- Lesson Details
Now it’s time to begin studying the human figure. Just like we did with the head, we will start with the bones and then add the muscles on top. In this lesson, we’re going to begin with the pelvis and ribcage.
Students are encouraged to work from the NMA reference images and 3D viewer included on this page*.
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
In the last part of our Russian Academic Drawing Course, Iliya brought together the knowledge we learned about the head and neck in order to complete a fully rendered portrait. In this next part, Figurative Anatomy, you will undertake a new challenge: the figure.
In order to draw the complexity of figure we need to study all the anatomy that makes up the surface form of the pelvis, ribcage, leg and arm.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
- Graphite pencils
- Kneaded and Hard Erasers
- Sanding Block
- Utility Knife
- Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
- Light source
* Reference material is only available for premium subscriptions. If you don’t have premium access to the reference, you can pause the video when the reference is shown.
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we've covered so much material together. You've just learned
how powerful the combination of observation and construction
can be in the drawing. We have learned how to
think three dimensionally, how to model form and create a sense
of weight and solidity, but now
if we hope to make masterful art we need to become masters of our
subject matter. For figurative art
this means studying human anatomy. Thankfully we have
wonderful resources to help us in our endeavor. As with the
portrait, I will teach you the structures that you need to know to depict
the human form in your art work. We will study the skeleton
from multiple angles
combined to create the surface forms of the figure.
Anatomy is challenging but I
hope in this next section you can come to appreciate its power
and utility and begin what may become a lifelong
appreciation of nature.
With that, let's begin.
components of the torso. Just like we did with the head, we'll start with the bones
and then add the muscles on top. Our first area of study is going to be
the pelvis and ribcage.
Let's get started.
one of the most important parts in the human body
and an essential element when drawing the nude or
even not the nude, the figure in general,
and that is the pelvis. So
what's important, as with all elements, is
to begin to perceive it as
we need to establish a number of axis
that will allow us -
allow us to align
the different parts that we observe. Now the hard part with the pelvis
is that it
an organic element
when you look at it
And so the
important thing to do here is to
all of these elements that might appear
to be important. And of course from an anatomical perspective are,
but from a drawing perspective might
be a little confusing and not always
the ones you need to
spend your time focusing on. So we're going to talk about
those elements that I think are absolutely essential
as you saw I took this angle and
the angle was essentially from the point right here
to its opposite
on the other end of the pelvis across
just sort of symmetrically across
it allows us to
establish a line that we can,
off of and establish
and place on paper lines that are parallel to it
and also perpendicular
to it in space.
And I will talk about all these parts once they
begin to sort of appear on paper.
Keep in mind that I think it's
extremely important to know what's happening
but it's equally important to just spend
the time kind of approaching it from a position of ignorance.
Only to get
acquainted with what you're seeing
in front of you.
And after that happens
then it's considerably easier to then build into it
So here we do have the spine
and the end of the spine
the part that attaches.
actually, I've made the pelvis a little bit wider. I'm going to
make it a little bit
this is an element that comes in
slightly different shapes and sizes.
we're going to move that
sort of perpendicular axis to that one a little closer.
Okay so we're beginning
to see it come to life a little bit
for the purposes of
our understanding, I'm going to
the bone here, the femur
we can see how it
inserts into the pelvis.
And obviously because the skeleton
there isn't an actual
skeleton, you can see that there's a gap
between the femur and
its insertion on the pelvis
which of course would not exist in reality.
And then to take that one across
and show the femur on the other
side. Also aligning it.
here we have our general
sort of placement of where things are
and now I'm going to take
those lines that I put in initially and sort of -
and give you an idea of why I started with therm
major changes in plane are
and see at every point I
take it across.
And here you can see that it can be simplified into
kind of a box,
though of course a complicated one.
so why don't we get a little more specific
I'd like to begin a sort of
our explanations here,
I'd like to begin
them by pointing out that the pelvis
consists of three parts
on each side but
they're paired elements
this part up here is known as the
And it has a number
that stick out from it that define its contours and
important points and we have all and
they are the ones that I kind of began with
so the point right here, on top, the one that sticks out, the one that I pointed out
to you is known as the anterior
because it's the ilium, spine.
And you can see it coming out right here.
Now the area right underneath it
and a protrusion that's
right here is known as
it means in front,
inferior, means underneath, iliac
you don't need to say all of that, you can simply say
ASIS or A-S-I-S
AIIS I imagine. So
by sort of establishing a line,
an angle, between the ASIS and the
AIIS you have a
plane, you have an edge, of a
sort of a trapezoid that's pretty close to
and then if you connect one ASIS with the other, the one across
from it, and one A-I-
I-S with the one across from it, that
completes that trapezoid.
And that is a plane
of particular importance.
then coming off of this
is a different part of the
known as the pubis
and it comes straight
off into something that's
also trapezoidal but slightly
more of a
triangular kind of outward portion
at a certain angle off
of the plane that we establish in between
the anterior superior iliac spine and the anterior inferior iliac
here, where one part of the pubic bone
meets its opposite is an important
point, is known as the pubic
That's a c.
the pubic bone
continues underneath and it
creates this sort of angle
and this is one part of it and
then there's a part that continues under and
from our angle we can't see too
much of it. So what's happening
at that point is that there is
the other part of the pelvis that's mainly underneath
and behind, known as
I've heard people call it the ischium
I call it the ischium. I
am not entirely away which pronunciation is
But that's not that important.
And it has a part that completes
downwards and creates this opening
underneath over there. And you can see that
on the other side as well on the
inside of the pelvis
Now I'm gonna get a little bit
more specific with what
is actually happening in front of me.
And you can see
a bit of the ischium right here
but we'll talk about it a little more when it becomes more obvious.
Okay so it's
getting a little bit more concrete now.
So you can see that there's
this edge, you might even call it a crest
And that is actually what it's called.
You can see it's catching
over there on the other side. And so
is known as the iliac
And the part that you might be wondering
about is the one right here
the back end
the pelvis. And is the
end of the spine.
For our purposes we're going to simplify it into kind of a -
this kind of squeezed, cylindrical
element. And it continues
in kind of a
known as the sacrum.
At the end of which is
a few bones that have sort of
connected into a singular
triangular bone at the end of the
sacrum known as
the coccyx .
So you can see
inside there. And is an important
element when you're working on the back. Obviously not
so much in the front. Now what we have
here is we have an opportunity to view
the ischium on the other side.
The inside of it.
The part that you can see inside
the pelvis. So I'm gonna begin to kind of remove some of these construction lines that we started with
because we're getting to
a point where we're going to
start describing some
of the outer forms.
