- Lesson details
- Transcript

- Instructor
- Erik Olson
- Subjects
- Perspective
- Materials
- Colored Pencil, Pencil
- Duration
- 6h 44m 26s
- Series
- Perspective for Artists

Erik Olson continues creating more complex curved objects and related reference planes and points to achieve correct perspective diminishment and foreshortening with these side to side symmetrical objects. Methods of intersecting objects and surfaces together are introduced.

Materials

- 45-45-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- 30-60-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- Alvin Pro-Matic Lead Holder – 2H Lead
- Alvin Rotary Lead Pointer
- T-Square Ruler
- Protractor
- Prismacolor Verithin Colored Pencil – Red/Blue
- Paintbrush
- Kneaded Eraser
- Hard Eraser
- Helix Technical Compass

Intermediate

3228 views

4 likes

Discuss this video in the forums!

DiscussChoose one video.

AUTO SCROLL

In this lecture, Erik Olson creates more complex curved objects and uses their reference planes

and points to achieve correct perspective diminishment and foreshortening. Erik will

teach you methods to intersect objects and services together, which described the many

ways the surface seams of intersecting objects appear and behave. These methods can be used

in simple or complex ways to create or understand

both basic and more complicated shapes and objects.

and points to achieve correct perspective diminishment and foreshortening. Erik will

teach you methods to intersect objects and services together, which described the many

ways the surface seams of intersecting objects appear and behave. These methods can be used

in simple or complex ways to create or understand

both basic and more complicated shapes and objects.

AUTO SCROLL

I’m going to start working with more organic shapes that haves curves basically on every

plane including, you know, we’re going to do flush to the floor designs coming out of

the floor in both directions and having different sized planes now. So we’re going to have

some curves and some tapering and much more rounded form. And we’re just going to get

used to that idea as well because we’ve done arches and some other things that were

a little more mechanical and things that we’re more used to. These will be really basic organic

forms that aren’t really representing anything exactly. They’re just kind of practice forms,

I guess you could call them. More like basic forms at the bottom of the ocean in ancient

times billions of years ago, that kind of thing.

Okay, we’re going to start with the idea of a center line now because we’re going

to feel out and kind of design a vehicle or a shape or a feeling of an object as we go.

So instead of drawing an entire rectangle where I know exactly where the object goes.

I’m going to actually draw my center plane standing first like we did with arches, but

it’s just a little different now. So that’s our middle plane, basically. And I’m going

to roughly say that I want the object to go about this far out. We’re going to roughly

make an idea. Not a really dark line but say, okay, and the back will be about here. I can

change that a little later, but I’m just going to kind of feel it out and say, okay,

the object will take place basically in here, pretty much a little in here, but we’re

going to draw it out first as far as the middle plane.

What I’m going to do is instead of drawing a mechanical plane like this standing, what

I’ll do is I’ll draw the top and the bottom, or I should say the front and the back of

what would be a standing plane in the middle very lightly just as an idea of this invisible

thing. And I’ll just roughly say I think I want my shape to be about that high. I’ll

put in a very light idea like that. So we’ve got, basically, kind of horizontal planes

that we’re going to put in coming from the left vanishing point. We’ve got the length

of the object going back to the right vanishing point and vertically we have a standing plane.

But now I’m going to kind of stake my ground on a particular shape, which is just kind

of made up. But I’m going to have it start here, move up and probably peak here and come

right down to here. So it’s a very simple shape. It peaks right there because I wanted

to confine my height to about that. It’s just all what we’re designing. And that’s

a middle plane shape now all the way ending right here kind of to a tip here at the front

and the back, so we’re going to call this the center seam. I have now the center line

on the ground, and this is the standing center seam that is perpendicular to that. We can

imagine there might be some seams to it where we want to divide some space. Before we go

any further what we’ll do is we’re just going to put the idea of sections in there

where our planes or our standing sections of width will go.

But first, I want to go, okay; the peak is right there, right where it touches the top.

So I’ll go ahead and make just the idea of a seam there. We don’t have to put it

in red this time. There’s the sitting seam there. Then maybe I’ll put in one more really

simply going toward the back. We already have our back plain. I’ll put one more hear and

then one more a little bit in the front right there just for the heck of it.

Now I have a total of one, two, three, four, five standing seams from this middle standing

shape or plane going down the length of this area. And it ends at basically a tip going

right to the ground there. So now what I’m going to do is I’m going to design rounded

shapes that come down in individual sections, not totally randomly because I’m making

a tapered shape, just making an organic shape that just, again, looks like kind of some

natural kind of organic object. But, we’re practicing why this referencing works now

in all dimensions to make curves. And of course, we’re referencing still with straight lines

and X’ng and doubling and using the reference points for the middle seam as we have before.

Exactly like that. But, now we’re just dealing with more organic curvaceous form.

I’m going to make the middle plain come out from here. I’m going to say I’m going

to do our front half first or what I should say facing this way from the left vanishing

point we’re going to design the object on its right side facing us, its right side first,

and then we’re going to double over to the back. But I’m going to go ahead and put

what represents the very simplest rectangular shapes of these standing planes at each part

of the scene. I’ve done it there in the middle. I’ll do another one here. It’s

a little lower. You can think of them as little standing poles. There, and also here we already

have one, but we want to go back through that. So that idea there. We’ve got three fairly

close lines. We have another one here that intersects that. I’ll go ahead and just

over draw. I don’t know how long I’ll need them so I’ll just over draw the idea.

And then one more here, remember, for that little one coming toward the front.

I'll go ahead and draw that in.

Now, before I do anything else I’m going to decide what the edge touching flush to

the ground is of this shape as well. We have the standing plane representing the middle

seam of the design of its height, but now I want the first half of it, of its design

as it comes down and touches the ground. What shape is that going to be coming to the front

all the way to the back. We’re not sure. It could be anything. We can do anything we

want. I’ll say for the heck of it I want it generally this wide, maybe make a mark

here and say, alright, as I’ve kind of indicated, maybe I want it to come out maybe about this

far. I’ll generally indicate that, but it’s going to be a curve as well. So what I’m

going to do is I’m going to bring it out here and I’m going to bring it closer here

at the back. I’m going to bring it around, come around,

just make it a real simple shape just like that.

So again, feel it out coming, flushes out, straightens out—whoops. Get rid of that

double line. Comes back here, comes back over. Make that nice and clear. Okay, so that’s

our shape. We’ll fill in the back. It’s our intended shape. So now we have the back

plane and we have one-half of the right side. Now, I’m going to meet up with all these

sections. I’m going to cast them out this way to the edge to meet that shape I just made.

I’m going to take careful note of where they touch here. I’m going to make a section

that comes here, goes across to the other side. Section that comes out, meets it there,

goes across to the other side. Here, comes out, meets that shape and goes across. Comes

out, meets that shape, comes across and, of course, representing our back plane which

we already have kind of drawn out. What we’ve done now is we have representations. The confusing

part might be, oh that’s right, but we also have these lines coming out here with these

shapes. So to not confuse them, we’ll say we have the top sections in red coming out

from here, not to confuse. So the lines that are coming from where the top meets the rounded

standing plane here we’ll go ahead and do them in red. I’ll make those crossing lines

to the left vanishing point a little more in red, just not to get confused, and then

we’ll draw them in later. And then we’ll leave these separate sections here on the

ground this color. So we’re going to make it really clear now that there’s a relationship

from that top middle seam I had right there. That seam coming here also comes out and is

also meeting on that same plane.

So imagine now that these are going straight across as a flush plane all the way to the

left vanishing point. Anything that happens within this space is a section. It is one

standing plane going evenly to diminishing to the left vanishing point just as the entire

center plane is diminishing to the right vanishing point, and so it’ll show some of the movement

going back. This is an organic curve, and so is the top of this. But we do have this

section. Also, this section now comes down and out, so we’ll make that point this section.

It comes down and out and has a relationship with that. This section comes down, and this

section comes down to that back corner of that shape. So now we have that relationship.

We’ll go ahead and make those darker. We’ll move it nice and slow so we can start changing

our attitude of, or our experience of how we can have these kinds of XYZ referenced

relationships. So there’s that half. So now I’m going to decide what does the skin

of the object actually do? If I showed a seam that emanated from these points going across

to the left vanishing point and that these sections coming out and going down organically

to meet their counterpoint, meaning we’re drawing across and down the form right where

these planes would be, some type of organic tapering curve we’re going to design right

now. And those we’ll be connected to the same plane and sections. We’ll have one,

two, three, four, and five being the back. And then, of course, the front, that’s 6th

point comes around to a tip or a point. I’ll go ahead and do the middle seam now. There’s

the middle seam. I’m going to say I want my thing to ride going to the left vanishing

point for a little bit, and then it’s going to come down and it’s going to curve out

and come down like this right to the edge. We can think of that as a skin seam, light

right on what we’d call the skin of the object, like an airplane, a curvaceous boat,

a car, a toaster; it doesn’t matter. We’re pretending to put seams where these planes

meet so we can draw the object and understand the surface without having to render the whole

surface or cover it with lighting. We understand the relationship of the skin’s surface or

the surface of the object because we’re making seams every so often just like an aircraft

would have, again, rivets, seams in boats and houses, all sorts of stuff.

So that’s that first one.

Now, we’re not going to try to replicate the exact same curve. The back will become

a little simpler and do this. I’m still going to have it follow to the left vanishing

point a little bit, but that will fall quicker. Come out with a less severe curve like that.

Then the back is just going to be one continuous kind of fall in this motion right to the back,

so it’s very simple. There’s that shape. Okay, we’ve only done one half, remember,

so this is section here, a section here, and this is a section also. We haven’t done

this one yet or the little front one. So let’s do the front section. We’ll follow again

to the left vanishing point a little bit, and then again, we’ll have a nice deep curve,

a swing out and come down to meet the section. So that’s now a section here, here, and

coming down to this. We have one section, two, three, four, and then the fifth one.

What do I want do I want to with the nose here? I’ll have a little bit of a divot in it.

And I’ll have it kind of curve down like this subtlety. Swing in, come down and

meet that. So now this is a little section as well. Now, we want to try to find the most

convenient divisions to double this kind of sectioning on the ground over here and some

of these standing planes so that we can double them over effectively, both to meet this doubled

over seam here, but also to meet the sections as well.

If we want we can go ahead and start maybe with our ground first. The easy way to do

that is that this meets a convenient section here at the edge, but because this comes out

to the edge here I can go ahead and double that over and meet the other side. I’ll

use this square here and double it over. I have to X that little idea very lightly. We’re

going to do these divisions pretty lightly and accurately. We’ve got that center plane.

I’m going to drive that straight over to cross the center seam to my left vanishing

point. I’ve got that and as long as I’m making a line I’m going to have it go all

the way over and carry into almost reflected space. You could think of this standing center

seam as a standing mirror and simply reflecting the exact reflection of this, but it’s not

a standing plane of a mirror. We’re actually doubling the object over, but a true standing

thin, flush, mirror standing straight up would have the same effect. Now we’re going to

take that reference point, take our far corner here. We’re going to carefully go through

right through the reference. That tells us right here is the counter to this right over

there. That means that the back of our overall rectangle surrounding this organic kind of

amoeba shape passes by right about there. I’ll go ahead and make them a little bit

of an indication of that across the whole way back there.

There’s our doubled over space. We have this lighter edge here, which I’ll make

a little darker here for the camera. Now we have that doubled over side back there in

space, so now we can start dividing things. Now the next thing we’d like to do is we’d

like to find this point here and then this point doubled over and this point and this

point. Let’s do that. Easy way to do that again is we could divide this again by this

and double it over. That would be easy. Or we could take this as a standing plane and

double that over. If we wanted to, let’s take the whole thing as a standing plane.

I’ll just use my T-square here.

I’ll say so the overall shape comes to the top here in the red.

As a standing plane, if I X this off very lightly down to this and X that off,

I’m X’ng off the complete shape of this standing plane to be doubled over to find

this edge here. Find the center, drive it back to the left vanishing point. There’s

the little reference point. Take our opposite corner, go down. That goes through and we

find it right over there. Now this opposite is over there.

We’ll connect the shapes as we go.

Then, of course, we want to find this one over there too so we can double that over.

I can treat that as a standing plane too in red if I want. Let’s do that. We could do a

flush plane on the ground and also double it over, but I’ll go ahead and lightly go

over that one. So the corner of that shape is right here.

There’s the corner. Within this we have

that organic curve, but we also have that as a little standing plane.

We could X off that plane.

It’s this kind of thinking of doubling everything over and driving that center quickly there.

Again, we’re breaking it down real slow for everybody. As you can imagine, most people

just dry these by hand very carefully doubling over space, but it can really help you get

these ideas. We’re drafting it because we want to be exact and shows these movements.

We have to double down from the reference point, as we know. Come down and find our

doubled space over here. Now, there’s that point. Then we have our front point. So now

we have this, this, and this; this, this and this, this, and this; and this as well.

One two, three, four front; one, two, three, four back.

Let’s go ahead and get this one here. If we want I can do this one on the ground just

to show you. I can seam it off as a square here. This is our square where we’re going

to cross it, double it, and find that point over there.

I’ll go ahead and cut that in half right there.

Go ahead and find the center. Drive it back to the left vanishing point.

Find the reference point. Double over. We’re trying to find this point so I’m going to

double over from this front corner over. That’s what we’re told is our back, so there is

that. There’s it double and we end here. We have to double that back so we could do

a standing plane again for the back if we want. We’ll do that. I’ll come up with

a little red at the very back end of this. Say, alright, that’s a pretty easy one to

double over, but just to do it correctly we’ll go ahead and double that space or exit, double

it over with that little center. Drive it over to the left vanishing point.

Find that reference.

Come from the top corner and go right through the center exactly. Just come

right over and get that point there. That becomes our doubled over space.

So now that we’ve done all that doubling work much like we did in the past diagrams,

the past few diagrams, I can take my pencil now and I can find, I should be able to find

the equivalent of this curve here now in the backside. And it looks a lot different or

somewhat different, of course, and it can be surprising, but we’ll go ahead and draw

through it now and just connect them as best we can. Try to stay out of the way of the

camera. We know it flattens out pretty much here a little forward of that. It kind of

flattens out right about there and then starts coming around like that. Then I’m going

to come back here and it kind of departs rather quickly and curves a little bit past here.

And this point it comes to about like that, so I’ll try to connect this idea here, coming

around a little like that. Then a nice, slow swing that way, so that should come back nice

and naturally this way, so I’ll dry to draw that in accurately without going off the line here.

Stay out of your way—of the camera.

If you’re drawing this on freehand paper like I’ve mentioned in the other diagrams,

it’s a lot easier to turn the paper and use your easiest flow of how you make curves,

but since these are bigger and fixed on the table and I’m trying to stay out of the

way of camera, I kind of have to take a little bit of an awkward posture sometimes and take

a little longer, and that’s fine.

So now we’re connecting that back curve. There’s that back curve. Now we have everything

doubled over. And again, to remind you, here is our center seam. Why that doubles over,

there it is. Double, double; double, double; double, double; double, double. So there we

go. Now we’re trying to replicate our seams here so I’ll draw them in a little darker,

our falling seams from our sections. We’ll do that one at a time. We might have to have

a couple references on those. That one is pretty easy in the back. Here’s this one.

It comes down like a big seam. Again, darken this one in. There’s that seam coming down

the side of the skin right there. We’ll really darken it in when we’re done one

more time to reiterate all the interior referencing thinking compared to what actually represents

the shape, but we can’t really get the outer edges right here, which are going to behave

in a certain way until we replicate these seams doubling over,

so we really understand what these curved sections do.

Remember, this is one section, two, three, four, five. Then

we come to a point in the front.

plane including, you know, we’re going to do flush to the floor designs coming out of

the floor in both directions and having different sized planes now. So we’re going to have

some curves and some tapering and much more rounded form. And we’re just going to get

used to that idea as well because we’ve done arches and some other things that were

a little more mechanical and things that we’re more used to. These will be really basic organic

forms that aren’t really representing anything exactly. They’re just kind of practice forms,

I guess you could call them. More like basic forms at the bottom of the ocean in ancient

times billions of years ago, that kind of thing.

Okay, we’re going to start with the idea of a center line now because we’re going

to feel out and kind of design a vehicle or a shape or a feeling of an object as we go.

So instead of drawing an entire rectangle where I know exactly where the object goes.

I’m going to actually draw my center plane standing first like we did with arches, but

it’s just a little different now. So that’s our middle plane, basically. And I’m going

to roughly say that I want the object to go about this far out. We’re going to roughly

make an idea. Not a really dark line but say, okay, and the back will be about here. I can

change that a little later, but I’m just going to kind of feel it out and say, okay,

the object will take place basically in here, pretty much a little in here, but we’re

going to draw it out first as far as the middle plane.

What I’m going to do is instead of drawing a mechanical plane like this standing, what

I’ll do is I’ll draw the top and the bottom, or I should say the front and the back of

what would be a standing plane in the middle very lightly just as an idea of this invisible

thing. And I’ll just roughly say I think I want my shape to be about that high. I’ll

put in a very light idea like that. So we’ve got, basically, kind of horizontal planes

that we’re going to put in coming from the left vanishing point. We’ve got the length

of the object going back to the right vanishing point and vertically we have a standing plane.

But now I’m going to kind of stake my ground on a particular shape, which is just kind

of made up. But I’m going to have it start here, move up and probably peak here and come

right down to here. So it’s a very simple shape. It peaks right there because I wanted

to confine my height to about that. It’s just all what we’re designing. And that’s

a middle plane shape now all the way ending right here kind of to a tip here at the front

and the back, so we’re going to call this the center seam. I have now the center line

on the ground, and this is the standing center seam that is perpendicular to that. We can

imagine there might be some seams to it where we want to divide some space. Before we go

any further what we’ll do is we’re just going to put the idea of sections in there

where our planes or our standing sections of width will go.

But first, I want to go, okay; the peak is right there, right where it touches the top.

So I’ll go ahead and make just the idea of a seam there. We don’t have to put it

in red this time. There’s the sitting seam there. Then maybe I’ll put in one more really

simply going toward the back. We already have our back plain. I’ll put one more hear and

then one more a little bit in the front right there just for the heck of it.

