- Lesson Details
Now that we’ve studied the skeletal pelvis and ribcage, it’s time to see how they come together with the musculature of the torso. In this lesson, we will identify and draw the superficial and deep muscles of the front and rear torso.
Students are encouraged to work from the NMA reference images and 3D viewer included on this page*.
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
In the last part of our Russian Academic Drawing Course, Iliya brought together the knowledge we learned about the head and neck in order to complete a fully rendered portrait. In this next part, Figurative Anatomy, you will undertake a new challenge: the figure.
In order to draw the complexity of figure we need to study all the anatomy that makes up the surface form of the pelvis, ribcage, leg and arm.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
- Graphite pencils
- Kneaded and Hard Erasers
- Sanding Block
- Utility Knife
- Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
- Light source
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with the musculature of the torso.
the pelvis and the ribcage and what
ties them together. So here in front of us we have a
from the front. And it's
about half of it.
About because we actually have a little more than half
is most definitely to our
advantage. We see
and that is almost enough
almost enough to
give us an idea based on its angle of the tilt
of the ribcage in its entirety.
So always try to see what the angle of the sternum is
and then extend a constructive line
perpendicularly to it and you essentially will have
the angle of the
if you look carefully there's already a ton
of information here that we're not seeing for
the first time.
For example, we have our sternal notch
up here with a little -
like a tiny part of the
sternal and clavicular heads
of the sternocleidomastoid.
Right here we have the clavicle itself
with the attachment
of the trapezius
we now have the advantage of seeing the entirety of the deltoid
as well as
the pectoralis, of which we
only were able to pick out the clavicular head.
So I'm just putting these on paper
to help with placement.
It's a little bit
Of course most importantly is
the ribcage here.
And we can see the widest point
between ribs number eight, nine, and ten.
sternum I will straighten it out slightly,
we see the opening
of the ribcage
formed by rib number seven, eight,
nine, and ten.
And then if we sort of skip ahead
just a bit for a while,
we can see the iliac crest.
Right here. And
the pubic symphysis.
there's a lot here that we're already acquainted with.
Now it seems as though
you can really see the opening
of the ribcage here, which is
is something that on
on a model you can see mainly
on an inhale.
So we're actually - when we'll be working on our model we'll be
asking him to
inhale so that we can really
see the opening. That's so important
to our construction.
let's just make sure that with the
elements that we have -
we get our proportions.
Here you can see clearly the
infraclavicular fossa in shadow and
above it at least half of the
get a little more clarity on what's happening here
talk about it in more detail.
So you can see
in its entirety.
And we know that the
top portion of the pectoralis attaches to
to sternal end of the clavicle.
But the rest of it
originates at the sternal
and attaches to a point
kind of on the inside of the humerus.
We're going to go into that more
when we talk about the humerus and the arm.
And there's a characteristic
that you can pick up on
and you can see that the individual parts - there are
multiple parts to the pectoralis. And the interesting thing
about them is that the top parts on the chest
actually attach on the bottom
and the bottom parts here actually attach
on the top so there's kind of a twist
in its attachment on the humerus.
So we have
the ability to make that evident here.
right away but
when we really get into some of the specifics.
So here we know is the
accromial end as well as the acromion of the
scapula. The accromial end of the clavicle and the
acromion of the scapula - of the spine of the scapula. And here you see
multiple parts of the deltoid and they're kind of lining
up with some of the
parts of the pectoralis. So why don't we
write this -
this muscle is known as the pectoralis major.
And if you remember,
I mentioned that you can pretty much
divide the deltoid into its
anterior portion, the one in front, its
accromial portion, the one on the side,
and the posterior portion
that we cannot see from here.
they all attach because they originate
at the clavicle
and the spine of the scapula attach
kind of on the opposite end
of the humerus .
And by opposite end I mean the opposite end of
of where you have the
attachment of the pectoralis.
So on the outside of the humerus about
halfway. And it always looks a bit higher
because you don't see it
attaching all the way in. But keep in mind that it does
go practically to that half way point.
And here we have some of the muscles of the arm.
The biceps brachialus
and the triceps, which we'll talk about
when we work on the arm.
Now here is an interesting
that you can
see coming out here
at sort of an arch.
all of these individual muscles that you see
are all actually part of
part of a muscle,
a muscle that goes by a singular name.
they are known as the
part is their original
and their attachment
is under, if you can imagine it that way
so the anterior, the front
of the scapula. So not the part that
we were exploring, the one that has
because that would be the posterior of the scapula
and they all assemble
and they curve outwards
and you can see them here.
Now what you can't see as obviously but is
of equal importance
into each of them
you have the -
you have -
you have the
And you can see it here.
For our purposes, we're just going to say that it's
Because in reality there's a part
of it that comes out and actually covers everything here but
it doesn't create as obvious as a relief. So we're not
going to focus on that as much.
connects kind of in between
the stratus anterior
but its more important
to understand that its original
is at the iliac crest.
So it really is one of those important muscles
that's really connecting
pelvis and the ribcage.
So here -
and we can
follow it all the way
to the iliac crest.
you have a tiny part - it's not
giving you too much but it's still important, that is
still a part of the pectoralis
and then you have a long group here
that go from
the cartilage of the ribs
and continue all the way
down to the public symphasis.
And they are known
as the rectus
pretty much the placement of everything
that we have in front of us
that are going to be the most obvious. Now in terms of the structure
you can see there's a little bit of a gap
rectus abdominis and the external oblique
and that's a gap that you have to pay close attention to.
And here we have
Keep in mind that everything that you see in front of you
its symmetrical counterpart.
So without outlining
more of what's happening here, why don't we begin to
place some of our
we begin with
the clear shadow that we see coming off of
the opening of the ribcage
and kind of being
cast all into and upon
This is one of the more important elements
in a nude and
will help you establish the borders
of the ribcage as soon as possible.
Of course if you were to do it over here
it's important to then establish
on the other side.
here we're not as concerned with that, we're more interested in
exploring what's happening here.
I'm just gonna move up
and quickly place that shadow
on the pectoralis
and make sure that we get a nice clear accent on the
Make sure to have the
enough of a shadow above the
to place some of these shadows on to the
the deltoid and the muscles of the arm.
Now the parts that we're really gonna have to focus on
are the same ones that we've been talking about.
So we have the clavicle here, very important element
as we remember. You have the accromial end as well as the
acromion and that is
an accent that you can't avoid. Here
the ribcage itself. Here and here.
Also an accent
you absolutely have to have. And underneath here
even though we don't have the pelvis
in its entirety and we only have the crest,
the iliac crest, and that's what
we need to have. We also
need to show
the manubrium and accent
even more than maybe is obvious
the opening of the ribcage and the xiphoid
process. Now I'm going to make sure
that we can see clearly the end of this. And you
would see that I'm - the proportions here I'm not too
concerned with really making it
exactly as I
see it. I'm more interested in picking out
the bits of information that we have
here in order
to build as much structure and anatomy into here
into our anatomical
model here as we can.
thing we need to think about is of course our main changes in plane.
And we've already covered
a lot of the important ones. So
followed by the sternal angle
change in plane, here the end of the
sternum is a change in plane and it continues for
a tiny amount and then
protrudes outward almost here, and then begins to curve back
in causing the shadow that we see here
that's being cast
onto the abdominals.
From the end of the ribcage, this corner, and you
remember from that intersection between the sternal end and the middle
portion of the clavicle, you can have a line
that will essentially give you
the difference between the front and the side plane.
You can also continue and add
that intermediary plane to give you a cleaner
and more orderly
with the structures that we have here, the abdomen
if it's uncovered,
and of course this is an area where
one usually has fat
obscuring a lot of the muscles,
movement of the
changes in plane as you go from the
opening of the ribcage
down to the pelvis.
And here it's not as clear
generally that's what's happening.
So in profile -
and I'm sort of
pushing all this out a little bit. Those would be the rectus abdominis.
The obliques would be here.
We're not gonna concern ourselves too much with
what's happening in the back at the moment
so you can see the changes in plane here.
And then there's...
Okay. So we're going to
try to explore that as much as possible here but
it is in a shadow or a half tone and
we don't need to overemphasize
it though we're going to spend some time there anyway.