Now this part that you see right here
coming out, and there's obviously
one on the other ischium, hidden from
view currently, is known as
the ischial spine.
So now I think it's time to get into some of the
and shapes inside here that are a little
Now there are a few other parts that we do need to
talk about. We're going to enlarge
the ilium here.
And the other parts that we need to talk about
you can't really see from this angle, but we will
talk about them when we
turn the pelvis around. But
simply so that you keep them in mind and it's sort of,
it's simple enough because you
you've already seen these points in front. The ones in the
back that kind of act as a counterpart to the ones in front
are known as the posterior
iliac spine as
well as the posterior
as you can imagine, inferior, iliac
anterior simply means that it's in front, posterior
means it's in the back. Okay.
So before we move
on there are a few other things to talk about.
And you can see this opening, the joint
here, into which
the femur inserts, is known as
And an extremely important element, and why I'm including
the femur, even though it
to the pelvis here,
is this part that you see
coming off of the femur and
it's known as the greater
So I think,
for the most part,
we've covered what I think is absolutely essential
for you to know when it comes to the
There are a few
things I'd still like to cover. Like this point
right here, known as
the ischial tuberosity
but we're going to go over that
again when we turn the -
when we turn the pelvis around.
So okay, so I think
I think we're in a good place to begin
to put some tonality to
describe the structure a little bit more.
And where I'm going to begin is to place it
right underneath the iliac crest here.
And our point here is to describe
the structure of the pelvis and to take
essentially by looking at it
might appear to amount to just a number of curvy lines
and make it as solid
as element as it needs to be.
And of course, as with everything,
once you begin
this is the
that is connected
to the spine.
And I don't want to spend too much time on it.
We're just going to sort of slightly indicate it.
Along with, if you remember, it's
You can't see the ones on the other side as much.
And I'm combining sort of all of them into one.
so let's keep going with our shading.
Seeing we're sort of pointing to a general
bowl that the inside of the pelvis
is, into this curvature.
anterior superior iliac
spine is clear. Because that's
one of the most important land marks
on the body and one that is
So you're going to
really need to see where
it appears on the model.
that also helps explain why
that line I started with connecting
one anterior iliac spine with the other
is so important. Because the idea is that you basically have to know how to
construct a pelvis based entirely
on that line.
That's the line that you're going to observe
and you can't
see the other parts of the pelvis so
you're gonna have to build it into the model based on your
of all of its component parts.
So as you see, every part that we have
spoken about has
few like smaller parts in it that are the ones
been focusing most of my attention on.
In the case of the
skull it was the
primarily the zygomatic arch.
Then we have our clavicles and
manubrium of the sternum and the acromion.
the anterior superior iliac spine.
Which in this case also happens to be
the element that is most important and the closest
Now I do want to place some of the shadows
on the pubic symphysis here,
on the pubis in general. Because of the sort of organic
the form here, a lot of it's going to be described
with that proper placement of the highlight.
Okay so we've got some of these important elements.
We need to do a little bit more on the
anterior inferior iliac
spine right here. And
if you're thinking that's such a small point
and one that
doesn't really appear on the model is important enough
for me to talk about it
you'll see how important it is when we
move on to the anatomy of the leg.
And here we're gonna place a particular emphasis on making sure
that we're really accenting that which is closer to us.
The plane of the trochanter.
And right here
you can see the ischial tuberosity,
the one that I was talking about on the other side,
parallel to our axis,
to our established axis between
the anterior superior iliac spines.
There's a bit of light there and we're going
to tone away the under side of
some of the intricacies of
it is properly
describing the major turns of the form.
Here, on this side, you can see a
ridge, which is the end of
a relatively flat area here.
It continues back
this point right here and then
curves out slightly.
So one of the harder concepts
to grasp with the pelvis
the form on the outside does not
necessarily correspond with the form on the inside.
So if on the outside you have
something that looks like that
and that would be the crest
inside you have a more
a more even
sort of - that kinda complicates
the structures here. Mainly
you have to be thinking of a different concept inside
than when you do outside. Even though of course all of it's
falls into a bowl
There's a lot
and it does get confusing
but I think
we covered the
and points that
will help make this easier and
allow you to have a more convincing
representation of the pelvis.
light is gathered on this edge and
it makes sense to bring the iliac crest
on this side into a general half tone.
And of course it is still organic, there aren't any
edges and so we are going to have to go in with some of these -
some of these half tones
coming off of the terminator here.
question always is how dark
are we going to push
these areas that are in shadow?
And of course that all depends on our
Because everything is going to be keyed
to our terminator,
it's going to
allow the proper half tones.
Or not allow them.
But I'd like to spend some time in these areas. There's
topography there that I think because it is
close we can spend some time on it. The only thing is
I would rather keep it a little
bit lighter not to make a drawing that's sort of overly
dark and tonal and heavy.
We're more interested
structures and understanding
then we are
in making something completed
that we can hang up on our wall.
Not to say you can't hang up a good drawing of a pelvis on your wall
Okay so here
we can begin to find some
more intricate modulations
in that contour
and here we have a cast shadow that's falling from
the spine, onto the inner
surface of the ilium.
And so we
still need to have at least some indication of it.
And this right here is an important point
because that's going to be
a change in plane that we can fairly clearly
see right here on the other
side. So that's an alignment that has to take place
and we have it here because of the contour and
that of course is important.
But here we don't have the advantage of having
the contour that is as
that is describing that form as efficiently.
inferior iliac spine
here, a lot like in the drawing of the clavicle
and because of
these interesting outlines and curves that are going to give you
the form, I think
I'm going to begin to
rely on outline
a bit more than I would in certain
other, in explaining certain other
elements. And in general I
kind of, I tend to prefer
outlines in the
bones and more
sort of straight and
organized, a more constructive approach
in the muscular structures
and I think that's possibly
coming out of the way that I tend to render
these things in the nude.
In the nude I tend to
accentuate bony anatomical
points and landmarks in line
treating the muscular elements
and so in order to preserve
preserve this element of structure, to
give it rigidity
I tend to strangely enough
constructive with the muscles and
more organic with the bones.
Okay so here
I think we've reached a point where
the ilium here is
overly accented in relation to everything else.
So it'd be good for the moment
some time and move on
the other bones that we have here.