Now I have a total of one, two, three, four, five standing seams from this middle standing

shape or plane going down the length of this area. And it ends at basically a tip going

right to the ground there. So now what I’m going to do is I’m going to design rounded

shapes that come down in individual sections, not totally randomly because I’m making

a tapered shape, just making an organic shape that just, again, looks like kind of some

natural kind of organic object. But, we’re practicing why this referencing works now

in all dimensions to make curves. And of course, we’re referencing still with straight lines

and X’ng and doubling and using the reference points for the middle seam as we have before.

Exactly like that. But, now we’re just dealing with more organic curvaceous form.

I’m going to make the middle plain come out from here. I’m going to say I’m going

to do our front half first or what I should say facing this way from the left vanishing

point we’re going to design the object on its right side facing us, its right side first,

and then we’re going to double over to the back. But I’m going to go ahead and put

what represents the very simplest rectangular shapes of these standing planes at each part

of the scene. I’ve done it there in the middle. I’ll do another one here. It’s

a little lower. You can think of them as little standing poles. There, and also here we already

have one, but we want to go back through that. So that idea there. We’ve got three fairly

close lines. We have another one here that intersects that. I’ll go ahead and just

over draw. I don’t know how long I’ll need them so I’ll just over draw the idea.

And then one more here, remember, for that little one coming toward the front.

I'll go ahead and draw that in.

Now, before I do anything else I’m going to decide what the edge touching flush to

the ground is of this shape as well. We have the standing plane representing the middle

seam of the design of its height, but now I want the first half of it, of its design

as it comes down and touches the ground. What shape is that going to be coming to the front

all the way to the back. We’re not sure. It could be anything. We can do anything we

want. I’ll say for the heck of it I want it generally this wide, maybe make a mark

here and say, alright, as I’ve kind of indicated, maybe I want it to come out maybe about this

far. I’ll generally indicate that, but it’s going to be a curve as well. So what I’m

going to do is I’m going to bring it out here and I’m going to bring it closer here

at the back. I’m going to bring it around, come around,

just make it a real simple shape just like that.

So again, feel it out coming, flushes out, straightens out—whoops. Get rid of that

double line. Comes back here, comes back over. Make that nice and clear. Okay, so that’s

our shape. We’ll fill in the back. It’s our intended shape. So now we have the back

plane and we have one-half of the right side. Now, I’m going to meet up with all these

sections. I’m going to cast them out this way to the edge to meet that shape I just made.

I’m going to take careful note of where they touch here. I’m going to make a section

that comes here, goes across to the other side. Section that comes out, meets it there,

goes across to the other side. Here, comes out, meets that shape and goes across. Comes

out, meets that shape, comes across and, of course, representing our back plane which

we already have kind of drawn out. What we’ve done now is we have representations. The confusing

part might be, oh that’s right, but we also have these lines coming out here with these

shapes. So to not confuse them, we’ll say we have the top sections in red coming out

from here, not to confuse. So the lines that are coming from where the top meets the rounded

standing plane here we’ll go ahead and do them in red. I’ll make those crossing lines

to the left vanishing point a little more in red, just not to get confused, and then

we’ll draw them in later. And then we’ll leave these separate sections here on the

ground this color. So we’re going to make it really clear now that there’s a relationship

from that top middle seam I had right there. That seam coming here also comes out and is

also meeting on that same plane.

So imagine now that these are going straight across as a flush plane all the way to the

left vanishing point. Anything that happens within this space is a section. It is one

standing plane going evenly to diminishing to the left vanishing point just as the entire

center plane is diminishing to the right vanishing point, and so it’ll show some of the movement

going back. This is an organic curve, and so is the top of this. But we do have this

section. Also, this section now comes down and out, so we’ll make that point this section.

It comes down and out and has a relationship with that. This section comes down, and this

section comes down to that back corner of that shape. So now we have that relationship.

We’ll go ahead and make those darker. We’ll move it nice and slow so we can start changing

our attitude of, or our experience of how we can have these kinds of XYZ referenced

relationships. So there’s that half. So now I’m going to decide what does the skin

of the object actually do? If I showed a seam that emanated from these points going across

to the left vanishing point and that these sections coming out and going down organically

to meet their counterpoint, meaning we’re drawing across and down the form right where

these planes would be, some type of organic tapering curve we’re going to design right

now. And those we’ll be connected to the same plane and sections. We’ll have one,

two, three, four, and five being the back. And then, of course, the front, that’s 6th

point comes around to a tip or a point. I’ll go ahead and do the middle seam now. There’s

the middle seam. I’m going to say I want my thing to ride going to the left vanishing

point for a little bit, and then it’s going to come down and it’s going to curve out

and come down like this right to the edge. We can think of that as a skin seam, light

right on what we’d call the skin of the object, like an airplane, a curvaceous boat,

a car, a toaster; it doesn’t matter. We’re pretending to put seams where these planes

meet so we can draw the object and understand the surface without having to render the whole

surface or cover it with lighting. We understand the relationship of the skin’s surface or

the surface of the object because we’re making seams every so often just like an aircraft

would have, again, rivets, seams in boats and houses, all sorts of stuff.

So that’s that first one.

Now, we’re not going to try to replicate the exact same curve. The back will become

a little simpler and do this. I’m still going to have it follow to the left vanishing

point a little bit, but that will fall quicker. Come out with a less severe curve like that.

Then the back is just going to be one continuous kind of fall in this motion right to the back,

so it’s very simple. There’s that shape. Okay, we’ve only done one half, remember,

so this is section here, a section here, and this is a section also. We haven’t done

this one yet or the little front one. So let’s do the front section. We’ll follow again

to the left vanishing point a little bit, and then again, we’ll have a nice deep curve,

a swing out and come down to meet the section. So that’s now a section here, here, and

coming down to this. We have one section, two, three, four, and then the fifth one.

What do I want do I want to with the nose here? I’ll have a little bit of a divot in it.

And I’ll have it kind of curve down like this subtlety. Swing in, come down and

meet that. So now this is a little section as well. Now, we want to try to find the most

convenient divisions to double this kind of sectioning on the ground over here and some

of these standing planes so that we can double them over effectively, both to meet this doubled

over seam here, but also to meet the sections as well.

If we want we can go ahead and start maybe with our ground first. The easy way to do

that is that this meets a convenient section here at the edge, but because this comes out

to the edge here I can go ahead and double that over and meet the other side. I’ll

use this square here and double it over. I have to X that little idea very lightly. We’re

going to do these divisions pretty lightly and accurately. We’ve got that center plane.

I’m going to drive that straight over to cross the center seam to my left vanishing

point. I’ve got that and as long as I’m making a line I’m going to have it go all

the way over and carry into almost reflected space. You could think of this standing center

seam as a standing mirror and simply reflecting the exact reflection of this, but it’s not

a standing plane of a mirror. We’re actually doubling the object over, but a true standing

thin, flush, mirror standing straight up would have the same effect. Now we’re going to

take that reference point, take our far corner here. We’re going to carefully go through

right through the reference. That tells us right here is the counter to this right over

there. That means that the back of our overall rectangle surrounding this organic kind of

amoeba shape passes by right about there. I’ll go ahead and make them a little bit

of an indication of that across the whole way back there.

There’s our doubled over space. We have this lighter edge here, which I’ll make

a little darker here for the camera. Now we have that doubled over side back there in

space, so now we can start dividing things. Now the next thing we’d like to do is we’d

like to find this point here and then this point doubled over and this point and this

point. Let’s do that. Easy way to do that again is we could divide this again by this

and double it over. That would be easy. Or we could take this as a standing plane and

double that over. If we wanted to, let’s take the whole thing as a standing plane.

I’ll just use my T-square here.

I’ll say so the overall shape comes to the top here in the red.

As a standing plane, if I X this off very lightly down to this and X that off,

I’m X’ng off the complete shape of this standing plane to be doubled over to find

this edge here. Find the center, drive it back to the left vanishing point. There’s

the little reference point. Take our opposite corner, go down. That goes through and we

find it right over there. Now this opposite is over there.

We’ll connect the shapes as we go.

Then, of course, we want to find this one over there too so we can double that over.

I can treat that as a standing plane too in red if I want. Let’s do that. We could do a

flush plane on the ground and also double it over, but I’ll go ahead and lightly go

over that one. So the corner of that shape is right here.

There’s the corner. Within this we have

that organic curve, but we also have that as a little standing plane.

We could X off that plane.

It’s this kind of thinking of doubling everything over and driving that center quickly there.

Again, we’re breaking it down real slow for everybody. As you can imagine, most people

just dry these by hand very carefully doubling over space, but it can really help you get

these ideas. We’re drafting it because we want to be exact and shows these movements.

We have to double down from the reference point, as we know. Come down and find our

doubled space over here. Now, there’s that point. Then we have our front point. So now

we have this, this, and this; this, this and this, this, and this; and this as well.

One two, three, four front; one, two, three, four back.

Let’s go ahead and get this one here. If we want I can do this one on the ground just

to show you. I can seam it off as a square here. This is our square where we’re going

to cross it, double it, and find that point over there.

I’ll go ahead and cut that in half right there.

Go ahead and find the center. Drive it back to the left vanishing point.

Find the reference point. Double over. We’re trying to find this point so I’m going to

double over from this front corner over. That’s what we’re told is our back, so there is

that. There’s it double and we end here. We have to double that back so we could do

a standing plane again for the back if we want. We’ll do that. I’ll come up with

a little red at the very back end of this. Say, alright, that’s a pretty easy one to

double over, but just to do it correctly we’ll go ahead and double that space or exit, double

it over with that little center. Drive it over to the left vanishing point.

Find that reference.

Come from the top corner and go right through the center exactly. Just come

right over and get that point there. That becomes our doubled over space.

So now that we’ve done all that doubling work much like we did in the past diagrams,

the past few diagrams, I can take my pencil now and I can find, I should be able to find

the equivalent of this curve here now in the backside. And it looks a lot different or

somewhat different, of course, and it can be surprising, but we’ll go ahead and draw

through it now and just connect them as best we can. Try to stay out of the way of the

camera. We know it flattens out pretty much here a little forward of that. It kind of

flattens out right about there and then starts coming around like that. Then I’m going

to come back here and it kind of departs rather quickly and curves a little bit past here.

And this point it comes to about like that, so I’ll try to connect this idea here, coming

around a little like that. Then a nice, slow swing that way, so that should come back nice

and naturally this way, so I’ll dry to draw that in accurately without going off the line here.

Stay out of your way—of the camera.

If you’re drawing this on freehand paper like I’ve mentioned in the other diagrams,

it’s a lot easier to turn the paper and use your easiest flow of how you make curves,

but since these are bigger and fixed on the table and I’m trying to stay out of the

way of camera, I kind of have to take a little bit of an awkward posture sometimes and take

a little longer, and that’s fine.

So now we’re connecting that back curve. There’s that back curve. Now we have everything

doubled over. And again, to remind you, here is our center seam. Why that doubles over,

there it is. Double, double; double, double; double, double; double, double. So there we

go. Now we’re trying to replicate our seams here so I’ll draw them in a little darker,

our falling seams from our sections. We’ll do that one at a time. We might have to have

a couple references on those. That one is pretty easy in the back. Here’s this one.

It comes down like a big seam. Again, darken this one in. There’s that seam coming down

the side of the skin right there. We’ll really darken it in when we’re done one

more time to reiterate all the interior referencing thinking compared to what actually represents

the shape, but we can’t really get the outer edges right here, which are going to behave

in a certain way until we replicate these seams doubling over,

so we really understand what these curved sections do.

Remember, this is one section, two, three, four, five. Then

we come to a point in the front.

AUTO SCROLL

Okay, so let’s figure out an easy way to double them out. Where would some good reference

points be? We’ve done this before with some of our arches and some of our other objects

and our bridges and stuff. We’re just trying to find convenient

ways and places to put our references.

Okay, so let’s say we feel like this is pretty important where this seam

is here on most of them, so we’ll double that idea over and find like a standing plane

here right about there on that one. So I’ll put those in red this time.

There—that’s a pretty important seam right in the middle. This one kind of is up here before it curves back.

This one we don’t really need one for, but I’ll say right at the apex of the

curve we’ll slam one over there to the other side. This one right here in the middle of

the indent right there. Okay, so that kind of floats of an idea of where we would have

a light change cause that’s the innermost and the most severe turn-in before it comes

back out again. That red line in a sense represents where parts of reflection would be carried

later because of the fact that they’re connected like this at the innermost term of this inner

seam, which I tried to hit. Then it flexes out again here, so that’s that the innermost

outer turn on this one, but then in. So we’ll decide if we need more than that. We know

that this one is about at this height about that far out so that’s pretty easy to find.

We have these counterpoints over here. This one over here. This one over here.

This one over here. This one over here.

Okay, so we’re trying to double them over. Let’s go with the big one first. I’m going

to take this to the ground. Now we could take the center seam and use that and go way up,

and we could make some relationships there and simply go, oh, why can’t we use this

to this to here and come back down? We could do that to find this as well because we could

come straight over. So maybe we’ll try both ways. First we’ll do the ground idea of

simply making a rectangle to meet the ground right to that seam. Then we’re going to

drive this same height right over to our left vanishing point and go all the way across.

We’ll remember that’s the bottom of the seam there, right there.

So, from center out—don’t get confused. Here, all the way across the top here, all

the way this is what we’re X’ng. We’re going to simply X that off as a reminder.

Right there. We have to go to the true middle corner there. There we go. Drive that through

to the left. Make that little reference there. If I go through here over to about right there

I should get right over there, basically.

Alright, so that is reduced to about that size there.

I can put that standing plane in now. I should be able to get my reference

on where my curve comes down there. So now we can reference this. This point now is over

here so I can take a guess at my curve. Now you could say, well, wait a minute; this still

comes here and kind of peaks here. It continues down. If I want help I could actually do this

and simply say, okay, there’s that height over there somewhere. I now this comes through

here so I’m just going to try it and say if this comes through this way on that side

then on the opposite side that angle would come through in the opposite kind of like

that and then tumble down and curve like that. If I’m really coming down sharp enough,

which I didn’t actually, this would really fall more steeply through here. It’s really

more like this. This comes up for a little while so I’m just going to do that, nice and fat.

Okay, so curve it around. I’m going to try to get that whole feeling out of there just

like that. That’s the other side of that. Now it curves in the most right here, and

then on its way up the curve starts turning in, so it goes a little while this way. It’s

coming over so we can start feeling it out. It should behave something like this so it

kind of curves up. Make it nice and let it taper a little and come over like this.

Okay, so that would be my best shot there with just the one reference point, a little

help here. Okay, so that comes over. So we’re really only going to see a little bit of it.

See this little part here peaks up? That’s going to actually be an edge. We can see a

little bit over the top, and we’ll see how this sections behaves behind it. So let’s

do the section behind. Again, we said a helpful middle section would be here. We’re going

to take that over to our left vanishing point because we’re going to do this section now

doubled over. Let’s go ahead and we’ll take the floor over there, which is this line

here. We’ll drop it vertically so I’ll just kind of do this. So we’ll X that off.

Being real clear and thorough here, how the complete concept is covered. And before I

forget we said we’d show you another way to do this one. SO let’s finish this back

one, and I’ll show you. I forgot we can also go through this point to this point to

a middle seam and come back down and see how close we were. We’ll do that in a second.

Let’s just double over the simple plain here, though. We’ve doubled it over, so

now I can take that to the ground basically right there and say that’s where that is

there. I can come straight up pretty much and say, alright, that is over there doubled.

Here’s the middle seam; double it over, there, there. Okay.

So let’s try that curve now. We know it comes out of the ground and slowly comes up

this way. We know this curves at that angle. We should have that nice curve like that.

This comes up and bows there. This comes over just to there. Comes up those. Okay, perfect.

That should be about that one. Do I need references every tiny part to move and go, oh God, I

can’t draw without these references? No. I’m trying to pick the simplest one. There’s

the most obvious change where this kind of reverses on itself and comes down with those

red dots we did.

Alright, so there’s that section. This one should be pretty easy. There’s the back

one of that. Double this over like we did. This is pretty to decide since we have that

middle there. We can come up with this blue line we have. I forgot to do there. Oops,

we’ll do it in red. Okay, so we’ve got that doubled and we just come back and meet

that over there. Now, we’ve got our curve for the back pretty easily. We come up and

it starts curving almost immediately. Come to here. So the idea would be—

this is actually a little in from that.

This has to be doubled over. What I’m going to do is take that

plane now and drop it in like that. So I’m going to guess if that represents actually

out here then we have to come in this far here. I have to pretty much say that. So it

will not be mistaken there for you. This plane falls a little inside that outside plane,

so I want to double that over there and show it here. So now we can come out and start

curving in. There’s that back side.

Okay, so now we have that and that.

Okay, so now we have this big middle plane double over, this doubled over, and this doubled

over. Here’s another way we could do the middle plane like I promised. Another way

we could have done it is to take this middle seam up like that, and we could have matched

I'll do it blue. I could’ve gone through here, through here, made a reference point right there.

And by coming back down here to the counterpoint blue line here I come back down

to through here. That’s right where the next seam is. It’s a little off from that,

but that was another way we could get this one over here. We’d be coming up through

here, through here, making the reference point. By coming back down to this point, by crossing

this plane that comes over here I get that point again. So it’s the same idea. It’s

just here we use the standing rectangle, X’d it, doubled over, got the reference that way.

Here we could just use a reference point through the center seam standing up vertically, reference

point come down, come across, nail it.

Okay, now we’re going to do this section here so we’re going to double over this

section here again. Again, we can use a simple standing point of a rectangle through this

red thing through the seam. So I’ll go ahead and drive that all the way over the left vanishing

point. I’ll come down. Let me go ahead and use the T-square. I’ll come straight down

to the bottom of the plane, which is there. So now our standing plane we’re doubling

over is this, this to the center line, down and over. I’ll go ahead and X off that little

rectangle. Just make a center if I want. I don’t have to go all the through and make

a mess. Make sure I double check where that comes through like that. There it is. Make

that clear. We come over to our left vanishing point. We go over and make that middle reference

point there. Come through down to here. Actually, I should say down here up to there gives me

right where I want to be through—I’ll be exact here.

