- Lesson details
Now it is time to study the anatomy of the leg and arm. In the study of the leg and arm, we are going to focus on viewing the form from as many angles as possible, approaching the study almost like a sculpture. Because these are cylindrical, almost tubular structures with muscles that spiral, we simply won’t be able to understand how some of these muscles look without constantly turning the arm and the leg.
In this lesson, we will identify and draw the skeleton and muscles of the leg.
Students are encouraged to work from the NMA reference images and 3D viewer included on this page*.
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
In the last part of our Russian Academic Drawing Course, Iliya brought together the knowledge we learned about the head and neck in order to complete a fully rendered portrait. In this next part, Figurative Anatomy, you will undertake a new challenge: the figure.
In order to draw the complexity of figure we need to study all the anatomy that makes up the surface form of the pelvis, ribcage, leg and arm.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
- Graphite pencils
- Kneaded and Hard Erasers
- Sanding Block
- Utility Knife
- Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
- Light source
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on the form from as many sides and angles as possible.
Think of this a little more as a sculptural assignment because
these are cylindrical, almost tubular structures with
muscles that spiral, we simply will not be able to understand
how some of these muscles look without constantly rotating the arm and the leg.
So we're going to be doing all of this on one page and we
will be drawing three views of the leg
and the arm simultaneously. But first,
as always, we need to get to know the bones.
bones of the leg
right at the side of our page here.
And the hard part about
working on the upper or
lower limb is that you want to try to
understand it from all angles, from all
rotations pretty much at the same time. So
we're going to try to do that.
So the main proportion to be aware of, and it's not
necessarily one to
because it's quite
constant. We'll talk
about it in just a moment. So the important
thing is to find the halfway
point. And to our advantage it's not that hard
to establish. So from what we have here -
I'm just gonna bring this down
just a notch and I'll explain why. And then
I'm going to find the halfway point from that line
to the bottom of the heel. Not the foot
in its entirety, only the heel. And then between them
I'll establish the halfway point. I think that's about
And so that being
in place, now I can sort of explain what these
areas are. So we already
have an idea since we've spent some
time on this part right here, which you
remember is the trochanter.
The bone of the hip.
here, we have
the head of the femur.
that much at least we have covered.
And then I'm gonna just continue this
down until we get to our halfway point and you
see that even though this
can possibly fluctuate slightly
we can still keep that as our halfway point.
So that is the entirety of
this bone up here is called.
Now the bone
right here -
the one underneath
we'll talk about that one in a moment but we just want to make sure we have the proper
angle. And of course this angle changes
depending on the person, it also changes
depending on whether it's a male or a female
because of that angle -
angle of the bone in relation to the relation of this
protrusion right here is closer to a
90 degree angle in women and more
obtuse in men.
happens to account for a wider
opening, a wider spread
that will help during
in our case right here, this angle is a little more acute
leads me to assume that this is
the skeleton of a man.
So the bone down here
is known as -
let me just place it, I'll tell you what it's called -
And it isn't as long
as the femur
in fact there isn't any bone as long as the femur, it is the longest
bone. And then
underneath you have the bones of
the foot. The bones of the foot.
which we will
cover briefly but we're really
going to spend - we're really
going to spend time on them in
the program that's coming afterwards.
A more advanced program in which
we can cover hands and feet in detail.
So that's what we have
at the moment. But let's add
the bone that you can see
right there, right on the outside.
out of view? I know, I know, I was
about to mention it but yeah.
You can see it's a smaller - the bone
is a bit smaller and
is on the outside so we're just going to
place it right there and it kind of
comes to the
In fact, it is the ankle.
And so now you can see that
halfway point is
is quite a convenient one because
essentially, from the kind of middle part
of the trochanter,
the part that sticks out,
to the end of the bone of the femur,
and then from the top of the tibia all
the way down to the bottom of the heel
is an equal measurement. So that's
something that you can easily use to control how
long a leg is and how long each part
of a leg is in relation
this part right here,
the part that inserts into the acetabulum
remember of the pelvis
known as the head of
the femur. This part right here is
logically known as the neck.
this area is the greater
this one right here that you see,
that of course you can't see front he outside but
has some important attachments,
is known as the lesser trochanter.
And then we can continue
all the way down here,
ignoring some of those
bumps and all of that on there, though a lot of them also have a name,
and arrive at
this whole area, which is extremely important and
is particularly important in order for a proper
understanding of the knee.
Okay, so here's what we have.
Right underneath and going
all the way around and we'll turn the bone around so that
this becomes more obvious. So the parts
right here on both inside and outside
are known as the condials.
And since this is
the inside of our leg and this is the outside,
this one right here is the
medial condyle and the one
here is the lateral -
the lateral condyle.
And those parts are of course important, especially
when viewing the bone in the side view and especially from the back.
But they're of course
more important where we're able to perceive them on
a model and that is primarily from this angle that I have
here in front of you.
And so - but however there's this part right there, this part that
here and here and
those parts I would say are even more important and are known as
respectively the medial and the lateral
Epicondyles. And epi simply means that
it's around or near
the condyle. And as we can see, it is.
Okay. So let's move on to
these areas here. Now conveniently
this part right here
and this part right here are also called the
medial and lateral condyle. Except
not of the femur but
of the tibia. So
the medial condyle here connects and sort of articulates -
with the medial condyle here and
the same with the lateral ones. Now
right here you have a
protrusion that's of prime importance.
And it is known as the tibial
I forgot to tell you what this bone right here is called.
The small one on the side.
There's a change you already
know what it's called but it is known
as the fibula.
So the bones are the femur on top,
the tibia down here, and the fibula is the
small bone right there.
And so again
we can kind of continue onwards. This part however
right here will play a role but let's stick to the
tibia for now and continue
on down to here until we get to
this part sticking out right here, which is
the inner ankle.
But the proper
name for it is the
medial, remember inside, inner,
now right here, that
top of the fibula is known as the head,
that's also a head,
and then we can just continue on down
to get to the outer ankle, which you can imagine
is known as the lateral
So these are the component parts except for one
important element, which we'll get to in just a moment.
I do want to simply make
a note that you always want to have
the medial malleolus higher than the lateral.
bone of importance
here, which we can see in front of us, is the
patella. And it's sort of -
a bone that is placed
in between these two conjular
and it's kind of triangular
but also round, so just
think of it as a triangle that then you sort of round off
a bit. And the
important thing about it is it does not remain here. It sort of
moves and depending on -
it moves depending on the particular
the tibia with respect to the femur.
So I will quickly
explain this here if you look at it in profile
you have the
condyles right there,
you have the tibia right here.
And we'll get a better angle
when we see these
bones in profile, and then you have the patella
over here. You also see that there's
the patellar ligament that connects
the patella to
the tibial tuberosity. But now
if we imagine
a slightly different pose,
so our tibia will remain but our
femur is going to tilt back.
the patella were to remain, it would be
up here. But it isn't,
over there. And so it kind of -
so it sort of remains
pretty much where it is
without - except for a movement
And so as soon as
the condyles rock
back and open up this area
in front a bit, the patella is pushed back
in there. As soon as the person is
essentially standing up, the patella is pushed outwards and this
as is up here
and so that's what we have.
So those are the major elements. I will quickly go over
what some of these things are called. This bone that
kind of plugs in between
the malleoli is known as the talus.
bones right here
coming off of it and that group of them
are known as the tarsals.
bone of the heel, the one that we really need to
be concerned with for the most part, is known as the calcaneus.
So that's kind of it in terms of all of the
component parts that make up a leg.
So why don't we add a little bit of tone
so that we can get an
idea of what the form of the leg is. And the interesting thing is
that if you keep in mind and
here a lot of it will require kind of
the use of the terminator, but if you take a look at what's
happening here, you'll see that
a lot of it is repeated
in the overall
sort of - the overall change
in plane with all of the muscles on top.
And what I essentially mean by that is
the bone here, if you cut it across
looks something like that. And
you'll see that when the muscles attach
you can still see something of the kind.
And here, you have the opposite. Here you have
a bone that's sort of triangular and opens up in the back.
And you'll see that the same thing is happening once all the
muscles on the top. It's as if the form inside
is expanded upon and in some ways
even amplified by the upward
structures. So here we can see a sort of sharp
and then it gets a little bit softer down here, meaning a softer change in plane
with a little bit of cast
shadow that falls from this protrusion,
this protrusion right here of the -
of the epicondyle right there
and it falls
on the one right here and then
you have the core shadow
on the medial epicondyle right here.
And then I'm just going to
tone it all away. Not really concerning myself with
with any variations
within the shadows and so on.
But I am going to accent
the greater trochanter.
And the head of the femur
I'm gonna go just back over our terminator because that terminator's going to
really give us the form
where we need it.
Now not only do you need to keep in mind the
what the shape of the bone looks if you cut it across
it but then just the overall
kind of tilt of it. Because also
be repeated once we see
the muscles added.
And here you can see this kind of arching
outwards. It's not a lot
but it's there.
So just take note of it.
Now I'm going to
continue with the
shading on the patella. And we have the advantage of being able to see a part of it that's quite
important. And it's this kind of this
that can really help with
making it interesting
because it's so small and yet so
important that we need to sort of grab onto any bits of information that it offers us.
And then there's a cast shadow coming from it
onto the medial condyle of the
And then we can
continue and really make sure we have
a good amount of contrast on the tibial tuberosity
make sure that we capture that
sort of edge that's a sharp edge
that point of that triangle.
All the way down to here until it begins to sort of
open up a little bit.
And there's a change in the form at the point.
And right under the head of the fibula we can also get a little bit
of a shadow as well as the inside of it that we see, its
And we can
sort of just move along
and maybe make some accents where it
comes from our view into contact
with the tibia even though it doesn't come into contract
with the tibia at all except for at the top, at the head, and at the
So I'm just gonna clean this up a tiny bit and we can move on
and take a look at what these bones
look like in profile.
but I do want to place that half tone make sure
we have a clear view of a light
that will hit the tibial tuberosity.
And just to reinforce
some of this, we can get that shadow all the way up to -
we need to make sure the patella reads
very, very clear
because it's a landmark we can easily
distinguish on the human form.
And there we have it, with a particular emphasis on the bones
in this are on the
knee. Because you see that when
the leg, the knee presents
a particular problem of its own
and one in which a solid understanding
of what's going on inside is important
because a lot of times
these can't be observed.
So why don't we
why don't we
take the leg
and give it a little bit of a turn
so we can see it in profile.
And here it's quite
what that general movement is. So
if we take it from here you can see
the head right there
and the advantage of
working a few angles side by side is that
once you've gotten your proportions a single time you don't need to
get them again. You just take them across. But we
can start from the top and you can see that the head of the
femur, the neck we don't
see the lesser trochanter but we do
see the greater trochanter. And you can see how it sticks out even here.