Still keeping in mind that the ilium is,
the ilium here, the one up close, the one closer to me
That part underneath
is catching a little bit of light
is where I'd like to spend some time
because the contours are going to be helpful
in describing what's really
And so the interesting part about the pelvis here is of course
of this drop that we see here
important to keep this in mind so
that you don't - so that the pelvis does not end
at the opening there, that it continues and that there's
extremely important elements
back here. And we will
see how important
they are in the attachment
of the muscles of the leg.
I'm kind of allowing
a planar approach to take over
using the hatching to describe the changes in plane
as well as
to get the necessary
Here and out of this haze
that I have here
and then to follow this up
and establish that highlight to give you that
And here I went around the
highlight with half tone
as opposed to getting
a half tone all over that entire area
the highlight. You can go either way.
And honestly I'd go the way that's
at the given
And it's hard to kind of explain why one might be easier
than the other
but I think that's an important thing to be aware of
and to train your intuition
for. It helps with speed
and it allows you to tackle every problem
as efficiently as you can.
there is a lot happening there but I'm not
entirely sure how much we need.
And I know I keep saying that
but I'd like to show
what's going on in those areas.
as I said earlier,
the fact that this is
model of a skeleton and there aren't
ligaments and everything to hold it together it ends up being held
together by screws, which
of course gives you
gaps in between
the joints for example
normally be there. So here you see the head of the
femur almost in its entirety, even though I moved it up
to close the gap, the acetabulum.
But normally you wouldn't see it
exposed to that
extent so just keep that in mind.
But of course it offers an opportunity
to draw our basic geometric forms
yet another time.
A practice to
to always come back to.
So see so even here I would have to have a little bit of
that normally wouldn't be there.
it's also good to
see how these elements attach.
I don't wanna spend a lot of time here
but I do want to make sure that we're getting a reading
on what is happening with
here, the approach is a lot
more constructured -
constructive than observed.
because of that I think
it gives us a better understanding of the orientation
of the trochanter.
The greater trochanter.
And then I'm just going to clean up
some of these contours
and make sure that the anterior
inferior iliac spine
gets the attention it needs and is still
more important than the head of the femur.
And so it's that time again
we always have to have
where after making sure everything is
in place and figuring out what forms are and all that
we're just going back
our shadows and thinking about
tone more than anything else.
And see I keep -
I keep going over
the gaps here. All these holes
in between these elements,
the end of the coccyx here. I am -
I keep going over the gaps because
I'm always trying
to figure out what would be the best way to accentuate the elements that are
in front. And a lot
of the time,
the way that you figure that out
is on the page.
There's a lot of times you just don't know in advance what will happen.
Of course this improves with
experience but I am a proponent
and then analyzing the action.
trust your intuition
see what happens.
And you see that a lot more
that happens when
I'll be working on the portrait
and I think that's an approach to have
when working on a portrait,
mainly because it's more open ended.
It's more open ended
and allows you to
improvise and explore
the character and the
psychology of the model.
And I think a lot of that happens intuitively
it's hard to explain
even though of course you can explain
anatomy and all of those things that we've been talking about
but I think in a good portrait something has
to happen that doesn't have anything to do with anatomy
and it has
mainly with the impression that you get
from the person
in front of you. Or the impression you already have.
If it, for example, is
a portrait of a person who's close to you
but I think the way to
explore that is to trust your intuition
and experiment with
whatever might come into your mind.
Because you can always remove it afterwards anyway.
If you see it's not working.
I'd like to complete
the iliac crest that we can't actually see because it's
covered by the
spine here but we can treat the spine
as if it were practically transparent.
I've lost, at this point, the end
So it'd be nice to have that in place again.
had all those lines around the iliac
spine but I'm gonna clean them up because I want
the spine to be more prominent.
Now the fact that
sort of the form inside is
a bowl does not necessarily mean that it's
without planes altogether.
There are pretty
clear changes in plane
but I'm going to
just show them
with some of these lines.
that we have an idea of what's
happening over there.
I would advise you to kind of
play around with
figuring out the structures
by placing these lines
on top of the forms.
I think it would
really help figuring out
to use the half tones to describe those forms.
We gotta actually
have an area there
for the pubic symphysis
and make sure that some of these shadows underneath right here read
a little clearer.
And because of this line and how it's
helping me understand
the form, I think that whole area can
catch a little more light.
And here I want to end the
ilium. This is the heart of the
ilium and make sure that this is part of
Or, as we know it already, the sacrum.
And here as well I think there's
a little bit of a confusion
in terms of the tones. The coccyx there.
we're just gonna
get a tone in there so that our
anterior superior iliac spine
one of the pats of the -
one of the parts of the pubis is
a primary accent.
Alright so here we have
Now it's very important
when you'll be working on it
you'll draw multiples.
You need to be able to
draw the pelvis pretty much from any angle.
The back and profile
but I do still want to talk a little bit about
some of the parts that we weren't able to see as clearly from
And mainly those are the posterior superior iliac spine, posterior
inferior iliac spine, the ischial spine,
and the ischial tuberosity.
some aspects of the pelvis that we weren't able to see
from the front. And the view that I currently have is the pelvis
is not entirely the posterior view.
I'm also getting a little bit - it's somewhere in between
the posterior view and the
side view. But I think that is going to
that we were talking about.
So here we have the acetabulum.
Here we have the
And I'm approaching them
slightly differently. I sort of, I found that as a contour
here we have the
sacrum and the other
I don't wanna show the other side that much
because I think we get the point
but underneath you have a much clearer view
of the ischium.
And even a little bit of the pubis
which we can't see anywhere else in this view.
But we can still imagine it.
Okay so to
try to minimize the amount of tone
and to use the tone that we have to show
as best we can.
is a great example of what I was
talking about of what the major changes in plane.
And here we have our iliac crest.
We really need to see it as a crest and really need to see how it's
sort of describing and following along
these planes on the side.
And all of this here is in shadow but we're much more
concerned not so
much with the observed tonality and the conditions of our
light but more with
its structural aspects.
So you can see I'm
much time here
and this drawing is a little
bit quicker, mainly because it's intended to prove
we have the acetabulum in the back.
And I'm not going to put the femur in
But what you can see
this part that we see here of the ischium
is kind of like
kinda the shape of a car tire
because of that it's catching some light. You can see
it coming out and sweeping back in.
And you can see that that is the structure
that it has
primarily because that's the inside of the socket.
And then underneath you have
essentially also the shape of
a tire but at a slightly different angle. We can't -
it's hard to see here but
you can see it on the other,
the other side.
And I'll get to that point
in a second.
However, if you're thinking of it...