That should be right there,so this is now here. I can drop straight down with that one.

I need to drop straight down with that plane.

Come over to here. Drop straight down with that reference, back down to the

plane. We now have this plane doubled over. It’ll be a little actually over here a little

more. I’m going to carry it over here. I’d say it’s more over there.

This is now pushed out a little over there.

Let’s try to draw that seam in now. It goes straight for a little while and comes in.

We need to find this over here. Go straight up and come in for a little bit. It starts

coming in. Then we know this doubles over for a bit, starts coming down. We also come

through at this angle through here. Then it goes up, not quite straight, up, not quite

straight, about like that. Then it comes straight down and when it’s down here it turns a

fairly natural curve like that. So that’s my guess at that one. Come nice and down here.

Come down. We’ve doubled that one over. There’s the middle seam here.

Doubled over seam over there.

So let’s do one more here. This seam here.

We’ll drive that middle seam right to the left vanishing point again.

Make a little box, dropping straight down like this.

Now we’re doubling over this box here, there, here, here, there. We’re

simply doubling it over, X’ing it off.

Taking that X from right here to here.

Drive it to the left, making that middle point. Again, if I take this through that I should come

up about there at that point there. I’ll just draw that straight down, paralleling

that. There is that doubled over plane here to here, so that point should

appear about there. This here.

Now I can get my last section by saying this comes up fairly steeply and hitting that.

I’ll take that opposite angle there, there; it comes out and comes down. It doesn’t

really go straight so it comes out kind of like that. That goes up fairly steeply coming

up. Rounds out right here to the middle seam so it comes out just a little and falls straight

down to that. We’re looking for that.

I’d say it does about this, maybe a little further over.

Okay, so there’s that doubled over. I’ll darken this one in a whole bunch.

Okay, so now I’m going to work hard at trying to make these parents, and now we’ve got

them doubled over. So before we put on the final skin on this piece we’re going to

make it dead clear what the different planes are. That first plane I just finished doubled

over. Here’s the doubling over line. I’m going to make that middle seam very clear.

I’m going to make the doubled over version red for the other part of the dimensional

universe we’re talking about. Our forward plane is blue, we’ll say, and the doubled

over one is red. This doubled over plane here, I’m just going to shade it a bit so I don’t

cover up the work. I do want to put it in, and I’ll darken in the lines. That’s our

other plane there. That other one is red in there. Okay.

We haven’t done the final edge skin over here yet. We’re going to do that after we

get our standing planes over. I just want to explain this. Let’s make this really

clear. There’s that bottom line between the two, so I’ll darken that in. It’s

going to be real clear, and that middle seam is real important too. Of course, that comes

over the overall middle seam right here so we’ll darken that in. Here we go.

Alright, I’ll darken in this next plane really hard. It’s a big one. Come down.

Center seam, important. Remember, we come down here. We found it over here, nice and

dark there. Get that bottom seam very dark, nice and clear. There you go.

Go ahead and do this one in blue.

We won’t have to do this every time by any means, but

just for this first couple. We’ll really slow down and make it dead clear what we’re

doing and the logic. So once we get the logic down from these simpler ones, it will be a

lot easier to think quickly as they get more complex.

Okay, there’s our blue.

Some of you who have done this before are

probably falling asleep, going okay, but we got to do it for our intermediates and our beginners.

Okay, there we go. Red, a little overlapping the blue gets a little lavender there.

You get the idea.

Our second to last plane back here, again, darken it in. Make it really clear. We doubled

that over. Make the bottom seam clear.

And make the middle seam clear.

Again, shade in blue this side.

Again, the back—there’s the bottom seam nice and clear, middle seam is clear, doubled

over side, doubled over side. Blue on this front side. We’ll go ahead and do red here.

Clears the last plane there.

Alright, there it is. So now we have to say, alright, we know this is the center seam.

We know that. But, how do we now connect what we know is the outside seam we can see over

the top a little bit. Well, we can’t see this side and this side over here, so the

center seam is truly the edge of the object at this part back here. Obviously, this side

is truly the edge up to about this point, I’d say. Then we got to make sure we get

this nice and dark. We’ll turn this again, make it really obvious. Nice and dark. And

I’ll work my way back here just to do this way. Try not to smear everything.

I'll make that edge nice and dark.

Okay, there’s the bottom.

Now, we’ve got to get this true outside edge, which would be another part of this

skin here. Here’s the center seam that I’ll make clear. Now, that edge we have to feel,

the parts right here would travel right over there, kind of go behind right there, and

come back over to this. We just have to get the spirit of what we think this side is doing.

Kind of rounding out, going back toward here. Trying to get my head out of the way here.

Then what does it do here? That really is the skin, so we have to figure out it passes

through here, passes through there. It comes through there and connects. The edge. It’ll

also connect through the edge here, so it kind of tapers through that edge there probably.

Well, not quite.

Edge is there. It would really deviate more like this.

This can go back there to down there, probably go up like that. Imagine a thick part of the

skin right here, kind of wrap around. It dips way down there so actually you can kind of

see this part through there. Again, dipping down, this coming out; dipping down, this

coming out. Something like that. I’m guessing the outside edge there kind of does this,

comes up like this gradually through here and really does catch right back up there.

It comes out a little more round so we’ll just have to figure out if that rounds out a little bit.

It’ll come out just like that.

It’s trying to figure out exactly what the skin would do on the back there.

Come down like that.

Yep, cause there’s a little bit of rounder skin here preventing us here, so what we’re

doing is we’re estimating what we think the skin does between the seam is really a

deep dip here but kind of swells here a little bit. It goes out a little bit, catches in.

So that’s my guess there for the outside skin. Make it real thick. It comes back up,

as we said, on the top. And then digs around here. Okay, there it is.

Alright, so there’s that shape. And we’ll be lighting shapes like this and little more

complex ones, obviously. But the idea too is you can go back to these shapes, figure

out from the seams where your light source hits, because if a light source really travels

in straight lines you can really figure out from the nature if it’s indoor or outdoor

lighting, how the light hits these straight seams, and then you can cast shadows from

them too. And we’ll be doing that later. These are good shapes for that.

So there’s kind of an organic sitting shape. We just referenced everything with these curved

sections, so the whole idea takes on this skin idea. So there’s the skin. You can

definitely see a relationship, as I said, between the most tucked in parts of the curve

here and also what you could consider kind of coming out and being the peak a little

bit here on the skin as well. Coming down back there.

It kind of sits down back on there,

but that’s two ideas you can think of when we get into reflections and lighting we’ll

discuss later. The main thing, though, we’re really trying to push through the construction

of perspective. Obviously, the narrative construction we did earlier was all about how you get a

view like a cinematographer. You know, really use the perspective for that. And we haven’t

even gotten the three point, which is a whole other idea of passing through the same knowledge

as one and two-point and considering the vertical vanishing point having diminishment as well

as setting up in three-point. It’s harder because you get distortion faster

and more severely in three-point.

But again, all these ideas like this work in three-point just the same as they would

in one-point and two-point if you just consider the fact the vertical has diminishment, which

we’ll get to. Okay, so we’ll move on from this kind of organic shape.

We’ll go on to the next one.

points be? We’ve done this before with some of our arches and some of our other objects

and our bridges and stuff. We’re just trying to find convenient

ways and places to put our references.

Okay, so let’s say we feel like this is pretty important where this seam

is here on most of them, so we’ll double that idea over and find like a standing plane

here right about there on that one. So I’ll put those in red this time.

There—that’s a pretty important seam right in the middle. This one kind of is up here before it curves back.

This one we don’t really need one for, but I’ll say right at the apex of the

curve we’ll slam one over there to the other side. This one right here in the middle of

the indent right there. Okay, so that kind of floats of an idea of where we would have

a light change cause that’s the innermost and the most severe turn-in before it comes

back out again. That red line in a sense represents where parts of reflection would be carried

later because of the fact that they’re connected like this at the innermost term of this inner

seam, which I tried to hit. Then it flexes out again here, so that’s that the innermost

outer turn on this one, but then in. So we’ll decide if we need more than that. We know

that this one is about at this height about that far out so that’s pretty easy to find.

We have these counterpoints over here. This one over here. This one over here.

This one over here. This one over here.

Okay, so we’re trying to double them over. Let’s go with the big one first. I’m going

to take this to the ground. Now we could take the center seam and use that and go way up,

and we could make some relationships there and simply go, oh, why can’t we use this

to this to here and come back down? We could do that to find this as well because we could

come straight over. So maybe we’ll try both ways. First we’ll do the ground idea of

simply making a rectangle to meet the ground right to that seam. Then we’re going to

drive this same height right over to our left vanishing point and go all the way across.

We’ll remember that’s the bottom of the seam there, right there.

So, from center out—don’t get confused. Here, all the way across the top here, all

the way this is what we’re X’ng. We’re going to simply X that off as a reminder.

Right there. We have to go to the true middle corner there. There we go. Drive that through

to the left. Make that little reference there. If I go through here over to about right there

I should get right over there, basically.

Alright, so that is reduced to about that size there.

I can put that standing plane in now. I should be able to get my reference

on where my curve comes down there. So now we can reference this. This point now is over

here so I can take a guess at my curve. Now you could say, well, wait a minute; this still

comes here and kind of peaks here. It continues down. If I want help I could actually do this

and simply say, okay, there’s that height over there somewhere. I now this comes through

here so I’m just going to try it and say if this comes through this way on that side

then on the opposite side that angle would come through in the opposite kind of like

that and then tumble down and curve like that. If I’m really coming down sharp enough,

which I didn’t actually, this would really fall more steeply through here. It’s really

more like this. This comes up for a little while so I’m just going to do that, nice and fat.

Okay, so curve it around. I’m going to try to get that whole feeling out of there just

like that. That’s the other side of that. Now it curves in the most right here, and

then on its way up the curve starts turning in, so it goes a little while this way. It’s

coming over so we can start feeling it out. It should behave something like this so it

kind of curves up. Make it nice and let it taper a little and come over like this.

Okay, so that would be my best shot there with just the one reference point, a little

help here. Okay, so that comes over. So we’re really only going to see a little bit of it.

See this little part here peaks up? That’s going to actually be an edge. We can see a

little bit over the top, and we’ll see how this sections behaves behind it. So let’s

do the section behind. Again, we said a helpful middle section would be here. We’re going

to take that over to our left vanishing point because we’re going to do this section now

doubled over. Let’s go ahead and we’ll take the floor over there, which is this line

here. We’ll drop it vertically so I’ll just kind of do this. So we’ll X that off.

Being real clear and thorough here, how the complete concept is covered. And before I

forget we said we’d show you another way to do this one. SO let’s finish this back

one, and I’ll show you. I forgot we can also go through this point to this point to

a middle seam and come back down and see how close we were. We’ll do that in a second.

Let’s just double over the simple plain here, though. We’ve doubled it over, so

now I can take that to the ground basically right there and say that’s where that is

there. I can come straight up pretty much and say, alright, that is over there doubled.

Here’s the middle seam; double it over, there, there. Okay.

So let’s try that curve now. We know it comes out of the ground and slowly comes up

this way. We know this curves at that angle. We should have that nice curve like that.

This comes up and bows there. This comes over just to there. Comes up those. Okay, perfect.

That should be about that one. Do I need references every tiny part to move and go, oh God, I

can’t draw without these references? No. I’m trying to pick the simplest one. There’s

the most obvious change where this kind of reverses on itself and comes down with those

red dots we did.

Alright, so there’s that section. This one should be pretty easy. There’s the back

one of that. Double this over like we did. This is pretty to decide since we have that

middle there. We can come up with this blue line we have. I forgot to do there. Oops,

we’ll do it in red. Okay, so we’ve got that doubled and we just come back and meet

that over there. Now, we’ve got our curve for the back pretty easily. We come up and

it starts curving almost immediately. Come to here. So the idea would be—

this is actually a little in from that.

This has to be doubled over. What I’m going to do is take that

plane now and drop it in like that. So I’m going to guess if that represents actually

out here then we have to come in this far here. I have to pretty much say that. So it

will not be mistaken there for you. This plane falls a little inside that outside plane,

so I want to double that over there and show it here. So now we can come out and start

curving in. There’s that back side.

Okay, so now we have that and that.

Okay, so now we have this big middle plane double over, this doubled over, and this doubled

over. Here’s another way we could do the middle plane like I promised. Another way

we could have done it is to take this middle seam up like that, and we could have matched

I'll do it blue. I could’ve gone through here, through here, made a reference point right there.

And by coming back down here to the counterpoint blue line here I come back down

to through here. That’s right where the next seam is. It’s a little off from that,

but that was another way we could get this one over here. We’d be coming up through

here, through here, making the reference point. By coming back down to this point, by crossing

this plane that comes over here I get that point again. So it’s the same idea. It’s

just here we use the standing rectangle, X’d it, doubled over, got the reference that way.

Here we could just use a reference point through the center seam standing up vertically, reference

point come down, come across, nail it.

Okay, now we’re going to do this section here so we’re going to double over this

section here again. Again, we can use a simple standing point of a rectangle through this

red thing through the seam. So I’ll go ahead and drive that all the way over the left vanishing

point. I’ll come down. Let me go ahead and use the T-square. I’ll come straight down

to the bottom of the plane, which is there. So now our standing plane we’re doubling

over is this, this to the center line, down and over. I’ll go ahead and X off that little

rectangle. Just make a center if I want. I don’t have to go all the through and make

a mess. Make sure I double check where that comes through like that. There it is. Make

that clear. We come over to our left vanishing point. We go over and make that middle reference

point there. Come through down to here. Actually, I should say down here up to there gives me

right where I want to be through—I’ll be exact here.

That should be right there,so this is now here. I can drop straight down with that one.

I need to drop straight down with that plane.

Come over to here. Drop straight down with that reference, back down to the

plane. We now have this plane doubled over. It’ll be a little actually over here a little

more. I’m going to carry it over here. I’d say it’s more over there.

This is now pushed out a little over there.

Let’s try to draw that seam in now. It goes straight for a little while and comes in.

We need to find this over here. Go straight up and come in for a little bit. It starts

coming in. Then we know this doubles over for a bit, starts coming down. We also come

through at this angle through here. Then it goes up, not quite straight, up, not quite

straight, about like that. Then it comes straight down and when it’s down here it turns a

fairly natural curve like that. So that’s my guess at that one. Come nice and down here.

Come down. We’ve doubled that one over. There’s the middle seam here.

Doubled over seam over there.

So let’s do one more here. This seam here.

We’ll drive that middle seam right to the left vanishing point again.

Make a little box, dropping straight down like this.

Now we’re doubling over this box here, there, here, here, there. We’re

simply doubling it over, X’ing it off.

Taking that X from right here to here.

Drive it to the left, making that middle point. Again, if I take this through that I should come

up about there at that point there. I’ll just draw that straight down, paralleling

that. There is that doubled over plane here to here, so that point should

appear about there. This here.

Now I can get my last section by saying this comes up fairly steeply and hitting that.

I’ll take that opposite angle there, there; it comes out and comes down. It doesn’t

really go straight so it comes out kind of like that. That goes up fairly steeply coming

up. Rounds out right here to the middle seam so it comes out just a little and falls straight

down to that. We’re looking for that.

I’d say it does about this, maybe a little further over.

Okay, so there’s that doubled over. I’ll darken this one in a whole bunch.

Okay, so now I’m going to work hard at trying to make these parents, and now we’ve got

them doubled over. So before we put on the final skin on this piece we’re going to

make it dead clear what the different planes are. That first plane I just finished doubled

over. Here’s the doubling over line. I’m going to make that middle seam very clear.

I’m going to make the doubled over version red for the other part of the dimensional

universe we’re talking about. Our forward plane is blue, we’ll say, and the doubled

over one is red. This doubled over plane here, I’m just going to shade it a bit so I don’t

cover up the work. I do want to put it in, and I’ll darken in the lines. That’s our

other plane there. That other one is red in there. Okay.

We haven’t done the final edge skin over here yet. We’re going to do that after we

get our standing planes over. I just want to explain this. Let’s make this really

clear. There’s that bottom line between the two, so I’ll darken that in. It’s

going to be real clear, and that middle seam is real important too. Of course, that comes

over the overall middle seam right here so we’ll darken that in. Here we go.

Alright, I’ll darken in this next plane really hard. It’s a big one. Come down.

Center seam, important. Remember, we come down here. We found it over here, nice and

dark there. Get that bottom seam very dark, nice and clear. There you go.

Go ahead and do this one in blue.

We won’t have to do this every time by any means, but

just for this first couple. We’ll really slow down and make it dead clear what we’re

doing and the logic. So once we get the logic down from these simpler ones, it will be a

lot easier to think quickly as they get more complex.

Okay, there’s our blue.

Some of you who have done this before are

probably falling asleep, going okay, but we got to do it for our intermediates and our beginners.

Okay, there we go. Red, a little overlapping the blue gets a little lavender there.

You get the idea.

Our second to last plane back here, again, darken it in. Make it really clear. We doubled

that over. Make the bottom seam clear.

And make the middle seam clear.

Again, shade in blue this side.

Again, the back—there’s the bottom seam nice and clear, middle seam is clear, doubled

over side, doubled over side. Blue on this front side. We’ll go ahead and do red here.

Clears the last plane there.

Alright, there it is. So now we have to say, alright, we know this is the center seam.

We know that. But, how do we now connect what we know is the outside seam we can see over

the top a little bit. Well, we can’t see this side and this side over here, so the

center seam is truly the edge of the object at this part back here. Obviously, this side

is truly the edge up to about this point, I’d say. Then we got to make sure we get

this nice and dark. We’ll turn this again, make it really obvious. Nice and dark. And

I’ll work my way back here just to do this way. Try not to smear everything.

I'll make that edge nice and dark.

Okay, there’s the bottom.

Now, we’ve got to get this true outside edge, which would be another part of this

skin here. Here’s the center seam that I’ll make clear. Now, that edge we have to feel,

the parts right here would travel right over there, kind of go behind right there, and

come back over to this. We just have to get the spirit of what we think this side is doing.