And then it's that
curve, that arching
sweeping movement right here
that I was talking about but that's so clear.
And we can immediately see,
and our light helps us here,
here we have
the lateral condyle
and right here where you see that protrusion and
a shadow underneath is
And so then let's continue
and take the tibial tuberosity across and you can see how
it comes out here
and here we have the lateral condyle of the
tibia. And here is a great
place to really see where you can see the head of the
fibula, all the way practically in the back.
And then we can
take the ankles across
and we don't see the
medial malleolus there
but to our advantage -
and you can see it sweeping in in this sort of kind of an S curve,
a graceful line there.
And let's take the
heel as well.
And the end of the posterior
part, the posterior side
contour of the back, whatever you like to call it, of the
tibia right there. And then the fibula's actually
from this side quite straight and we can take that all
the way and you can see not only, not only,
is the angle
between the medial
malleolus and the lateral malleolus
view, the way that I showed you here, the medal malleolus being higher,
but also take a look at it in space as well.
The lateral malleolus is also
behind the medial one.
So if we want to establish them
within let's say a certain area.
Right we've already established
let's do it from here, so let's
say that this is the medial malleolus
and then we can bring that down a bit
and that is the lateral malleolus. But this isn't
and that is the lateral malleolus. But this isn't
it, it's also - we can push it
and this diagram is becoming quite complicated, but we can push it
so we're imagining where it is,
that would be
And see so I'm using a cylindrical,
a construct to find the placement
of the malleoli along
its - along its exterior.
keep in mind that angle.
All I'm saying.
And then here, a little bit clearer than before, we have the calcaneus.
right there. The talus.
Here we have the tarsals
and then here we have
So why don't we
add our patella.
And we'll connect it slightly.
So just keep in mind that this is kind of a complicated - I'm
returning to that. The placement of the malleoli
is important as kind of a complicated arrangement.
But one that needs to be understood.
once again I'm just gonna go along the terminator, making sure it's
got a softness in some places to show
sort of calmer changes along the form,
softer changes in plane. Here we can see this rather
sharp area of terminator.
And we can take this
all the way down to here
make sure this reads.
And here quite important to really get
a shadow underneath the epicondyle here to make sure
we have that form in its entirety.
And that's the importance of knowing
what they're called because then you know that they
exist. So if you just, as you're working on them
ask yourself, okay so
have I placed the
medial epicondyle, have I placed the lateral
epicondyle, do I have the tibial
tuberosity and so on. And kind of almost
ask yourself these questions in order
to make sure that all those important elements
aren't overlooked. That they're
clearly in place. Everything
else is not as important.
And always make sure to have your trochanter,
we'll be seeing a lot of it when we look at the leg.
And here I ask myself the question, do I have the head
of the fibula in place?
And then you go for it.
Now that we've taken a look,
just going to
show one thing that's happening
and just go back to that overall S curve that you can see
and you can see it's coming all the way
from here and then it continues down to here and then begins to pull
out over there. You can kind of
even take it and curve it
down that way as well. But you see that that
S curve will be heavily amplified once we attach
muscles to all these areas.
With that being said, let's
take a look at the leg.
structures, let's try to figure out what's going on
in the outside. And in order to achieve this, we're going to have
to be working from our écorché from multiple
angles kind of all at the same time.
So here we have a view that's
pretty much what we had right here on the page.
So why do we even take our proportions
but for that we can just move around a bit to establish
where the trochanter actually
And of course here we have the added element
of our pelvis but that
is quite helpful.
So if that's our trochanter
then we know right away
that this is going to be the end of the
femur and the beginning of the tibia.
And we can begin to just sort of
see where these things are. Now one of the more important
begin to think of the leg, not so much as
upper leg having a certain angle, as we saw
a certain curvature, and the lower leg having its own
angle and curvature, but to add a third part in between.
And we've already covered it and a third part is
all of the parts that comprise
the elements of the knee.
So pretty much down to the bottom of the tibial
tuberosity and to -
and starting at the
upper parts of the
So that's an element that also has its own angle. And I think
it's rather clear what's happening
here and that it also has
its own direction. But
we'll get to that. So here
and then the only thing that's
a concern of mine here is that we need to
account for the fact that the -
that there's a bit of
a change of angle between the tibia and the foot.
And on the
leg here, there is a tilt
downwards, which we just have to keep in mind
when placing our heel. So our heel
is going to be just a tiny bit higher
than we had it on the skeleton.
So we know, we know that this
right here is the end of the femur with all of its -
with all of its condyles and all that stuff we
spoke about. And here we have the tibia
which we can actually
see a large part of
because it's uncovered and
you can see it right here. It's this
whole area. The entire
sort of medial edge coming off of that
That is our
And there's a little bit of a turn here
and so just
approaching this the way one would anything,
just kind of
observing what's happening in the contours, thinking about them and so on.
And then here is our heel.
And the general placement
of the foot,
this is where we'll have our
And we can
just begin to place some structures,
we just need a few. For example,
right here actually a bit higher, we have
our ASIS, anterior superior
iliac spine. Right
here we have that part of the
the pubic bone that sticks out on the pelvis.
So we have an ability to sort of construct a pelvis into there.
here is also a part of the external obliques, we don't need any of that
inside stuff there because that's just what's left from the casting.
It's the inside.
we can already, since we are aware of where
condyles and epicondyles are of the femur as well as of the tibia
we can establish where that, where those
of that entire element of the knee
are. And we can see its particular
angle. So we see
the general angle and we know the general angle
that's our trochanter - we know the general angle
of the upper
leg. And we
know the general angle here.
So in essence you're thinking like that.
So now that we have this in place
I think we
can give the leg a turn
see how some of these just broadly
sketched in contours
affect the new
contours that we're going to see from the other side
So what I'm going to do is make a mark right here so that I can
turn it back to
the position that I currently have it on.
And then going to give it a little bit of a turn
so that we see and I'm going to prop up
the leg up a little bit so that we see it in
Wonderful. And see it a lot more
opens up. So we already have
all of -
see here is where we have
the greater trochanter. So
moving this helped because we were able
to take a look and see where it really is.
But if this is what we've established then
we have to raise this up a little bit more.
So see so I'm not even
working on the foot that I have in front of me,
I'm just correcting this other one
from the other view
according to what I see in front of me. The importance
of taking a walk around an object or turning the object
and really figuring out what it
looks like in space.
But now that we have all of this, why don't we continue.
And we have the top here and we have the trochanter,
we have the trochanter
have it right there.
And so now that
it's in place we basically
just have to go along with what we're already aware of.
Heel is here
and there it is. And so to place this -
and keeping the proportions is not the hardest part.
have the patella somewhere right here and I can see it because I can see where
it is in relation to the other -
I can see its relation to the other
bones. Here we have that big
mass of the gluteus maximus
but anchor using the bones. Always anchor using the bones.
We have our patella,
you can see it right there, and remember this is of course
a cadaver and there is sort of a weakening and a flattening of the
muscles. But still, let's aim to get that S curve that I was talking
about, that major important S curve.
And then right here
our heel is
right there and
our toe is right there.
Without getting too specific but
but right here we have, we know
already, our lateral malleolus.
And I'm just gonna slightly
exaggerate some of these curves
to kind of
imitate a leg that's a little more alive.
So we know where the bones are here, we know where they're there.
We're not worried too much about the muscular
structures that we see in front of us just yet. Make sure the trochanter and even
align the trochanter
with what we're seeing.
That won't exactly correspond to the skeleton that we had
but it'll be close.
And that'll go off the page.
So see I'm even
focusing on that S curve, I don't even have the outline as
sort of as actively
in there of the
back of the upper leg and the front of the lower leg except for
down here, which is just a continuation of the S curve. So here I'm beginning to think and just
sort of large movements.
So I'm gonna get this leg another turn so that we can take a look
posterior view, but not before
setting down a mark for where this
And I'm gonna just keep turning it -
ah that's wonderful.
Okay so here we have the posterior aspect of it
and what's particularly
exciting here is that you can really see
of the knee that I've been
talking about. You can - now here you don't even see the trochanter because it's covered
but because we know where it is and we know where the gluteus is in
relation to it, we can
make sure that we have it in the right place.
Now here we have
to our convenience we have the pubic arch ending
in front in
the pubic symphysis
interesting. So I might need to make some
So I'm going to actually
raise the pubic symphasis here. So
because the pubic symphasis is above the
it is here and right here.
So here we can continue
down with the leg, it's now going to
move in the opposite direction because it's reversed.
And we can move down to the knee
and this right here, the upper
part, the upper portion of the
tibia is what's going to really help us here.
Because here you actually see its end. You see the
end of the medial, like almost the entirety of the medial
condyle. And it's giving us that
angle of the knee, which on the other side isn't so
acute but is still pretty clearly
And then we had
the ability to see this line, without even knowing what it is just yet,
but I can give you
a bit of a hint.
The muscle here is -
it has a point of
origin which comes from
the condyles of the femur.
And that is quite
helpful for us here because we can really see
where it is in the back
and make sure to mark that point.
And then we can continue down from here and here's
just another small thing to think about,
that if you remember,
of course, that our
medial malleolus is
higher than our lateral one
and you begin to see the
attachments here, we'll talk about this
particular muscular area and you can see that the movement here is
the sort of opposite of the
malleoli. So that's just an interesting kind of marching
upwards or rather interesting
rhythmic kind of
you can begin to explore them in
other places as well.
And I know it's rather early but these
will definitely come into play when we
think about composing a leg.
Or the human body
in general is kind of rhythmic
and gestural ideas that I usually
don't like to talk about too early because I think that before
we really implement them, we have to have an understanding of the anatomy and
why all of these
elements are caused. All of these interesting
movements. Because only a part of them
comes from the movement of the body. A lot of it
comes from the actual structure of the
Okay, so I think for
purposes, I like how
we can begin to
see parts that simply
appear as a flat
element belonging to the contour we can
see it even at this early point
take on a new meaning with each
turn of the leg. So I'm gonna
turn it back, I keep
forgetting to do this. I'm gonna turn it back,
so that we can always have it. I'm gonna turn it back
to where it was initially.
Excellent. And we can continue
and get a little more
Okay so we know.
There we go,
now the trochanter and the pubis
are practically on one line with
the pubis just being slightly higher. So I'm glad that we were able to
pick that out during our
rotations. Okay so
let's starting thinking about
some of these muscular elements. So here we have the ASIS.
And what we need
is to begin
to see these muscles
that originate from the ASIS.
I'm gonna start with one of these very important ones
You can see
it comes out
and begins to twist a little bit here and then
begins to twist quite a lot, almost moves into profile view,
and kind of sneaks behind
this area right here and around
the bones of the knee.
pretty much at the tibial tuberosity.