And then here -
and of course
this continues into
So it can help with just kind of orienting
And now the
other side, we need to align
what we already have
and if you remember the alignments are never
arbitrary and they have to do
with important points
that we need to keep as symmetrical as possible.
there you have the sacrum
and the coccyx underneath
and so here they are.
spine right there.
And underneath it, right here,
And now I do have to tell you that the
iliac spine has a lot of
the same, has pretty much the same function in terms of
alignment and structures as the anterior
one in front. And that
it's something that's relatively easily perceptible
on a model and is
required in the
the establishment of the angles
So by seeing where they are
either the points in front or in back
you are able
construct the pelvis
off of those particular points.
Kind of imagine
if you can connect them, you can then
construct off of them.
And so on.
So it's easier to establish where the
pelvis is in the body when you
have a clear understanding of
where those points are and what their relationship
is to every other part of the pelvis.
And of the
other, the other
points that I want to talk to you about are
this one right here
it's on the other side, you can't see it as well
and that is
this underneath the
plays a very important role in the
attachment of the origins rather of the muscles of the back
of the leg.
And it's hidden so
we'll be talking about this when we get to the muscles of the
back of the leg but the idea is that
once you've established where the pelvis is
using the points that are available to you
to figure out where the origin of the muscle of the back
of the leg are. Because a lot of
that is done by simply observing them.
of course can be okay
but often then
the back of the leg is not in the right place.
But when you're simply
observing where that line is, the origin
of the back of the leg is
usually not in the
right place because it's not
connected to the underlining anatomy.
Especially because a lot of this
covered by the gluteus.
now we've taken a look
at the points on the back of the pelvis that I
wanted to cover in greater detail.
We did speak about them when working on the front
of the pelvis but
I thought that it'd be important to take a look.
And so I think all of the parts that we covered are the
ones that you absolutely have to be
aware of and know by heart.
Now there are of course a lot of other individual small
parts and each of them has a name of its own and
if you're interested, explore that. But the parts that
we have covered here are the ones that
are absolutely essential for a proper understanding of the pelvis.
and the parts of the bones discussed in this lesson. Then, using the
3D viewer or the provided photographs, draw a highly
rendered drawing of the pelvis from at least two angles.
Then do basic pelvis constructions of at least six angles.
Then repeat from memory and imagination.
primary element of
the human form, the ribcage. And so
the ribcage that you see in front of me is
also a cast from a cadaver. The advantage of the one
that you see here was cast with its intercostal
intact. And what this means is that instead of seeing
a gap in between each rib, you have
muscle that fills in that space and
it, for our purposes, allows us
to see the form of the
ribcage as a structural
here it's extremely important to have
your center line right
away. And we've already talked about
the - we've already talked about the sternum
and rib number one,
the clavicles. So why don't we begin with
the part that we are already familiar with.
the manubrium is up here
and you can see the sternal angle
and you can follow the
gladiolus all the way to its end. And you can see
the xiphoid cartilage at the end.
And then up here
you have a clear opening of
the first rib.
And so you see that all of the ribs
move up at an angle.
As they go back and attach to the spine
they move upwards. So the
next thing that happens and an important
thing is that
rib number two, coming off
point of connection between the manubrium and
the gladiolus is,
it sticks out and that is
your major change in plane. So
in a sense, everything above rib number
two here can be considered the top plane
of the ribcage.
we continue all the way down to the end. Now
it has been sort of traditionally accepted
that the widest point of the
ribcage is rib number eight. Now
the one we see here
in front of us -
it's hard to tell if it's number eight or
nine. And I think
in this case it's rib number nine. So I'm just
putting the general
outlines in at the moment.
So here is what we have.
one of the harder parts in figuring out what's going on
here is seeing where each of the ribs is.
Now of course
a way to make that a little easier
is to have an idea of where, in general
they are. So we already have an idea of where
rib number one is.
Here we also know
that this is rib number two.
So what we have to think about
and understand is that all the ribs
with their end that is cartilage
comes off of the sternum.
it we have rib number three, four,
if you look you will see that the spaces between the cartilage
gets smaller and smaller as you go down.
Rib number five,
number six, and right at the end of the sternum,
the gladiolus, not the
xiphoid process, is
the last rib that's attaching
to the sternum. Now
there are a total of twelve ribs.
So the question is where are the other ones?
And the answer is that they come
from the cartilage of
the final sternal
rib. So you can see here
see where they are on the other side. Eight,
nine, and ten.
Now you ask where are the other
two and the answer is that they are attached to the spine only.
They don't come around and attach to any cartilage
that is connected to the sternum. So for our purposes we don't
really need them. So
we only need ten.
And the other thing to take note
of is that in this
area - and it's either rib number two or three depending on the person,
is where the
cartilage, in our case it's the third rib, comes
off of the sternum, perpendicularly
to it. Everything above
that point, as you see the cartilage is moving upwards
and then everything below that point it begins to go
the other thing to think about
and to have as
help in figuring out where these things
are is to see - and this of course isn't
a hard and fast rule, even though
it applies here, is that
rib number five -
rib number five
continues downward to about
the beginning of the
And then after that point, it begins to turn
if you keep that
in mind, you'll always be able to find
rib number one because you know it's
right below the clavicles, rib number two because it's at the
sternal angle is usually very prominent.
You'll be able to find ribs number eight and nine because
they are the widest points, and you'll be able to find
rib number five, and you'll
be able to find rib number five,
because it's at the same point as the beginning of the
xiphoid process, pretty much where
the opening of the ribcage is.
those are the important
points. And the other thing that I think
is clear here is that we can,
if we continue
what is - let's add the clavicle and see.
So if we add the clavicle here,
remember that I mentioned that
it's very helpful to divide it into a sternal and
a middle part and the accromial end. And if you go from
that change in plane between the sternal
part and the middle part and take it all the way down
kind of going along
pretty much where the cartilage is, all the way to the
end of the ribcage over there and do this
same on the other
side as well,
you will essentially have the front plane
the planes on the side. Now they're not exactly -
they're at an angle so they're beginning to turn away. It's not
a box completely.
So - but that's still
a major change in plane. And what you can see in
the ribcage in front of us is that it just so happens that
this point here
terminator and the core shadow
and this point here is our main highlight.
And our light is coming from here.
So I'm just going to
put all that in place before we move
on to specifics. And
I would even go so far as to place that line
that highlight as a highlight.
Even right now.
And so I'm going to have to
tone down the
this plane of the half tone here and
make sure this shadow reads like shadow.
And so this is the important
why don't we explore
more of what's happening here and
begin to work a little more from observation. So
I'd like to start with the part that I consider of
primary importance and that is the
manubrium of the sternum. Here you have this
We've begun to give it a little bit of a shape.