Kind of rounding out, going back toward here. Trying to get my head out of the way here.

Then what does it do here? That really is the skin, so we have to figure out it passes

through here, passes through there. It comes through there and connects. The edge. It’ll

also connect through the edge here, so it kind of tapers through that edge there probably.

Well, not quite.

Edge is there. It would really deviate more like this.

This can go back there to down there, probably go up like that. Imagine a thick part of the

skin right here, kind of wrap around. It dips way down there so actually you can kind of

see this part through there. Again, dipping down, this coming out; dipping down, this

coming out. Something like that. I’m guessing the outside edge there kind of does this,

comes up like this gradually through here and really does catch right back up there.

It comes out a little more round so we’ll just have to figure out if that rounds out a little bit.

It’ll come out just like that.

It’s trying to figure out exactly what the skin would do on the back there.

Come down like that.

Yep, cause there’s a little bit of rounder skin here preventing us here, so what we’re

doing is we’re estimating what we think the skin does between the seam is really a

deep dip here but kind of swells here a little bit. It goes out a little bit, catches in.

So that’s my guess there for the outside skin. Make it real thick. It comes back up,

as we said, on the top. And then digs around here. Okay, there it is.

Alright, so there’s that shape. And we’ll be lighting shapes like this and little more

complex ones, obviously. But the idea too is you can go back to these shapes, figure

out from the seams where your light source hits, because if a light source really travels

in straight lines you can really figure out from the nature if it’s indoor or outdoor

lighting, how the light hits these straight seams, and then you can cast shadows from

them too. And we’ll be doing that later. These are good shapes for that.

So there’s kind of an organic sitting shape. We just referenced everything with these curved

sections, so the whole idea takes on this skin idea. So there’s the skin. You can

definitely see a relationship, as I said, between the most tucked in parts of the curve

here and also what you could consider kind of coming out and being the peak a little

bit here on the skin as well. Coming down back there.

It kind of sits down back on there,

but that’s two ideas you can think of when we get into reflections and lighting we’ll

discuss later. The main thing, though, we’re really trying to push through the construction

of perspective. Obviously, the narrative construction we did earlier was all about how you get a

view like a cinematographer. You know, really use the perspective for that. And we haven’t

even gotten the three point, which is a whole other idea of passing through the same knowledge

as one and two-point and considering the vertical vanishing point having diminishment as well

as setting up in three-point. It’s harder because you get distortion faster

and more severely in three-point.

But again, all these ideas like this work in three-point just the same as they would

in one-point and two-point if you just consider the fact the vertical has diminishment, which

we’ll get to. Okay, so we’ll move on from this kind of organic shape.

We’ll go on to the next one.

AUTO SCROLL

Here we are again. We’re going to set it up in a similar manner like we did in the

last one, but we’re just going to have a little different organic shape with a few

different things happening. Not totally unlike the last one, but not quite the same either.

Just to start talking about the same principles here. I’ve got a very light indication of

what I think I want my first-half space of my rectangle coming forward. We could be coming

forward from the right vanishing point for our length. Our depth will be the left vanishing

point. And we’ll double over. I did want to start with that center plane again. I’m

just trying to get an idea, and I’m kind of working off an idea that I had a while

back for this. I’m going to see if I’m going to start the length back here.

Maybe I’ll taper it there. I want a little more length in the tail so I’ll do that.

I'll also do my center line like we did before so it all kind of starts with that logic there.

I think I want the front of my ship, the very front maximum there.

I’m just going to guess hat I want my width about here, something like that.

I’m not sure where I want the next plank. What I’ll do is I’m going to consider this the back.

I’m going to put a little standing plane in the front and the back just as a very beginning idea.

Again, I want to make it clear this is not necessary, and this is just a very clear learning

procedure. How much of this you actually use compared to what you just kind of tick off

and think about is the point when you’re drawing freehand and as you get more experienced.

This is the formal breakdown of what we’re doing. We’re talking all the way through

it very clearly. You will then get faster and decide what you can just imagine from

what you know about referencing side-to-side and from front to back and all that. You will

then decide in your own way how many referencing you need to help you or what you need to think

of clearly in good foreshortening space as you’re drawing freehand and how much rectangulation

you need to do, boxing and all that. So that’s all up to you. This is just we’re doing

everything nice and slow and clear. So after that disclaimer…

Okay, so I’m going to have two things touching the front so I’m just trying to think in

terms of what I want to do. I think a little back from that I’m going to have something

here so I’m just thinking in terms of my design. I think back here we’re going to

have a turnaround to something right there. I’m thinking of the very back tail being

back here possibly. Yep, even farther back than that right there. Right.

And then we’ll see what happens from there.

And then the top. What’s the maximum height I want for this vehicle possibly there again,

something like that. Not too terribly tall. I’ll put the top plane in there. So now

I have kind of a fixed idea, but I also have this little part beyond. I have a couple ideas

here. So this standing plane is just an idea of the entire box height, basically. We’re

going to start with that middle standing seam again going lengthwise. Down the ship at the

middle toward the right vanishing point. I’m going to go ahead and kind of figure out what

I want to do for my second thing, so I’m going to stand that up there to something

like that, just trying to get the idea of a ship design I have that I like. I’m going

to make a little standing plane there. I’m also going to reach that up to the tail. Okay.

Why don’t I do that?

Go a little bit up like this, and I’m going to go ahead and

make the peak about right there. That’s going to sail down to here at the very back

just like that. This will curve up a little bit right toward there.

Okay, something like that.

Then I have to decide on basic sections. I’m going to do something else then. This is going

to come forward to here kind of this, straight out like that.

They’ll be a section right there. Something crossing right here. Now I’ll do some basic sections.

Say alright, he peak of the height is about there. I’ll make a section there like we did before I

made a section here because I thought there was going to be some kind of front end shape

happening there. We’ll kind of develop this as we go. So there’s that section standing

clear and tall. So far we’ve added this little one here, little bead there. That’s

our front so far, but we’re going to wing something forward here when we get to our

ground design or what’s flush to the floor. Going to have a section there. That’s touching

there, touching there in the middle seam. I’ll go ahead and put in one more, so I

think I’ll have a section, middle between those two. Let’s just say what would helpful

maybe right here to there. Again, here, here.

Do one more in back about here and then one tiny one there even there.

Maybe a tiny one on the tail. We’ll decide later just for the heck of it. Alright, so that’s

kind of my center design. Let that get nice and clear and dark. Alright.

There's that standing center plane. We’ve sectioned it.

As you remember, the logical thing too is to just quickly take it out on the floor,

just not really dark yet but to section it out and realize that these sections will go

the left vanishing point forward and back to make sure we get our nice references of

the sections we want. I’ll go ahead and take those out now like that. Not really knowing

what the floor design or the curvature of the front is going to be or the first side

we’re starting with here to the front, but I’m just going to take the idea of it just

out a little bit here. There we have it. Now the idea is we have to start deciding on,

alright, these are our middle seams, which are important, as you remember. We’ll make

them fairly dark because we have to make that idea clear that we keep coming back to the

middle and doubling over, which is pretty obvious. But again, it just visually can be

confusing unless we keep referring to things pretty simply.

Okay, now I’ve got kind of an idea here for this. So if this is this wide I’m going

to do something like this. Comes back like that on the ground and comes to a seam here.

I’m not sure what that’s going to do. I’m going to meet here, and I am going to

swing around like this. Yeah, kind of like this.

Some kind of forward-projecting wing on the ground.

Then I’m going to come out like this. I’m going to design the tail kind of like this.

It’s like a bit of some kind of ray in the sea that comes forward like that.

So let’s say that’s my design.

Remember, that’s just the plane on the floor. There’s no real form here. It’s just an

idea here. Clearly we know this section hits here, hits here, and here. This comes down,

hits there and there. There’s a relationship here to here to there; and then here to here

to here, there to there to there; and then we end kind of at the tail. We have a tiny

bit of one. Either way. It comes way down, this thin little tail. We’ll figure out

what to do with that later. We have this one drop here. Come all the way out. There’s

a relationship there even. We have the front ends here. Okay, so that comes out. We’re

making a section of those as well. So we could double over the floor now, but I kind of want

to feel out my design again. I guess I’m more comfortable just completely feeling out

the front side before we double everything over. We have more options, then, deciding

how we’re going to do that. Again, here is the standing plane with sections, and here

is the design on the ground, flat on the ground that we’re going to follow.

Let’s see, I’ll start with my middle one again and just see how flared I want it to

become. So that will go kind of across to the—oh, what we could do is this. Real quick

too, I’m going to go ahead and put lines through here just to represent these different

ideas. We’ll just make sure we’re aligning them properly when we come back to them. Even

though it builds up to a lot of lines you’re always referring back to, oh, that’s right;

these lines refer to the top of that. Maybe some of them are actually overlapping each

other. Each time we come to one of these things we carefully think back into space what are

these lines representing going to the left and back to the right. How are they helping

us, you know, converge properly to our vanishing points and stand straight up vertically to

all these different points we’re talking to. It gets a little busy. But we’re going

to have to used to that. I’m not going to necessarily color them with red all the time.

We’ll still be helpful like that with the color. But for now, we’ll start like this.

Now, I’m going to take my first seam from here at the top at the middle seam down here

out here. What do I want the body to do? I’m creating a seam like this and say I’m going

to have it turn like this and come in. Go out like this and come back like that a little

bit. Something like this.

Make that a little better curve. There we go, something like that. Okay. What am I going

to have this one do? This one joins with this, comes down something like that. So I’m just

trying to figure out what I want that design to do. I’m going to have that one be a little

wider, so that’s going to do that. So this and this and this is a plane, so let’s be

clear. I’ll double it over on the floor now. We’ll be really clear where the plane

is. We just created that one, and that doubles over. This is a plane standing. This is also

a plane standing so I’ll be clear about that. It doubles over. This is a standing

plane. Okay, what else are we going to do? What’s this one going to do here? That’s

just going to wrap straight over so that’s going to go along this way a little farther.

I think I’m just going to have that one do nice and slow, a slow arc like this. Not

much of a lip. This one just goes real simple like that. That plane comes back to meet this

on the ground. Go to the left vanishing point again. Remember everything is transparent

so we look through it. Here’s this plane here. This one, this one. Let’s create this

one out to there. What do we want that one to do? Let me think. That’s just going to

be a simple curve, I think, this time. That’s going to come across like that. That idea

from that one.

Now remember, we’re assuming that these are exactly on these planes going to the left,

but they also describe the very surface of the object like little seams coming down perfectly

down like this diminishing exactly to the left vanishing point. Those planes are standing

and sectioning right through the object just like cut sections like this—just like that.

Then we’re going to have a much narrower one back here. We’re going to follow that

curve a little bit there then just have a nice round ending point here just like this.

That one’s another one. It’s a little smaller. So this is a plane now so start recognizing

it—half a one, I should say. And then the little back piece is going to just have a

little curve to it. That’s just going to go something like this. Then that piece literally

goes down and meets the end there. Okay, back at the tail. That’s our job is to double

this over now. We pretty much have our shape. Again, I will point out in color what we’re

doing, but pretty much try to understand this shape as half of a shape before it’s mirrored

over. Again, we can imagine that there is a standing plane right here touching the ground

going all the way through here, standing straight up. A very thin mirror and it’s reflecting

exactly and doubling over, or that mirror extends far enough to see everything in part

of the background if we needed to. But we’re really not doing it in a mirror; we’re simply

doubling it over in reverse, or double it over in space. So you just want to practice

thinking like that because we’re saying that these particular manmade or nature made

objects happen to be side-to-side symmetrical basically with maybe tiny changes. Yeah, we

only have one spinal cord, but we have two arms, two shoulders, two elbow, two hands.

Central spine, you know, one, two; one, two; one, two. That’s the whole point, the rhythm

we’re hitting there.

Alright, there’s those seams. Again, same procedure. Now what we’re doing here also

is that we’re meeting a shape here in a way so there’s one more thing we’re doing

with a plane here I wanted to mention. This is going to taper down and meet this here

like this. It’s going to be a little weird but this stands and actually comes down like

this to meet that front end. We’re going to pretend that this has a little thing and

then disappears here. What I’m going to do is I’m going to tone that in in blue

to not confuse people. If you talk about this part being a standing plane straight up, it’s

kind of carved out and coming forward. Comes with this taper on the ground right here,

and this is flat on the ground. We’ve got this point, this point like before, and then

the back. That’s the idea there. Let’s double them over now and then we’ll have

to match this as well curving down, so I might take one reference off that curve as well.

Let’s see, we’ll do our, let’s double over our groundwork first or a ground design

flat on the ground. Let’s do this big one first if we want. We can just use this rectangle

here. I’ll do a little bit of highlighting in red to try to tell us, okay, we’ll double

this one over like that. We’re kind of taking the idea of this plane, right? So this section

here we’re going to X off and double over. We’re going to do it a little faster than

we did on the last one, but not enough to lose anybody. Center. That hits the center

right there. Now we can come back from the back corner, which would be there in the little

rectangle reference. Go right through there. Go to the other side. That dictates that this

is about right here. Or I should say the blue is right—nice, breaking all the time. There.

That’s there now.

We can do the same with this one if we want. These two are fairly similar, let’s just

take an easy guess with those. We can do this. I can make a plane to this one. This is my

rectangular plane lying down that I’m going to X off and double again. Get that right

there. Drive it over to the left vanishing point. There’s our center. We’ll start

from this corner back here, go through here. It ends up being that one. That is that; that,

that. Excuse me, no, incorrect. Sorry to be confusing. It’s in from that. What I should

have done is go like this. Through center, right through center, so excuse that. I have

to find this line now and that point right there is that. This one, if we draw it back

to here just like we can with this one, we can simply say that is that far here so we’ll

diminish back here about this far. We’ll say that one is right there, just a little

bit in. Now we’re saying this one is there. See? So triple checking. Whenever I triple

check I catch my own mistakes. Easy to do.

Next one. Again, how do we double it over? Again, we can make a square of this or continue

this square. It might be helpful cause it runs right into it. Coincidentally, this goes

right into there. If we simply take that point now that’s accurately put here and go straight

back, we should be able to hit this plane and know where we’re going. That’s exactly

what we can see back here. This one actually goes back out there and becomes that one.

This one, that one. Again, then we can bring this one in here.

Take that one. Take the corner, X off this.

Here we go. Take that middle plane to the left

vanishing point, make the reference. Again, we’re trying to find this one.

We should be able to come right through here. Find that one right about there.

So here, here, here. We did double over it. We got that. Even with the haze that is hitting

my mind. We’ll do it once again for that back one. We’ll go ahead and drive from

the vanishing point right through here. Make a little section, rectangle on the ground

right here. We can just X over. I’m just going to go to that one and X it off.

I'm X’ng off this little plane back here.

In the middle go to my left vanishing point make the reference. We want to double this one,

double that one, and double this one.

I’m going to take this corner right back there, hit about there, there and there. This

one is so close we can just double it over there and just stay that’s over there.

That's an easy guess.

Okay. We know this one is doubled over in the corner truly, so if we want we can simply

take the idea of this one being doubled over. We know there is this much extra here until

it goes back in again between those two. We can kind of get from the other side. We can

double over this space. Obviously, we can take this square here and simply double it over.

I’ll lightly X that off.

Middle seam happens to fall right there.

So now I should be able to take this because it’s a plane. Double it over here right

through there. So that should represent that. Now we can kind of start. We need to curve

in. We also have to remember, oh yeah, that starts there. We could double that over too.

If we needed to I’m going to double over this part just to be careful on the ground.

There’s that little box.

If I just X that off real quick like this little plane,

drive it toward the left vanishing point. Make the middle reference. Trying to find this.

I'm going to come from that corner, go back through it just to try to be accurate around the habit

of how I’m thinking right there gives me that double right there. Okay, so now I can

make this curve. Now, do I need more help? We’ll see, but I’ll try to feel it out

properly on the ground and then also meet it up here. Let’s see how we do. We can

go back and make the curve there. Use a little sharper pencil here. I’ll just sharpen it.

Alright, so now I’m going to get in weird position here sitting here. I’m going to

try to replicate this idea now. How far out is that? We could say if we can drive a rectangular

line back since we’re coming back here, we’ll go back on the other side here. That

doubles that idea over. Let’s go back to here.

There’s our rectangular idea right there.

We can take the curve and say, well, at this peak right here where it kind of comes

the closest we can take a reference over back to our left and say, alright, out here then

the same distance foreshortened would be about that. We can just take that and curve it out

coming through back here. I’m going to do that moving toward that one, just nice and

curved right through there back through that one. Now it comes back through here,

tapers slightly in to that.

It’s curving and peaks there, curving and peaked right there.

It comes in a little here, in a little there and comes out. I’m just trying to get the,

okay, it comes into that, into that, comes out and swirls. Out a little bit here.

Peaks all the way out to that one.

Let me correct that. It comes in more as we corrected it before.

I want to correct that. Make sure we indicate this curve in correctly.

There we go.

This kind of comes out like a teardrop so I’m trying to figure out shoot out the right

way. Curves in and out. Curves in, out.

This has flattened out quite a bit in perspective

as we see on the other side. Let’s thicken that up. Alright, so let me correct this line again.

This is not in—cause this is quite a bit of a curve in here, and we want to make

sure that we flatten that enough here. I just want to make sure that

reference was put far enough in.

last one, but we’re just going to have a little different organic shape with a few

different things happening. Not totally unlike the last one, but not quite the same either.

Just to start talking about the same principles here. I’ve got a very light indication of

what I think I want my first-half space of my rectangle coming forward. We could be coming

forward from the right vanishing point for our length. Our depth will be the left vanishing

point. And we’ll double over. I did want to start with that center plane again. I’m

just trying to get an idea, and I’m kind of working off an idea that I had a while

back for this. I’m going to see if I’m going to start the length back here.

Maybe I’ll taper it there. I want a little more length in the tail so I’ll do that.

I'll also do my center line like we did before so it all kind of starts with that logic there.

I think I want the front of my ship, the very front maximum there.

I’m just going to guess hat I want my width about here, something like that.

I’m not sure where I want the next plank. What I’ll do is I’m going to consider this the back.

