.
See how simplified that is? You draw the big toe with its nail. The nail kind of
signifies perspective. Here’s the other toe doing this. Then the other toe, the other
toe, and lastly this one. So here is a nail, here’s a nail, here’s a nail, here’s
a nail, and you could do this. You could do this really simply. So that is that up there.
The most beautiful thing I could teach you about this particular image is how clear the
tendons are. The first one I’m going to do is the one that goes to the big toe. That’s
the extensor hallucis longus tendon. That’s all you’re going to see. You’re not going
to see the muscle. The other one is the one that goes underneath the arch of your foot.
That is this one. Why don’t you think about what that tendon is? If you said tibialis
anterior you are right. It’s a big significant tendon. If I follow this line up, see the
shadow, that is the muscle up there. If you look very carefully at this image—see this
right there where I put the dot? There’s a shadow there. Not as the tibialis anterior
muscle. You won’t see it that clearly because this is just, you know, it’s a very nice
woman and you’re not going to see these muscles as if you’re drawing Marvel comics
or Captain America or something. But the tendon is very clear. There other one has extremely
clear extensor digitorum longus. If you look very carefully, yes, you can see the tendons
going to the toes. All except the big toe. So there; there’s one here, one here, one here.
Got it? Now, when I look at the other image you’re
going to see some really wonderful things. This one right here, again, if you take that
and draw a line to the head of fibula, which is very clear right here, because this tendon
of the biceps femoris is attached to it, that will give away the position of that bone.
If you see this dot that I’m drawing here, and this dot of the head of that fibula then
all you have to do is swing a line here, swing a line there, and that’s the soleus and
the gastrocnemius. All of this is going to be the peroneal muscles, the peroneus longus,
peroneus brevis, and look at the tendon of the peroneus brevis.
What’s nice about this young lady is look at her little toe right here. Look at her
heel. Find the halfway point roughly, and you’re going to find that spot. That’s
the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal. If you look very carefully from the lateral malleolus
you see her tendon. And it disappears in that pad that it would be right here. The bubble
of the extensor digitorum brevis. One of the things that you’re going to see
is that little line there, and that’s a nice determiner of this is lateral malleolus;
this over here is tibialis anterior tendon. And that’s it. You’ve got it. So that
one is always going to be very visible. One of things that you see here popping out also
is the Achilles tendon right in here.
3-D ecorche, we’re going to be doing a 2-D ecorche. Very much like Peter Paul Rubens
used to do with his students. He would do basically a flayed body, a skinless body.
What we have here is we have photographs. We have here at New Masters Academy these
great shots of a woman with her heel up. This is great because it exposes the peroneus longus
and separates it from the peroneus brevis. I also see—and don’t worry, I’m going
to get to all this—the soleus and gastrocnemius. The tendon of the peroneus brevis. Visual
landmarks I look for are the head of the fibula. What I’m going to do because the head of
the fibula is where I’m going to start my strokes that is going to be right below the
head of the fibula. It’s the peroneus longus.
This is where the peroneus longus would start. And the muscle fibers come down the leg like
this. What’s nice about this is because the muscle is contracted you’re going to
see its shadow right in here. Of the muscle riding up high, flexing, showing off. Here
is that muscle. What I’m going to do also is I’m going to pretend like I am the light
source, my eyeballs, which means that the lighting is going to be different than in
the photograph. I’m also going to delineate the contours of this muscle just a little
bit better just to make sure that you can see the separation between it. You see this
lighted area here. This is the peroneus brevis. And it will do this. It’s underneath, by
the way. The peroneus longus is on top. Then because it’s contracted because the heel
is up it creates that shadow right in that area. This is one of the most important parts
I could teach you about this peroneus brevis though. The muscle fibers end here but the
tendon takes over, and you could see that it is going to use the lateral malleolus of
the fibula, the bottom part or your outside ankle. It’s going to use it as a fulcrum
or a pulley so the tendon will do this. It does this, and the part that you might not
see is that it’s going to find this little area right there, which is a tuberosity of
the 5th metatarsal.
And you can’t really see the tendon in this particular person very clearly, but I’m
going to draw it in for you. So there is the tendon of the peroneus brevis. The next muscles
I’m going to do are the soleus and the gastrocnemius because they are so clear in this particular
image. This shadow here is created by the soleus right in here. I’m going to make
a really nice delineation just so you can see the separateness between muscles. That’s
peroneus longus. I’m going to make it even clearer. This is the soleus, and this is the
gastrocnemius. And this is very easy to see because it’s such a strong muscle right
there. Visually very recognizable to everybody, anybody. And it’s attached to the femur.