And now its
name is the
Okay, let's continue.
you have a
muscle that's pretty clear
coming all the way down to here.
We're gonna clean that up a little bit.
The tensor fasciae latae.
From now on
I will call it the tensor.
right here is
an interesting element that we did not talk about prior
but it is a
ligament that connects the ASIS
area sort of around the pubic symphasis.
And it's called the inguinal ligament.
Now we don't need to worry about it
too much at the moment.
And then here is another a group
which we're not going to write down the names of
because they're not really the parts that we need
to focus on right now.
So now that we've established
some of what's happening up here, let's talk about the different
groups. And so the groups are
So I'll write that. The quadriceps.
adductor. And we've spoken about
abduction, meaning to take away,
adductors because they add,
they bring things in.
So these are the two groups that are obviously in front of us
at the moment. We'll be able
to talk about the groups back here
of the hamstrings when we arrive at them.
So let's begin with the quadriceps.
The word quad should let you know that
its group consisting of four
muscles. Now one of them is actually inside.
So we're not going to concern ourselves with that one.
Instead you only need
three. And we can start with the one right here.
And the very important aspect
here to really think about is its origin.
And the rectus
is number one.
Femoris, is this
muscle right here in front.
And the other two that belong to this group of
the quadriceps are the
medialis. We already know
inner and the
lateralis, which means outer. So
we can at least
anticipate that the vastus medialis
is here because it's the
And we can see its mass right here.
And the vastus lateralis
is on the outside. And we can see its mass
And all of them connect into a tendon in this
particular order. The one that's
up high here is the rectus femoris
then slightly below it is the vastus
lateralis and then the one practically at the
patella is the vastus medialis. And it's
all connected to a common tendon that
attaches to the patella itself.
And you can see here that the vastus
medialis is actually covering
a little bit of the medial
epicondyle. And yet the
larger mass of the condyle itself is still
rather clear. Okay so the
adductor group we can cover quickly
and think as a group. A lot of
the muscles in this area
are sort of piled one on top of the other so the ones
that we can see here
are the adductor longus.
gracilis right here on the side. Which
we can only get a tiny amount of but
interestingly enough the gracilis
is going to connect to essentially the area
around the tibial tuberosity right under the
So we're just gonna clean that up a little bit so that I can get a cleaner
line to show you where these things are.
And inside here, a muscle that
you won't ever be able to perceive from the outside is
the pectineus and we don't need to worry about it.
So that about covers the
muscles of the upper leg
this particular rotation,
angle if you will, of the
And there are some stuff going on here but I'd rather
talk about it when we can see it a little more clearly.
So I'm going to
rotate the leg again so that we can cover the muscles of the upper leg
from the lateral viewpoint.
There we go.
And something to hold.
Perfect. And let's
And lets see some of these forms that we were talking about
on this in profile.
So what do we begin with? Let's begin with
the outermost part. And we can
see that that line - that sort of line
of the profile of the leg in front is going to be our
rectus femoris. We can already establish that.
Now what we need
our trochanter. And
our ASIS. So we have our ASIS.
And you can continue
to see where our
trochanter is going to be.
But what we can see here is
We know its right there so let's make sure
we have it right here. There it is.
And even a tiny
at closer examination
And so you remember when I said the importance
of the rectus femoris in a particular
element to think about is it origin. And now that we have
it both in our front view and in
a profile, you can see
that it sort of begins in this
sort of triangular opening that's caused
by - that has the sartorius on
one side of it, on the medial side, and the tensor on the
lateral. And this
sartorius and the tensor originate from the
anterior superior iliac spine.
And that would be our crest
while the rectus femoris
originates at the anterior inferior
iliac spine. And the thing to think about here
and something of extreme importance
between this part that
has the rectus
femoris just coming out of
this opening and the ASIS
is a plane of its own.
And we're going to talk about that more when
we'll be working from a model.
So a common error is to
sort of think of the major structures of the leg as originating from
In terms of anatomy of course to some degree that is the case.
But what you really want to do is actually begin
structures here from the quadriceps
to give yourself room
here that belongs to that part
that is entirely taken up by the
forms and attachments of the pelvis. So if you see
and it's in here of course,
you have a bunch of room which includes the
symphysis, the ASIS, the iliac crest, and the
trochanter. All parts that we talked about when discussing the pelvis.
that was important. Let's move on.
So right here
a muscle that we encountered and
it's - this is known as the gluteus medius.
On top of which and
considerably larger is
the one we all are aware of, the gluteus maximus.
And so we can see its mass
It's covering a little bit of the trochanter there and covers a substantial portion
of the gluteus medius as well.
Let's move on. We will come back
to its attachment and it attaches onto the femur but we're really going to
be able to pick out where exactly, once we're aware of
the muscles in the group in the back there.
So here we have one that we're already aware of.
And that is the vastus lateralis.
And it's a mass
right here and we know where it ends
and connects to our common tendon.
the thing that you might be asking of course is what's
this thing on top that you can clearly
this answered the question of what's happening
with our tensor fasciae latae.
And so fasciae is sort of a tendinous coating
of every single muscle and
it just so happens that in this area, pretty much on top of the vastus lateral
lateralis, you have a larger amount of
those particular tendons of that coating,
which create something known as the -
create something known as the iliotibial
And you can see how
connects right into it. And there you have the
iliotibial tract moving across
lateralis. And connecting, attaching,
to the lateral condyle of the
tibia. Hence, it's starting from the
ilium and connects to
tibia right down here.
Okay so here
is that common tendon, we can see it
sort of coming outwards with the patella.
a good thing to include there. And right here
the group, the other group that we need to talk about,
known as the group of the hamstrings.
I'm sure you've heard of all of -
you've heard of the hamstrings and the
quadriceps because they're fairly common
we figure them out, I'm going to just
make sure we have the head of the fibula in the right place.
And so the importance
of knowing where your pelvis is comes into play again
because if you
is a very important area because it is
the origin of the muscles of the hamstrings.
So let's start with the one
that we can see. And it
is known as the biceps femoris.
And is right here.
it has a connection attachment into the head
the head of the fibula.
side of the hamstrings you have the biceps femoris
has two parts, hence the
bi in the name. It has a long head and short head.
Both of which are going to connect,
to the head
of the fibula.
And now the other group,
well not so much group but the other part of the
hamstrings on the medial
side, have sort of
long and complicated names which I'll give you in
But they are going to come around here
to connect the tibia.
And there's an inner one
and an outer one
and here we have the muscles underneath,
we'll get to them separately. And the inner one and the outer one,
the inner one is called semi-
And the outer one, the one that you can see here, the inner one
you can see a little bit of right here. There's an indent in it.
is filled in by a muscle on top known as the
is the hamstring group.
Okay. So now let's take a look at our hamstrings
of the back.
Now I'm gonna turn it once again
get it in place.
And we can
begin again on top. So
what we have right here and from the back it's so clear
what's happening here and we can see the
insertion into the
gluteus - I'm sorry of the gluteus maximus -
towards its attachment in between
the vastus lateralus right here
and the biceps
femoris. And right here
we have the major advantage of seeing our
And so we're able
to see the origin
of our hamstring group. So right here
is that sort of entry point. And you can see -
here is where a lot of these things come into
play and you can begin to see where overlap
on the outside of
along the contour
are caused by all these underlying
structures and how helpful they really are. So this is
the long head of the biceps femoris.
We can see it going down there to attach
to the head
of the fibula. The head of the fibula.
And we have this opening
right here that you've probably noticed already.
And this is this area where the -
where the hamstrings
a bit but
let's start from the top here and we have the
lying on top here and then the -
I'll follow it along
based on what I can see and you can see how it
sweeps under towards its attachment at the
right underneath the
gracilis. So here we have - so a lot of attaching right at the
tibial tuberosity. You have the sartorius followed by the gracilis followed by
And so it's essentially a muscle from every part,
all around this one kind of in front,
the sartorius actually the separation
of the quadriceps from the adductor group and so
you can say it's in front. The gracilis is part of the
adductor group and the hamstrings all
attach to pretty much a single
point. Now what's interesting
is that we can get - and you saw it right there -
we can get and see the semimembranosus
And you can see this one part that sticks out right there
and actually attaches a little bit higher
so it's not attaching - it attaches to
the tibia but at the
medial condyle. And there you see
the other like all
that in its entirety so it makes it clear that the
tendinosus is on top. And then this wrap around
is quite nice and important. Right there.
Okay so right here we have an element we cannot
ignore but we know where it is.
We've already spent some time there. And that's the
medial epicondyle of both
the tibia and the femur.
we can see the gracilis that we saw
toward its attachment.
And then right here
we have one of the adductor groups
one of the muscles from the adductor group, the
And then right in front of gracilis, right in
front, even from this posterior aspect,
we have the sartorius.
So right in here, where we saw it sweep in
it comes out
I wanna slim this down a bit
here we have a certain amount of
clarity, we can see the vastus lateralis.
So now that we have
all this in place and we've seen it from multiple
angles, why don't
we begin adding
a little bit of tone.
to our initial position,
we get into the muscles of the lower leg,
let's start to transform some of all of this stuff
into three dimensional form.
let's begin with our major changes in plane, with the adductor
longus and the gracilis
and follow it along
the sartorius right here where its beginning to do that twist.
And then we can continue that
along the vastus medialis, up to
essentially the front plane of the
Then we wrap around the rectus femoris
and see the front plane of the vastus
lateralis right there.
And now here
things aren't as complicated
and we can see the general direction,
slight curvature of the vastus medialis and that front plane
of that common quadriceps tendon
coming out that way. And then we can
begin now that we've seen it
to place that part of the iliotibial
tract that's connecting to
lateral condyle of the tibia.
we approach this the way we do everything.
We start with our shadows.
So I'm gonna start with this shadow on our
tensor, core shadow, terminator,
all the good stuff. And that little bit of a
cast shadow, occlusion shadow if you will, inside there.
Gonna continue with
pretty much what is the side plane of the rectus femoris.
Making sure that that terminator reads.
follow it to the end of the form
and the beginning of a cast shadow that's falling onto
the vastus medialis.
And a little bit of a
cast shadow falling onto the sartorius itself.
And then here we can see
that side plane of the sartorius hasn't yet
completely turned yet.
But because of that side plane
we can -
which is slowly becoming the front plane as it turns.
We can see what
used to be the front plane up here fall into
as it begins
to turn. Now -
Now right here we have
which we need at least
enough to have this is the iliacus and this
is the iliopsoas and they're part of, sort of - they're usually considered as a
group of its own, the iliopsoas -
there's enough to think about here without adding
that one. It's mostly internal.
But we have this mass and it's casting
this whole area is casting a shadow
onto the pectineus and the adductor longus
right here, which we're going to use to give us the form
of the adductor longus right there. So
just gonna get that into that cast shadow.