And the structure of the obliques generally
is thought of as having a side plane and a small plane in front.
And of course, as with everything, it's not exactly
the side plane it is at an angle
and then that flatter portion you can see there's
protrusion caused by the rectus abdominis.
To add, here you remember that
ellipse, that opening of the first
that also is part of the changes in plane
that you could be thinking about. These angles
in profile are quite important. But they're also important -
they're not only important in
profile, they're just not as pronounced in other views.
So now that
things are in place, I have
sort of pulled in the arm
a little closer than what we actually see so I will make some adjustments.
Probably just a little bit more
And correct and
the width of the deltoid
pretty much the width of the pectoralis right here, that's about right.
And you can see
the nipple is right here. I wouldn't pay too much
attention to it, mainly because the importance of
the nipples is to create
another horizontal alignment.
So I'm just going over things to -
going over things to make
sure we haven't forgotten anything, even though of course if we have
we can always we can put it back. And to
still be able to place our center line because
this cut is not exactly at the halfway point
and we still have our center line.
usually the distance between the end
the ribcage, the bottom and the iliac
crest, is only about
as wide as a hand
here, I guess for the purposes of explanation
there's a little bit of extension happening
so we have a larger amount of room here
than you would probably be able to
perceive on a live model. But
okay so with all of this in place
why don't we
carefully and why don't we begin
modeling the forms.
it's a little bit harder to do because we don't have the
the figure in its entirety but we're trying to align
and move slightly
the sternal notch
it should fall somewhere here. If you just drop
a vertical from the sternal notch that will
greatly help in placement.
bring this in just a tiny bit.
And here you see
a lighter area,
that's an important plane and that's sort of
where the abdominals -
are being slightly pushed up around the area
of the xiphoid process and also
in part by the xiphoid process. So
here we - so
now we can really
continue with our
modeling. So it is
even more important here to really -
to really pick out those key
those key points. So here you see
rib number nine and its
and it's partially because
it's in an area that's
not covered by the abdomials.
And so we
need to really stand out.
Now here you can see
that after that widest point
of the ribcage
sort of around the area of the eighth and the ninth
rib. The ribcage needs to turn that way
and that is something to really capture
right away because you want to get a feeling
for the ribcage inside.
You want to make sure that
it really reads as
a mass on top of which we have all
of these other smaller structures.
that are of course altering the
but at the
same time have to
be subjected to
the larger structures of the ribcage
the masses. So
in part you kinda wanna
just take your time and really
establish all of these things. So here
we have the front plane.
and since our light on this torso is
is the same as it was on the ribcage, we know
that the front plane
is in a half tone. So we can just get it
into that half tone right away.
And then to reinforce that terminator and cast shadow
pectoralis. Now that arm is
which means it's pulled out away
from the torso.
And that's what abduction means.
An easy way
to remember it is to think of
abducting a person, it means -
not that you should abduct anyone but - which means
to take them away from
wherever they would prefer to be.
You know, against their will of course.
In this case the arm is abducted by an act of
will. So that's
a difference to consider but -
so with the arm abducted
planes of the pectoralis
are obviously they're going to obscure the forms
of the ribcage.
And yet you can see this bit of light
right here, which is very helpful in finding that
plane, that turn, and it's that point where
the muscles, the parts of the
pectoralis are sort of suspended above
the ribcage on this side and still following the form
here and actually
partially attaching to the ribs there. So
this is a change in plane that
is still important even though it's
describing something else.
It's not describing the change in plane in the
ribcage but still
giving us a hint of where the ribcage is, as well as
showing a little bit of the action of the pectoralis.
So here we can see that
those protruding ribs, along with the
external oblique on top of it, that's where
we're catching the largest amount of light. So
I'd like to just get that into
so that we can have this area
as our main light.
we can push back the abdominals into
abdominal cavity there.
I'm going to just
move this up slightly.
And then continue this here
because that's really where there's a major change
in plane. See it's sort of complicated, there's
a lot happening there.
There are areas that
are pushed up and then
fall all at
very particular angles dependent on the
So we're concerned more with, at the moment, with
larger elements of the form. And here along -
along this cut, along this edge, we can
a little bit more. This cut, as with all cuts
is going to give us
quite a large amount of information.
So then here we have
some of the muscular -
muscular protrusions of
But we can't overemphasize them. We don't
need them to take
over and be more prominent than
than the ribcage.
And even then
it's all going to be in a half tone,
we don't need it so prominent and it's underneath
and curving inwards. So it's not gonna
catch as much light as our forms on top here.
So here is a nice chance to get a little bit more
information on the ribs. So this being rib number nine,
this up here being rib number
eight, we can
follow the rib further back.
And here's where our
experience with the ribcage, but
especially the ribcage that we were working from, the one with the intercostals,
is really gonna
come in handy. And here you have rib number
five coming to right about the same point
as the opening of the ribcage and the top of the xiphoid process.
And you want to have
the continuation of these lines along the
contour inwards to get a
feeling for that larger
egg shape if you will of the ribcage.
So we need these
continuations even though they're part of
a different group.
here we get to
place that cast shadow onto the
sort of highlighting our center line.
And we might as well follow with our center line, that's our
xiphoid process, our center line is going to be a little bit
off the edge there.
You can see sort of very clearly
where the nipple is placed we're getting a
different change in form.
change of the - this is the
very slightly more of a side plane.
still want to continue everything here but let's use these cuts
and in some cases even
exaggerate them to show the other
And to go back here and make sure we're getting that
arc of the rib cage.
But this can't end - at the moment this feels like it's ending a little too abruptly.
So I think we really need to push the half tones here
coming off of that sort of front plane of the ninth rib so
we might a swell take the ninth rib further back
as well as
just get that half tone
on the eighth
rib as well. Only to allow us to
then continue up with that highlight
serratus anterior. Now
this is a line you're going to be seeing a lot over the course of your
artistic education from the model.
It's that particular
turn of the
pectoralis, right at the bottom.
why don't we
place some of those serratus interior.
and there's that final part of them that we see
there's often a little bit of confusion because
often, as I said, what you see coming off of the
serratus are not ribs, but those interlocking
elements of the external oblique
and the rib is somewhere in between. So
that is a challenge. To really establish
what's what. And
to tell you the truth, you don't actually always have
to make it clear what it is you're looking at
when it come to that.
It's nice if you can but a lot
of times, regardless of what
that element is,
I'm gonna bring this down actually
regardless of what that element is.
drawn with the idea of
form in mind
then it won't really matter.
You still get that curving upwards and
And a lot of times a way that you
can - that you can
figure out what it
is if you touch it.
I don't recommend touching a model unless you ask and are
allowed but a lot of times
you might be able to figure stuff out on your own bodies as well.
I actually advise
quite strongly against touching a model
and asking to explore some of the anatomy
but at the same time it is helpful. The other
take to really see what's happening
is to ask the model to move a bit.
To move his or her arm
up and down so you can see the action of these muscles as they
kind of uncover, depending on the movement of
the forms underneath.
can't ask a model to move
but at the same time I think
everything here is pretty clear.
spending a lot of time in these areas. Here we get a little bit on rib -
on the last rib of th -e
of the ribcage in the front.
The last one still attached
rib number ten.
And we can really mark that with
an accent, even if that's not what
And here is where
some of this
stuff that I was talking about before really becomes apparent.
How important it is to be able to see
those underlying skeletal structures
and accent them.
Make sure they read clearer. And see
here, this presents
a slight problem, mainly because
since this is a cast the muscles
are just as hard as the bones.
While of course this is not the case,
in a human body
where the bones are gonna be harder. So
thing that you want to be thinking about
you have to find as many ways as possible
the difference between the hard tissues and the soft ones.
I think at this point,
and I did this in some of the other
examples, but you see
this will begin happening more and more -
more and more as we get
sort of a more complex
conglomeration of the
hard tissues and soft ones.
Now I haven't done
any work on top just yet.
I've been focusing
on the ribcage. Even here
that's a cut, but it's still a round, very important area
so why not make sure that that reads like it should?
And then see how here, this is not as sharp
of a contour on the external obliques.