I’m going to put a little standing plane in the front and the back just as a very beginning idea.

Again, I want to make it clear this is not necessary, and this is just a very clear learning

procedure. How much of this you actually use compared to what you just kind of tick off

and think about is the point when you’re drawing freehand and as you get more experienced.

This is the formal breakdown of what we’re doing. We’re talking all the way through

it very clearly. You will then get faster and decide what you can just imagine from

what you know about referencing side-to-side and from front to back and all that. You will

then decide in your own way how many referencing you need to help you or what you need to think

of clearly in good foreshortening space as you’re drawing freehand and how much rectangulation

you need to do, boxing and all that. So that’s all up to you. This is just we’re doing

everything nice and slow and clear. So after that disclaimer…

Okay, so I’m going to have two things touching the front so I’m just trying to think in

terms of what I want to do. I think a little back from that I’m going to have something

here so I’m just thinking in terms of my design. I think back here we’re going to

have a turnaround to something right there. I’m thinking of the very back tail being

back here possibly. Yep, even farther back than that right there. Right.

And then we’ll see what happens from there.

And then the top. What’s the maximum height I want for this vehicle possibly there again,

something like that. Not too terribly tall. I’ll put the top plane in there. So now

I have kind of a fixed idea, but I also have this little part beyond. I have a couple ideas

here. So this standing plane is just an idea of the entire box height, basically. We’re

going to start with that middle standing seam again going lengthwise. Down the ship at the

middle toward the right vanishing point. I’m going to go ahead and kind of figure out what

I want to do for my second thing, so I’m going to stand that up there to something

like that, just trying to get the idea of a ship design I have that I like. I’m going

to make a little standing plane there. I’m also going to reach that up to the tail. Okay.

Why don’t I do that?

Go a little bit up like this, and I’m going to go ahead and

make the peak about right there. That’s going to sail down to here at the very back

just like that. This will curve up a little bit right toward there.

Okay, something like that.

Then I have to decide on basic sections. I’m going to do something else then. This is going

to come forward to here kind of this, straight out like that.

They’ll be a section right there. Something crossing right here. Now I’ll do some basic sections.

Say alright, he peak of the height is about there. I’ll make a section there like we did before I

made a section here because I thought there was going to be some kind of front end shape

happening there. We’ll kind of develop this as we go. So there’s that section standing

clear and tall. So far we’ve added this little one here, little bead there. That’s

our front so far, but we’re going to wing something forward here when we get to our

ground design or what’s flush to the floor. Going to have a section there. That’s touching

there, touching there in the middle seam. I’ll go ahead and put in one more, so I

think I’ll have a section, middle between those two. Let’s just say what would helpful

maybe right here to there. Again, here, here.

Do one more in back about here and then one tiny one there even there.

Maybe a tiny one on the tail. We’ll decide later just for the heck of it. Alright, so that’s

kind of my center design. Let that get nice and clear and dark. Alright.

There's that standing center plane. We’ve sectioned it.

As you remember, the logical thing too is to just quickly take it out on the floor,

just not really dark yet but to section it out and realize that these sections will go

the left vanishing point forward and back to make sure we get our nice references of

the sections we want. I’ll go ahead and take those out now like that. Not really knowing

what the floor design or the curvature of the front is going to be or the first side

we’re starting with here to the front, but I’m just going to take the idea of it just

out a little bit here. There we have it. Now the idea is we have to start deciding on,

alright, these are our middle seams, which are important, as you remember. We’ll make

them fairly dark because we have to make that idea clear that we keep coming back to the

middle and doubling over, which is pretty obvious. But again, it just visually can be

confusing unless we keep referring to things pretty simply.

Okay, now I’ve got kind of an idea here for this. So if this is this wide I’m going

to do something like this. Comes back like that on the ground and comes to a seam here.

I’m not sure what that’s going to do. I’m going to meet here, and I am going to

swing around like this. Yeah, kind of like this.

Some kind of forward-projecting wing on the ground.

Then I’m going to come out like this. I’m going to design the tail kind of like this.

It’s like a bit of some kind of ray in the sea that comes forward like that.

So let’s say that’s my design.

Remember, that’s just the plane on the floor. There’s no real form here. It’s just an

idea here. Clearly we know this section hits here, hits here, and here. This comes down,

hits there and there. There’s a relationship here to here to there; and then here to here

to here, there to there to there; and then we end kind of at the tail. We have a tiny

bit of one. Either way. It comes way down, this thin little tail. We’ll figure out

what to do with that later. We have this one drop here. Come all the way out. There’s

a relationship there even. We have the front ends here. Okay, so that comes out. We’re

making a section of those as well. So we could double over the floor now, but I kind of want

to feel out my design again. I guess I’m more comfortable just completely feeling out

the front side before we double everything over. We have more options, then, deciding

how we’re going to do that. Again, here is the standing plane with sections, and here

is the design on the ground, flat on the ground that we’re going to follow.

Let’s see, I’ll start with my middle one again and just see how flared I want it to

become. So that will go kind of across to the—oh, what we could do is this. Real quick

too, I’m going to go ahead and put lines through here just to represent these different

ideas. We’ll just make sure we’re aligning them properly when we come back to them. Even

though it builds up to a lot of lines you’re always referring back to, oh, that’s right;

these lines refer to the top of that. Maybe some of them are actually overlapping each

other. Each time we come to one of these things we carefully think back into space what are

these lines representing going to the left and back to the right. How are they helping

us, you know, converge properly to our vanishing points and stand straight up vertically to

all these different points we’re talking to. It gets a little busy. But we’re going

to have to used to that. I’m not going to necessarily color them with red all the time.

We’ll still be helpful like that with the color. But for now, we’ll start like this.

Now, I’m going to take my first seam from here at the top at the middle seam down here

out here. What do I want the body to do? I’m creating a seam like this and say I’m going

to have it turn like this and come in. Go out like this and come back like that a little

bit. Something like this.

Make that a little better curve. There we go, something like that. Okay. What am I going

to have this one do? This one joins with this, comes down something like that. So I’m just

trying to figure out what I want that design to do. I’m going to have that one be a little

wider, so that’s going to do that. So this and this and this is a plane, so let’s be

clear. I’ll double it over on the floor now. We’ll be really clear where the plane

is. We just created that one, and that doubles over. This is a plane standing. This is also

a plane standing so I’ll be clear about that. It doubles over. This is a standing

plane. Okay, what else are we going to do? What’s this one going to do here? That’s

just going to wrap straight over so that’s going to go along this way a little farther.

I think I’m just going to have that one do nice and slow, a slow arc like this. Not

much of a lip. This one just goes real simple like that. That plane comes back to meet this

on the ground. Go to the left vanishing point again. Remember everything is transparent

so we look through it. Here’s this plane here. This one, this one. Let’s create this

one out to there. What do we want that one to do? Let me think. That’s just going to

be a simple curve, I think, this time. That’s going to come across like that. That idea

from that one.

Now remember, we’re assuming that these are exactly on these planes going to the left,

but they also describe the very surface of the object like little seams coming down perfectly

down like this diminishing exactly to the left vanishing point. Those planes are standing

and sectioning right through the object just like cut sections like this—just like that.

Then we’re going to have a much narrower one back here. We’re going to follow that

curve a little bit there then just have a nice round ending point here just like this.

That one’s another one. It’s a little smaller. So this is a plane now so start recognizing

it—half a one, I should say. And then the little back piece is going to just have a

little curve to it. That’s just going to go something like this. Then that piece literally

goes down and meets the end there. Okay, back at the tail. That’s our job is to double

this over now. We pretty much have our shape. Again, I will point out in color what we’re

doing, but pretty much try to understand this shape as half of a shape before it’s mirrored

over. Again, we can imagine that there is a standing plane right here touching the ground

going all the way through here, standing straight up. A very thin mirror and it’s reflecting

exactly and doubling over, or that mirror extends far enough to see everything in part

of the background if we needed to. But we’re really not doing it in a mirror; we’re simply

doubling it over in reverse, or double it over in space. So you just want to practice

thinking like that because we’re saying that these particular manmade or nature made

objects happen to be side-to-side symmetrical basically with maybe tiny changes. Yeah, we

only have one spinal cord, but we have two arms, two shoulders, two elbow, two hands.

Central spine, you know, one, two; one, two; one, two. That’s the whole point, the rhythm

we’re hitting there.

Alright, there’s those seams. Again, same procedure. Now what we’re doing here also

is that we’re meeting a shape here in a way so there’s one more thing we’re doing

with a plane here I wanted to mention. This is going to taper down and meet this here

like this. It’s going to be a little weird but this stands and actually comes down like

this to meet that front end. We’re going to pretend that this has a little thing and

then disappears here. What I’m going to do is I’m going to tone that in in blue

to not confuse people. If you talk about this part being a standing plane straight up, it’s

kind of carved out and coming forward. Comes with this taper on the ground right here,

and this is flat on the ground. We’ve got this point, this point like before, and then

the back. That’s the idea there. Let’s double them over now and then we’ll have

to match this as well curving down, so I might take one reference off that curve as well.

Let’s see, we’ll do our, let’s double over our groundwork first or a ground design

flat on the ground. Let’s do this big one first if we want. We can just use this rectangle

here. I’ll do a little bit of highlighting in red to try to tell us, okay, we’ll double

this one over like that. We’re kind of taking the idea of this plane, right? So this section

here we’re going to X off and double over. We’re going to do it a little faster than

we did on the last one, but not enough to lose anybody. Center. That hits the center

right there. Now we can come back from the back corner, which would be there in the little

rectangle reference. Go right through there. Go to the other side. That dictates that this

is about right here. Or I should say the blue is right—nice, breaking all the time. There.

That’s there now.

We can do the same with this one if we want. These two are fairly similar, let’s just

take an easy guess with those. We can do this. I can make a plane to this one. This is my

rectangular plane lying down that I’m going to X off and double again. Get that right

there. Drive it over to the left vanishing point. There’s our center. We’ll start

from this corner back here, go through here. It ends up being that one. That is that; that,

that. Excuse me, no, incorrect. Sorry to be confusing. It’s in from that. What I should

have done is go like this. Through center, right through center, so excuse that. I have

to find this line now and that point right there is that. This one, if we draw it back

to here just like we can with this one, we can simply say that is that far here so we’ll

diminish back here about this far. We’ll say that one is right there, just a little

bit in. Now we’re saying this one is there. See? So triple checking. Whenever I triple

check I catch my own mistakes. Easy to do.

Next one. Again, how do we double it over? Again, we can make a square of this or continue

this square. It might be helpful cause it runs right into it. Coincidentally, this goes

right into there. If we simply take that point now that’s accurately put here and go straight

back, we should be able to hit this plane and know where we’re going. That’s exactly

what we can see back here. This one actually goes back out there and becomes that one.

This one, that one. Again, then we can bring this one in here.

Take that one. Take the corner, X off this.

Here we go. Take that middle plane to the left

vanishing point, make the reference. Again, we’re trying to find this one.

We should be able to come right through here. Find that one right about there.

So here, here, here. We did double over it. We got that. Even with the haze that is hitting

my mind. We’ll do it once again for that back one. We’ll go ahead and drive from

the vanishing point right through here. Make a little section, rectangle on the ground

right here. We can just X over. I’m just going to go to that one and X it off.

I'm X’ng off this little plane back here.

In the middle go to my left vanishing point make the reference. We want to double this one,

double that one, and double this one.

I’m going to take this corner right back there, hit about there, there and there. This

one is so close we can just double it over there and just stay that’s over there.

That's an easy guess.

Okay. We know this one is doubled over in the corner truly, so if we want we can simply

take the idea of this one being doubled over. We know there is this much extra here until

it goes back in again between those two. We can kind of get from the other side. We can

double over this space. Obviously, we can take this square here and simply double it over.

I’ll lightly X that off.

Middle seam happens to fall right there.

So now I should be able to take this because it’s a plane. Double it over here right

through there. So that should represent that. Now we can kind of start. We need to curve

in. We also have to remember, oh yeah, that starts there. We could double that over too.

If we needed to I’m going to double over this part just to be careful on the ground.

There’s that little box.

If I just X that off real quick like this little plane,

drive it toward the left vanishing point. Make the middle reference. Trying to find this.

I'm going to come from that corner, go back through it just to try to be accurate around the habit

of how I’m thinking right there gives me that double right there. Okay, so now I can

make this curve. Now, do I need more help? We’ll see, but I’ll try to feel it out

properly on the ground and then also meet it up here. Let’s see how we do. We can

go back and make the curve there. Use a little sharper pencil here. I’ll just sharpen it.

Alright, so now I’m going to get in weird position here sitting here. I’m going to

try to replicate this idea now. How far out is that? We could say if we can drive a rectangular

line back since we’re coming back here, we’ll go back on the other side here. That

doubles that idea over. Let’s go back to here.

There’s our rectangular idea right there.

We can take the curve and say, well, at this peak right here where it kind of comes

the closest we can take a reference over back to our left and say, alright, out here then

the same distance foreshortened would be about that. We can just take that and curve it out

coming through back here. I’m going to do that moving toward that one, just nice and

curved right through there back through that one. Now it comes back through here,

tapers slightly in to that.

It’s curving and peaks there, curving and peaked right there.

It comes in a little here, in a little there and comes out. I’m just trying to get the,

okay, it comes into that, into that, comes out and swirls. Out a little bit here.

Peaks all the way out to that one.

Let me correct that. It comes in more as we corrected it before.

I want to correct that. Make sure we indicate this curve in correctly.

There we go.

This kind of comes out like a teardrop so I’m trying to figure out shoot out the right

way. Curves in and out. Curves in, out.

This has flattened out quite a bit in perspective

as we see on the other side. Let’s thicken that up. Alright, so let me correct this line again.

This is not in—cause this is quite a bit of a curve in here, and we want to make

sure that we flatten that enough here. I just want to make sure that

reference was put far enough in.

AUTO SCROLL

Come back out like that. Side to side, that peaks in and comes back out.

Peak, peak and roll.

There we go. Foreshortened a little bit. I want those curves to look natural.

Now we also can make this curve here so we could say alright. We just go straight a little

bit past there. Then it curves right out there. We can just try to make that line look natural.

I’m just going to try not to get in your way here. Bend my body in an unnatural position.

Raise that up, comes back in. How much does that raise up compared to that? We’d have

to see. What we’ll do is, if we know the height here is doubled over here.

That whole facing side comes about parallel with our view, so let me clean that up.

It comes over and just a little bit of skin you can see until we come over into the curve.

It goes right into there. So that becomes the rest of that blue plane.

This represents this turning face here. We haven’t drawn in the back sides yet.

Obviously, we’ve just done the ground work. I’m just going to put those in there.

Alright. Let me get this in real quick.

Let’s double over those sections then for the widths.

We’ve got our ground design basically coming out right here.

This section here, where do we want to find a reference to help us out?

We could say this one stands up and comes

down so we can kind of straight up come over there. We know it starts here and starts curving

in, but we could help from the section, you know, halfway through, let’s say. It matches

that line. Just come right here and say, alright, that far out. We could say that distance would

be greatly foreshortened about like that here. Come over.

We could double it over we wanted to.

We can make a box here to his middle section.

Right there. Middle, right over there.

Come down. Let me correct that right in there. There’s the middle one we were looking for.

Yep, goes right down to there. That shortened plain there comes right to about there.

Yep, bingo.

Alright, so we’re cutting this halfway back there. Get that reference point there. Now

we know where our curve comes basically up like this at that angle. It’s pretty steep there.

I’d say right about there. Tapers down right to there.

Okay, so there’s that second half there.

That part. We can show our skin up here when we connect it. Let’s

double over this plane right here. Here to here to here. There’s the blue. Double this

over, so again we’ll pick a spot. We could pick two, but I’m just going to pick where

it’s kind of peaked right here.

We could stand this plane up to and make a little reference there.

Anyway, I’ll shoot this over to the left vanishing point like that, and I’ll box it.

We could also use a middle reference plane standing up from extending this seam up here

and use it as a reference from here to here. Let’s just do that shall we?

See what we get.

There, right through there to about here. Reference point.

They come back down to there to there.

Back to there and we hit that which should get it just about here.

So if we know this angle comes through here on our curve to help us,

we know this flattens out and starts turning down,

so that’s pretty easy to close like that.

Then we get some more help over here, standing about that far away.

We could say, alright, that doubles over there about that far probably about like this.

Make a good estimation about there. If we know this one is here, this one is a

good deal foreshortened over there. Let’s make this—it kind of comes up, curves in

just a tiny bit. Long way in, up, right up to there. We’ll taper in a little there.

We’ll taper in a little further like this there. So that represents this side.

There's that section.

Again, we can draw these in as we go. The red side here like we did before.

Have the blue side of this as well in blue for our forward side.

Do this a little before we do the next one.

There's our red side. Just do them real lightly. We have our ground seam so I’ll just this section

ideas complete as we go. There’s the ground seam there off to the left.

We’ll do the next one here.

We’re doing this seam here.

Okay, just to be clear.

What would be a helpful designation here? Well, right where this middle one hits is

pretty helpful to me because then the other part comes out more and about peaks here just

a little bit to the outside of that so that would help us. Right? We swing through here

and come through. That’s pretty natural. I’m going to shoot that red reference point

across to help us, and I am going to go ahead and drop it as a box.

Just to be accurate, I’ll use the T-square setup.

There’s that spot we can drop. We’re using this as our

X plane to double over right to the corner.

It should be right there. Center. Shoot right over.

over. Gives us our reference. Again, we want to come from here and go right to the middle.

It should be getting it right about there. Drop it straight down.

So getting it right about there.

If we know this comes up at an angle like this it’s basically doing it right here.

It comes out on itself.

So if we have a plane coming straight up like we’ve said on this one, straight up from

there like this does here then a little outside of that that peak happens. If I come across

here and go, okay, a little outside of that.

That peak happens there would be that peak there.

Okay, so I should be able to turn up through here, up through there, turn around,

turn around before I get to this. This angle is kind of coming down already, slightly coming

down like that. Alright, so that would be—the gist of this would be this S-curve here.