Now we don't have clavicles.
you feel up to it you can put them in on top afterwards.
And I like that we have a general
tone for the half tone here.
And then we move up and get the entirety of
the first rib. All the way to
the 8th vertebrae. And remember that's the ellipse,
in our case it's clear that it's not exactly
an ellipse but you can still
think of it as an ellipse. But that is the beginning,
the origin, the base of the neck.
And there are some
shadows in there.
And here are the
bodies of the vertebrae of the neck with their
Okay so, here let's be a little more specific
with our terminator of core shadow
and our cast shadow.
Now we're not
getting into the ribs
So the part that we have afterwards is the gladiolus.
And the sternal angle comes into play here because
if it's an angle it means
the structure of the ribcage as a whole. It is
a major change in plane. So
we can begin to show that
by pushing it into a darker halftone. At least a
darker half tone. Possibly a shadow.
And we could take
rib number two that comes off of it and
take it all the way.
at the major change in plane along our
terminator here, that's
we're really going to have to
shadows, sort of our smaller terminators, the ones that are
describing the form.
Now we're not
getting into the small half tones that you find in the
But we are going to later.
So why don't continue with
that rib, third rib, that's going perpendicularly
off of the sternum and take
that also to
the point where it begins to move upwards.
And it's important to really see
where these things are because they are going to give us
overlaps and our contours, our proper contours.
Now here -
as opposed to the
manubrium which is sort of
reclined back a bit, the sternum here is much more vertical.
I'm not always concerned with whether
a half tone is a half tone or is a dark
half tone or a shadow.
I'm more concerned
with using the half tones
for placement. And
general shape. Okay so
we can move on to - and
as you see, you do want to of course
take them across. But I think with something like
and by that I mean not
work one side of the ribcage without working the other
but I think there are times when sort of
just paying attention to where the shadows are and the darker half tones are,
the more obvious ones, can help you get
a placement of everything, considering we've already
established where they are across.
So we're moving on to rib number
four and it's already beginning to turn down
a bit here.
And in this area there's
clearly a core and a cast
shadow here that's falling onto
rib number five.
Underneath it we have rib number six and then
the group of ribs number seven, eight, nine, and ten.
Now, in general
at the opening
there is the beginning of a change in plane and we will
pick up on this when we work on it
in profile. But around here
the sort of vertical axis of the
has ended and there begins to be a push inwards of the form.
obviously this is accompanied by a fall away
into shadow in our case, or at least into half tone.
And here as well
you can see
that there's a
group of shadows in there because
the ribs are coming out and then in and so as our
light is here if we were to draw a line describing
the form, there's
a concavity here
that in this case is going to place
the cartilage here
of the ribs at the
bottom of the sternum into shadow. And see I'm not
picking out individual ribs everywhere I go,
only in some places
we'll be able to sort of carve in where the ribs are
on top of
our sort of overall structure. So the
opening of the ribcage is extremely important as you see.
And it's a point that
is also an important bony
landmark on the -
on a human body but
as you see it's
there's sort of a larger or a more acute
angle here. A different kind of arc that is made
by that concavity. So we're gonna have to
keep our eyes open
ribs at the opening of the ribcage is
very important. But then we're also going to
have elements that we need to accent
that are above it.
And so here there's
falling on the intercostals from rib number
Okay so what I think we need to do now is to
push the half tone on the front plane a little bit
it gives us a little bit of room to work with the eraser and pull out
the ribs that we need. Of course what happens
is, once that -
is that we lose our
shadows a little bit. But we still have -
we still have them approximately. We know where they are.
So let's go back to the top and start getting a little more
And right now we need to consider the
intercostals. Because what's going to be happening
is when you have the rib
followed by the intercostal and then
a rib again you're going to have your highlights
on the upper part
of the rib, possibly followed by
a shadow underneath,
the core shadow and reflected light below that, then a
cast shadow that's falling on the intercostals,
then a general flatter half tone on
And then the same thing happens over it
And so on. And so
topography is what the ribcage here really allows
us to see.
And that's something we really need to take advantage of.
Because that's kind of as close as you're going to get
to a human
a human ribcage. Of course there's a lot covering
it but there are parts where it's almost
as clear as this.
So what those intercostals are going to do is
to really allow us to get the rib itself
in place. And we're not
not worried too much about what's going on
in the -
what's going on in the shadow here.
We'll get to that eventually
this area of the darker half tones
because that's going to give us the largest amount
So here the approach
and I keep coming back to just sort of
taking the approach that's the
clearest and the easiest for trying to solve the problem
that you need to solve.
Here the approach is coming from working with
the darkest half tones and
your terminators to get the largest amount
of information on the page as soon as possible.
And at times, as I said earlier,
you're going to maybe not be
able to tell right away if something is a dark half tone
or a shadow.
Because honestly at this point it is not
And usually if it
is in fact a shadow,
or - and usually if it is in fact a half tone
then you could -
then all you need to do is darken the value of
the shadow right next to it
it'll become a half tone.
But here we have rib
number five and it's very prominent
so it not only lines up
with the end of the sternum at that angle that begins to turn
back but it's also, a lot of times,
quite prominent and sticks out quite a bit.
So I'm even going to
go so far as to show that
I'm going to pull up the ribs here a bit
give it the quality of the particular
characteristics of the rib cage in front of me.
also from this point, because it signifies
the end of the sternum, that's when
we're beginning to fall into a shadow that
turn the ribcage in again. So it's okay
down and then in. And once again
you'll be able to see that very clearly in profile.
And here I'm just going to push that shadow in again
though I do
have an urge to
pull out that highlight
on rib number five.
And then it's hard to see
where they even separate. And sometimes the cartilage is connected even
between rib number six and number seven.
But in general
in that area there's not too clear
of a relief.
within this shadow
the sixth rib.
So I'm just gonna put it in here
to hold its place.
in general, you
kind of want to spend some time
just making sure that you're getting them in the right place.
Now, of course on a nude
you're never gonna have to draw all the ribs.
You might, at some point, have to - depending on the model of course -
at least a part of all the ribs.
But even that is not
But it depends on
Now I've gone to
the other side, I want to make sure that my sternum is still
where it needs to be so I
so I'm going to
draw that center line and now that this is
the fourth rib and
it's got that clear shadow, that terminator
there's not a lot of room
in between the fourth rib and the fifth rib
and it's filled in primarily with the cast shadow
that is falling onto
the fifth rib. And I've, at the moment, kind of over
stated it but
we'll see what happens. It might stay that way, it might not.