In some ways this is, of course, a trick,
in order to
really explore these parts
of the external oblique. I
highly recommend going and looking at
He really makes it as clear as
possible what parts
of the oblique are sort of
extending and elongating the curvature
of the ribcage and then which parts of it are
filling in the gap
iliac crest and the ribcage.
It's extremely important to him to
cut the oblique into at least two parts.
One that's continuing the movement here and one
that's bunching up
and connecting to the iliac crest.
in a way
the way that I'm working here is a lot -
is pretty much the way that I work from
on a model. I spend
most of my time at the beginning after establishing some sort of
overall movement and balance
on the forms of the ribcage
and their connection to the pelvis.
I don't normally spend that much time on the abdomen
because you really want the ribcage and the pelvis
to be drawn in as solidly as possible.
the most important role.
The gesture comes
out of them. And of course it can be sort of pushed,
accentuated, or even contradicted
by the arms and the
the legs, the arms, the
legs and the head.
But at the same time
since this approach is
one might even call architectural, there is -
to start with the core and build out.
So that's why I have
not worked on the arm here yet.
And here I think we can see
my sort of proportional
bias at work. And even though
this torso does feel a little long
I think I've elongated it even more.
Okay I think that
with the torso kind of in place
I'm liking where it is.
I think it's time to move on
to the parts that we actually already have
spent some time with.
and the shoulder.
the inserts of the pectoralis at the humerus.
And we're gonna try to get
all of those parts that are sort of
but try to see them as
sort of the larger groups before you break them down.
And now you can see here how this line
right here, that end of this group here
kind of, if you were to continue it, it falls pretty much
into the sternal angle and rib number two
so you can just see how that will act as
a line that just carries them across all the way.
Then followed by this group here
the group underneath that.
the top one is starting at the bottom.
now we have that little bit of that gap right here between
part or the portion, head,
whatever, of the
and now the deltoid.
Got carried away there with
that shadow. Forgot what I was saying. So
now it's necessary to place those cast shadows
from that top portion onto the portions underneath
move it up to the
clavicular head of the clavicle.
And to tone it all away a little bit, it's
because remember that
change of plane from that sternal portion
that that would be the front place.
In our current conditions of light
that is in a half tone.
remember to keep in mind the orientation of the object
in front of you
and its relation
to your source of light as well as to you as
this constant consideration of point of view
that I think is so important
both for our craft and for our art.
Because I think in general we've moved past
art uncovering truths of a universal
And at the moment focus is primarily on opinions.
That sometimes are
also almost of a universal nature.
And here is a very
area that we spent some time on when working on the clavicles
and the neck. It's that little bit of a cast shadow
from the deltoid onto the clavicle and falling into
the infraclavicular fossa.
But it was important at that point and
it's still important now.
And inside let's try to find the end of the pectoralis and,
disregarding what we see,
make sure your cast shadow is a darker value
than your core shadow.
even here I'm not entirely interested
at the moment, spending too much time
on the muscles of the arm.
So I don't want to
emphasize the deltoid here, which
say that it's a muscle of the arm or you could say
it belongs to the torso, upper torso, and shoulder girdle
and you would be correct
on both accounts but
we just need to see how
the parts of the deltoid,
not only the large portions but the small
ones, are coming out and around
here a tiny amount. It's
not a twist that's too large but it plays a role
and it plays a role because it creates -
it kind of divides
divides the accromial portion
into two parts of
Moving up to the trapezius there
and not doing a lot but making sure
it's a shadow that reads.
And the clavicle of course
Clavicle and accromial, which we already have outlines.
I said outline and
saw that contrary to what I was saying earlier,
the obliques there are a little overstated.
I don't wanna
do much with the arm here. We're gonna do the arm
And right now
at this point we can sort of establish
this as the top plane
this as the top plane
of the deltoid
and we know its accromial portion is the side and its anterior the front
and we know what happens to our front planes in this light, they become half tones.
that edge between top and side
or top and front even is our
Now I'm gonna go
the pectoralis. I'll move
back up there.
But before I do I wanted to
be placed in a nice half tone of its own
so that we have room to
pull out things we need most
in our highlights.
All that. And
here we have one of the portions
and it's time to get even more
and use our cast shadows
as we know how, to give us
the form that they're falling on.
Now in general this is
that plane which, if I remember correctly, we saw quite clearly
on our ribcage.
coming from the
sort of very clear protrusion of ribs five and six
go so far
as to pull that even further, focusing here
on rib nine.
But not only the shadows but also
the half tones.
Of course the more you work, the smoother everything
becomes and you kind of start to lose
the hatch at times
and things get a little
though it is kind of a
I like to think that even in academic
the hand of the
whose intention either way is to still become an artists so we might as well already
begin calling him that. or her.
I think you still need those qualities.
And you need them early on in your training.
And as in
instructor I do try to preserve them in
that being said, here I am kind of
kind of killing the
marks and handling of the medium that might be
making this come to life.
But I'll just keep it in mind
and make sure to
reintroduce a strong
an accent that can
really draw attention to itself.
Here is that part I was talking about,
took me a while to see where
it is on
this cast even though it's written right on it
but that particular separation
part of the oblique
that is connecting
and sort of describing the forms of the pelvis
and the one here that's continuing the forms of the
Now along our center line we can place
also known as the belly button.
And I highly recommend you don't place it until you have
your center line in the right place. I mean it's not a problem, you can always
center line and then the naval as well.
Always start with your center line
and place the naval in relation to it, not the other way around.
And make sure it's on your center line and
not off of it.
bits of light.
And even here,
even right now because of all these half tones,
they're not in a dark
enough half tone I think. They're not in there enough.
And everything down here I don't want too much of
I want to keep it a little more outlined, a little more constructed.
Now just keep in mind also that - this right here is confusing
me - first and foremost is not
the sort of opening of the ribcage.
It's not the highest point of that arch.
That point is not here so in order
to make that evident, this cast shadow I'm going to
a darker value than it really is
than I see it. Because I want
to make sure and then this bit of light
right here I will also
accentuate, mainly because
I want -
I want that to stand out.
Now as you see I kind of go into
I clean up the outline and then I
almost immediately carve
out of it and into it so
that's a constant
is feeling a little too light for me so I'm just - without
giving it too much of some sort of descriptive form.
now that our rib cage
and upper torso is beginning to read
like I want it to,
I think we can just put a few accents and be a little more specific
with what's going on here with the shoulder girdle.
And that is mostly
the use of
cast shadows -
cast shadows to get
all of the information
And here there's a little bit
the omohyoid I'm not going to bother.
It's not gonna
add much to what we already
And some of these parts - a lot like
we did with
I think by now you see how
I approach this and I'm
talking the whole time while I'm doing
this but I think when I'm doing it on my own I'm saying
the - I'm saying all of the same things just not out loud.
Maybe out loud, I don't know. But -
and what I mean by that is that like the moment -
I'm just picking up on these things
right now. The moment that I said pectoralis,
the word itself was,
the moment that I stopped the -
what I was
trying to do on the deltoid and
just moved back onto the pectoralis.
And there it's happening again. So
I think that has something to do with the way that I
think about all of this and how I hop around
part to part in the drawing.
Here we can
distinguish that other part,
Yet another part. And
just a general hatch there
will be helpful.
Our highlights and the -
let's spend most of the time
figuring out where the acromion is
and where even some of these individual
like this part of the bone on the top plane there.
And the armpits
and everything that makes up the armpits is an accent.
It's an accent that has to be sort of taken across to the other
side. So let's make sure it reads
like an accent here as well.
placed but not so clearly seen
is our ASIS, the anterior
superior iliac spine.
If there is a single point
that you come away with
from this entire course, I hope
Just making sure that clavicle's reading as well as -
a little bit of a half tone on the top portions right there. Just getting it
a little rounder, towards its rounder end which is only
going to help describe its form
too, I think that this side is just a
little too light. It's creating too much of a contrast
where it needs to be a continuation. And
I don't mean to the page, I mean to our center line
and the forms along it.
So there we have it. I think we've covered
some very important aspects of the torso from the front
and hopefully you saw how
a lot of the stuff that we talked about
individual analysis of the ribcage, the pelvis,
are coming into play and are
sort of providing a little more contest for all of this
I imagine just keeps piling up.
Now let's move on to the back.
write down the main muscles of the torso discussed in this lesson.