And keep in mind the sartorius is falling into
shadow as well, into its core shadow, so we are going to
need to introduce that soon.
But in the mean time
let's take it as far as this. And then we can establish
that other major change in plane as we see that the change
in plane along the adductor longus.
It's eating up the
gracilis a bit so we are gonna show it. We do want to show everything
we can here. These things are important.
And we can see the adductor longus
kind of coming in there and you can see a little bit more of the gracilis.
Right there. Okay.
So we do
also have a core shadow on -
on the vastus medialus.
And we're going to make sure that reads
And we can see the patella right
And we're not gonna continue it further down
just yet. Now we do have
some of these half tones to think about
since our light, as always, is coming from right here,
our main areas of light are going to be right here
on the rectus
femoris and on its sort of side plane
on the tensor. We can actually see a little bit of the
gluteus maximus there.
We're not gonna worry about it just yet. But most importantly
is to remember this arching here.
And I told you that the muscles on top are
going to -
going to have that as well.
So our light is up here -
and as we move closer to the knee
our form begins to turn inwards.
So let's begin by placing the
vastus medialus into a half tone
but also making sure that
the quadriceps group in general down here
is in a half tone as well.
And we need a light on that side
plane of the
rectus femoris. And we're actually -
that front plane and almost like
a curving in of the vastus lateralis is
giving us a little bit of a half tone there too, which is nice because it brings out
the rectus femoris.
So these are the elements that are very close to us
and so we're gonna need to get
more information in there.
adjust a leg just a bit I think
in turning it I
moved it a little bit.
Turned it a little too much. So
now I'm just making sure to get our
core shadows, our cast shadows
in place according to what we decided
That's our sartorius
and we can really see
our vastus medialus there.
So see there's a sort of
structural quality here already. And I
like that but of course you've noticed I like to sort of
soften it as I go, make it
a little more organic, but you can see the organic
of structure that we have here
And it comes
from really knowing what's going on inside.
And here I'm actually going to add
a little bit of mass to the rectus femoris
just so I can get that front plane.
And then I wanna pull this
a little bit more. I want that
crisp edge of the cast
shadow there as well.
I'm gonna go up here to the origin
of the sartorius and get things a little crisper in there
and I want to be able to see
opening, that sort of
triangular opening we were talking about
so I'm gonna make sure that that
shadow on the tensor is very clear there.
It gives you that sharp edge
and then we're there. Now
I'm starting to think about what is closer,
what's more important so I'm just going to begin to
pull out some of these terminators, make them
solid and clean and
clearly as dark as they need to be.
And also removing some of our internal
paying particular attention here to some of our occlusion shadows,
mainly to differentiate between all of our -
these forms we see here that are within
our shadow areas.
Now I've lost
and we're gonna have to bring it back but I won't right this
instant, I'm gonna move things around a little bit. And then here
I really want to see that overlap. And these overlaps
which we already
had as lines are really going to make
a lot of the -
a lot of - that
allow us to achieve that three dimensional
aspect that we're looking for.
A proper overlap can do as much
as all the half tones in the world.
Just need to take a look at
or Michelangelo. Or god any old
We need that
as the vastus medialus begins to turn.
And I think we're
getting there. We're getting a feeling
that this is beginning to
And I want a light on that -
on that common tendon of the quadriceps.
I wanna begin to clean up some of these
outlines as well. But here an overlap is also nice, it's also
helpful. You can get the overlap,
it's not even so much of an overlap
but it's the, you can see
a little bit of the iliotibial
tract there. Like just almost an edge but that edge has form.
So we're gonna want to do that, it'll be
we'll do it carefully with
a sharp pencil and an eraser.
And see I'm just going
along all that lines that we had. And you can begin
to see these things as a group. We can see
that this comes outwards
at that point sort of squeezes in and comes out
again there. And that of course is a
rather simplified understanding of the form. We started
actually with a slightly more complex one but remember you always wanna
come back tot hose simpler understandings.
You want to
make sure you have control
over all these details.
Alright, we won't do
much with the knee just yet.
We're still talking about the upper leg
and I'm just -
this part is catching a lot of light and this is an area
you don't see that much of, mainly because
that whole area, all these -
all these - that whole area
is a cavity that is usually filled in
and so you don't see
that relief of the
adductor longus or any of that.
But - so it's
going to be important for us to make sure
the forms up here are clearly on top of everything over there but
they're in front and then there's a sweep sort of into that cavity
and then out again. So you will be able to perceive
the general structure
of this area, of what we're talking about, this kind of
the front plane here, the side plane there.
But you won't be able to see the clear relief of the
muscles that we're talking about. Usually. Very rarely you can.
But for the most part
you cannot. Okay so
we have been spending some time here. Maybe we
should get just make sure our shadows are reading
here on the patella.
And a cast shadow from the patella onto the patellar
ligament and the rest of the tibia.
there's more to do there but I think
it'd be good to move on and
sort of arrive at this kind of
handling this amount of information
on two aspects we have here, the
lateral and posterior aspects of the leg.
here, let's try to get the other
aspects. The lateral and posterior. So
Give that a
sure it's in the right place.
And let's begin.
here a lot of this important stuff
that we outlined is kind of in shadow
so let's really make
sure to get our terminator. We have that clarity on the terminator
right here on the tensor and then
it just sort of calmly moves -
that's not it - calmly moves
the vastus lateralis.
A nice sort of sweeping
And we're gonna make sure that everything we have over there
is in a general area
shadow without too much
happening there. We need
that terminator first and foremost. Then we can follow down the
and I'm already looking at this and I kind of like how it
feels so I'm gonna get a little bit of light coming into
the leg here too. Reflected light
rather, which is also light.
Just to give it some
here we have this line that we have
right there, the end of the vastus lateralis
and the common tendon right here.
that sort of inside
of the patella you get a little bit of light. For the most part
what we see
here is shadow and here we have
our lateral condyle of the femur
also in shadow but
important to separate from the iliotibial tract.
We'll get into that more
specifically as we go but I just wanted in place right now.
Remember to clean up your drawings.
Okay let's move on. There's not a lot in terms
of shadows here.
There's a greater roundness in the lower leg so that's where we're
really going to have them
but here, we hardly see any
core shadows on the gluteus maximus but
we do see the shadow it's casting onto the gluteus medius and the trochanter.
We also see
the core shadow of the
gluteus medius as well as
the cast shadow from
it onto the tensor. And let's
take that up.
Now we have
very few shadows left really
And we do have this gap, we have
shadow of the short head
of the biceps femoris and
the core and cast
shadows right up to the vastus
so like occlusion shadows really, right up to the
vastus lateralis and
all the way here onto the head of the
condyles of the femur
and here we have the core shadow on the
condyles of the femur
and on this attachment
of the biceps femoris into the head
of the fibula.
From it we also have some shadows.
Alright. What we also have is a little bit of
information inside here, just some small shadows from
the semitendinosus onto the semimembranosus
and that's kind of
foreshadows all we got. Now here
a very important element and there's a shadow from it.
You can see that that's the insertion of the iliotibial tract
and even though we haven't covered what's happening down here, I want
to make sure that we have a clear -
a clear, at least line there,
a clear edge in this area in order to
establish the lateral condyle of the
let's get into some half tones. So up here
we have the mass of the
vastus lateralis. And we can
begin to see through the
half tones really
what's happening with the
with our planes. And the same thing happens
here you can see right about at this point
where there's a curvature inwards. So
most of this stuff we see here - and here you actually get
a little bit of an overlap from the iliotibial tract onto the vastus
medialus. And we
can begin to place these half tones.
in some sense some sort of overall half tone.
making sure it's a gradient.
Darker at the bottom, lighter at the top. Making sure that this area here is reading
Now before we move onto the hamstring group.
would be our
major change in plane in this particular gluteus. Now this particular gluteus
well possibly the gluteus is fine
it's - there's more of an issue with the fact that there isn't
fat on it and
there's an immense amount of fat in these areas so wouldn't ever be able
to see the form of the muscle itself.
You still sometimes want to hint at it. Want to hint at the
form inside, want to hint at that insertion right here in
between the vastus lateralis and the
biceps femoris but those areas of
the fat on the gluteus is actually quite -
have a sort of structure of their own. Here
we're getting a bit more of that but it's not
it's something to think
about. Here the structures of the gluteus
are almost imitating the structures of the pelvis
while the -
if there were
the fat on it that we need
then that form would be slightly different. So
let's leave it as is for now. We are going to
go back into this now. And here we have a nice
change in plane we can see like the bulge of the tensor there.
So we can make sure it stands out by making
this front plane
and top plane from our view. But side plane really
I'm just gonna go back in there for a moment. And now right here you can
really see the major change in plane in the hamstring group. And you can see it along
the profile here, along the contour of the leg there. And that's going
to give you plenty.
So we can already - that this area right here along with the
plane we have there is really catching light.
So that's what I want to start with for the most part.
And then tone the rest of it away.
in this cavity
you can make sure to tone that all the way a little bit
and show that this insertion
of our biceps femoris
is the closer insertion.
Now an overlap might achieve that
and that's why we need them, but at the same
at the same time we
a tonal contrast in there
to amplify it. Amplify its closeness
And now we can begin to see where
these changes in plane are on
the biceps femoris.
So I think what we do need to do finally is to
to make - and this follows the form of the pelvis
is to really make sure that the gluteus medius
is primarily side plane up to
just actually the entirety of the gluteus medius which we can see -
which we can't of course see because its covered - but we can see
that slight protrusion
right there of the gluteus maximus
as it coves the gluteus medius, so let's make sure
that this reads like side plane
with our main
strong elements of light right there.
now let's take another look at the
I think we're good
Alright so here, from this angle, we can see the entirety
of the gluteus in shadow, with the
spine from the back sort of evident
and just kind of follow along these
forms of the gluteus because I can see
that right here we have that turn in so
we're getting a view of the
thickness of the muscle as
So just gonna begin to place that into shadow
while making sure to make that
change in plane rather clear.
not worried too much what's going on up there so I just -
it's a good place to start. Because then we can begin to think about all these insertions. So
is that change in plane. We established it right here.
And we can see it. And that's going to really affect how the light
describes the form.
So I'm gonna start with that core shadow,
continue with the cast shadow from the semitendinosus from the
And then make sure to
have the cast shadow from both of them onto the gluteus
really making this element quite clear.
Now already I can see that I'm gonna need to slightly
move back into my core shadow on the
gluteus up here
and now we have it a little bit there too. So -
and now that change in plane. So from here
this whole area
the main change in plane along the semitendinosus here
where you can see that side plane and the thickness
And right across,
along with a cast
shadow, core shadow, and then another cast shadow up there from the
gluteus, all of that's in shadow. So just gonna
make sure to have my outlines clear.