What’s kind of interesting, and you can see this on a lot of models. You can actually
see that there is almost like a tail of it. And then the muscle bulges out. Once it gets
past the tendons of the thigh then you would see something like this.
Now, I’m going to add to the soleus because the soleus also attaches to the head of the
fibula. I’m going to draw almost like a little circle here to remind you that this
is bone because that’s a major landmark. Now, the gastrocnemius, or calf muscle, will
come out from the back of your knee like this. You can see the muscle fibers doing this.
This part that I’m drawing of the gastrocnemius is very visible on a lot of people, perhaps
yourself. If you look on the back of your leg and get up on your tiptoes, oftentimes
you’ll see that.
Okay, now the reason I’m ending this muscle right here is because the soleus and the gastrocnemius
with both attach to the heel down here by way of the Achilles tendon, which is right
here. I’m going to hit this really hard just so you can see it. There is even a hollow
right here that I’m going to create just to remind you. All of this is soleus, gastrocnemius,
and Achilles tendon. We’ll make it even clearer right in here. This is calcaneus right
in here, the bone, and then the pad of your foot.
The other thing that I’m going to show you is this is pad right here. This is bone. This
tuberosity of 5th metatarsal will also show you that the foot is actually bending. I’m
going to exaggerate it but not by much. Then the little toe comes out of here like that.
Then there is a pad underneath the little toe. This is extensor digitorum brevis, this
little bubble. You see a little light and a couple little divots right there. That’s
all muscle right there. There are two more muscles missing because we have the two pairs
now. We have the peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, which you could always recognize even
on women you’ll see—and the reason I say only on women because a lot of times they
are less defined than men. Usually men have more muscle mass and more clearly defined
muscles. That’s not always true. In this case it is a woman, and you can see the shadow.
So you have one, two, then three, then four. Now, the first two, the front two muscles
are this one right here, tibialis anterior. You can see it’s a contour muscle.
One of things I really want to point out, and I’m going to just make a darker line
so you can see this even better, because I can see this with my bare eye. This line is
going into the form, and it ends right there because this is a tendon. The tendon of the
tibialis anterior, and it goes around to the other side of the arch of the foot like that.
What you see here is you have this little arc right there. That’s the tibia. So what
I’m going to do is I’m going to actually draw the tibialis anterior. This is it right
in here. So the muscle actually ends right where you see that indentation. It’s very
slight but I’m making it even clearer.
Squeezed in between the peroneal muscles and the tibialis anterior is going to be the extensor
digitorum longus right in here. It’s squeezed in there. The muscle generally ends about
right here, right where I’m going to end my lines right there. If I could see through
the skin this is where I would see it. Then the rest is tendon. The tendon would go to
about here. It would split off into four different directions going to the toes. So reappears
right there at the base of the toes. Those are the essential six muscles that you have
Remember, peroneus brevis is one. Peroneus longus is number two. Extensor digitorum is
three. Tibialis anterior is four. Soleus is number five, and the gastrocnemius is number
six. Over here what you’re going to see is you’re going to see the gastrocnemius
medial head. It ends right here. You can see the tail coming in like this. But this is
the belly. It’s like it’s got a thin tail. There are tendons. There is like a big tendinous
area right in here, but since you’re not going to really see it I’m not going to
draw it. This is the basic gist of this muscle like this.
This is the gastrocnemius. I draw these muscles rightly or wrongly as if it was hair. One
of the things that you could do to get yourself to be better acquainted with anatomy is put
tracing paper over an image such as this and do exactly what I’m doing. Get a 2H pencil,
HB pencil or whatever feels comfortable to you and do exactly what I’m doing. These
are the gastrocnemius muscles. This is the soleus right in here going into the Achilles
tendon. Let me get this to look more like it’s a bulbous mass. The soleus and the
muscle fibers come in this direction like this. And then the end. They end because they
blend into the Achilles tendon. This whole back area is the Achilles tendon. There is
a hollow in between the tendon and the flexor digitorum right in here. I’m going to make
this clearer and darker. What you can also sense is that all of this, and I hope you
can see this; this is bone. This right in here is all tibia, and it’s exposed where
I’m making these slanted lines. See these lines? That’s all bone. So what is this
over here? It’s the tibialis anterior right in there because it’s a contour muscle.