Then, using the 3D viewer or the provided photographs,
draw the Eliot Goldfinger torso cast in the front,
paying particular attention to the skeletal landmarks.
the torso from
the front, let's begin the
back by putting together some of those
anatomical elements that we've already covered.
And they of course are going to be the pelvis
and the ribcage. But as an added one
we can see
where the scapula is. And now
what we do have in front of us is
individual casts that
we put together so that
could see what's going on
inside. And so on one side we have
all of the internal muscles of the back
and on the other the external ones.
is going to be quite important in helping us
understand what's going on, primarily
with the scapula.
So we're not gonna worry too much about the spine here, mainly because we don't have it
very clear so
we could just make sure it exists as sort of
a guideline as our center line.
of course, as with
the front, the torso from the front,
with the back as well what we need
is to figure out where the ribcage is,
what are the major changes in plane,
and where the pelvis is.
and how they are connected.
And that of course will also help with our alignments.
So right here we
can see, along with its pair, an important element that
we have covered before. The posterior superior
iliac spine. Along with
the iliac crest.
Now we don't see the whole thing but we've already
had a fair amount of experience
to be able to
take it all the way in.
Here we have
the posterior superior iliac
spine of the pelvis, along with the iliac crest.
Which, based on our
actually I'll bring it down a bit. Based on
our understanding, here we're going to have the sacrum,
is already giving us a little bit of
what the construction of this area is going to look like.
And above it we have
If you remember the ribcage
in its posterior view
is actually easier to construct than
the anterior view.
find vertebrae eight.
The beginning of the thoracic vertebrae
and here we have
our ellipse of rib number one
we can take this out. And you remember that the important
line, the important change in plane here,
is along the angle of
Alright. Now we also -
remember that there's an
akin to the opening
of the ribcage in front, off of
rib number 11.
Which I think we can pretty much establish here.
we can see quite
an interesting thing
beginning to happen in that we have
a major change in plane
both in the pelvis
are major changes in plane between
the front and the side from our view and
if we connect them, then
we essentially have the major changes in plane in the back.
Now the other very
important thing to
think about when working on the
is a placement
of the scapuli
and that being yet
another bony skeletal
is important to establish. So here, where
the external muscles are removed, we can
clearly see that
edge, the medial edge of
the scapula and its inferior angle.
And then, I would just continue upward
construction that we've already looked at
and remember that it's a particularly a triangle and
all the way up to the spine of the scapula.
the upper part of it
Curves in from our angle, away from us.
Now that we have that though, even though
it's not as obvious what's happening here because of all the muscles covering it
we can use the scapula here to find the placement
of the scapula that's closer to us.
And so if we're thinking of sort of the angle
of our major change
in plane, the scapula
is slightly tilted out
from in its relaxed position.
And then you can
see that the spine on the
scapula is still rather clear, right under
the trapezius over there. And we'll talk about that in more detail
a little later. And then
right here, even though there is
a certain amount of coverage, the same is happening here actually. You don't
see that border really
you can take this upwards
and make sure you have
Now of course we also want the spine of the scapula
because that is one of the primary components of the
shoulder girdle, as we know.
So here we have
a sort of primary
construction of the back.
Now let's explore a bit
of some of the other elements.
But before we do that
don't we observe this one interesting thing, that
if you're looking at the overall major changes of
plane, you remember that there's a bit of a concavity
here - it's not flat across.
The interesting thing is that concavity
is actually amplified by
the medial edge, the medial border
of the scapula itself.
So that begins to happen. So
the one thing to keep thinking about
is this kind of accordion element
that is happening to some degree all across
the back in every part.
Okay, so now let's get
a little more specific and let's start with some of the
underlying structures, though I am going to hint
at the spinous processes.
This is a major element
and that is the seventh
And we can't see it that clearly
but if you touch the back of your
neck, you'll see how prominent it is.
And you remember that the
eighth is the origin of that ellipse.
ellipse created by the first
rib and the
base of our
so now that that's in place
let's begin with some muscles
here and here
that stretch from the spine
that medial border of
Okay. Always take look at your proportions
but only after you put something on paper.
Now the muscle here,
a larger one and a smaller one, is known as
both major and minor.
And if you take it across to the other side actually
there's one tiny part of it that you
will be able to
It's not entirely covered.
remember, we spoke about the serratus
anterior and you remember that
I mentioned that they attach to the
underside of the scapula. So
when this is for the most part
can see that part right here.
And they're also
going to influence the
overall topography of this area
even after they are covered.
Now here is of course
some of the stuff that's the most important.
Eighth rib, ninth rib,
here we already have the
We don't need to
really place them right no. So
in this particular area of the back
and now here
in this gap all the way across and going underneath
the rhomboids is the
group of muscles along the spine
on both sides but known as the erector
And there are a lot of them that make up the group here.
And then in this area
we get a glimpse
of the external oblique
that we saw a
lot of in the front of the torso
and the internal oblique that's inside them.
And you won't really see too much
of the internal oblique on the other
side that's a bit more covered
but it is essentially
in that area.
this band, the part
that's the most important in the erector
spinae group, primarily here
where it's holding up the spine
and keeping it erect.
Inside here it isn't as prominent
and flattens a bit.
creates these bands here that
Going to slightly adjust that.
And remember to align everything
even as you - so especially
as you have gone back over it and
decided to align something. Okay so
the thing that we need to talk about right now though,
and this is slightly more complicated,
if you remember the sphenoid fossa.
And here we have the
we're going to cover arms
on their own
but at least here
we do remember that the deltoid -
and I'm just going to put it
in quite lightly -
originates from the clavicle, the accromion,
and the spine of the scapula. Because we have the spine of the scapula and we
even have the clavicle right here
and the acromion right here, the
posterior portion and a little bit of the
accromial, we're going to still be able to perceive.
Now underneath is the
group known as the triceps, it's a muscle
consisting of a few heads but we're not going to -
we're not going to get into that right now. We'll talk
about it a bit more when we
talk about the arm. And then
here this part
is uncovered and will allow us to really pick out
what's happening. And you have a group of
muscles here -
along and yeah.
The most important one here
being this muscle right here
and that we can see quite clearly here as well
connecting to the humerus on its medial
portion. And it's called
the teres major.
Off of it you can see
a smaller one
coming up here and you can
see it right here as well there's sort of a gap
in between here.
And the thing
that you have to be aware of is that in between
these two. And if you were wondering what that small one was called
it's called teres minor.
of the heads, the long head of the triceps - and we'll talk about this
a little bit later - it's one of the heads of
the triceps originates right
underneath the glenoid fossa
and passes in between
the teres major
and minor. And you can see that happening
right here as well.
There it is.
But that's not
our main concern.
Up a bit higher and filling in
this area is
a muscle known as the infraspinatus.
And you can easily see
that it simply means underneath the spine of
the scapula. Okay so
we almost covered essentially all that we need
to cover, except a few important
muscles that I'm sure you might already
be aware of. Before we put them in
let's make sure that our
here as well.
And you remember
how they go. Okay and so
this we need to introduce
a muscle by the name of
Which translates as
wide of the back.
is implied. So
it's called this because it's so
And you can see it here and it kind of
slightly covers the
inferior angle of the
scapula and continues
and attaches pretty much in the same area as the
teres major. There's a little bit of a twisting
going on at the attachment, we're not gonna get into that ,
pretty much it's covered in a large number of anatomy
books but the important thing is that it's sort of cradling
the teres major as well.
And then you can see it right here
it's quite a large muscle
and it actually it
covers all of this - but around
the muscle part
is right here and this whole area
is not a muscular part it's like a
thin covering and a number of muscles have them,
is known as the aponeurosis.
And so this right here is the aponeurosis of the
So the final thing to add
is a muscle that we've already had a fair amount of experience
with when we saw it up here
and it is known as the trapezius.