Now where you could
kind of square off the ribs and you can make them
a little rectangular, you can kind of see a top
plane of that one, of number five, on this side.
And also you can see how
it's not perfectly symmetrical.
And there isn't anything that's perfectly symmetrical
in the human body.
because this is such a great example, I'm going to
But it is the fifth rib and you can see how it too is
protruding a lot but it's a little higher than the fifth rib on the other side.
Except for one point of it but it's -
and that point seems like it's part of the cartilage that's actually
connecting the fifth rib to the one underneath it
to the sixth rib.
And, once again, because it protrudes so much,
there's such a clear shadow.
Actually here I might even
pull these up even higher.
See I'm not afraid of
making changes. I do have a tendency, if you
will remember I spoke about how everyone has sort of
a proportional bias. Things are either elongated
or made too small. And everyone
has them, you just have to be aware of them. And I do have one
where I do tend to elongate torsos. And you can see
it happening even here. Even when there isn't
the entirety of the torso in from of me.
You could see my proportional
bias kick into place.
Now from the fifth rib onto the ribs
right here we have a cast shadow.
Which is lovely.
That's where the end of the xiphoid
process is going to be. Now of the elements we have
I would say they are
where I just placed them. So the
idea is that you can't draw every
single part here. And not because you can't, you
can, but it won't have that hierarchy
that's so important. That hierarchy of elements.
And so we're going to pick the parts that
are really giving us a relief, contrast
that the parts that are
essentially the most interesting.
we do have to keep in mind which ones we have to accentuate. It's too
early right now really to think about them.
We need to get some of the other -
get the other parts of it in place. But we do
need to keep in mind what needs to be
the focal point.
And now it's time to maybe begin to
ribs outwards, now that we've established their origins.
Origins at the
This is such
And see even
as is, without
information here or here, we're already getting a
relief and a drawing of a ribcage
beginning to look quite convincing.
out a little bit from
the cartilage coming off of the sternum,
that kind of beginning of the ribs up front
and to start to
connect the ribs a bit
perpendicularly to the
sternum so kind of thinking again of our
important constructive guidelines.
And I'm going to
mention another change of plane, a
more sort of intricate change in plane that occurs
in this area.
That is kind of an area that's
in between the front plane and the actual
side plane. And in order to
establish where this is,
right here where you have that turn
number one as it moves
towards the spine
out to rib number two
at the same place
you have a plane that's sort of an intermediary plane.
the form of the ribcage here is already
pushed to fall into
the side plane. Here you have
something that's in between -
in between the actual
front and the side.
This does not change the placement of
our highlight though. That
is still the
main change in plane that we need to concern ourselves with.
And so the -
obviously I think
it needs to be understood that there aren't actual
clear edges to all of these planes but
I think that this might be helpful
in establishing sort of the general directions of the curvature.
So I'm just going to put that in
place and I think - and obviously it can then
be modified to account
for more of the curves.
But it's this
plane here that's probably going to be catching the largest amount of light.
which is the side is not
is going to be in a half tone simply because
it's already being turned away from us. Despite the fact that our light is coming
So even just getting
a general area
like that is
will be instrumental in allowing us to
continue essentially outlining the ribs
and really finding where they are while not losing
the form that they create.
And pay particular attention - and I mean
you can explore this and see if there are
other even smaller changes in plane
that you can establish
to make this as convincing as possible.
So, in this case, this is
an example of
starting out with a
general sort of simplified constructive element
and then breaking it down into smaller and smaller
And now that there are corrections I've made
this entire area underneath
of ribs seven, eight,
nine, and ten smaller.
On here I decided to go across.
Since you still want to keep it quite symmetrical.
So from here
we can move
off of the first rib
with a shadow. Because the top of the rib there
is actually in a nice half tone that's gonna give us that
And the top plane itself, based on the
conditions of the light that we have just I feel
needs to be a little bit of a half tone as well. You can see that there's
a gradation there also.
That half tone is going to
allow us to place that edge -
that edge that's catching
light on the first rib.
And then we move onto
rib number two. This is the
rather slow and
painstaking process this
this figuring out what's going on
with each of the ribs
and then allow the contours
to give you an idea of where
and how that rib moves
up towards the spine.
I'll repeat this. In a lot of cases when you have sort of large amount
of parallel elements that are
then it's very helpful to
in some areas and just spend the time on them
to really get them in place.
Because if you're trying to do them all at the same time
you'll get lost.
I'm gonna -
I'm going to reinforce
some of these shadows on this very important -
on these very important rib.
A rib that you can't ignore.
We can ignore some of them
but not these.
And then to get some specifics
in some areas and the
manubrium and the sternal notch are as important
here as they were
when we were focusing on the shoulder girdle.
And then because of intercostals, in some places
it's really important to allow
rib to merge. So it won't
really have a clear outline.
these cases, you're really going to show where the rib is
Now the closest
thing that we have here is of course the sternum.
And so by accenting it
we can show that it's much closer.
It's actually not
a lot closer but we need to make it clear
from our angle that's the high point.
So these core shadows, these cast
shadows that we see here
we can really
make sure they
And then not apply
as much pressure
to everything that's beginning to turn away.
And we've been exploring that in the other
And then in other
places, sort of you are going to need
clear outlines of the ribs
and clearer edges where there's
a change in plane.
But it's this particular amount of variation
that's going to make this exciting. A
softness and a hardness
but not an arbitrary one.
And not an optical one either.
It's an analyzed
hardness or softness depending on
what's happening with the form
and the light.
Here is a
great example where even though you don't have
a large amount of
tone that you could use to describe this, you really
do almost see the rib in its entirety.
And so we can continue that with half tones and
a lot of times I kind of
use my hands
to get the placement
always making corrections.
Everything's a little smaller than I have it but
entirely aiming for
an absolutely perfect copy
of the rib cage
I see in front of me.
I'm more concerned with a
So it keeps
it keeps getting a little bit smaller.
Which is common.
It's common that you
you know as you correct
things are either going to enlarge or
get smaller. And in our case
here that's not as problematic. Of course this
can become a problem when
this begins to affect
object that you're working on is composed on the page in relation to
So you just have to keep it in mind
and be attentive. But the fact that
there are constant changes happening
that's an actual part of the
So here we're still
we're still working on
really finding the placement
of the ribs and of -
and of -
just gradually adding
So that the larger amount of half tones
can allow us to describe what's
happening here in more detail.
And what we have here
is that cast shadow from the ribs on
the other side and we can just
follow along to get as much of
the cleanest possible
here. Once again allowing the cast shadow
to describe the form that it's cast upon.