So if it’s a contour on one side over here on the right, down the left leg that’s a
tibialis anterior that you can still see from this point of view. This is the gastrocnemius,
which is going to make it a little bit darker, let you see it a little bit better. Let you
see how much fuller it is. I’m going to just put a little bit more shading underneath
it so you can see a little bit more volume and how it blends into the Achilles tendon.
Here is the soleus right in here. I’m going to just hollow this out even more right there.
Over here you’ll see the slant of the tibialis anterior tendon. Sometimes you can even see
a little bit of this going into the foot like that. It disappears at about right there.
I just pulled it out a little bit more. When I jump over to the other image, what I’m
going to showcase on this image is once again the calf muscle and how where you see that
indentation that’s a separation between it and the Achilles tendon. And this little
shadow right there tells me that that is where the soleus is right in here. And the muscle
fibers do this. They blend in right here with the Achilles tendon. Fabulous.
And here are the muscle fibers for the gastrocnemius. The medial head in particular right now, specifically.
You can see the shadow of it right there and the direction of the muscle fibers. Direction of the muscle fibers is important because
sometimes you can actually see them on certain muscles. But it’s also a reminder of the
pull because each one of these muscle fibers, it’s like little tiny ropes, and they pull
in a certain direction.
Again, I’m going to add a little bit of shadow, just a little bit more form development,
just so you can see the roundness of that and the soleus underneath. I’m going to
just separate the gastrocnemius from the soleus a little bit better. From this point of view
I could probably see a little bit of the split of both heads. Not always, but I think I can.
This is the flexor digitorum right in here. You can see the tendon and a little bit of the hollow. Okay, so here
is the soleus and gastrocnemius. I’m just going to separate these a little bit better
for you. You get that beautiful contour, and that nice jump right here. Oftentimes this
little area right in here, you’ll see the old masters will just kind of like jump that
a little bit more, so it indents right there. You’ll notice this really clearly with Leonardo
drawings oftentimes and Peter Paul Rubens. They’ll make this kind of like a jump right
there. So start thinking that you can alter things, and you can make things a little bit
more that what you see.
Alright, then the other thing that you’ll see from this point of view is this arc, and
this is a tibialis anterior. The tendon would be like this because all of this, again, I’m
just going to make this really sloppy, but you’ll get the idea. These little lines
right here remind you that that’s exposed bone all the way down to here. This foot right
in here, you’ll see this angle. That is the tibialis anterior muscle. You can see
the roundness up there. That’s how usually I can start this muscle very, very easily
because that arc is so clear in this particular photograph that you’ll see the muscle do
this. And then it ends. And you’ll see the shadows right in here. See? That’s how I
know where to end this muscle. The shadow tells me. The tendon will take over, and sure
enough, it gives you that beautiful swoop that I’m showing you right now. This is
a calf muscle on the other side, but this is the area that I told you is bone.
is not so much the muscle, but the tendon. Watch. It comes down to the foot, and then
all of a sudden you see it splitting off into four different directions. You’ll see them
down here. You’ll also see a little bit of a shadow there that separates it, the extensor
digitorum longus tendon from the tibialis anterior tendon going off in that direction.
Over here in this shadow is the peroneus longus. I know that because the head of the fibula
is right over here. The muscle contracts, and it ends right here. Now, you can’t see
this because it’s all in shadow, but I see a little bit of a shadow there which reminds
me that is the peroneus brevis. What I see on this side over here, though, is the tendon
of the peroneus brevis going to the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal.
Now, back here you have the calf muscle and the soleus, and this is the soleus right here.
This is the gastrocnemius lateral head. And they all attach to the calcaneus back here
by the Achilles tendon. Then this is the lateral malleolus or the bottom part of the tibia.
This is extensor digitorum brevis, and you can see it because it looks like a little
fried egg. It looks like a little egg right there, a little ball. It’s always between
the lateral malleolus and the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal. Then you can see that
these paths kind of go like that, and then you go up the foot and across.