Because it's trapezoidal in shape
and it has a number of parts but you
remember that it comes down
from the head and attaches
to the clavicle
and the spine of the scapula. And it's got
a large mass
so we're going to need to erase a tiny amount so that we can sort of place
it and the way that we've aligned
the parts of the back here, I think it's much clearer that one part
is clearly above the other. So there's going
to be - its origin is at the
spine. And then it's
attachments are all along here. And so
it actually it attaches
all along the spine of the scapula
all the way to the end and there's a
tendonous part that attaches to that area of the origin of the spine of
the scapula and that tendon is quite visible.
the spine of the
scapula actually stand out. And then it continues
down that way. And in
this area is where I told you that
you would be able to perceive a tiny part of the
Okay. So why don't we
quickly add a few elements here that we are
going to cover when we work on the
muscles of the leg
and here you have gluteus medius.
It is going to come up again.
And up here
you have the top part, there's
a cut there, you have
We're not going to get into that
right now. And so
and here the
latissimus is attaching
ribs. And so you might
be able to perceive
a kind of jagged area there.
here we have
all the things that are absolutely
of prime importance.
Except of course
this part right here, both a tendonous part
as well as the muscle itself but the
posterior portion of the deltoid
as comes off of
the spine of the scapula and covers
the infraspinatus and the
The other thing to think
about is we can't see it here
so I don't want to sort of overemphasize but it is important,
is that we did mention in brief the seventh
cervical vertebrae. And it's important
to know that the actual muscular
area of the trapezius
and there is also a sort of tendonous portion that
that vertebrae, which is why it's so prominent.
So it becomes like all skeletal points that
we can perceive
from the outside, as clear as
that becomes an important -
an important anatomical landmark.
So okay, so with this bit of
analysis and now that we are
aware of what's happening here
so let's add a bit of
let's get a little more specific
as well as place our shadows. So
I'm going to begin
the medial border
of the scapula here. And
I'm going to use the
terminators to also
get cleaner lines.
And really pay attention to the area of
well as the tiny little
cast shadows that come after them to
really establish those changes in plane. So if that
is happening, then that would be the end of our core shadow
with our cast
shadow on the plane right next to it.
And here this shadow,
terminator, core shadow, and
a little bit of that cast shadow and occlusion shadow - more of an occlusion shadow than anything
else - on the rhomboid minor.
But then here I'd like to get in
and you can see the tiny amount
of core shadow on the upper part of the
The medial border of the scapula
on the rhomboid minor here and
we do have the muscles underneath
in this area
that are usually covered or
are covered by the trapezius. So
I'm not going to talk about them too much
but I still want a little more clarity in the outlines
and it's good to be a little more specific. So now
like we have been doing with the clavicles,
I'm going to outline
the spine of the scapula and I
recommend that you do that as well, even when
its partially covered up. In our case
here, it's rather open.
Then there's that core
shadow and then there's that bit of cast shadow -
of cast shadow that falls from
the spine of the scapula
onto this area that is the
Now remember this is not necessarily an anatomy
class but I do think it's important to get
into the habit of trying to
just figure out and understand what you're seeing in front
of you. Here I'm also not
too concerned with that kind - with like
establishing atmosphere and so I did -
I started with the scapula here
even though it is further away from us. This is
the scapula that should really get all the attention.
But for the purposes
of our explanations,
I'm going to make sure
it reads. So I'm going to continue
down to here. And you can see here that
there is a half tone here, not so much
shadow in that area, due to the attachment of the
of the rhomboid
And so it will kind of
ease and soften this change of
plane between the medial border of the
and the back and the ribcage.
And then I'm going to continue.
And make sure we have
core shadow and even a little bit of a cast -
a little bit of a cast shadow on the
serratus anterior. And that
overlap in the outline here is quite important
because it's going to give us
the ribcage itself. And of course
as with all of our assignments and exercises
once you begin to place your shadows
there are a number of proportional
issues that come up that become a bit more obvious
and so I'm just gonna keep correcting them as I go.
This is our
shadow from the rhomboid major
and the scapula, which has a fairly clear -
a fairly clear edge but
I'm only going to want it in one area
and I need it to emphasize the
egg shape of the
of the ribcage. Okay so I'm gonna continue now
So I'm gonna begin to work
around those same areas that we were working on
here, except incorporating -
muscles on top. So here we have a
larger area and sort of a muscular
mass of the trapezius up here.
At its attachment
at the spine of the scapula. Now but that spine of the scapula
is actually going to help us a lot. Mainly because that is the change in plane.
So right here on top
we have the terminator
and our core shadow, which will
the form of the trapezius up there.
change in plane where the tendon of the trapezius is
as well as the scapula
on its own
and even parts of the
deltoid right here
the tendon of the deltoid
that's connecting to - that's originating from the spine of the scapula.
And then we can make even more obvious than we
see it, the cast shadow from the
trapezius, which is really going
to help us
define those forms.
There's a little bit of light
right there and then here we have
the cast shadow. Now it doesn't have to be as obvious
separated but at the
same time, it won't
So at the moment it's just
roughed in a bit. So
then we can show that edge, that slight thickness of the
trapezius here, which flattens out.
And here too
the tiniest cast shadow
is going to help
including right here
on that part that you can still see of the rhomboid
And this whole area
underneath the rhomboid, which of course
you won't be able to see
as clearly on
a model because it's filled in,
but for our purposes it's actually going to give us a nice
a nice contrast
to bring out the interior border
of the scapula on this side.
Okay so let's move on.
I'm gonna come back up here
and make sure to get that edge.
We can see that edge, that change in plane
on almost, kind of like the
underside of the
deltoid. So that
as well will require a terminator
core shadow, and so on.
Followed by, of course
a cast shadow
that is falling on the infraspinatus and
kind of combining with the
terminator on the
that part of the infraspinatus and the teres minor.
Now we spoke briefly about the teres minor and I pointed out
where it is. You can't always tell it apart
from the infraspinatus. At times it's
So think of it, if you need to, almost
as a group of its own. At the same time
you will always be able to distinguish
between the group there and the teres major.
And so I hope by now
you see how understanding what
the anatomy is is actually sort of guiding
copying areas of tone and shadow and
half tone abstractly
but I move
from one important element to another.
in essence, I'm not looking at everything
I'm looking at only a few elements
because if I
did not have this anatomy to guide me
I might get caught up in some sort of textural elements over
here or bumps that
though are actually in there
don't really play a major role.
So I'm going to
place this entire area with the exception of the
that light on the teres
I'm going to place that entire area into a shadow.
Of course I am still working on
figuring out where the shadows are in this case before moving on to the half tones.
Mainly because I think it's easier
in this case to get everything in place.
But of course there
is the other option to spend all your time on the half tones,
really understanding the
and then to see where you can place your shadows on top of that.
So and then all that we have here
is going to be
in shadow we don't need to
overemphasize it. This line's going to be important
of the trapezius and the
clavicle, let's find it again.
And the acromion right here, so just
always keep in mind where you have
that spine of the scapula. You want to make it as clear as possible
while still of course making it organic.
this is the
I guess the posterior portion
of the deltoid but
it is a major change in plane
as it sort of begins to turn from
us into the accromial portion.
make sure that's in place. Okay so
now's the time to see what's going on with the proportions
and more or
less I'm not
super concerned with proportional accuracy
here, mainly because I'm more interested in
what's happening with the back. So if things are
maybe elongated a bit or it's not
that big of a deal
especially because you're going to see
all different kinds of proportions on your models.
So now I'm picking up that edge
dorsi, which will
be our terminator line.
shadow right here but it
combines rather seamlessly
with the terminator,
our major changes in plane on the
erector spinae tat are underneath. So
you can see that beginning to happen
and you can see it inside and underneath.
Now the other interesting thing, and it's not so clear here,
but what actually begins to happen is that this slight
bulging of the serratus interior actually
comes up underneath the
we can hint at it, that'll be good.
But in the meantime,
without making it overly heavy
just gonna make sure it's in
it's placed properly in shadow.
But I'm going to also continue with our -
and here there are a few sort of bulging
not of prime importance but they will add
a bit of interest I think.
And I'm going to go back into that of course.
It's sort of - it's too large of an area to keep just
I moved back up here for a second because I wanted to make sure that
we can see the amount that the trapezius
here comes up above everything
underneath. But you could also see where the trapezius
sort of begins to come apart a little bit here
to give room and to make clear
the seventh cervical vertebrae.
urge you to take a look at what makes up the
erector spinae because it
can help. It can
make just this area
a little more intricate.