We follow that up, it peaks a little and comes in, peaks a little and comes in. Then we come

right up back to here. Then this comes down nice and slow, nice and slow to about there.

This comes up and curls a little right there. Snaps fast, right about that height across.

Comes in and hooks up with that.

So that’s that section in blue, and then draw in the bottom section for that last section there.

We’ll darken everything in and go over it again. Just make it clear.

I'll put in that back red section again. The first red section we did over here, other one here,

and I have this one. Other side. Put that one in there. Okay. There’s that section

Getting a little thick over there. Now we’re doubling over for this.

Again, I’ll just put one kind of in the center of the action here with this curve. It’ll be pretty easy

to double that over. I’ll say right in the action of this. I’ll put this over here.

Kind of identify that spot would be helpful for me over on the other side.

Now, all we do is double this one over,

X off that little plane here,

there, middle. Go to the left vanishing point, the middle plane there.

Remember, this is our middle plane. That’s our section. It goes up like this. Middle,

back. There’s our middle plane. Hit our middle reference. I want to find it over here.

I carefully go here right through the middle, other side right over here, so right there.

That’s our section. Now we can identify this blue section over here.

We identify over here, remember.

Right there. Let’s make that clear. That goes all the way through

to there. It’s a complete section. Here’s the half part right there in the spine.

Just to be clear, we’re doubling this section over here. Let me get that toned in. We just

doubled over that little rectangle to be able to achieve that. There’s that section. Doubled

over. I have my pencil sharpened. I know this angle goes through the red so that goes through.

And then that angle very similar. It kind of evens out right down here. Then it comes

up just a little like that. I want to go right up like that. Feel it all the way back there.

There we go. It should be a nice even curve. This goes up fairly steep, not really straight.

Then how does it double over? It kind of goes like that. Goes into there. Goes right into

there. That’s a little short, so I’m going to push that up. Oops, not that much.

Push that out a hair.

Here’s that section.

We’ll thicken up the bottom of these sections

to make sure they’re a little clear.

We’ll do this next little section here. And to be clear, it’s just this little one here, but why not.

We’ll look at that. We’ll darken it up just so we can see it clear on film.

Center, thinking like this, come down and just tapering right there. Again, I’ll just

take the idea of a middle reference right around here if I need to. We know the counterpoint

is right over there in blue. It’s not that hard to reach over there. I’m probably just

going to go for it. I can just come up slowly like this. Zoom right up.

This comes over, come over.

Down, down, right up there. It needs to come just like that.

Alright. There’s that red section.

Okay, the other one we can just kind of guess that it tapers very small in the back.

So that back goes this—I’m blocking out my skin going down here like that.

I know that connects to there. What I’m doing is I’m connecting the outside

edge of this out here, so this rolls around but I can see a little of this now on the

other side just a hair also.

This now comes around and we have to kind of say, alright, that comes up. How does that

connect? Alright. That comes up and then goes very steeply up here so we have to assume

it kind of comes like this. That comes up and then goes very steeply up here so we have

to assume it kind of comes like this, wraps around, down like this. It scoops down here.

If you’ll look at this, this comes down, tapers pretty quickly.

Just taking a guess here,

but this also comes around like this.

That would be the outside of that skin because remember.

we have to estimate where we think that drop happens or that comes around and dips. Since

we know the center comes and does this, we know this comes down. That comes down like

that. That’s my best guess for the outside skin.

On the other side it’s about like that. Nice and clear.

Really thick and dark.

So it's obvious. Then the outside skin does this.

This section too. I forgot we have to double this over

so that goes to there, so you can kind of come straight out, taper in gradually like that.

This curves around and disappears, and then this top part comes over it

to take over right there as it goes out of sight.

Then this part comes up to meet it here, this seam.

This front noise piece also kind of like that.

Reiterate this, nice and thick; go all the way back.

The tail comes up, drives that skin all the way over right like that.

Oops, that’s a little high. It’s more like that.

Then again, we have our seams. We want to make them real clear. Just take the idea again

and again. These are all doubled over here, doubled over here. There’s the bottom seam.

That goes up. It’s doubled over here. Bottom seam. This comes down, doubled over, comes

back up to meet it, center seam. This spans way out like this, way out like that. Bottom

seam, center seam have the weird little nose part coming out on both sides because it’s

transparent, remember. This part wouldn’t be visible. We have this curve we had in the

original plan. Curve, but then this tapers down to meet to become flat in the front like

a little wing, manta ray or something like that. Okay, so that’s that shape like that.

Make the outside lines the thickest. That way you understand where the very outside

is. These are just pretend seams, or they could be real riveted seams. They could be

anything you want. There is the idea then.

Again, we have blue on our front side, red for the sections on the backside. Again, we

could say that’s blue in front. I’m sorry, blue in front on this side on the floor and

red here on the floor, that kind of thing. That’s about it. Again, we have this kind

of weird organic ship. Again, we have this small back section again the same way. Double

it over, came back to meet it. So our points that we connected are here and here. Then

we went in a smaller way connected these two but also these two by taking this and doubling

it over; taking this, doubling it over to get the counterpoint over here; this doubled

over to get here; this doubled over to get that; this doubled over to get that. So right

to here over to there, and then we just did a little one to the seam back here. It kind

of landed right over there. I’m going to tie that together. Yeah, this is just a little

round one that comes down like this. I don’t want to forget that one. Alright. There’s

the back. It kind of ends at a sharp little tail, curves around like we talked about.

Little organic shape there.

So, again, that’s another weird little shape, but try to understand why the sections are

important. We did all that doubling over. This gets a little messy, I understand, but

it’s not supposed to be pretty as much as it is a working kind of building thing in

making the outside skin really thick and clear on camera. Remember if you get lost in anything

please just reverse and just, you know, see how we did the different sections. This section

we were able to actually make this RP from going through here through what we wanted

as a red area to continue onto here. It can back down to this one we already had. By coming

down and across to this line and coming down, we make that. That’s right where our section

met right there. That type of thing. That’s the only little center line reference point

we used. Get our eye level here, obviously, with our horizon line eye level.

Okay, alright. There’s our weird little organic manta ray shape thing, ship. Okay,

of course this is all flush to the ground at the bottom, just straight and flat, like

it’s stuck to the ground. Alright, we will see you in the next diagram.

Peak, peak and roll.

There we go. Foreshortened a little bit. I want those curves to look natural.

Now we also can make this curve here so we could say alright. We just go straight a little

bit past there. Then it curves right out there. We can just try to make that line look natural.

I’m just going to try not to get in your way here. Bend my body in an unnatural position.

Raise that up, comes back in. How much does that raise up compared to that? We’d have

to see. What we’ll do is, if we know the height here is doubled over here.

That whole facing side comes about parallel with our view, so let me clean that up.

It comes over and just a little bit of skin you can see until we come over into the curve.

It goes right into there. So that becomes the rest of that blue plane.

This represents this turning face here. We haven’t drawn in the back sides yet.

Obviously, we’ve just done the ground work. I’m just going to put those in there.

Alright. Let me get this in real quick.

Let’s double over those sections then for the widths.

We’ve got our ground design basically coming out right here.

This section here, where do we want to find a reference to help us out?

We could say this one stands up and comes

down so we can kind of straight up come over there. We know it starts here and starts curving

in, but we could help from the section, you know, halfway through, let’s say. It matches

that line. Just come right here and say, alright, that far out. We could say that distance would

be greatly foreshortened about like that here. Come over.

We could double it over we wanted to.

We can make a box here to his middle section.

Right there. Middle, right over there.

Come down. Let me correct that right in there. There’s the middle one we were looking for.

Yep, goes right down to there. That shortened plain there comes right to about there.

Yep, bingo.

Alright, so we’re cutting this halfway back there. Get that reference point there. Now

we know where our curve comes basically up like this at that angle. It’s pretty steep there.

I’d say right about there. Tapers down right to there.

Okay, so there’s that second half there.

That part. We can show our skin up here when we connect it. Let’s

double over this plane right here. Here to here to here. There’s the blue. Double this

over, so again we’ll pick a spot. We could pick two, but I’m just going to pick where

it’s kind of peaked right here.

We could stand this plane up to and make a little reference there.

Anyway, I’ll shoot this over to the left vanishing point like that, and I’ll box it.

We could also use a middle reference plane standing up from extending this seam up here

and use it as a reference from here to here. Let’s just do that shall we?

See what we get.

There, right through there to about here. Reference point.

They come back down to there to there.

Back to there and we hit that which should get it just about here.

So if we know this angle comes through here on our curve to help us,

we know this flattens out and starts turning down,

so that’s pretty easy to close like that.

Then we get some more help over here, standing about that far away.

We could say, alright, that doubles over there about that far probably about like this.

Make a good estimation about there. If we know this one is here, this one is a

good deal foreshortened over there. Let’s make this—it kind of comes up, curves in

just a tiny bit. Long way in, up, right up to there. We’ll taper in a little there.

We’ll taper in a little further like this there. So that represents this side.

There's that section.

Again, we can draw these in as we go. The red side here like we did before.

Have the blue side of this as well in blue for our forward side.

Do this a little before we do the next one.

There's our red side. Just do them real lightly. We have our ground seam so I’ll just this section

ideas complete as we go. There’s the ground seam there off to the left.

We’ll do the next one here.

We’re doing this seam here.

Okay, just to be clear.

What would be a helpful designation here? Well, right where this middle one hits is

pretty helpful to me because then the other part comes out more and about peaks here just

a little bit to the outside of that so that would help us. Right? We swing through here

and come through. That’s pretty natural. I’m going to shoot that red reference point

across to help us, and I am going to go ahead and drop it as a box.

Just to be accurate, I’ll use the T-square setup.

There’s that spot we can drop. We’re using this as our

X plane to double over right to the corner.

It should be right there. Center. Shoot right over.

over. Gives us our reference. Again, we want to come from here and go right to the middle.

It should be getting it right about there. Drop it straight down.

So getting it right about there.

If we know this comes up at an angle like this it’s basically doing it right here.

It comes out on itself.

So if we have a plane coming straight up like we’ve said on this one, straight up from

there like this does here then a little outside of that that peak happens. If I come across

here and go, okay, a little outside of that.

That peak happens there would be that peak there.

Okay, so I should be able to turn up through here, up through there, turn around,

turn around before I get to this. This angle is kind of coming down already, slightly coming

down like that. Alright, so that would be—the gist of this would be this S-curve here.

We follow that up, it peaks a little and comes in, peaks a little and comes in. Then we come

right up back to here. Then this comes down nice and slow, nice and slow to about there.

This comes up and curls a little right there. Snaps fast, right about that height across.

Comes in and hooks up with that.

So that’s that section in blue, and then draw in the bottom section for that last section there.

We’ll darken everything in and go over it again. Just make it clear.

I'll put in that back red section again. The first red section we did over here, other one here,

and I have this one. Other side. Put that one in there. Okay. There’s that section

Getting a little thick over there. Now we’re doubling over for this.

Again, I’ll just put one kind of in the center of the action here with this curve. It’ll be pretty easy

to double that over. I’ll say right in the action of this. I’ll put this over here.

Kind of identify that spot would be helpful for me over on the other side.

Now, all we do is double this one over,

X off that little plane here,

there, middle. Go to the left vanishing point, the middle plane there.

Remember, this is our middle plane. That’s our section. It goes up like this. Middle,

back. There’s our middle plane. Hit our middle reference. I want to find it over here.

I carefully go here right through the middle, other side right over here, so right there.

That’s our section. Now we can identify this blue section over here.

We identify over here, remember.

Right there. Let’s make that clear. That goes all the way through

to there. It’s a complete section. Here’s the half part right there in the spine.

Just to be clear, we’re doubling this section over here. Let me get that toned in. We just

doubled over that little rectangle to be able to achieve that. There’s that section. Doubled

over. I have my pencil sharpened. I know this angle goes through the red so that goes through.

And then that angle very similar. It kind of evens out right down here. Then it comes

up just a little like that. I want to go right up like that. Feel it all the way back there.

There we go. It should be a nice even curve. This goes up fairly steep, not really straight.

Then how does it double over? It kind of goes like that. Goes into there. Goes right into

there. That’s a little short, so I’m going to push that up. Oops, not that much.

Push that out a hair.

Here’s that section.

We’ll thicken up the bottom of these sections

to make sure they’re a little clear.

We’ll do this next little section here. And to be clear, it’s just this little one here, but why not.

We’ll look at that. We’ll darken it up just so we can see it clear on film.

Center, thinking like this, come down and just tapering right there. Again, I’ll just

take the idea of a middle reference right around here if I need to. We know the counterpoint

is right over there in blue. It’s not that hard to reach over there. I’m probably just

going to go for it. I can just come up slowly like this. Zoom right up.

This comes over, come over.

Down, down, right up there. It needs to come just like that.

Alright. There’s that red section.

Okay, the other one we can just kind of guess that it tapers very small in the back.

So that back goes this—I’m blocking out my skin going down here like that.

I know that connects to there. What I’m doing is I’m connecting the outside

edge of this out here, so this rolls around but I can see a little of this now on the

other side just a hair also.

This now comes around and we have to kind of say, alright, that comes up. How does that

connect? Alright. That comes up and then goes very steeply up here so we have to assume

it kind of comes like this. That comes up and then goes very steeply up here so we have

to assume it kind of comes like this, wraps around, down like this. It scoops down here.

If you’ll look at this, this comes down, tapers pretty quickly.

Just taking a guess here,

but this also comes around like this.

That would be the outside of that skin because remember.

we have to estimate where we think that drop happens or that comes around and dips. Since

we know the center comes and does this, we know this comes down. That comes down like

that. That’s my best guess for the outside skin.

On the other side it’s about like that. Nice and clear.

Really thick and dark.

So it's obvious. Then the outside skin does this.

This section too. I forgot we have to double this over

so that goes to there, so you can kind of come straight out, taper in gradually like that.

This curves around and disappears, and then this top part comes over it

to take over right there as it goes out of sight.

Then this part comes up to meet it here, this seam.

This front noise piece also kind of like that.

Reiterate this, nice and thick; go all the way back.

The tail comes up, drives that skin all the way over right like that.

Oops, that’s a little high. It’s more like that.

Then again, we have our seams. We want to make them real clear. Just take the idea again

and again. These are all doubled over here, doubled over here. There’s the bottom seam.

That goes up. It’s doubled over here. Bottom seam. This comes down, doubled over, comes

back up to meet it, center seam. This spans way out like this, way out like that. Bottom

seam, center seam have the weird little nose part coming out on both sides because it’s

transparent, remember. This part wouldn’t be visible. We have this curve we had in the

original plan. Curve, but then this tapers down to meet to become flat in the front like

a little wing, manta ray or something like that. Okay, so that’s that shape like that.

Make the outside lines the thickest. That way you understand where the very outside

is. These are just pretend seams, or they could be real riveted seams. They could be

anything you want. There is the idea then.

Again, we have blue on our front side, red for the sections on the backside. Again, we

could say that’s blue in front. I’m sorry, blue in front on this side on the floor and

red here on the floor, that kind of thing. That’s about it. Again, we have this kind

of weird organic ship. Again, we have this small back section again the same way. Double

it over, came back to meet it. So our points that we connected are here and here. Then

we went in a smaller way connected these two but also these two by taking this and doubling

it over; taking this, doubling it over to get the counterpoint over here; this doubled

over to get here; this doubled over to get that; this doubled over to get that. So right

to here over to there, and then we just did a little one to the seam back here. It kind

of landed right over there. I’m going to tie that together. Yeah, this is just a little

round one that comes down like this. I don’t want to forget that one. Alright. There’s

the back. It kind of ends at a sharp little tail, curves around like we talked about.

Little organic shape there.

So, again, that’s another weird little shape, but try to understand why the sections are

important. We did all that doubling over. This gets a little messy, I understand, but

it’s not supposed to be pretty as much as it is a working kind of building thing in

making the outside skin really thick and clear on camera. Remember if you get lost in anything

please just reverse and just, you know, see how we did the different sections. This section

we were able to actually make this RP from going through here through what we wanted

as a red area to continue onto here. It can back down to this one we already had. By coming

down and across to this line and coming down, we make that. That’s right where our section

met right there. That type of thing. That’s the only little center line reference point

we used. Get our eye level here, obviously, with our horizon line eye level.

Okay, alright. There’s our weird little organic manta ray shape thing, ship. Okay,

of course this is all flush to the ground at the bottom, just straight and flat, like

it’s stuck to the ground. Alright, we will see you in the next diagram.

AUTO SCROLL

Okay, we’re back. This time we are going to do a basic shape like a jukebox that is

going to flush against a back wall and obviously a floor surface, so it will be coming out

and to the sides of this shape. We’re just going to make it up as we go. I have a general

plan but nothing too specific so we’ll just kind of, I’ll kind of play as I go and think

as I go. We’re going to still put a center plane like we did with the other shapes. This

time we have a flat back wall and flat floor, but we’ll come off to the sides and then

double over so we’ll start pretty much designing the front plane and some element. Some elements

this time I’m going to make go side to side and then I’ll decide on what to do with

some other shapes as we go down. Not quite as strictly sectioned as the last couple organic

shapes. We want to try to have to, we have to compare some things from the front to the

sides if we’re going to make a truly symmetrical idea of a jukebox, that kind of thing. It’s

going to be this kind of weird, art deco jukebox, kind of sci-fi jukebox type of idea, like

an old record player in a bar or something like that, just to see how it goes.

We’re going to still be referencing a lot and things like that. I zoomed in a little

closer this time so you’ll probably see a little less of the overall paper so we can

get a little closer to the shape here as we draw it. We’ll do some referencing, still

using our blue and our red. Okay, so here we go. My plan was to have a little bit of

an arc so what I’m going to do is kind of figure out how we’re going to come out here,

and so I’ll just make a lead with this little dot to try and get a little idea. We’re

going to have a glass bubble. So an old jukebox had a glass bubble so you could make your

selections that they’d flip around. The records were in here, and then they went to

CDs of the same thing. So we’re going to have kind of a glass bubble that’s going

to be here. We’ll just kind of go with it as we go and just visualize it as we go. That

way we’re focusing really on the referencing and the side-to-side references, and then

you’ll visualize it with me as it happens. That way you’re kind of wondering a little

bit what it’s going to do, but we’re not really going from an exact design.