Okay, I’m going to draw just a little bit more just to get this a little cleaner for
you. You can see the separation. This is the most important muscle from this point of view;
it’s the tibialis anterior. Then the peroneals. The extensor digitorum longus is barely going
to be visible. This is the peroneus longus. Back here, of course, the gastrocnemius and
the soleus squeezed in between it and the peroneus longus. So I’m just going to make
a nice delineated border so you could see it a little bit better, and that’s it for
this image. Let me show you another slide. From these
points of view, you have the back and side. These are good slides. For a couple reasons
we have these for you. I want you to see this little area here. This is the area I told
you was like a little tail, and this is the gastrocnemius attached to—you’re not going
to see all this, but I’m showing you what it would look like without anything in the
way attached to the femur. This is the tail part but then it bulges out and becomes the
medial head, which you can see lands lower, and the lateral head, which is higher. It’s
hard to see, but you’ll see a little shadow here, and that is the separation of the two
heads as they attach themselves onto the Achilles tendon.
Let me just draw the muscle fibers for you so you can kind of see. I’m going to separate
the two heads a little bit more than you would see on the slide. This is the medial head
as you can see. It’s lower. So the belly is lower. In this case because it’s a woman
it’s a little bit lower than I would see usually on a man. I told you about that. It’s
really a very interesting phenomenon. This little area over here is actually the soleus
on the outside. That soleus and so is this. But it comes back in, and now I’m going
to draw the Achilles tendon. The is the Achilles tendon. You can see this area of it right
in here. The soleus comes into it like this. It’s rounded over here from this point of
view anyway. It all blends into the Achilles tendon. It’s underneath the gastrocnemius
or your calf muscles. I’m going to draw this so that you can see a little bit of more
clearly without any skin on, what it would look like. These tails would come in like
this, but then you would see the bellies through this.
So you’re going to get this from so many different points of view. From the classroom
blackboard that I lectured on, to the 3-D to the 2-D. You should be able to start seeing
these on the model or any reference that you’re looking at. This is all muscle. This is actually
like tendon in this area right in here that I’m doing dark, but because you don’t
really see it very clearly I usually just draw through it in case you’re wondering
if this looks different than you’re anatomy book. I didn’t want to take the time to
do these like little tendons and stuff. I’m just going to talk about the major ones, the
one that you really see. Here is your lateral malleolus. In this case,
look at that big ball. That is extensor digitorum brevis. This little line here is the tendon
of the peroneus brevis, and here it like up here. You won’t see it, but this is it.
This is the peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, which ends right here. I could see a little
slight shadow. This is peroneus longus. Extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior is
not going to be seen, but maybe a touch of this could be extensor digitorum longus. This
here is peroneus longus with the peroneus brevis underneath. I’m going to create a
nice hard border so you can really see that. Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis. What is
important here is the tendon. And when you jump to his other image this is where it ends
up. Look at this. This is the peroneus brevis
tendon. Look how clear that is. You can even see the skeletal part right here of her foot,
and that’s the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal. Look at that tendon. Uses this. There are
like straps that hold all this together. I don’t know if you can see my very, very
light lines called retinaculum. That why it seems like it disappears in this one little
area. What’s nice is all these little hollows that you see right there. The other visual
clue that you want to look at is this line here. That will tell you that that is the
soleus and gastrocnemius right in here. This is the peroneus longus right in here. You
can see a little bit of a shadow underneath the ball or the head of the fibula, which
means that underneath it—I always know. It’s really easy. All you have to remember
is when you see that little shadow right below it whether you see it or not is the peroneus
longus. So I’m going to draw that in really clearly.
This is the soleus, which has muscle fibers that do this, and the gastrocnemius, which
gets all bunched up and hidden underneath subcutaneous fat. But this is the way it would
look right underneath like this, and the soleus. But more importantly, with this point of view
I really want to showcase the tendon of the peroneus brevis. That’s the start of this
particular image. Here’s the Achilles tendon. I’m going to make a hollow right here because
oftentimes you can see this on many models. This is the soleus. I’m just going to darken
that up so you can really see that and the peroneus brevis. You can see it kind of creates
a little hollow right there. You can see this shadow right here is the tendon as they split
off of the extensor digitorum longus. It goes to all the toes except the big toe. The big
toe has an extensor hallucis longus tendon. This bump here is the tarsal metatarsal articulation.
The shadow here I’ll think you’ll recognize now as the extensor digitorum brevis. It creates
a little egg in between. You might even see a little bit of it underneath the tendon.
And then the front, of course, is tibialis anterior. I’m just going to keep that light
because the stars of the show are going to be the peroneal muscles more than anything.