And so there is
a mass right here
one part of the erector spinae but there's also another one right here,
so we could differentiate between them and you can begin to -
can begin to pick them out. And also there is sort of
a change in topography due to the latissimus here
and its aponeurosis.
This area as well. So the actual
muscular part is
also in that area. So
there are going to be
in that topography
because of all that's going on there. But I want
you to be aware of the large
issues. So here
just to take care of this area
we could place our
cast shadow on the gluteus medius and on the areas of the pelvis here
that's coming off of this entire area here.
Okay, so of course
there's more to do but I just want to make sure to have
everything we need in order to move on.
And right here
you remember that opening
that sort of comes after rib number 11. And so
even though it's covered, you can still begin to see
that sort of change in plane and that roundness of
the rib cage in those parts. Here we
actually have a little bit of the spine
itself. And as you can see it does not stick out as much
when all of the muscles are attached there, as of course
it does on the ribcage on its own.
But here most importantly
I would like to make sure
to get that
curvature. And the hard part here is that it's all kind of
due to the texture and all of that, it's kind of a combination
of half tones and shadows. Smaller half tones, smaller areas of
shadow that are really -
that if you sort of do piece by piece
might get a little bit confusing.
So we kind of have to establish a tonality
that is going to allow us to get a read
on that roundness. And then
go into it and make all the necessary
as well as
a bit more clarity on the
where the ribcage is there.
But I'm sort of figuring it out right now as a group.
So as you can see by now, the back is quite
intricate. There's a lot happening. So it's
particularly important to understand its overall
so that you can avoid getting lost in the details. Now here
this is a flatter plane so
I feel like I just need to make that obvious
by placing it in a half tone. And then if I need I'll emphasize
emphasize our shadows in that area
as well. Of course what's happening is
this value, this value, and even that value are currently all
exactly the same but I sometimes find
that's a good place to start.
Where you really need
to push you along.
So I'm going to work in this area
here with all of
those small changes
and variations between our cast shadows and terminators
are occurring on pretty much a single plane.
So pay particular attention
to the part that is casting
and then when that cast shadow ends
the core shadow entirely unrelated
to the cast -
entirely unrelated to the cast shadow right above it. Though it might seem
as though they're connected.
I think I need to
extend that shadow out a little bit more.
And we can have a gradient here
but it still has to read like shadow.
Okay so I think it's moving along now
and I'd like to come back to
these half tones and shadows
in this area underneath, this really important
ribcage. And the interesting part is that even though of course it's slightly more covered here
that's something to still always be thinking about and to make sure
we get in place so we get the full end of the
ribcage, despite all of the
muscles on top of it.
Here is where that
that major change in plane is really going to be taking
place. And that's
the end of our ribcage and 12th rib there.
Now if you were -
slightly darker occlusion elements in there
are going to help because they will make it easier to differentiate
between the groups of
muscles that we have there.
And then we can make our
iliac crest more obvious as well as
establish once again, because they've got a little bit lost,
where the iliac
the posterior superior iliac spine is.
Because some of these half tones have begun to come in, I'm not
adding too much into this at the
moment. Mainly because I want to make sure that we have all
of the other half tones that we need. And so just have to figure out where
our light is
primarily heading and then to apply that
sort of accordion concept that
we've already seen in action. So we know
that our major changes in plane are going to come at the
medial border of the scapula.
So if our light
is from there,
then the scapula itself here
we can place into
a half tone of sorts.
And then what we can
do here, this is a little bit harder mainly because
this is turning up
right here and then begins to turn under.
And so the interesting part here
is that this area, if it were
a plane situated more
vertically, will probably not be catching the same amount of light
as the scapula there.
However, our scapula is already beginning to turn away from us,
this is beginning to turn upwards
and then here is essentially a
plane of relative vertically. So we're going to
slightly modify that accordion concept
here by making sure that
our scapula here is
sort of turning away from us so of course is going to be in somewhat of a half tone but
is catching a lot of light. And so
we're gonna need to really establish those areas of highlight
to make sure that the closest areas
over there read and
and then the rhomboids here
not as important because they're rhomboids, more important
because they're going to
give us the curvature o the ribcage here, which of course is obscured a bit
with the trapezius and then make sure that
is darker than the rhomboids. So
we begin to get
the vertical curvature at the same time
that we're thinking of the changes in plane across
and the horizontal curvature down here.
I've put a lot of those
elements in at the
beginning, a lot of these sort of anatomical areas and
outlines. But the way that I'm going about this
right now is sort of, for lack of a better term,
A term that I would prefer is
in a way that's more organic, that's
kind of not focusing so
much on all those particulars as much as the
larger changes. Okay so
that will be enough
for now. And now let's figure out what's
happening with the trapezius and how it fits into this entire
situation. So this upper part of
the trapezius we can see, we can take it all the
way, as a plane almost, to the seventh
is the top plane of the trapezius.
Now around the area of
the sort of beginning of the spine of the scapula
we're going to have our major change
in plane but also a bulging out.
So this whole top part is going to need some important highlights
to establish where those planes are, as well as
in general be
due to where our light is, in general be a
lighter value than what's going on underneath down here.
here the accordion is quite
so it's going - this plane of the trapezius is
going to be catching a larger amount of light - I'm just going to
get it all in there - a larger amount of light than our scapula there.
But it still needs to be a darker value
than the rhomboid right there.
you could imagine that if you have the trapezius here
you would be able
to simply calculate it accordingly.
we don't have this option and honestly I prefer that we
don't have it because
that way we're sort of adding an added element of analysis that
incorporates all of these things that we've been talking about
and kind of gives you a bit
more of an idea of what this process really
It's about - it's not about
being provided a construction or a formula,
it's about learning
to generate your own constructions and figure out
your own -
your own analysis of what you're seeing in front of you.
So I still think we can do a little bit more with this so.
And now that I'm beginning to
push these half tones, of course I'm
beginning to be more aware of
the fact that we're going to need to -
we're going to need to push some of our shadows as well.
Sometimes it helps to step away
quite a lot in order to see what's really happening.
And making sure to get a light up top
where we need it up there, while still
making sure that these planes that are moving away from us
are in the proper half tone.
And remember they're always going to be in the half tone
because you need it to be a half tone in relation to your highlights which are
always closer. Which are always at the edge of
that plane that's receding
a little more specific
with some of these elements. And keep in mind
that as we do go about
will lose some of those overall
major changes in plane.
do need to make this organic.
a lot of these
sort of changes
in the outer topography
are not only caused by the
individual parts of the trapezius
it's due to that fact that the erector spinae
continue all the way up to the back of the head.
Or all of those sort of component parts of the
erector spinae. Or to be even more specific not all of the component parts but only
some. So - and it's quite a large
group of muscles inside
So of course
the eraser comes into place here, it's quite handy
for really cleaning things up.
as always once you do begin to
get the half tones in,
you gotta go back into your shadows and
reflected lights and all that jazz.
These are problems that we've encountered
countless times by now and I think they really give an insight
approach and the importance of being open to constant
correct and modification and change.
And then we
can get some real clarification on
sort of the more observed parts,
let's say of the rhomboid here, things like that.
Now the rhomboid here
is, in essence, part of that
of the trapezius there.
A particular opening of that accordion.
So we want to make sure that this whole
area reads. Now
I feel like
I don't just feel, I see, that I clearly have lost
angle of the
So this is something
to really accent. Make sure you have really clean, sharp edges there.
and the necessary
contrasts. And this is going to be very important when working from a live
model because these things are not obvious.
They can be, depending on the model but
even on a model
where these things are relatively clear
it's obviously not even -
not even close to what we can see
on this écorché.
And the -
and the one thing,
that very important thing that's not happening here that of course happens on
a human that's alive, is
movement. And of course, that applies
to all of the -
all of the areas that we've already covered
and are still going to cover but
they're always is still a certain amount
of clarity there because even if
the arm moves around and you can see the action of
its different muscles,
you're still going to know where they are and what they are.
Now, the problem with the back, and sort of the importance of
really understanding what you're looking at is that with every
movement, some of
the changes in the topography can be so incredibly
drastic that you
you might even
forget that you looked at
the same back that we are working on here.