We're still kind of creating real space in planes and then doubling over and creating the thing as we go.

Alright, so I’m going to just kind of guesstimate how the bubble is going to come down.

I'm just going to start here, kind of slowly come down, something like that.

Then I’m going to put a little lead just to reference back to the left vanishing point just in my mind

and say, okay, if that ends there. Then we’re probably going to have another lip that comes out.

So we probably want a lip here. Comes out like that, and we’re going to make another one.

So remember this is the center plane, so I’m just kind of playing with ideas here.

This is all happening and coming out from this center plane here out. This is a center

idea, and we’re going to probably have a little bit of an angle coming out like this.

It may be straight down, so I’m going to make sure that’s real straight.

So I'm just kind of doing the half-plane silhouette of the front of the jukebox, just trying to

get an idea of what I’m doing here.

Then I’m going to have another little jump and another idea open up to a door probably.

Yep, I’ll have that come straight down to the

ground, see how that goes, and we’ll have some other elements as we go. That goes about

here, and they’ll be something else. That’s the basic platform shape.

Now this whole thing comes down, tumbles. I’m just getting an idea if I want of my

front profile comes right down to the center line right there. Little bit of extra space

there, but I’m just kind of thinking about what I want to happen here. Another thing

that will happen is we can take this idea of the front profile, and where the bubble

stops I’m just going to make note of how this plane comes down and touches down here

and how these other planes come down and touch. We can always reference what’s happening

here as well. I’ll just do that right away. Those are just little ideas. The light lines

coming down. I can tell where these exact positions and changes are happening up here

I know exactly where they’re happening right over the center plane. We drop them down like

a plum bob, like a little string with a weight on it down to the ground. We can also reference

them back to the middle plane here.

Right away, unlike last time, we’re going to get a little more specific here and a little

more helpful. This is going to be the center plane of a glass bubble coming down. Then

they’ll be maybe some chrome trim, then a little bit of the body of the jukebox coming

down at an angle and then tapering out here. Kind of like that. It may be a little art

deco decoration coming down, like kind of a waterfall type of idea here, and this coming

down to the ground. And we’re figure out what we’re doing later, because we are kind

of making it up as we go.

But as I mentioned, I’m dropping some of these ideas down straight to the ground plane.

I’m also going to take where that little first piece of trim will drop down to the

ground like that. Make note of that. It’s important now, and where I cross is important

to might right vanishing point. I’m going to make sure I make the middle plane a little

darker now. I just mind myself of what I’m truly trying to compare all the time. That

middle plane and the middle plane on the ground. Okay, so we can imagine that whole shape coming

back to the center spine back up there.

Now, I’m going to have my bubble start here after this trim comes a little bit forward.

What I’m going to do is I’m going to lightly design where the trim would be replicated

if it was shot back toward the wall. So the trim would actually start out there a little

bit away from the wall, this tiny bit. I’m going to replicate almost like with a silhouette

how I want that trim to behave. But before I can figure out where the bubble hits the

side walls as a design and then doubles over to the back wall, I’m going to shoot some

of these reference measurements here like I did straight down to the center line here.

I’m going to shoot them back to the left vanishing point over here to strike that center

plane too just so I can get a read on how they’d come over like a spider web over

here. I’ll show you exactly why I’m doing that.

The first little one already comes by and touches the back wall there, that little space

there. I’m going to take them where the front of the bubble and the middle seam of

this architecture basically. This idea is this front silhouette. I’m also going to

take note of where that shoots back and touches the back wall here, the bottom of that little

trim piece, just in general. We can change things later. We’re just kind of getting

the big basic shape of this possible jukebox, weird science fiction. It might have fins

in there from the 50’s or the 40’s. I’m just trying to figure out what I want to do.

At least I know those different heights. I’m just trying to think it out. Now, when I want

to figure out where would that bubble come over and touch over here. Two things we want

to make sure that we have little space where that piece of trim starts here. So there’s

also there. So I’m going to go ahead and shot that across just to get an idea where

that starts over here. You’ll see why I do this. The bubble is actually stopping here

before it hits the back spine. I’m going to replicate it so I can get the idea of the

pattern. I’m going to actually make a little dummy of it back here. I’m making this space

take note of where these things also touch, the plane that is slightly forward from the spine.

So to be clear, this is the actual middle spine here where I’ve extended a line a

little bit. We’re also talking about the bubble starting a little forward because there’s

going to be a piece of trim in there. But we could imagine that the bubble just continues

to the back spine or the back wall. We also have to follow that piece of trim around.

So I’m kind of preparing for that. I don’t want to go all the way out to the edge of

the bubble because they’ll also be a piece of trim that is about that thick and it falls

short. What I’m doing now is I’m taking where I know the bottom of the bubble is it

will be flat. I’m also going to reference it back to the back wall like I did here for

this first half and go to the second half. That makes a reference point here. But as

I mentioned, I want this trim piece to be forward, and if I follow the bubble to the

back wall here; here, bubble, back wall. I don’t want the bubble coming all the way

to the edge. I want a little piece of trim left. I’m going to just guesstimate about

this thick right here. That’s where I’m going to start the idea of the bubbles starting

over here and a silhouette of it starting here. What I’m doing is I’m extending

the idea of the bubble all the way to the back wall here, but as it comes around I don’t

want it to quite touch the edge. I want it to be in a bit because we’re going

to create a piece of trim there.

Again, then I’m going to see where that curve crosses our X line here. Right around

here somewhere I’ll make that reference as well. I’m going to start the curve like

this, just feel it out. Try not to get in your way here of the camera. Start slowly

turning it. Seeing what I want to do with it like that. Okay, so that’s the idea of

the silhouette of the piece of glass from the bubble touching the back wall. There’s

also going to be trim on it that’s about that thick. I’m going to take that thickness

now, come forward right there,

and say from that piece there go with our left vanishing point and come

forward just a little bit to remind ourselves, oh that’s right. That piece of trim starts

right there. I could also, if I want to double this space back here I’m just going to guesstimate

it and say that thickness I believe back here would be about that, foreshortened. Something

like that. I’m just going to take a guess and say that’s good enough. Why? Because

we’re really not going to see that part, and we’re just going to reference to it.

There it is. So here’s that move right there. Here and there. Then we brought that forward

to come forward to that little point right here, that little point right there. But that’s

in front. It’s not actually touching the back wall here. It’s actually projecting

out like this one does with that piece of trim. We have that little projection point.

So we’ll go ahead and get our red, and that’s the first thing we’ll take note of. This

comes forward to the left vanishing point, this little space for the trim here. I’m

making a big deal of this because it’s kind of small.

I’ll try to make that obvious with red there. Same here.

Goes to that space there and that little move are all equivalent

if my pencil would stop breaking. That’s what you get with wax pencils. So that’s

the thickness. The trim starts right here. I’m going to run a little line through it

from the right vanishing point just to get a start.

I’m also going to start here.

This line is touching the back wall where the glass starts.

Back here we also get that. So this is where the bubble touches the back wall,comes to here.

That piece of trim comes forward with some thickness just like it does here.

I’m just trying to wrap the idea correctly

about this coming up and meeting that and getting thicker as it tapers down.

Something like this.

Obviously, as we go through the top—we come right through here—yep, and

we’re just seeing the top of that trip taper away. It’s a simple idea.

But, if you haven’t done much of this, as we’re beginning to, I’m going to spend more time on the really

simple ideas. We’re only going to go to medium difficulty objects, probably. We’ll

do a couple simple vehicles and things. But it’s really the idea that once you understand

how to reference like this in a basic and kind of medium-level way you can go much further

with it and get more and more complex as you understand having the 3-D platform in your

mind. I find it much easier to show people that haven’t done this much to do it initially.

Now this back wall here, as we go up here we notice it touches the diagonal. I’m going

to make two little reference points like this with the red. One here.

That’s actually touching the back. Then it comes forward again to that left vanishing point.

I'm going to be really careful and take that reference point there and make it come forward here

like that, that little thickness. I’ll do the same here.

Now what I have to do is I have to reference this red on the diagonal, this little red dot across to the right and

say that’s where the back wall doubling over will be. So we’re going to do some

doubling over right away. It happens to be close to where the glass comes over as a shape.

It’s close but not really. It’s a little bit to the right. Now when I draw that curve

on the back wall I start here. I know I start back here, and I come down a little bit.

I start moving toward that and coming back under. So that’s how I know I’m going the same

direction here as I am here, basically. Moving under there, coming back down to meet this.

That represents the doubling over of that idea there. Of course, we can cross over and

we get that other piece of trim coming up here. Then we get the front lip coming here.

It crosses over there. There we go.

That’s that idea coming down there. We’re just getting that idea a little piece

of inside trim here that has some thickness. That curls like that. We could also say this

one is sticking out, curls with a little seam like that. We could even say this one comes

up like that. Comes out straight here. Curls back in another little seam. This one here

we could also say comes forward and back a little and curls forward like that.

This one you can’t really see.

So now there would be that piece of trim that’s actually flush to the glass bubble, but also

I’ll lightly draw in the idea that there is another backing piece if we wished here.

We’ll kind of flesh that out. All that belongs—we come up here.

And I’ll clean that up in a second.

Then we could all reference these back here from this area right here. Do that

one in blue for the front of the trim.

There to there. I could do blue for the back of

the trim touching the X too. That would come over to the right vanishing point where it

touches that. We know this piece of this trim here comes over and crosses at that angle

here approximately. We just went across from the X mark. So I’m just going to draw down

through there and meet back up here and just try to make the curve look natural and rounded.

It would come through, back down here, and meet up with our flush wall back there.

There we go.

I’ll shade that little piece of trim in there that’s actually flush to the glass

going like this. And we’re getting narrower on that because it comes near the eye level.

Then it goes back into space and comes around like this behind the bubble. That’s behind

the bubble glass now. Then we have this piece of trim here in red.

We’re just trying to make relatively even.

Come around here, pass over, pull out.

Go back there behind there.

That’s flush against the back wall, whereas the blue part is flush against the idea of

the bubble. The middle seam of our bubble is still right here, so I’ll still draw

that out really dark. That comes by right here, breaks that line there and comes down

right here. Straight up and down right there. So that’s the front end of the bubble.

Clean that up.

Alright, so that would start there. Now we know the bubble would start there, reference

back over to here. I’m going to go ahead and make a little reference rectangle for

that so I can make sense of it. It’s going to come forward from here from the left vanishing

point, forward a bit like that. We’re also going to take it from over here and meet it

where it touches that plane. That happens to be right here on a corner.

Then we’re going to reference back to where

it hits the middle, not the back wall, but right here.

What we’re really looking at is a square—it goes from here to that second dot there.

It comes around to here, the corner right there.

And it’s coincidental that it hits the back spine, but that’s, again, coincidental.

Now, the idea is we can double that over, so let’s do that to the right vanishing point.

We’ve already got our part out here. We know it stars there. We can project out

from the back to double it over. Now, I remind you we’re not touching the back wall here

when we do this. We’re projected forward from coming in and forward from this point.

That’s a forward move to the left vanishing point just like this one is here. Now I can

put little diagonals in from the second dot here to the corner and just remind myself.

I’ll put them in blue. That’s how we’re going to find our curve for our bottom of

our bubble and see how that works. It’s just going to help us reference.

I'm just finding anything I can make common and simple. Now I’m going to make that first part of

the curve here and decide what the bubble is going to look like. It’s going to run

along flush to this for a bit. It’s going to run along flush to the left vanishing point

or directed to the left vanishing point. But then it’s going to break away.

Again, I have to try to shift my seating here. This isn’t ideal for me. Sitting like this

is very awkward trying to make this curve, but there it is. I want to say the bubble,

the bottom of the bubble comes like this, crosses about here, comes over, and keeps

going right here to meet its center right there. Now the bubble is, this is the trim

hitting the bubble. We know the bubble goes to the back wall, and the trim fits on top

of it right there. It doubles over and comes back here. But then the front of the bubble

comes right back here. It moves through here to the center. The idea is we have to figure

out—we just made a reference point—where the bottom of the bubble

(I just made it up) crosses that blue diagonal here.

We can then say, oh, we ought to make a little blue reference point

for that and carry it over to its counterpoint using the right vanishing point right about there.

So now, again, we have three points to look at: The center where it moves a little bit

straight, back here for a ways, back here for a ways, and then it starts moving out.

Then is moves through here at about that angle right there. So when reversed that would be

about there. I’ll just try to make this angle come around and

meet that reference point fairly logically.

Turn, come out from here and gently come and meet this curve.

Try to make a natural looking curve here right through there,

something like that.

This part of the bubble would come over, and we’d have to say, oh okay, aif it kind of comes

up and starts moving in, comes up and starts moving in. This would also come up almost

straight and then start moving pretty rapidly. We’ll have to just feel it out. Go in, go

in, go in. I’m going to say the edge of that bubble moves out even higher.

I’m going to keep moving it out until I feel like I like the roundness here.

It comes down to meet this. Like that.

Going to need to open this one up a little bit here. It gets a little dense.

I want to make sure I mark that properly so it comes down and meets it right. So now we’ve got

that bubble on the jukebox, plus there’s a trim. I kind of had to scrawl it in red

and blue. Again, the blue piece of trim is flush against the bubble laying down and going

through transparently. We can see through the glass to its counterpoint. This is flush

against the back surface. It might be chrome. It has little seams where it comes down, angles

like that. We can’t really see that one.

We’re just moving real slow to say, okay,

so remember, there’s the center seam for our bubble here we established originally

with the center seam. We knew it crosses here. Now there’s a little dip here.

Remember, I went from here all the way back.

Now if I come back right under the bubble here

in space, but we’re saying, oh no, the bubble actually hits the wall and comes out. The

trim would come out from the bubble and flush out to here. So that meant we came from the

bottom of that little piece of trim, took all the way back to the back spine. We’re

going to have to travel from the right vanishing point to the back spine about like that.

Let's see where it comes out.

going to flush against a back wall and obviously a floor surface, so it will be coming out

and to the sides of this shape. We’re just going to make it up as we go. I have a general

plan but nothing too specific so we’ll just kind of, I’ll kind of play as I go and think

as I go. We’re going to still put a center plane like we did with the other shapes. This

time we have a flat back wall and flat floor, but we’ll come off to the sides and then

double over so we’ll start pretty much designing the front plane and some element. Some elements

this time I’m going to make go side to side and then I’ll decide on what to do with

some other shapes as we go down. Not quite as strictly sectioned as the last couple organic

shapes. We want to try to have to, we have to compare some things from the front to the

sides if we’re going to make a truly symmetrical idea of a jukebox, that kind of thing. It’s

going to be this kind of weird, art deco jukebox, kind of sci-fi jukebox type of idea, like

an old record player in a bar or something like that, just to see how it goes.

We’re going to still be referencing a lot and things like that. I zoomed in a little

closer this time so you’ll probably see a little less of the overall paper so we can

get a little closer to the shape here as we draw it. We’ll do some referencing, still

using our blue and our red. Okay, so here we go. My plan was to have a little bit of

an arc so what I’m going to do is kind of figure out how we’re going to come out here,

and so I’ll just make a lead with this little dot to try and get a little idea. We’re

going to have a glass bubble. So an old jukebox had a glass bubble so you could make your

selections that they’d flip around. The records were in here, and then they went to

CDs of the same thing. So we’re going to have kind of a glass bubble that’s going

to be here. We’ll just kind of go with it as we go and just visualize it as we go. That

way we’re focusing really on the referencing and the side-to-side references, and then

you’ll visualize it with me as it happens. That way you’re kind of wondering a little

bit what it’s going to do, but we’re not really going from an exact design.

We're still kind of creating real space in planes and then doubling over and creating the thing as we go.

Alright, so I’m going to just kind of guesstimate how the bubble is going to come down.

I'm just going to start here, kind of slowly come down, something like that.

Then I’m going to put a little lead just to reference back to the left vanishing point just in my mind

and say, okay, if that ends there. Then we’re probably going to have another lip that comes out.

So we probably want a lip here. Comes out like that, and we’re going to make another one.

So remember this is the center plane, so I’m just kind of playing with ideas here.

This is all happening and coming out from this center plane here out. This is a center

idea, and we’re going to probably have a little bit of an angle coming out like this.

It may be straight down, so I’m going to make sure that’s real straight.

So I'm just kind of doing the half-plane silhouette of the front of the jukebox, just trying to

get an idea of what I’m doing here.

Then I’m going to have another little jump and another idea open up to a door probably.

Yep, I’ll have that come straight down to the

ground, see how that goes, and we’ll have some other elements as we go. That goes about

here, and they’ll be something else. That’s the basic platform shape.

Now this whole thing comes down, tumbles. I’m just getting an idea if I want of my

front profile comes right down to the center line right there. Little bit of extra space

there, but I’m just kind of thinking about what I want to happen here. Another thing

that will happen is we can take this idea of the front profile, and where the bubble

stops I’m just going to make note of how this plane comes down and touches down here

and how these other planes come down and touch. We can always reference what’s happening

here as well. I’ll just do that right away. Those are just little ideas. The light lines

coming down. I can tell where these exact positions and changes are happening up here

I know exactly where they’re happening right over the center plane. We drop them down like

a plum bob, like a little string with a weight on it down to the ground. We can also reference

them back to the middle plane here.

Right away, unlike last time, we’re going to get a little more specific here and a little

more helpful. This is going to be the center plane of a glass bubble coming down. Then

they’ll be maybe some chrome trim, then a little bit of the body of the jukebox coming

down at an angle and then tapering out here. Kind of like that. It may be a little art

deco decoration coming down, like kind of a waterfall type of idea here, and this coming

down to the ground. And we’re figure out what we’re doing later, because we are kind

of making it up as we go.

But as I mentioned, I’m dropping some of these ideas down straight to the ground plane.

I’m also going to take where that little first piece of trim will drop down to the

ground like that. Make note of that. It’s important now, and where I cross is important

to might right vanishing point. I’m going to make sure I make the middle plane a little

darker now. I just mind myself of what I’m truly trying to compare all the time. That

middle plane and the middle plane on the ground. Okay, so we can imagine that whole shape coming

back to the center spine back up there.