Then that angle change, the foot would actually be closer to us. I’m putting a line just
to remind you that this right here is tibialis anterior tendon. And the tibialis anterior
and extensor digitorum longus just create one form up here. If I wanted to split it
I could, but basically they look like one until you get down to the lower part by the
foot. Then you’ll see sometimes the tendons split. So one of them is the tibialis anterior,
the other is extensor digitorum longus. I’m just going to finish up this little drawing.
Make it cleaner for you so you can see the delineations. This is the tibialis anterior
in the front. This one right here is the peroneus longus.
It ends right here, and then the tendon takes over. The tendon of the peroneus longus is
not as important to me. If you wanted to know where it goes, see where my pen is right now?
It disappears underneath the foot. Sometimes with some people you could actually see the
tendon alongside the peroneus brevis tendon, but you won’t see it very often. What’s
important about this drawing is that the peroneus longus muscle is more important than the tendon,
but down here the peroneus brevis tendon is more important than the muscle.
Okay, so what I’m going to do is I’m going to clarify some of these muscles because even
though the star of the show in this particular image with the right view of this, the side
view of this right leg and foot, are the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis. I do want to show
you what it looks like in what I call the crowd, you know, when you see all of the muscles.
So what I want to do is I do want to bring out the tibialis anterior a little bit more
right in here. Do you see that? The tibialis anterior is always easy because it’s a contour
for God sakes. It’s a contour of the leg. So you can see this, this, this. Then the
muscle fibers end, and the tendon takes over.
Now, squeezed really tightly in between is the extensor digitorum longus, which you could
see up here from hitting it hard and here. But then the muscle fibers end about here.
The reason I say about a lot is everybody’s is slightly different. But in this particular
person I see it as ending there. Then the tendons come down like this. It’s almost
like a sneaker shoelace. You know, it’s not round, but it’s kind of flat. Then over
here it splits off into four different directions. Those are the ones that go to the toes. The
peroneus tertius will come out of here, and a lot of times you’ll only see the tendon
of it. It’ll come toward the—also the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal.
So, one of the things that I want you to look for is this big hollow right here in between
the extensor digitorum longus tendon and the tibialis anterior tendon. The tendon of the
big toe is not visible from this point of view except for like maybe over here in a
little bit of a contour right there. And the head of the fibula once again is very clear.
Just want to clarify some of this for you. You can see this a little bit more clearly.
Right over here is where the muscle belly ends. You could always see that, and then
the Achilles tendon takes over. I think that’s it for today, kids, for this
set of lessons. I’m hoping that along with everything else that we’ve done for you
that it starts becoming clearer and clear. Remember what I’m doing right now is something
that you could do with tracing paper. What I would suggest you do, whether you use photographs
or not, I would really like for you to maybe get a piece of artwork that you might already
like, whether it’s Michelangelo’s David or a Bernini sculpture or a painting or a
drawing, and it’s a really good way to really study that particular artist’s piece and
dissecting it in a way. I think it’s a fabulous way to learn. That’s how I learned a lot
of my anatomy. Not only through my first art anatomy teacher, Burne Hogarth, but after
I took over and started teaching his class at Art Center College of Design, one of the
things that I needed to do was learn about more. To teach myself I basically just put
tracing paper over images, and I taught myself a lot more of this anatomy along with good books.
Now, what you guys have, though, is you have the beautiful reference that you have sites
like this with New Masters Academy. It’s going to make life so much easier for all of you.
Okay, so there it is. All of it. I hope now
you hav6555e a better understanding. We worked really hard to get you this information, so
just keep working on visualization, seeing this landmarks. We’ll see you next time.
Free to try
1. Lesson overview59sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Front view of the tibia and fibula bones15m 44s
3. Front view of the foot and side view of the leg bones15m 32s
4. The metatarsals and back view of the leg bones16m 42s
5. Applying muscles: Peroneus brevis/longus and extensor digitorum longus15m 33s
6. The tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius13m 35s
7. The Achilles tendon and extensor digitorum brevis11m 9s
8. Analysis of the foot and view of the leg on a skeleton10m 48s
9. Side view of the leg analysis over photo references9m 3s
10. Front view of the leg and foot analysis over photo references10m 24s
11. Ecorche drawover on side view of legs18m 36s
12. Ecorche drawover on back view of leg19m 36s