You'll think oh that's a muscle that I haven't covered or
I don't know what that is or I've lost the entirety of the
scapula. A lot can happen there and can be quite confusing
So that's why it's so important to know
the most important parts and what to watch
out for. Here of course we don't have
any movement, we also don't have anything
covered. So we can
kind of take our time and analyze and look and so on. But
that's why it is
so important to be aware of these important elements, make sure
they're locked in place as soon as possible.
And just to go
over them again, that is the spine of the scapula,
the medial border of the scapula,
the inferior angle of the scapula,
superior iliac spines
and I would go so far
as to add the teres major.
If you have those areas
on your piece of paper
I think you can begin to figure
out where everything else is in between them.
And of course at that point
then it's quite important to be aware of
those major groups of muscles
and how they sort of
create the main plane changes and emphasize
the major changes in plane of the
skeletal structures underneath.
And I'm speaking primarily about the erector spinae
and that major change in plane on the angle of the ribs.
Now here I'm going to just
introduce a little bit of an occlusion shadow in there between the
teres major and minor.
Now too much but I just want it to be a little more
obvious. But even if our teres major
is in shadow,
I want to make sure
I'll this tiny bit of information, teres
simply means round.
I don't know exactly why
it's called that because if you look
at it you always think it's sort of long
but maybe it's because it is in fact round
Of course I would also then add
but aren't a lot of muscles. So I don't actually know
why they thought that this one was the one
that they'd call round. But for
our purposes, let's make sure
that we're getting that roundness.
that it's sort of cradles -
sort of cradled.
Ah here we go,
here is that,
that pull out a bit, that movement outward
that is caused by the inferior angle
of the scapula as well as the serratus
anterior coming off
and out that way.
just a little more clarity on that latissimus.
So I think you
can see why now that
the names are not at all
complicated if you translate them.
There's a round one, there's a wide one, there's actually a long one in there.
Under and under
an element and over an element. So
after a while they just begin to click into place. Now here
I know this is a cast and it's cut there but
it's nice because we get a little bit of the ribcage
in there. So I feel like why not
make sure it reads.
And then right here
we're just going to not show too much but
here let's make sure
we kinda get a change in plane there.
And then that kind of outward
movement of the
to be even more specific
if I'm not mistaken I think latissimus
actually means the widest muscle
of the back. So
that's kind of an added explanation.
It does continue all the way from one
humerus to the other, if you will.
Now these two areas are feeling a little bit too sort of
so I'm just gonna
pull back on those. And then here, this is actually quite an
accent, it's - we can't see the entirety of the ribcage
but that is where the ribcage really is going to stick out. And if you
remember that is around the area between
kind of the eighth and ninth ribs.
I like how things are moving so far,
I'd like to kind of get this point, that end
of the trapezius right there.
Just lock it in there. And get into
the deltoid from the back a little bit more.
Now the posterior parts, it's sort of the flatter
though it does
stick out a bit more and has that -
the edge underneath.
So it probably -
understandable that you kind of
want to sort of inflate the deltoid because it looks
but I urge you to do think of it
at least in its
major portions. So
the anterior part is actually the -
is also the flat part and maybe even a little bit flatter in some areas
And the part that really comes out and around is the accromial.
A portion on the side. And all in all of course it creates a form
that's quite round. But
try to think of it in its portions and the major
changes in plane on each of them
and I think that'll help a lot.
Now here with the long
head of the triceps - we're gonna get into the triceps when we do the arm
and talk about the arm -
in which I'm talking about
all these parts and working on them and analyzing
them, it's kind of the order in
which I approach them when working from a model
so I've left the arms until the end
even though they are of course important and often extremely
do not contribute
to the sort of overall movement and gesture
to the same extent in my sort of
opinion as do
the major skeletal structures like the
ribcage, the pelvis, and then
the - and then
And here we can
begin to see kind of the end.
So you see even
though the posterior portion
has this area of
flatness right there, there are those
major changes in plane
going from the front, once again from our
angle, from the front to the side and then underneath
right there. And then here we're getting a little
bit of light on already what is the accromial
And then a little bit of these occlusion shadows,
kind of cast shadows, inside there
between the different muscles
even though they are all within the shadow.
Here we have the lateral head of the
triceps but that's all
we're going to do on that. So it's gonna
continue our points here to kind of to get that
attachment here, you remember, of the
trapezius to the ,
in this case, to the clavicle.
all in all you can kind of imagine our clavicles,
rib number one,
two, and so on. And
you can imagine the
in like so .
Already we've seen it from multiple angles.
The pectoralis, we've also seen it coming in right here
and the deltoid right there.
So you can see how everything revolves around
those super important elements of the clavicle
and the spine of the scapula.
Now let's get into some of what's
happening right here. I'm gonna just kind of make
sure to get this area that is
the spine and a little bit of clarity, sharp
edged kind of elements that
sort of - qualities rather that
are going to make this whole area at us a bit more
as a contrast against that.
I feel like slightly evening this part out and erasing it
just a bit so our
attention can go up here to the
But I'll do more of that later even.
Okay. But what we really need to focus on is right here.
And get back into really
describing that medial
really getting the end of
And here just getting a little bit more information and
topographical changes of
that whole area of the -
that whole area of the scapula
that's filled in by the infrspinatus.
because this is such
an accurate and clear
cast, you can really see sort of the individual -
that sort of individual small muscular components making up the
In there. And
the hard part is how much of it do you include and
like what's the amount that will sort of add a
textural quality that's nice, that will
kind of add a little bit of completion and how much of
something else. But the important
the important thing here is
that it might just be helpful in placing
those small areas of highlight that are really going
to sort of give us that
slightly upward facing plane of the rhomboid,
in this case
an obviously upward facing because of the
form of the ribcage, this area.
And the rhomboid minor there.
And in this case it's
so catching so much light
that I almost want to exaggerate those shadows
sort of a hard part right here because
you don't always
know what to focus on.
The fact that it's an important accent, the fact that
it sort of has a lot of contrast, the fact that it's
actually farther away and so maybe you don't need all that.
So it can get a little tricky,
these aren't the most important things to think about here because
we are more concerned with just anatomy and
exploring this whole area but those are things
that come up pretty much when you're drawing anything.
And here we can
really get that line right there, that
really gives us the ribcage itself.
We're not going down there yet but I just saw it.
There's the spine of the scapula
which I'm almost tempted
to get into some overall tone mainly to
really show that highlight on the spine of the scapula, really pop it out
And I'm gonna
just get into some of these - maybe even sort of
slight textural qualities here
mainly to attract some
attention. And so I think it's becoming fairly obvious that
even though we do of course have a
relative amount of clarity on the scapula,
once it's covered up, it's not as easy
to really see where it is.
we're probably gonna have to actually go back into this and really
just accent those important points.
And then here too we have the long head coming
out from in between
the teres major and minor.
Huh and we actually get a little bit more clarity here.
We can't see it from our side but we do actually see the lateral head from the -
that's on the humerus itself.
But I don't wanna do too much there.
But I'm tempted because it's nice and cool and I'm having a good time.
I'll leave it at that
So now I'm gonna get into some more
specifics. Like here, I do - I mean since
we have it I know I said sometimes the teres minor
it's just simply kind of a part coming off of
the teres major - of the infraspinatus,
I think it's pretty clear what we see, what's there
there's even a little bit of a highlight on the
teres minor, which does not seem too important
but kinda cool. Kinda
cool to observe.
Hmmm, depending on where I look I get slightly -
I'm gonna have to curve
that out occasionally. I don't think I actually see that much
of the serratus anterior.
Here, just gonna get into the erector
spinae, make sure we have a fully cleaner read
on what is actually shadow
and what isn't.
And it's not always obvious.
Here we have the external oblique,
you can see it coming right above the
and over the internal oblique. But then here we
really have the ribs there
and of course they're not uncovered.
There's a lot on top of them but there's still enough of
sort of a pull outwards there that's quite exciting
and we might as well spend some time on it.
of course, as I said, we're beginning to lose
those overall changes in plane, those
main forms of the ribcage that are
that's beginning to help bring them back.
And to make sure we get a clear
distinction there between
the internal oblique that you can see in that little area and the erector spinae.
Right there. And then a little bit of tone on the
erector spinae themselves.