Because they're going to vanish
if they're not clear enough. And from this
Now keep in mind
I'm not telling you that it's always going to be shadow
from some particular point because there
isn't a point of the kind. There are changes in plane though.
There are - and this is how these particular
changes in plane appear in the conditions of
the light that I have here in front of me.
But now within these forms, we still want
something. Some information.
But that's why we have our outlines. So
by means of some occlusion shadows and some
variations in the reflected light, we make sure
that all this reads properly.
Because we don't have too much going on in here so
on the adductor magnus
we have a little
bit of a core shadow
and a cast shadow onto the semimembranosus.
A little bit of clean up is also required here
because we're gonna need
to really place our shadows right here on the knee.
So we can follow along the sort of tendonous
the hamstring - of the
medial hamstring group.
And then from here we can already see
What we also see actually now that I look
is right in front of the sartorius, which we did
place I actually see a little bit of
Now I pick these particular aspects except
for the profile here, which is sort of
a clear profile. The other two that I have are
not exactly a hundred percent
anterior and posterior. There's a little bit of a
turn there that I think can help explain the form
a bit more than if it were sort of
simply straight on, you know.
Now in terms of the form here, we know that this area
is where our light is. And I'm purposefully not
sort of completing everything, I'm just sort of
sort of taking it up to a certain point in each one
but you can see that this
mass of the adductor group,
this upper part right here
is catching all the light. And then everything down
here begins to turn so
that overall roundness, that overall
basic conception of the form
is always important.
It's always something to come back to.
And let's make sure these half tones clearly
begin to show this kind of
inward movement. Because if you really think of it, a leg
from all sides simply is a
Now of course that's maybe super simple, maybe too simple
to really be helpful but
who knows? It might help.
And I also don't want to take
the upper leg to too
much of a finish.
before we get into what's happening in the lower leg. Now
this approach I've taken here where
I've done the
upper leg without having done anything underneath
is of course something that I would not ever recommend
you do when working from a model.
This is strictly for purposes of education
in order to get some
concepts across. When working from a model we have to come back
to our approach where we're sort of
working on everything at once.
But it's hard to do
when you don't know what's going on. So
the reason I chose this approach here
to do it piece by piece
is because I think that after
talking about all these specific anatomical
terms, explaining them in terms of outline,
I thought that it would be more helpful to then
put them into practice
right away as opposed
to talking about everything going on
down here and then taking all of that, all of that,
all of that information that we covered
and applying it to everything all at the same time.
So here, there's still a lot. But I think that by just
breaking it up at least
a tiny bit and seeing
it in application
and I think
makes it a little easier. I hope
makes it a little easier.
Here it'd be nice to find that chain, that
highest point of light on the adductor
magnus there. And then to curve
all of that
Turn it away from
And see how from a
taller perspective, we're able to
group this whole area,
to group this whole area of essentially the combined
on the medial side and some parts
of the adductor group into
an area that sort of arrives, that we spoke
about it earlier because of all those attachments it just sort of arrives
at the medial condyles
of the femur and tibia.
Okay. So I
do think with a little bit of clean up.
I don't necessarily think
I need to take these any
further at the moment. I think now is a good time to get it
into what's going on down here,
on all of it, and then spend some time completing each
leg on its own. So that's the plan and let's
let's get cracking.
Let's get this leg
get it in place.
Let's get it in place.
Get that angle
that we need
and let's talk a little bit
about the lower leg.
to analyze what's going on in the lower
let's make sure to have our
entirety of the tibia right here,
tibial tuberosity quite present. You can see right here
the patellar ligament but we're not gonna
worry about it just yet. So - and right here
we've already slightly discussed it but
you can see practically
the entirety of a side of the
tibia itself uncovered.
So this clearly is a landmark.
Right because our landmarks are where the bones are
closest to the surface,
closest to the skin.
we might take that longer according to our skeletal proportions
here. We have
our medial malleolus.
So this is of prime importance.
So what we have
right here is a little bit of an opening. And I won't
talk too much about it but it is
the part of the group of tarsals we covered
very briefly right there. And it's one in particular known as the
that is also kind of out in the
open. So I can't help but
talk about it a little bit.
so this is the uncovered tibia as
we can see it. Now the muscle that you need
to worry about right here, we're gonna see it in other views
is known - and you can see its mass right here - is known
So it's tibialus because it's on the
tibia and it's anterior because it's in front.
But even more important than the tibialus anterior itself
is its tendon. And you can see its tendon
coming in right here
and really standing out right there
and it's sort of on the other
you can really see it fall
onto the navicular.
And it sort of loops around and attaches to the -
to one of
the tarsal bones kind of underneath slightly.
So the other
tendon to think about - and it's
a muscle we are going to pick up on
from the other side, you can see it right here
and it also falls apart into
a bunch of tendons
to all of the toes
except the big toe.
But its -
you don't need to worry so much about
when that finally happens, you need to concern yourself
more with where that tendon is
still - the part before
it has fallen apart into smaller tendons
attaching to all the toes except the big toe.
And for in between...
So yeah, so here, that's the tendonous part
that tendon of that muscle right there.
known as the
extension is when the foot
moves upwards. And the
hand also. So the back
of the hand is brought towards the
arm, that is called extension. And the same thing is happening with the
foot. So it's not happening here,
here the opposite is happening but
the muscle here is what makes that happen
so it is called an extensor.
Though it's not moving up the
foot in its entirety, it's moving up toes. Digitorum
is the digits or the toes of the foot.
And it's long so
that's added to its name.
that's what we have right there. What we see
here on the medial
side of the
a muscle that completes a
large area inside here
and is called the
And on top of it you can see
the medial head
and I'm just gonna
make sure it's in there.
a tendonous portion that's on top there
of a muscle that goes by the name of
they connect to a common tendon that I'm sure
you're well aware of that's
our calcaneous. And this common tendon here, which
we'll be able to see more clearly over there is known as
the Achilles. Achilles
And then there
are a few more small things to talk about.
So here -
and they're harder to see -
is a tiny
group of muscles
are called the tibialus posterior,
connected to the tibia but in the back and the
digitorum longus. Which you also
you can't really pick up what it looks like
because it's inside but it is doing the opposite of
extending, it's pulling it
that way. And so that's quite interesting because
that's exactly what's happening here. It's in action
so this group of muscles that I'm talking about
that you don't need to really worry about too much right
is the cause of this tendon
that is quite exciting and important because it
wraps around the medial
And the final thing I'm going to
talk about, from this
angle is the
tendon of a muscle that's rather small
that's coming out in between the tibialus interior
and extensor digitorum longus. And it is known
as the extensor hallucis longus.
hallucis simply means big toe.
You remember that the extensor digitorum longus connects
to all of the toes except the big
toe. And so if you were wondering what's happening to the
big toe, this is your answer. It has its own
muscle and tendon.
Oh my god, alright.
So I'm just gonna clean this up a little bit so this is a little clearer.
Okay so that about explains
what you need to know
in that area.
And, you know, it's always helpful to
take a proportion.
And it does seem like
I want to elongate the leg just
a bit. So I'm going to bring down the
I'm going to bring down
and I'm going to
bring down the calcaneus. Not a lot but just enough.
I'm going to bring up
just slightly the
Now let's do one of our rotations
and take a look at what's happening on the
lateral aspect of the leg.
the way we started before was to
analyze and see we just
talked about that
appears here in front of us.
So we did discuss
the tibialus anterior.
The tibialus anterior
we can see it right here, its mass, and we see it sort of
going into its tendon and we can see the tendon all the way at the
That's good. Now
right here, kind of slightly inside,
we can see the extensor digitorum longus.
It's not that small
but there it comes around and gives us its own tendon.
So I need to clean this up a little bit.
Now underneath it, there's
that just kind of combines
with the extensor digitorum.
It doesn't have the same function
but as a mass we can consider it
sort of a singular area for now.
So we have
what we've already talked about seen from a different angle. So here we have the
tibialus anterior, we have it right here as well.
You can see I have a little bit of a side
plane there. Here we have the extensor
digitorum longus and it's continuing with its tendon
all of that. And then right here
we have that tiny bit
of the opening and we see
the extensor hallucis going
to the big toe, which probably is somewhere there.
So we don't need to be too specific there, those things are small, we just need
those tendons. And for the most part we're going to show those tendons
make sure we have our lateral malleolus. We can see
it right here. Lateral malleolus.
And as you see here, there are also tendons
that are wrapping around it. And this
is a sort of fairly important part of gesturally capturing
the ankle and its connection into
the foot proper.
we need that malleolus in there,
remember it has to be underneath the other one.
And now come a
group right in between here
that we need
to cover before we get to the muscles we've already spoken about, the
gastrocnemius and the soleus.
The one underneath is known as
the short one. And
sort of - its tendonous portion is in between
these two muscular areas.
And right on top of it and kind of slightly
overlapping, with its tendon going in between the
those two muscular areas of the peroneus
long - of the peroneus brevis - is a muscle known as the
there's the longer one
sort of sliding
in between, or at least its tendonous portion, of the shorter one.
And its origin
is the same as
the insertion of the biceps brachii.
Its origin is the same as the insertion
of the biceps femoris.
The head of the fibula.
And here we have it, we have the top part.
The longus. And we can see it, it is long.
And it's continuing
all the way down here.
But then right here you already begin to see that
part on top of which
the peroneus longus is sort of wedged into.
And if you think this reminds you of something you're probably right.
This is a little - it's not exactly the same
but it's a similar concept in terms of the structure, at least on the outside
of the semitendinosus and the semimembranosus.
You remember the semitendinosus is sort of
and like wedged
into the semimembranosus. The same is happening here.
And once again
their importance lies
also in the tendons, which
kind of invert and flip and all that stuff so we're not gonna
worry about that too specifically. But you can see the tendons wrapping around
the lateral malleolus
and attaching into one of the
Here we have our calcaneous.
So let's reiterate. We do have the calcaneous and we're
definitely going to need it, but we have the tibialus anterior. We had it right here.
We have the extensor digitorum longus right in here.
We see only the tendonous
part coming out there. We
have the extensor hallucis longus, hardly see it there but we do have it right here.
we have the peroneus longus, right here.
And brevis underneath it.
get to some of the stuff in the back here.
Some of it we've actually covered. So right here, right behind
the - right behind the
peroneus longus is a muscle that we've already seen
but you see a little bit more of it and it's slightly
differently from the lateral view as you do from the
medial and anterior views here. This is the soleus, right here.
And then on
top of it, you guess it, is the gastrocnemius.
Except its lateral head.
And now if you've - and we do
have a little
tiny amount that we can see. And we'll talk more specifically about
the structure of it when we begin to
render it. There's a very particular quality that it has
that's sort of unique and
structure and representation on paper.