So now we're
getting a little more specific. But I do feel like
these ribs here are catching more light than
I'd like so I am going to tone
away, already understanding
that I'm probably gonna
have to push the shadows a bit more as well because it's just not enough.
And if you've asked
why is it that
I keep the tonality of
drawing in a flux
the whole time, as opposed to establishing
your main contrasts
then working within them
and I -
I like the improvisational aspect of it
that it keeps - I
like the precise fact that it keeps things open ended. That it
to kind of explore tonality
as an important element of the
isn't some kind of
that would allow me to get all of
the values in the right
precisely because what those values are
and the purpose that they serve,
what those values are
depending on the goals that you
set for yourself and the drawing
and you don't
always know what they are
before you begin.
And so keeping these things open ended
in these cases.
So here for example
I don't wanna
tone this down too much
but I'd like to get that little bit of
light, small amount and it's
seems ambient a little bit, falling on the
rib as it moves upwards.
And so here I'm trying to
define the ribs
so much with line because that's not
a place where I think we really need line.
a lot of this also is
finding those accents
and really placing those areas
in key points.
And now here
so all of this is pretty much
in shadow. We still need to show
where those ribs at the bottom of the
ribcage are and how they all connect to the cartilage
they sort of connect to one
single piece of cartilage extending from them
then this is rib -
ten right below it. The key is to have
them turning inwards. In and under.
now that a little more is beginning to happen here
we can see another accent along
this turning away of the form and
this right here. And see this also
I'm doing a little bit more abstracting even though what's really going to complete this
is of course the proper overlaps and outlines. So
here, not spending too much time, it's a small
shadow differentiating between
sort of elements of reflected light
and ambient light that's within
the shadow here. I'm kind of keeping it a little bit more unified,
focusing more on the edges of this form.
And in some of these
areas where we have
this almost obvious accent
is where we're going to
focus my attention
but of course the hard part here
here is to make sure
it's not overstated. It is in the area of light
or half tones.
And then continuing
down to here.
And almost counting the
ribs as you go. Nine
and ten down there.
you can see the advantage I think
by now of -
you can see the advantage by now of having the
intercostal muscles there.
the one hand it might even be harder because you can't count on
line, on outline.
You can see the advantage
of having the intercostal
even though on the other hand I can see
how it might prevent
one from working in line because you can't simply just
carefully outline where all the ribs are.
Here, you have to find where
they are and have them
kind of confirm to a larger
structure. But at the same time
that is exactly what's going to happen on the nude.
So this is as
preparation for understanding
what is going on in the nude.
I think this is a
beneficial learning tool.
some of the ribs
And I want to begin placing half tones. And for this I'm going to
squint because the point now is to kind of
remove some of these outlines.
They can exist in some places
but we still need to keep that overall form.
I was thinking about it and this
really is a remarkeable cast.
wish I had acess to something
like this when I was learning.
I have spoken a bit about how
at times you want an ecorche
or some kind of,
you know, some kind of
cast that you're copying to have gone
and have been made by an artist whose following
some kind of artistic conventions so that there are
stylistic qualities that might not really
in the human model
but that have been sort of tested
by art history.
I tend to
think that the ribcage
for the most part has been sort of overstylized
So it makes
it harder to really understand what's going on
and to make it look as
believable as some
other parts if you're simply working off of
the work of other artists and artistic convention.
So here I like -
that this is kind of
a completely unbiased
we're going to
that cast shadow and establish
the opening of the ribcage on the xiphoid process
as well as
place these half tones
on that rib down
there to really get it to turn.
And here I do see a little bit of
and that cast shadow's
definitely going to help with
describing the form
of that rib.
This is one of those parts that you're going
to see very clearly
on a model.
god there's a lot happening here.
But because of
the importance of
the ribcage, I feel like
any amount of time
that you spend on it
is going to be so helpful.
So spend as much as you
And here this is
a little over simplified.
We're still gonna have to find ways to carve in and really
make sure we see this as the full rib.
It doesn't have to be done all the way across the top of the rib but just
in some places.
you can always come back to those
accentuations along the
Now there's still a lot of anatomical
material that we're going to cover
I'm pretty sure
you're already aware of how much easier
it's going to be
when we work from a model
we've spent so much
exploring all these parts individually.
All you have to do
is combine them.
Easy to say though, you know
it's also hard
but that element of comfort
and I'm hoping that you're slowly beginning
to get accustomed to
And I'm so glad that
we can just
explore them piece by piece.
And I think it's
also interesting that if you already have experience
then I'm sure that you have
certain questions that have come up
that I think
are beginning to get answered
because all drawing is and all the sort of
process of art education is is the accumulation of
questions that arise
direct experience with the object that
you're trying to depict on paper.
And the education part is the answering
of those questions.
And also the asking. The asking and answering
of those questions.
think right now I want to
to establish, once again,
go over everything and establish
those large structures.
to really make this highlight
So that is our major change in
plane. This area right here, which
I'm gonna tone away because I think it's interfering with some of our half tones
in front. This is all in the side plane. So now
we have a certain amount of detail getting
into those larger
the hard part here
is telling yourself
because the more time you spend with
the ribcage, the more things
stand out and fill in,
intricacies and things like that, it's -
and you just wanna spend
the time exploring them and making them as clear as possible.
And that in itself is quite enjoyable.
So I advise you once again, spend as much time as you can here.
It will pay off.
and even a little -
the cut there is quite
interesting and we get all of our
component parts of the
vertebrae exposed. We don't need
to spend that much time on it.
And then -
but we do want that cast shadow I think.
And we can kind of extend it maybe a little more, make it clearer as it
falls on the first rib
and around to the back.
like where things are. So in order to complete this, and I do
have to call it at some point,
I think I'm just gonna go over
make them a little more exciting,
adds some curves where there are some.
And here I don't really
hesitate from making a clear
outline on the ribcage because that's what I tend to do on the nude model.
I like to make sure that we can
where the ribcage is as opposed to
muscular forms that go on top of it. I really
want it to be clear.
And we're gonna explore that quite soon when we begin to work on
the torso. And you'll see that most
of the work on the torso is going to be spent in
really just figuring out where the ribcage is
and making sure it's a prominent
And here I'm not as interested - this is all a little bit
on the softer side and I'm gonna,
just as we have seen before,
just bring up that
area in the shadow
kind of making it an area of reflected like so that it doesn't
compete with our shadows up close
and our main elements. It does not create too much of a -
too much of a contrast with the white of the
And now that that
has happened I'm going to
just make sure that all of these
clear origins of the ribs at the sternum
origins of the cartilage of the ribs,
the costal cartilage.