Just squeeze that in a little bit.
So I think we're
getting quite close to something. Getting quite close to a
analyzed and yet
slightly more organic and worked
of the back.
we do have
our two parts and there is a gap between them
but we're not going to worry too much about that gap.
The gap that's sort of - that
you would obviously not have and
where you'd see the spinous processes of
So we're going to just omit this.
And there is a little bit that we still can see
of the spinous processes on
that half right there. So
kind of integrate these two parts
a little bit more
Our point here is not to make a perfect
representation of what we're seeing in front of us
as much as to use what we're seeing front of us to really understand
what is happening with the muscles of the back.
Honestly that's kind of the approach that we're going
to take when working from the model as well.
You don't really need every
little part, you need to
make sure that everything is structured and then
essentially just pick out those
necessary, very characteristic elements from
the particular model in front of you and apply
Integrate them into
a highly constructive,e
depiction of the human body.
And here I'm going to make
sure we can really see
posterior superior iliac spine is.
And right there coming off of it is just the top
of the gluteus maximus. And we will discuss that
in full when we move on to the leg.
But some of these particular overlaps
I'm just going to get some of these smaller
on the erector spinae there.
And really pull this upwards
and get those tiny bits of light that will
differentiate some of these component parts.
Like right there the erector spinae
wrapping up onto the ribcage
big gap we see.
One tiny area where you can kind of
internal oblique is. The external oblique
we can see and is a large and important
and we've spent a fair amount of time on it in the front
view, anterior view if you will.
I will alternate between
some of this terminology as you know that I have been
doing simply because I don't
think we need to be sort of overly anatomical.
needs to be anterior posterior
inferior, medial, lateral. Not
of that terminology needs to be
applied too consistently
I think because
this program runs the risk of being a little too clinical
and there's already plenty of anatomy that we're covering
but I still, I want to make sure that there's a
purpose to all this anatomy. That it's
theoretical but applied
because that's the hard part of just the anatomy.
Now of course, I've pulled out the spine
in some of these areas more than necessary but
it's nice to have to just make sure we know it's there.
And now just making sure
this reads quite
clear and interesting, still keeping
concept, sort of structural concept
of the erector spinae,
while kind of placing them underneath
a little bit more.
So just think
of your basic
forms. Think of your
cones and cylinders when
you're faced with
that at first glance looks quite organic
looks quite organic
and confusing. Just think of
that underlying, basic
conception of it.
And now that cast shadow on the gluteus medius -
we'll get to the gluteus medius - so I'm just gonna
even this out a little bit.
And then making sure we get
emphasize those posterior superior iliac spines.
Kind of a general
I'm also concerned, I haven't been too much up to this
point, I was more - I'm concerned with the changes in plane
along the vertical axis. I was more concerned
about changes in plane across, along the horizontal.
And so the changes
in plane here are also quite important. So
those major changes
scapula, the trapezius, and the neck,
the ribcage here
beginning to curve in,
the erector spinae,
that movement out of the tailbone that we
know so well from
when we were working on the pelvis.
So you can see them all along
this of course a view in profile
But it's -
these changes in plane that
we have been talking about but you just want to keep in mind, especially as
we kind of stepping off some of the
more particular details and moving
into completion, which always
involves a unification
and a return to our major
changes in plane.
The gluteus medius there.
Just kinda even that out a little bit
Not worried too much about these areas
down here but we could get a little bit more just
emphasis, at least to hint at, that triangle of
That we don't se in its entirety here but we know it's there.
why don't we emphasize a few key areas.
So we need to
emphasize the end of our ribcage.
So we know it's right here, we see it because it's uncovered. So the
point is, let's try to find it. And even if we cant see it,
too clearly, let's make sure that whatever
maybe even hatch on its own, we can use
in that same area here, even though it's not
up there, I repeat, we do have -
we do have it here because we need to get this feeling of the ribcage
in its entirety.
I'm going to just pull out that
vertebrae right there, just a little bit.
It's not as clear as that but let's make that a plane
for now. Don't need to
worry too much about the
trapezius as it moves up but you just have to be aware that
it does continue up to the back of the head on the
on the occipital bone.
And then right here,
let's start getting some of these accents in
place. And by accents in this case I mean primarily
these contrasts, those highlights
are really going to
make this come alive.
Metaphorically speaking. We don't actually need him alive.
If we're working off this cast.
But we can still have a
lively at least a drawing.
And then even along this side, just gonna make a little cleaner
contrast. Sharper line, sharper edge. Sort of
along the, like kind of thinking
in terms of parallel
symmetrical elements rather.
side, even though that's not of course the end of the ribcage
it probably comes out more, I'm sure it does.
let's get some more of these accents right here on the teres major
where it's really
hooking onto the
angle of the scapula. Really place a cast
shadow from the teres major only,
that area, that top
top tiny plane of the latissimus.
And then even follow
up with the terminator on the
teres major, just cause it needs to be a little clearer.
So you have to make sure that that edge
of the deltoid
is clear and you can see that like the actual attachment is like a little
tendinous part. We don't see it too well here.
And to get that cast shadow from the
deltoid to really describe the forms of the
Spending some time on the back here
but I really think that the
more time you spend here where things are
much clearer and we've gonna over a lot of important concepts
explained a lot of important areas
what we really -
the more time you spend here, the easier
time you'll have when you
confront the model from the back.
So that is one of the harder things.
Things are clearer now.
Okay so we're doing all right in these
areas. Some of these tiny little cast
shadows that we have there can be
nice. Just gonna
add a little bit of light. And you don't want to make these highlights,
I know they might become highlights when I erase here, so we're gonna have to
tone them back. But
it'd be nice to have just a little more of a relief
on the ribcage there.
And our light is coming from the side there so
this plane will be catching more light but remember that
the change in plane is what's really going to
capture our highlight or something close to it
just to make sure that this area
up here, that change in plane that we were talking about earlier
on the trapezius is clear, we need that highlight to be clear.
I'm gonna lock that in with a line. That's a little bit sharper
than what we had.
Not going to
worry too much about what's going on up there.
Just making sure to place some accents, you can use the side
of the eraser. What I'm doing now is all kind of effects.
But I do wanna pull out
that - that
of the scapula.
And I hope that what you're
understanding from this approach and this kind of analysis
will really come in handy when you do sort of
spend more time with anatomy and get into, you know,
tiny little intricate areas
learn about them and I'm hoping that
this approach will really -
will really help you
in integrating that
anatomy into drawings.
That's the point of this.
Learning to see all these individual parts
as part of a larger -
a larger -
a larger structure.
A larger concept even.
I don't wanna talk about this too much
since I'm already up here we've already
actually covered that. This area that I'm
drawing but from the front. This right here is the
levator scapulae. That muscle
that you see tucking on under the
trapezius in the front. And you see it
continues downward and attaches to the
So everything always comes back to the scapula,
it's so important to develop an understanding
So I'm just gonna complete this,
kind of get this -
I call it the acromial end of the spine of the scapula
and we don't actually see the acromion because it's
towards our acromial end of the clavicle there.
But that is the far end.
purposes I think that's enough. Now let's
clean everything up just a tiny amount
for this page a little cleaner. Step
back and take a look what else can we add.
Make sure that's what's most important here is
our major changes in plane, our major anatomical
This line I have here
that opening up a little bit of the muscular part of the
trapezius a little overstated.
Let's call it that.
make sure to write down the main muscles of the torso discussed in this lesson.
Then, using the 3D viewer or the provided photographs,
draw the Eliot Goldfinger cast of the torso from the back
paying particular attention to the skeletal landmarks. Regardless of whether
you're using the 3D viewer or the photographs, draw the
deep muscles cast next to the superficial muscles cast
on the same page.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview15sNow playing...
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2. Muscles of Front Torso Demonstration Part 131m 59s
3. Muscles of Front Torso Demonstration Part 233m 17s
4. Muscles of Front Torso Demonstration Part 332m 10s
5. Muscles of Front Torso Assignment Instructions29s
6. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Overview13s
7. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Part 133m 54s
8. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Part 242m 43s
9. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Part 340m 46s
10. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Part 428m 39s
11. Muscles of Rear Torso Demonstration Assignment Intructions38s