So you do get a little bit of the medial head
right here on
that side. And then there's of course
the sort of tendonous portion
and they connect into this common tendon we've already covered, known
as the Achilles tendon that connects to the calcaneous.
the one thing that you could begin
to pick out right now
is that the medial head of the gastrocnemius is
larger and more
massive and sort of comes out in front a bit more. The
lateral head is smaller and
does not reach out as far in front.
And both heads of the gastrocnemius
begin, originate at
the condyles of the femur
as we've already
observed, even without talking about it.
Okay now let's take a look from the
Good, lock it in
place. It should stay.
And now we really get to view some of the stuff we were talking about
without really anything extra.
We've covered pretty much everything that appears
from here. So we have this opening
right here. And we have seen it.
And we know that the gastrocnemius
at the condyles, right.
So here we see -
and perfect we have a bit of room for me to explain it right here once we
start shading. Now it's hard to see here because this is a cadaver
and I don't think this quality came across in the cast.
I don't know if that's possible
because it needs to be sort of in action for one
to see it. A little bit of it appears
so I think we'll use it.
And you can see the medial head right here, coming out.
We have its sort of outermost area
there. We have it here. We can see the slightly smaller
and the flatter - remember this angle
slightly flatter, smaller
inside, right on top, is a small muscle known as
the plantaris. Plantaris.
I wouldn't worry about it too much.
And then you can see what we saw right
here and right here
is the soleus.
the tendon of the gastrocnemius on top of it.
And becoming the
Achilles tendon, down here.
Now clearly that's not wide enough
so we do have our malleoli
and here we can see just a little bit of the
tendon of the flexor
It's right there. I'll place it - I'll write it down. The flexor
Be concerned mainly with the tendon, not much else.
Here we see that
sweeping in and also becoming that tendon, the peroneus
brevis. And right on top of it,
very lightly, not sort of a tendonous
portion, not adding too much
structure, is the tendon of the peroneus longus.
And then right here we have
And here the overlap of our
metatarsals. We don't need to worry about the foot from
this angle, it's sort of awkward.
Gonna give a little bit more mass
up top here though, I think I see it. It's in
shadow but I think I see it - of the peroneus
longus down there.
And so I think that about covers the
muscles of the lower part of the leg.
I think we can begin to introduce
some structure into them and then work on
completing each one of our
of our drawings
as a whole.
Upper and lower leg together.
let's start thinking about
the form and shading. So I'm gonna turn the leg around
to its anterior view or
practically its anterior view. We're getting a little bit
of the medial aspect as well here which is nice.
Okay I think we're good.
So we already have an idea
of what's happening with our
light as it hits the bones of the leg.
Now it's not exactly in the same
position as the bones were so
this side of the tibia we wanna start with, even though it's not
in shadow, even though it was in shadow here
mainly because I
am following our already well established
principle of starting with the bones. So if you have a bone that's as
obviously in view
that's what we're going to go with.
So we're not worried too
much at the moment about tying in the lower leg with the upper leg.
We're going to do that at the very end, after we
make sure to
have what we need right here. So there is that
front edge of the
tibia and it's -
we can call it the side plane.
Okay. So I'm gonna continue
with the tibia
here because there is a little part of it on the side here
that does fall into shadow against the terminator.
And then of course a cast
shadow falling on the soleus.
And then right here is the core shadow
on the soleus. So all these -
all these things that we've already
covered and now that we know what
the forms are here
we can figure out where their main changes in plane
make sure to show them with our shadows and half tones.
we have that
group of attachments
into the tibial tuberosity
of the - let's review - of the sartorius
followed by the gracilis
and then underneath, the semitendinosus.
And this entire
area of the knee and we know
that it is in front
of this medial head of
And this entire area is casting a shadow onto the gastrocnemius
so let's make sure that that's in place.
we have the core shadow, terminator and all,
on the gastrocnemius itself.
There we have it -
not worried too much
about half tones except for those tiny ones on
the tibia but in order to make them
read like half tones we're going to have to go back and make sure our shadows
read like shadows.
And get some
nice proper outlines and overlaps, even if they're tiny,
the muscles of the calf.
in order to really begin to see the importance of these
tendons, we're gonna need
to get some of these shadows. So here
we have the tibialus interior tendon
casting a shadow onto the medial
You can see there's almost a gap -
almost a gap
And then kind of get a little bit of a
here. The one thing
that can really help with understanding the structure
of the foot is the bone right here,
the end of the metatarsal,
the joint, also just sort of in common part referred to as the
ball of the foot, and if you sort of
follow along from right here, from where we see
that shadow and then we go
down in some sense across
our malleolus to that tendon of the flexor
digitorum longus, you kind of get
the side plane there, the side plane of the foot. So
we can just place
that. And here
And see and you can really see
it even has its - I mean this is a little small but it has a tiny
highlight on a change of plane on the tendon.
And let's place the entirety of the calcaneous,
the heel, into shadow.
And round it off where we can.
Okay. So now
that we have the tendon, and see I actually focus on the tendon more than the
body of the tibialus anterior.
I'm actually going to add something here that we weren't -
maybe I didn't pick up, but you can see it right now
and you can see what it
is. It is
the protrusion there of the peroneus longus
that we see quite clearly on the side there. Which is nice
because we get a better understanding
with each turn.
And we know that the peroneus longus originates
from the head of the fibula, so we can
just see where the head of the fibula is right here. Take it across, it's right there.
Now I'm not worried about too
much information on the knee just yet
but that arching is
just as important up here as it is down here. And so
these half tones
are going to get darker and darker as we
move towards the ankle.
And here you almost want to emphasize
that change in plane. And we're going to try and find it in the
side views as well. Yeah so the -
that curve in and you can see that
curvature in the bone out,
sort of, that curving out then this curving in and then out again so
you know now that the tendons
of the tibialus anterior
pull that movement out even more
than that. So you want to establish
these two points here to make sure that this is a clear
change in plane, so almost
push these areas into a darker half tone than you
see. And you can then interrupt them with highlights and
things like that. But right now we just need to get
on the ankle there, on the
ankle there and on the
tibialus anterior and extensor digitorum longus.
those two tendons
with the extensor
hallucis coming in between are kind of giving you the
front plane of the ankle.
This is our malleolus
and this is that area in between.
Okay. But in order to return to our form
then you could interrupt it a little bit with
some of the light areas inside
bring out those tendons. This is the importance of it so
you don't need the extensor hallucis that much but you do need
the two. You need the tibialus anterior
and the extensor digitorum
Now let's do a little bit more
work on some of our shadows
making sure that we can really read the
medial - we can really read the medial malleolus.
It's casting a shadow onto that tendon
from the flexor digitorum longus and
onto the navicular, the bone we spoke about that
bone that sticks out right there that's part of the tarsal bones.
And inside here we
those muscles that are
responsible for that tendon but they're in the shadow and we don't
need them too much. And in general they're not particularly easy to
see. They kind off come out as a mass.
here we're gonna go back to the knee for a moment and just make sure we have that patellar ligament
Our iliotibial tract coming in
and attaching there and then we'll spend some time
and make sure to get more specific with
the knee later. In the meantime
just make sure that this is all
rounder, as well as
tone down these lights just a bit.
And make sure to have a few important -
especially where the bones are - changes
and accents in tonality.
Excellent. Let's give the leg a nice turn
and work on its lateral aspect
making sure to transform all these
at this point just explanatory
outlines into forms.
Mmhmm here we go
Locked in place.
like very obvious beliefs.
So from this angle the leg appears quite cylindrical
without a lot of interruption.
Here there's a clear
change in plane.
But here things just appear a little bit rounder so
we're going to really need to establish
that basic cylindrical
understanding. I'm gonna go
inside here though because this is our half tone.
Just make sure. But if we're going for the
cylindrical quality of the leg here, we'll start with our main
terminator, which will be on the tibialus anterior.
And really see where that terminator is
and what it's describing. Because right here, for example, you can really
begin to see -
really begin to see that plane
of it on the side.
That's really helping us
to describe its particular form.
And then I will stick to the peroneus
longus right here because it has a
core shadow element
and the cast shadows are
falling onto that indent in
which we can see the extensor digitorum longus.
And then I'm going to just follow it along
onto the peroneus brevis
and see that cast
shadow falling onto
the fibula, which opens up quite a lot
before we hit the malleolus.
this form cylindrical, we're going to work the half tones as well
even before there's any
differentiation there or even some specifics that
you have left to place, this does need
to just be evenly established until at least
a half tone. And see it already begins to turn-
to turn the form of the leg. Here we can even extend some of these
half tones into the peroneus longus, which is of course
like the majority of muscles bulging at
least slightly. There are some flat ones
but even they aren't really that flat.
Okay so now
let's get even more specific. And for that
I'm gonna need to - when it gets this small I'm just gonna need
a sharper point on my pencil and
you know I don't really care too much
for having a really sharp pencil,
it just needs to be sharp enough for what you need to do.
So especially at the beginning of a drawing, a sharp pencil
is almost detrimental. You need to have a
proper amount of graphite. So at least a quarter inch.
But it doesn't right away need to be sharp. But if you
want, moving into some
of these specifics, this sharpness
And here we can see the
tendon of the tibialus anterior entirely in shadow.
Now here I
do want that cast shadow onto
the fibula above the malleolus.
you remember I mentioned that there's another muscle here,
that kind of connects a little bit,
I would say a group made up by the
extensor digitorum longus.
muscle which also is called the peroneus but the peroneus
tertius. Now I don't - I wouldn't worry too much
considering there's already the
peroneus longus and peroneus brevis to worry about, which are considerably more prominent.
here lets get into our actual lateral
malleolus. And it's a curving upwards
which we're going to explore even more here but we've seen
in the leg in front and also when working on
the bones themselves.
we're going to have a half tone that is gradually
going to diminish as there's an upwards turning of the form
we have a cast shadow falling on the talus
Need a little bit more here.
And a cast shadow falling on the
meta - on the tarsals.
let's try to feel the group out here, this group
of the peroneus longus and brevis as they reach
down to get around
the malleolus. And we want to see them as a group so
if we overemphasize
the lines there we're gonna lose that a little bit.
And I'm going to make sure to get that
little bit of a half tone
on the soleus
to make sure that
we can really see this area of
light on the peroneus.
Now right here
we're going to have
over of the tendons of the peroneus longus and
the brevis. And we can see them sweeping under
and they continue to
cross and flip and all that cool stuff we really can't see
You can see it a little bit here actually, which is very interesting, but
I don't think you'll really be able to see it on a
foot and even if you can, not necessarily sure you need to
include it. But we do want
just the general idea
of that tendon
connecting to metatarsal number five.