And here see
there is stuff in there but I'm gonna keep this
as a shadow that's grouped so that
the rib above it,
and the one below it really
really stands out as prominent.
And we wouldn't have that as much if we had
too much information into that shadow.
So now I'm just
making sure those accents read
from a tonal perspective as well
the perspective mark making.
You remember that a hatch plays an
important role - an obvious hatch - in
sort of attracting the attention of the viewer.
And that's kind of a good
a good introduction
into the importance of mark
making and its affect on the viewer
in painting as well.
Alright so here we have
the ribcage from the front.
let's take a look at it,
keeping mind what we've learned,
from a few other
angles. Okay but here
we have the ribcage from the front
now let's take what we
and take a look at it from a few other angles.
why don't we take a look
at what's happening with the ribcage in the back.
spending too much time
on getting a completed drawing of
we just need to figure out what's happening in terms of
the main changes in plane. So here
we're going to use that curvature of the
spine because it's going to give us
a point of entry into this form.
a lot of the points that we've spoken about you can't
really establish. For example
where is the ellipse of
the first rib?
But even if you can't see where it is,
I recommend putting
it in place regardless.
Kind of imagining where the
sternum is on the other side.
And then from here
we need to get as much information
as possible. And so
we're going to use the
spinous processes here because they form a ridge,
the spinous processes of the
And try to get the shape of that
ridge. So it's not as important to get each individual
one but to really make it clear
what is happening here.
And then we actually have an angle
here, a change in plane from
the front plane or the back plane
but in our case the front plane
and you can clearly see where
there's a change in plane happening.
it's at a point that's even called the angle of the
a lot like we saw in front
there's also a sort of opening of the ribcage
in the back. An arc
that is coming off of the
tenth rib. And it's interesting here
that we can
tenth rib and then
the widest point here around the eighth and ninth
ribs. But then you have these two
here you have, a lot like in front,
you also have an opening
of the ribcage
in the back. So up here you have
the tenth rib.
And that was the last one that we were able to draw
because we weren't able to
see those two ribs in the back that I was talking about
that aren't -
that don't have
cartilage that connects to the sternum. So this is rib number ten,
this is eleven and then the small
one down here
is number twelve. And right
about the area of rib
eleven is where you will also have sort of
a sort of opening. And so
it's kind of - it's more of a concavity
but it does create a relief that also
will make an arch. And
this one is not as easy to pick up on
when you're working on the back as the opening is in front.
But it's one that
you have to keep your eye
So without too much emphasis
on the tonality, let's place our shadows of most importance.
the ridge of the spinous processes
we have the cast
onto the ribcage
which I'm going to simplify and
make a clear
clear and does not incorporate the bumps of each
individual spinous process.
And then we have
our major changes in plane here
at an angle
that's quite clearly a
change from front into side plane. It's not exactly a 90 degree angle but it's
a clear and apparent one.
And make sure that this whole area
is in shadow.
the half tone
of our front plane.
And then here we can see
a shadow that's cast
from the 11th rib.
And even though it's not as obvious here
we need to take that arch
all the way across.
you can see that there's also another
sort of protrusion on both
sides of the spine here.
And that is
essentially the place of attachment of
the ribs in the back
to the spine itself.
So that we can also
as a structural element. And
what you see here is I'm giving you
a sense of what's happening. And the idea is that - and I'm exaggerating it of course
but that this plane here
also has a concavity.
So if our light's coming from
here for the purposes of
structure I'm just going to slightly tone away
that part right here
and add a little bit more light
And then we can
complete the rib cage with the 12th rib.
that's pretty much the structure
of the rib cage
in the back.
Where you can you can then begin to
pick out where
the ribs are along the contours
and if you're interested
spend the time making a
drawing of the
ribcage from the back,
keeping in mind that these
are the general planar structures
that you're going to have to spend the time accentuating.
and here is where you're really gonna be able to see those plane changes
that we were talking about along the sternum right at
the opening of the ribcage. So most
important here is to really
see where they are. So let's
start with the angle of that ellipse,
the first rib, and the origin of the neck.
we move out to get the manubrium
with rib number two, which we
can take all the way
back here. Then we'll continue
along the sternum, making sure to have that
and taking it all the way to its end
which, if you remember,
we can establish by
trying to find rib
And it's right
there. So you know that that
is rib number five.
Over here you're going to have the end of the sternum, the
opening of the ribcage, and right below it the
xiphoid process. And then
with rib number five, there's also a change in plane, a slight one,
with rib number seven
it begins to be
that major change in plane, that sweep inwards that I was talking about.
And it will - it ends
the opening of the ribcage
in the back - or the equivalent of which -
we have in the back
with rib number eleven
and then continues in a relatively even arc
So all of these particular
points need to be memorized
and known like the back of your hand.
The other thing to take a look at here is the actual
rather sort of complex
shape of each of the ribs. So
we do have that clarity of the plane in the back, which from our angle we're not going
to see from their origin of the ribs at the
vertebrae coming out towards the angle of
the angle of the ribs. And then
the ribs continue obliquely along the ribcage
but somewhat arched upwards on the side
and beginning to curve in
and kind of to arch the other way
right at the point that we were talking about of
the change between the front of the
ribcage and the side of it.
So that's something to think about
And they're also -
the other thing to keep in mind is that
the angles of these are radiating
and as they move back
or rather down, become more and more
discussed in this lesson. Then, using the 3D viewer
or the provided photographs, draw highly rendered
depiction of the Eliot Goldfinger
ribcage cast from four angles: front, side, the back,
and a three quarters view from the front.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview1m 20sNow playing...
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2. The Pelvis & Ribcage24s
3. Pelvis Demonstration Part 112m 16s
4. Pelvis Demonstration Part 319m 51s
5. Pelvis Demonstration Part 417m 22s
6. Pelvis Demonstration Part 510m 28s
7. Pelvis Demonstration Part 68m 12s
8. Posterior Pelvis Demonstration16m 48s
9. Drawing the Pelvis Assignment Instructions33s
10. Ribcage Demonstration Part 134m 5s
11. Ribcage Demonstration Part 28m 24s
12. Ribcage Demonstration Part 337m 10s
13. Ribcage Demonstration Part 425m 24s
14. Posterior Ribcage Demonstration12m 17s
15. Side Ribcage Demonstration4m 49s
16. Drawing the Ribcage Assignment Instructions31s