And our calcaneous is right there
and we can
see it. Okay
let's move on a little bit. There's not too much to do here
except to work with half tones to really show
some of the forms of the calf
muscles in light.
we're going to need to really establish this half tone right here on the
soleus, mainly to show its
flatness, like that plane is turning away from us.
And then right here
to make sure to get that little
of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius.
are we good Brian?
then a little
more information on this -
on the heads of gastrocnemius itself, with the proper
overlaps and tiny little half tones that come off of them.
And then a light on
medial head right there.
Alright so we've gotten a little more specific,
we just need to follow these things down a bit
to get to our Achilles
attaching to the calcaneus.
I've added a little bit more
of a mass to the -
tibialus anterior because I think it will just
a little bit more lifelike.
And then from here
you can see the opening up of the extensor digitorum longus
to reach towards
the toes and you can see that this area right here
between the tendon, the tendons here and here, can also be
to some degree considered the side plane on the lateral
side of the foot and continue it all the way into
now let's give this
like one more turn and take a look at it from the
Okay so here we have a clear
view of the gastrocnemius.
though the leg in general is
cylindrical, here there are
like the front view, more interruptions to -
more interruptions to
that form. So
here let's begin with a little bit of the
of the cast shadow
onto the planteris -
which I said don't worry about -
but also the heads of the gastrocnemius
And now the time
for you to really see what
here is capable of in terms of its -
in terms of its form. So
the idea is that you have
the, in this case, the medial head
and the lateral head. But you can also probably see
that from up here there's this bulging happening
as it moves in
towards the condyles. And
a part of the reason why this happens is because -
is because these areas
right here are covered by sort of a tendonous
covering that's not allowing the
muscle to expand and contract.
But this part right here
is uncovered. So most of the expansion
happens right here. And so
that is quite important for when you're trying to
depict it. So we can't
really pick up on that covering right here
but we can see these changes
up top, those kind of tubular extensions of
upward. And so this is what gives
the gastrocnemius its characteristic outline
even from any other view
you wanna make sure to capture that
at least a tiny bit. So let's
try to do that then.
Of course using what is offered.
So here we have our shadow but we can really
see our half tone.
And our half tone
is already giving us a hint
as to what's happening with this
like you can even see that outward
tubular push and a light
we can even go so far as to get a nice
terminator but really include the reflected
on the inside there
to emphasize its roundness,
to make sure it looks like a tube.
Now I've been working on these half tones a little bit longer than I wanted
to, so I'm gonna need to get back into a shadows,
nice cast shadow here.
let's get them overlapped. Here we can actually see
a little bit of the soleus.
All the stuff that you really begin to learn when you take a close look at a thing.
And every écorché and every
sort of anatomical specimen in every book will always
give you just a little bit extra,
that tiny bit of information
that will add
to all of your drawings. Even if it's just one tiny detail,
which is why most people who become very
interested in anatomy have
what seems like entire bookshelves covered in
anatomy books and
old ones, new ones. It kinda becomes -
you can get carried away
with anatomy. I know
I'm gonna try to exaggerate that
thing that we were talking about. Really make sure it reads like
there's this pull upwards.
And there it goes.
That's beginning to happen.
Okay. Now here of course
there's a change in plane again because we can see
there's an upward, like a tilt
upwards of the plane of the gastrocnemius but
down here with the common tendon and the
tendon on top of the soleus, there is
a movement inwards and underneath
a drop. So it's all going to be in at least a half tone.
Now we've already started a little bit on the shadow there but
in half tones a bit more right now.
And now I'm going to
go into - we need something a little sharper than that -
into the Achilles tendon where we can really see
its edge there, its
its front plane and side plane.
And here we have
our shadows of the side plane
of the soleus.
And I'm gonna continue on
downwards along the peroneus brevis
which is catching a little bit of a light,
which is nice because even though that's not the
it can hint at it. It's still an accent in that area.
And that's something quite important, like it doesn't always have to be
the anatomical element that you're -
the anatomical element. It can actually be something around it.
But that will attract attention to that area
and our peroneus longus is
And then right here let's
get some of these changes in plane at the bottom
of the gastrocnemius.
And some are shadow.
We're going to get a little
more specific when we consider the leg of the whole
Ah here it's good, we have our flexor digitorum,
we have it right there and let's make sure we have our ankle.
Or as we know it
our medial malleolus.
And here too, the calcaneous
for the most part I like to sort of box up.
And of course you can view it as almost a round form
but I like to block it up a little bit.
So I think we've
kind of taken a look
and have gone through the
of making all this information we covered
into something a little more concrete on the page.
So now let's work on completing each
one by thinking of the
leg in its entirety and focusing on the important accents
in the leg.
So I'm going to turn it
at the knee.
Not only because the knee is going to tie in of course our
upper leg and lower leg
but also because it's possibly the most important element here.
So we not only
want it to kind of be
the area with the largest amount of specifics
the sort of the most
analysis, largest amount of completion, but we also want it to have the
large amount of contrast.
on the patella
really trying to
see where these little half tones are
and yet always thinking about its larger form.
a plane on top that's
going to be very important and into
which the common tendon of the quadriceps
But you'll usually
actually see a highlight there as well so I'm gonna need to get
a little bit of a half tone there even though we do have this sort of
outward movement, which is catching, in general, a large amount of light.
But that highlight
is quite important.
And then to make
sure that it very clearly protrudes
outward from this
part that we see, the iliotibial tract.
Now inserting into it here
is the vastus lateralis that we know
and these little internal overlaps that we can show
with all these small shadows
is really going to make a difference. Now
here, I don't want to
the end there because it's not in shadow but we still need it.
And now let's get to the
cast shadow from the patella. I'm going to
use one of my softer
pencils to make sure we get
enough contrast there. But you want to have
the entirety of the patella reading.
You don't want
to have it seem like it ends at the terminator.
So these cast shadows are actually going to help quite a lot
But then in here
we're going to need to get into
the vastus medialus to get it feeling like a larger
All of it altogether
with a little bit of light on the parts of the vastus
medialus that are turning towards the front.
Now it's a little flattened here so I'm just gonna give it a little bit more
volume, just a tiny bit more. Just a
bit more than what you might - to get a little
closer to what you might see on a model.
Now here we have two very important elements.
We have the head
the medial condyle of the femur.
medial condyle of the tibia. And in between them is the
meniscus, you might have heard
of that. It's not something you'll be able to really
pick out in a model
and not of
really prime importance - it's quite important in terms of movement there
it's that sort of padding in between the bones
which we all need.
But what we really need is the bones
themselves. So you, like, even if you can't
this is the importance of knowing where they are. If you can't really pick them
out of a knee on your model,
you're kind of gonna have to put them in there anyway.
And then here we have a little bit
of a reflected
coming in on that side plane
of the sartorius.
But it's not
it's not as light as that.
So here we can do a grouping a little bit
of the two tendons of the gracilis of the sartorius
but it's right here
that we're really going to need to emphasize outside of the knee
where those tendons really wrap around.
We can see them right there. Wrap around
of the femur.
So I want a
very large amount of clarity in this area.
I want very clean
outlines, I want
between the half tones.
this line helps to show us where
the patellar ligament
ends but at the same
time we need to show the little bit of a light there on the tibial tuberosity.
It is something sticking out anyway so
If it's sticking out, it's catching the light.
Gonna move down the tibia there.
See so our knee is now
becoming quite important.
I can do a little bit more
up here in some of these half tones, just to make sure that highlight
stands out even more. So right now I'm not doing it with the
eraser, I'm just working around the highlight.
I want that
knee to read. We're spending a lot of time
on knees until you get
them just right but it's worth it.
Okay so we have our knee.
Now the thing is
you don't want to have contrast that will kind of
situation of light here that obviously everything up here is catching
light and then it sort of
as it's curving away, falls into more into half tone and all that.
But you could still accent the knee with
just spending more time on it
as well as having slightly
outlines. But I am gonna move up.
I'm gonna move up along the rectus femoris here
and really establish
where it has that
plane on the side that's
catching all that light.
And some of these more structural lines,
gonna remove a little bit.
Make sure our shadow in there
off of the rectus femoris
reads nice and clear.
But keep in mind that what's most
important, there's always the origin,
so let's say right here
in the rectus femoris
though that's not its actual origin, its origin is inside,
is a place to accent.
Was making sure that this
core shadow here
is really active
and yet this is all beginning to
fall into a side plane, it's really going to
lager form of the leg.
And then remember
And we can see the sartorius coming in front of the gracilis there
and then the gracilis sweeping in, only to come out again
the tensor - just gonna move up a little bit quick -
is an area that's usually
signifying an important change in plane from sort of
the front of the leg to the side along
the gluteus medius and then finally the maximus.
So we're just
gonna make that happen here even though it's not sort of large
enough for that to be too clear.
And in this area is our trochanter.
So we don't see the trochanter but at least
giving the viewer just
a little bit more of an emphasis on something in that area
attract attention to an area that
needs that attention.
We need those bones.
And then up here, a light
strong emphasis accent on
And we can see here that almost
geometric qualities of the iliopsoas here
but it is in there
is in shadow, we don't need it too much.
And then let's get
the pectineus right there.
Just need things a little bit sharper. And
let's make some things a little more exciting, maybe kind of emphasize
reflected lights and things like that.
Because, you know, even if this is an anatomical
study, you still want it to be a good drawing
because even if you're
simply practicing anatomy
you're also practicing drawing in general.
And then this clarity
on the adductor longus
is quite striking so
by that I mean
that cast shadow.
Up here we have what we know already
we have our
pubic bone moving into our
All that stuff on top
we're not gonna concern ourselves with just yet. Okay so here
is what we were talking about earlier. In general the
change in plane here is quite important and we see it right here. We can see it's minor
but something like this is happening. Which means of course
that our main areas of light are gonna be concentrated right
everything up here will be in that plane that I was talking about, that
plane of its own, that plane that belongs to the pelvis.
I don't even like to think of this area on top even though
as part of
the leg in general. I like to
think of it as the muscles of the
And I'm not saying that's correct but I am saying
that that can kind of help
to really make sure you're getting
the pelvis enough attention.
Alright so I like how things are moving
in this leg. Kind of
cleaned up some of the
areas that we already
put in there.
And let's move down a little
bit to the lower leg
where we were recently and
also make sure that some
of these accents read
and I kind of like what's happening already though. I like
that we don't have too much tone
I want to try to preserve that so that we can kind of
we can kind of move from
this area of accent to the knee to the ankle.
That's sort of my plan.
Do want a little bit more of a light sort of reintroducing
that light on that upper part of the
Okay, I'll get back down here.
So not too much tone
but the proper information. So
what's happening up here does not need to be that
but that little bit of light on that side plane
does need to be the right place.
we can continue a little bit of
tone down here to really show that sort of change in plane
in here as well.
And let's make sure
we already have a lot of it, but let's make sure to accent -
let's make sure to accent our
in the same way
that we did the knee. So really
spending time on
these changes in plane, making sure we have
a good amount of contrast. And this is why some of these
cast shadows down there actually even sort of
compositionally useful. Like you can use them
just to give you form but to make sure that
these areas have enough
contrast on them.
And there we have our
And we're just gonna get a little bit more on the foot
make sure the Achilles tendon
And we get our
in there with the proper
shape. Proper shape.
Taking a look at the leg in general.
Just gonna go back up here I feel like
wouldn't hurt to do some clean up.
and really make sure that our
rectus femoris up front.
I think we're alright. Gonna clean this up a little bit
and move on to the leg
Alright we're doing good.
let's start with the same procedure.
Let's work -
while I talk I'll just do a little bit more here -
complete everything but always
with regard to sort of the
being the knee, the
iliac crest and the forms up there and the
So let's start
with that knee.
Accents, outlines, you know the
Here we have
that element that we cannot ignore.
We have the head, my
god, here we have that element that we cannot ignore, we have the lateral
condyle of the femur.
You want all
of it in there.
And then use the iliotibial tract
to give as much form to the area
Make sure that it reads as though the iliotibial tract
is stretched over -
is stretched over
And now from this
side, behind the patella, you can see - it's hard to
really see what this is but you have a certain amount of fat
here. And this amount of
fat in there but more particularly the form
of it is going to differ
based on the
model in front of you. So it'll
often times -
often times obscure
these clear outlines of the patella.
So just be aware of that
and look for the patella itself.
we have that really important area we have
the tibia and we see it
sticks out a little bit here, it is catching light.
It's right there. So
in an attempt to show the bones of the knee more,
we're going to need to place
all of these muscles underneath
that's stronger than the one that we currently have.
And then really show this shadow.
Here we have the meniscus and then
right there. Now
we're gonna have to do a similar
thing right here that we did with the
tibial tuberosity right there. This is the head of the fibula and the insertion
of the biceps femoris.
And so that is what we're really
going to need to
figure out and get a right mount of half tones around it
so that it really
it really stands out
and then you can
see there's a little bit of a change in the direction of the biceps
femoris itself and is of course happening because
of that particular angle of
the knee itself.
Remember it has its own orientation in space.
But I'm gonna move up a
little bit here to separate
the long head of the biceps femoris and the short one
which you can see right there.
And then to get that little bit of occlusion right there to separate
the biceps femoris or rather the
short head of it from our vastus lateralis.
Okay I'm getting a little bit of light on the
short head there.
And then the vastus -
oh my god - and then the
that actual insertion point
going towards the back of the knee and I want a sharpness
along these overlaps, but primarily
I want to tone away
that area of the semitendinosus
And now I'm going to
move up, not spending as much
time up on these areas
because I wanna focus most of the attention
trochanter up here
because that is one of those
bony anatomical landmarks.
essence, in order to complete a leg after having analyzed it.
and spent some time with it, you really want to
go back to not
the muscular forms but the
bones, that thing that we started with.
And of course there isn't any part where
the bone is completely uncovered.
So I'm not so much saying
that you need to get and just
sort of draw the bone into
where the muscles actually are but you just need to
focus on that area.
trying to get the gluteus a little bit rounder
place it in enough of a half tone so we can get our major change
in plane, show it with the highlight.
And then in here
use that occlusion
shadow or cast shadow.
It's part occlusion shadow
in one area and cast shadow in the other
So there's overlap there
to show the forms of the tensor. And up here
where we have our ASIS we need
at least a strong accent.
Now here we need to show
where the tensor is
the sartorius is that you could
see from our angle. This isn't like a perfect
profile so we get a little bit more of the sartorius, which I think is
great. And then
from in between we get the top,
Sort of - I still want some more
half tones here though.
Just a little bit of a half tone to get -
to get another tiny side plane.
Wherever you can get one, wherever
you can make things a little bit more concrete, do it.
And here we must make sure to
show the vastus medialus
ending. So let's get
in here a little bit. Here we need a little bit more clarity
because this is a nice point of insertion of the gluteus as it
reaches towards the femur
and sort of slides in between,
to it in part.
It has a fairly large amount of attachments
but attaches, for our purposes, sort of slides in between
the biceps femoris and the vastus lateralis.
Here we have our
we give it a little bit of a plane there, a plane that will really sort of move it
everything in that way.
And just getting a little more of those half tones
at least up here to get
more volume on the biceps
some of these accents.
But okay, let's move on to down here.
We spent some time on the knee
of course a large portion of completion
is the removal of sort of outlines that
you place at the beginning to establish where things are. You could avoid them
but obviously we could not the way that
we approached this assignment.
The outlines were an important part of
figuring out where everything was.
So where we can, we
sort of convert those outlines for the most part into
tone on at least one side
of that outline.
In other parts where we actually want it to be not so much an outline
but a clear sort of stylistic element of color
A stylistic element of contrast
That's an area where we can really play around with
a sharp outline. But even at that point it's still
sort of - it's not simply an outline of
just a general area.
It's an emphasis of an overlap on a contour.
A way to attract attention
and the way to really attract attention is to
do something out of the ordinary right.
And that's sort of the principle here.
You don't have a lot of contours and lines and
then you have them only in a few -
in a few key places than they are clearly
the ones that are going to attract the attention of the view.
And so right now
I'm moving down towards our other
really important element, the
And then making sure that there
is enough contrast on it
and in that area in general.
And so for
this we can use our core and cast shadows, our terminators, but at the same time
now without really trying to think
how they are
describing the forms that they're on.
And then right here
I spoke about that major change in plane in the
front right in between or sort of
right in between its - the two tendons.
That change in plane is actually caused by those two tendons.
The tendon of the
digitorum longus and the tibialus anterior.
But remember that we did want to
make sure that we get a good read on the
form of the leg in this area.
So we are gonna wanna make sure that does read
as well as all the necessary overlaps.
Take a quick look and see what we have here.
I do think that there are areas up here that
need just a bit more
light. So we can tone down
as well as some of
these half tones
as well as here.
I want that group of the peroneus longus
and brevis to
read like a rounder, sort of
more obvious mass.
just some elements of
clarity, so on.
Now the back of the knee
though no longer pertaining to the bones as much
also has to be emphasized.
Alright. I think we have
now completed two of our legs
and let's move on to the
Good. In place.
the leg and the approach we take, it's exactly the same.
And you'll see how this begins to apply
when we -
when we do work from a model.
Use every bit of information you can
to get something specific on the knee.
So here I'm working
tendon of the semitendinosus
and I can see right here the
semimembranosus sort of moving down towards
its attachment on the tibia.
This is -
this is all within the area of the knee so it needs our immediate
and undivided attention.
Now underneath it
we have the cast
from this whole upper
onto the gastrocnemius, the medial head.
Now we see our old
medial condyle of the
femur. We don't see it
too well, we see it covered a little bit
but it's still there. We see it
covered by the gracilis there.
Oh, interesting. There's a lot you can see here.
we need that little bit of a shadows
on those sort of tendonous insertion,
the exact area of insertion but
it's reaching towards it. We see the
right here of the femur. This is - it's
kind of covered but it's there. The condyle itself.
The meniscus right there and
the tibia right there. We can see that too.
And that is where the real attachment takes place, we can see
the gracilis moving on toward
that point. And here we can see a fairly large
like it seems larger here than it does from the front, the sartorius.
And we need to really accent it because
of how it sweeps around and gives us
the form of the condyle and the epicondyle.
And then even a little bit here of the fibula so it's not even so much about the
sartorius itself, it's more about what it's
on. And it's on one of our
more important elements. So -
and here we have a little bit of the vastus medialus
we don't need to overemphasize it. We need the knee
So we do need to get a feeling for this to
to make it feel like a round
cylindrical or tubular
group here, so probably
a good amount of
a good amount of those
half tones coming off of that terminator.
Up and around.
Now here is where you can show the thickness
of the muscles.
Tiny little side planes.
Here the large form
of the adductor magnus we've already
spoken about it and we've seen it here catching - this isn't it but
this whole sort of plane change here catching lots of light.
And this super important thing. Now it's important here for us -
it's of course not as
mainly because it's going to be entirely covered but
it's an important area to accent simply so that you can just
remember that the origin of the muscles of the
hamstrings is the
Or at least the ischium in general like as a
bone of its own.
make sure to get that overlap and insertion
of the gluteus maximus. We saw it right
So where you really need to
emphasize is at those points of intersection.
So right here actually I'm going to
raise the sartorius just a bit.
And see so this is quite late in the game but I'm -
here I am making a fairly large
I always like to point those our so that
you can be open to making these changes
and be okay with it.
The gracilis all the way up to the top.
Okay I would leave this where it
is, maybe just get a little bit of a half tone
on the semitendinosus up here, make
sure to get that little bit of side plane. You just want to give as much of the
like the dimension of the
muscles as possible.
And then here, the other
side of the knee - and of course this part does not pertain to the
to the bones as
much but you remember that the
doesn't sit right here into the head of the
there's our knee again.
the smaller the half tone,
the depiction of the form -
the representation of the form.
For example this area right here flattens out
because you don't have that -
you don't have these half tones.
But you don't want them to be extremely heavy
you still want them there.
And to move on down here we can see
the tendonous portion, we can see
the pull up of the
and we're moving down towards that other important element
So we're going to need
clarity here too.
I want to
make sure there's clear area for
the insertion of the Achilles tendon
and here you want to show inside that there is a change
That's not a lot of light there
so we're gonna have to do all we can.
Tiny little cast
Let's take a look at all of them, let's take a look a
these legs in there entirety, make sure to
kind of go back to major plane changes
because they do get lost.
But I think
we're good. So right now
this kind of analysis, this
understanding of what's happening
in a given anatomical element
by viewing it from multiple angles, apply it.
Apply it to the arm.
and muscles of the leg discussed in this lesson. Then,
using the 3D viewer or the provided photographs, draw the bones of the leg
and the Eliot Goldfinger leg cast
from the three angles covered in this lesson, paying particular attention
to the skeletal landmarks. Make separate
drawings of the knee from three angles.
Repeat from imagination and memory.
Free to try
1. The Anatomy of the Leg Demonstration Overview48sNow playing...
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2. The Skeletal Leg Demonstration42m 30s
3. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 156m 43s
4. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 224m 27s
5. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 332m 0s
6. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 416m 35s
7. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 512m 57s
8. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 618m 17s
9. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 728m 9s
10. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 855m 20s
11. Muscles of the Leg Demonstration Part 915m 33s
12. The Anatomy of the Leg Assignment Instructions40s