Now, I’m going to have my bubble start here after this trim comes a little bit forward.

What I’m going to do is I’m going to lightly design where the trim would be replicated

if it was shot back toward the wall. So the trim would actually start out there a little

bit away from the wall, this tiny bit. I’m going to replicate almost like with a silhouette

how I want that trim to behave. But before I can figure out where the bubble hits the

side walls as a design and then doubles over to the back wall, I’m going to shoot some

of these reference measurements here like I did straight down to the center line here.

I’m going to shoot them back to the left vanishing point over here to strike that center

plane too just so I can get a read on how they’d come over like a spider web over

here. I’ll show you exactly why I’m doing that.

The first little one already comes by and touches the back wall there, that little space

there. I’m going to take them where the front of the bubble and the middle seam of

this architecture basically. This idea is this front silhouette. I’m also going to

take note of where that shoots back and touches the back wall here, the bottom of that little

trim piece, just in general. We can change things later. We’re just kind of getting

the big basic shape of this possible jukebox, weird science fiction. It might have fins

in there from the 50’s or the 40’s. I’m just trying to figure out what I want to do.

At least I know those different heights. I’m just trying to think it out. Now, when I want

to figure out where would that bubble come over and touch over here. Two things we want

to make sure that we have little space where that piece of trim starts here. So there’s

also there. So I’m going to go ahead and shot that across just to get an idea where

that starts over here. You’ll see why I do this. The bubble is actually stopping here

before it hits the back spine. I’m going to replicate it so I can get the idea of the

pattern. I’m going to actually make a little dummy of it back here. I’m making this space

take note of where these things also touch, the plane that is slightly forward from the spine.

So to be clear, this is the actual middle spine here where I’ve extended a line a

little bit. We’re also talking about the bubble starting a little forward because there’s

going to be a piece of trim in there. But we could imagine that the bubble just continues

to the back spine or the back wall. We also have to follow that piece of trim around.

So I’m kind of preparing for that. I don’t want to go all the way out to the edge of

the bubble because they’ll also be a piece of trim that is about that thick and it falls

short. What I’m doing now is I’m taking where I know the bottom of the bubble is it

will be flat. I’m also going to reference it back to the back wall like I did here for

this first half and go to the second half. That makes a reference point here. But as

I mentioned, I want this trim piece to be forward, and if I follow the bubble to the

back wall here; here, bubble, back wall. I don’t want the bubble coming all the way

to the edge. I want a little piece of trim left. I’m going to just guesstimate about

this thick right here. That’s where I’m going to start the idea of the bubbles starting

over here and a silhouette of it starting here. What I’m doing is I’m extending

the idea of the bubble all the way to the back wall here, but as it comes around I don’t

want it to quite touch the edge. I want it to be in a bit because we’re going

to create a piece of trim there.

Again, then I’m going to see where that curve crosses our X line here. Right around

here somewhere I’ll make that reference as well. I’m going to start the curve like

this, just feel it out. Try not to get in your way here of the camera. Start slowly

turning it. Seeing what I want to do with it like that. Okay, so that’s the idea of

the silhouette of the piece of glass from the bubble touching the back wall. There’s

also going to be trim on it that’s about that thick. I’m going to take that thickness

now, come forward right there,

and say from that piece there go with our left vanishing point and come

forward just a little bit to remind ourselves, oh that’s right. That piece of trim starts

right there. I could also, if I want to double this space back here I’m just going to guesstimate

it and say that thickness I believe back here would be about that, foreshortened. Something

like that. I’m just going to take a guess and say that’s good enough. Why? Because

we’re really not going to see that part, and we’re just going to reference to it.

There it is. So here’s that move right there. Here and there. Then we brought that forward

to come forward to that little point right here, that little point right there. But that’s

in front. It’s not actually touching the back wall here. It’s actually projecting

out like this one does with that piece of trim. We have that little projection point.

So we’ll go ahead and get our red, and that’s the first thing we’ll take note of. This

comes forward to the left vanishing point, this little space for the trim here. I’m

making a big deal of this because it’s kind of small.

I’ll try to make that obvious with red there. Same here.

Goes to that space there and that little move are all equivalent

if my pencil would stop breaking. That’s what you get with wax pencils. So that’s

the thickness. The trim starts right here. I’m going to run a little line through it

from the right vanishing point just to get a start.

I’m also going to start here.

This line is touching the back wall where the glass starts.

Back here we also get that. So this is where the bubble touches the back wall,comes to here.

That piece of trim comes forward with some thickness just like it does here.

I’m just trying to wrap the idea correctly

about this coming up and meeting that and getting thicker as it tapers down.

Something like this.

Obviously, as we go through the top—we come right through here—yep, and

we’re just seeing the top of that trip taper away. It’s a simple idea.

But, if you haven’t done much of this, as we’re beginning to, I’m going to spend more time on the really

simple ideas. We’re only going to go to medium difficulty objects, probably. We’ll

do a couple simple vehicles and things. But it’s really the idea that once you understand

how to reference like this in a basic and kind of medium-level way you can go much further

with it and get more and more complex as you understand having the 3-D platform in your

mind. I find it much easier to show people that haven’t done this much to do it initially.

Now this back wall here, as we go up here we notice it touches the diagonal. I’m going

to make two little reference points like this with the red. One here.

That’s actually touching the back. Then it comes forward again to that left vanishing point.

I'm going to be really careful and take that reference point there and make it come forward here

like that, that little thickness. I’ll do the same here.

Now what I have to do is I have to reference this red on the diagonal, this little red dot across to the right and

say that’s where the back wall doubling over will be. So we’re going to do some

doubling over right away. It happens to be close to where the glass comes over as a shape.

It’s close but not really. It’s a little bit to the right. Now when I draw that curve

on the back wall I start here. I know I start back here, and I come down a little bit.

I start moving toward that and coming back under. So that’s how I know I’m going the same

direction here as I am here, basically. Moving under there, coming back down to meet this.

That represents the doubling over of that idea there. Of course, we can cross over and

we get that other piece of trim coming up here. Then we get the front lip coming here.

It crosses over there. There we go.

That’s that idea coming down there. We’re just getting that idea a little piece

of inside trim here that has some thickness. That curls like that. We could also say this

one is sticking out, curls with a little seam like that. We could even say this one comes

up like that. Comes out straight here. Curls back in another little seam. This one here

we could also say comes forward and back a little and curls forward like that.

This one you can’t really see.

So now there would be that piece of trim that’s actually flush to the glass bubble, but also

I’ll lightly draw in the idea that there is another backing piece if we wished here.

We’ll kind of flesh that out. All that belongs—we come up here.

And I’ll clean that up in a second.

Then we could all reference these back here from this area right here. Do that

one in blue for the front of the trim.

There to there. I could do blue for the back of

the trim touching the X too. That would come over to the right vanishing point where it

touches that. We know this piece of this trim here comes over and crosses at that angle

here approximately. We just went across from the X mark. So I’m just going to draw down

through there and meet back up here and just try to make the curve look natural and rounded.

It would come through, back down here, and meet up with our flush wall back there.

There we go.

I’ll shade that little piece of trim in there that’s actually flush to the glass

going like this. And we’re getting narrower on that because it comes near the eye level.

Then it goes back into space and comes around like this behind the bubble. That’s behind

the bubble glass now. Then we have this piece of trim here in red.

We’re just trying to make relatively even.

Come around here, pass over, pull out.

Go back there behind there.

That’s flush against the back wall, whereas the blue part is flush against the idea of

the bubble. The middle seam of our bubble is still right here, so I’ll still draw

that out really dark. That comes by right here, breaks that line there and comes down

right here. Straight up and down right there. So that’s the front end of the bubble.

Clean that up.

Alright, so that would start there. Now we know the bubble would start there, reference

back over to here. I’m going to go ahead and make a little reference rectangle for

that so I can make sense of it. It’s going to come forward from here from the left vanishing

point, forward a bit like that. We’re also going to take it from over here and meet it

where it touches that plane. That happens to be right here on a corner.

Then we’re going to reference back to where

it hits the middle, not the back wall, but right here.

What we’re really looking at is a square—it goes from here to that second dot there.

It comes around to here, the corner right there.

And it’s coincidental that it hits the back spine, but that’s, again, coincidental.

Now, the idea is we can double that over, so let’s do that to the right vanishing point.

We’ve already got our part out here. We know it stars there. We can project out

from the back to double it over. Now, I remind you we’re not touching the back wall here

when we do this. We’re projected forward from coming in and forward from this point.

That’s a forward move to the left vanishing point just like this one is here. Now I can

put little diagonals in from the second dot here to the corner and just remind myself.

I’ll put them in blue. That’s how we’re going to find our curve for our bottom of

our bubble and see how that works. It’s just going to help us reference.

I'm just finding anything I can make common and simple. Now I’m going to make that first part of

the curve here and decide what the bubble is going to look like. It’s going to run

along flush to this for a bit. It’s going to run along flush to the left vanishing point

or directed to the left vanishing point. But then it’s going to break away.

Again, I have to try to shift my seating here. This isn’t ideal for me. Sitting like this

is very awkward trying to make this curve, but there it is. I want to say the bubble,

the bottom of the bubble comes like this, crosses about here, comes over, and keeps

going right here to meet its center right there. Now the bubble is, this is the trim

hitting the bubble. We know the bubble goes to the back wall, and the trim fits on top

of it right there. It doubles over and comes back here. But then the front of the bubble

comes right back here. It moves through here to the center. The idea is we have to figure

out—we just made a reference point—where the bottom of the bubble

(I just made it up) crosses that blue diagonal here.

We can then say, oh, we ought to make a little blue reference point

for that and carry it over to its counterpoint using the right vanishing point right about there.

So now, again, we have three points to look at: The center where it moves a little bit

straight, back here for a ways, back here for a ways, and then it starts moving out.

Then is moves through here at about that angle right there. So when reversed that would be

about there. I’ll just try to make this angle come around and

meet that reference point fairly logically.

Turn, come out from here and gently come and meet this curve.

Try to make a natural looking curve here right through there,

something like that.

This part of the bubble would come over, and we’d have to say, oh okay, aif it kind of comes

up and starts moving in, comes up and starts moving in. This would also come up almost

straight and then start moving pretty rapidly. We’ll have to just feel it out. Go in, go

in, go in. I’m going to say the edge of that bubble moves out even higher.

I’m going to keep moving it out until I feel like I like the roundness here.

It comes down to meet this. Like that.

Going to need to open this one up a little bit here. It gets a little dense.

I want to make sure I mark that properly so it comes down and meets it right. So now we’ve got

that bubble on the jukebox, plus there’s a trim. I kind of had to scrawl it in red

and blue. Again, the blue piece of trim is flush against the bubble laying down and going

through transparently. We can see through the glass to its counterpoint. This is flush

against the back surface. It might be chrome. It has little seams where it comes down, angles

like that. We can’t really see that one.

We’re just moving real slow to say, okay,

so remember, there’s the center seam for our bubble here we established originally

with the center seam. We knew it crosses here. Now there’s a little dip here.

Remember, I went from here all the way back.

Now if I come back right under the bubble here

in space, but we’re saying, oh no, the bubble actually hits the wall and comes out. The

trim would come out from the bubble and flush out to here. So that meant we came from the

bottom of that little piece of trim, took all the way back to the back spine. We’re

going to have to travel from the right vanishing point to the back spine about like that.

Let's see where it comes out.

AUTO SCROLL

So this move here is the equivalent to what we just did here. Now we can kind of see it

from here going to the back wall like this. This move from the back of that to that for

the trim. It’s the same thing back here, hitting this back wall, this one hitting this

back wall here. Just trying to get the idea right, so when I come around I’m going to

give myself a lead with my

right vanishing point at the bottom of that trim just about there, just to give myself

a lead that the direction would go. I’d also give myself a lead down here and comes

over and goes back over there. We have the right levels. I just want to give my perspective

from my vanishing points so that I know. It’s going to start out straight and start curving

that piece of trim as well.

I also want to keep going and find—I have to make another plane that’s going to help

my find where that curve goes and follows this. It should look in perspective, but that

piece of trim here, coming out here and here follows and comes out and is thicker and comes

out from this curve of the bubble here, but it’s a little wider. What we’ll do is

we’ll just look at it and go, well, we know it comes out here. That’s pretty much the

edge of what we can see. We can kind of work it back like this and say, well, I’m going

to come back, meet it here, come forward. Move the trim like this, a little deeper.

Come forward so we can see how this would wrap under basically on the way there.

Push it out like that. That looks like the side of that trim there. See it there just to kind

of make sense of it. This comes out here. This goes along here, starts turning.

We can draw that in. We can just feel it out.

Now, if we wanted to we could say that that piece of trim there is right under there,

about here and come up to this one. If we drew it out and kind of thought about it,

the logic would be that it’s about right up here on that piece of blue down that far.

So if I wanted to I could also verify that idea by just bringing that point back over

here just in front of the other one. Just to think about it and say, alright, somewhere

over here, straight down about that far would be that one’s position.

So it really does come right there. Off that diagonal, that diagonal. So yeah, I want to come through

about there. That makes sense because it feels right. I want to make sure the thickness feels

about right. It should about there.

Let’s try it out. Start here, coming through. Keeping the thickness about here. So we turn

and we want to meet up with that. So that’s about right. It’s a little thick down here

at the bottom, so I’m going to taper it off a little. Don’t want to quite be that

thick. I’ll move through right here instead. Thin that out a little, coming over,

meeting up with that one. Keep going.

Again, I have to kind of slow down and draw like this because the paper is stationary.

I’m at odd angles to this so I have to arc my arm around. This isn’t natural. If I

was actually drawing something or drafting it, I’d be moving all around the table.

I’d be in the way in the camera, or I’d be spinning this piece of paper actually,

which would be much easier, as you see a lot of industrial designers do. You just keep

using your most natural angle as you spin the paper. But, I want this kind of fixed

position so it’s understandable for you to draft this. I want you to be drafting these

and drawing very carefully for your own diagram note. I have to move around this.

So it's a little awkward.

I’ve raised that line a little bit. We’re moving real nice and slow here. There’s

the back thing. There’s that piece of trim under our bubble that we’re just drawn in

like we have many other objects in this series. Kind of feeling it out. Sometimes the line

gets a little thick, but I’m not trying to be overly eloquent here.

I’m trying to really let see me work out, push and pull, erase and readjust lines and

trim and thicknesses. That’s how you have to fight this stuff out when you’re a beginner

and intermediate anyway. Sure, we could use ship curves or French curves or flexible curves

to do this. Again, I’m not that concerned with those items because I want you to just

be able to kind of draw this out and get good at hand drawing and then cleaning it up.

No question, the computer you’d be using a curved device and a really clean system there.

Of course, if you want to clean up hand drawings, again, French curves, ship curves, flexible

curves are a great idea. It’s just that I don’t want that to be the focus here.

We did use ellipse guides in some of the ellipses in the earlier lectures just to show you how

clean you can do them. Of course, that’s what ship curves and French curves, and flexible

curves also give you once you’ve gotten your very light idea.

We’re just going to go ahead and do this. I’ll just try to keep grabbing a sharper

pencil here. Alright. So there’s that piece of trim. I’m not sure what I’m going to

do next. I think I wanted to kick out. Remember, this comes out this far from here so now this

comes down at an angle and this drops straight down to here. Then we reference that line

back to the spine. I’m going to reference that line back out to both sides now.

So remember this comes back to there at the top, which is here. This goes back, which is over there

touching the side walls of our original rectangle.

Now, the design calls for a slight tapered angle to come out and make the base a little

thicker. It’s going to come out here thicker and back here thicker too. I’m going to

jam our reference back to the middle spine right about there and come through from my

right vanishing point and go over. So I make this reference here, this reference right

here on my back wall here. I went from here, touched the back spine here, went both ways.

Now I know where that taper is. Now I have to estimate how far this distance is over

here. I’m going to just shoot another line a little further out from here, a little further

out from there. And say, okay, this looks like, what—does that look about the same.

Okay, roughly. We’re at about a 45 and 45. It would be very close to the same. I’m

just going to say, yeah, I’d say it’s about that. Why not? There it is. I’m going

to say this is the same as that from here. Actually, this would be from here. Let me

straighten this out. There’s another one. I have to take that one in cause this actually

only comes from there. I forgot I was moving over from there. With that in mind, that amount

of distance is only going to be about there.

Okay, there it is. I just want to be clear. Okay, so there’s that little move. Then

back here we’re just going to say, alright, if that’s for—this foreshortened back

to here I’d day good enough if we say it’s about there. We can’t really see all that

behind the body. There’s going to be things like a record here and maybe a stack of records

here. This is going to be all having stuff inside of it. We’ll still using the transparent

idea to see through our object design. I just made

this move right here right back there to the back wall.

Then I guess I’m going to drop straight down to the floor surface, so I have to extend

my back wall reference now here possibly and to get anything else going for that.

Let me do that. Okay, so this drops straight to the ground here. This drops straight to the ground

there. We need to come out where this little thing came out further because the body now

has gotten a little thicker. It’s the same move that we’re doing out here and kind

of dropping right here straight to the ground to make that reference. We’re going to have

a little opening here so I’m not going to make that really a hard line. But, we are

saying that is that part of the body flushing out here. We’re now taking this to the ground.

We’re not going to get too dark with it though. That’s a straight drop. I also take

this one over here to the ground back there. So now I have this little added space here,

and this little added space doubled over in space back there. Now we have to decide on

the curve once it hits the ground because we kind of, we’ve got that curve going.

We kind of see the back curve here. It comes in a little bit right here then it comes down.

Sorry that this gets a little too thick in some places.

Let me try to make that a little thinner.

Have this come back a little easier here for you. That’s going to turn and do

a nice little curve right under there. Alright. That will have to be thickened up back here.

Let me do that a little bit more here. Not quite that thick but a little bit.

Okay, remember if you had seams they’d be dropping like this and kind of doing this idea.

This would go straight back to the spine actually. Let me make that clear. Since these

are straight here. I don’t want to be confusing. Let’s make those blue.

I forgot to mention this. That little red shape here and that little red seam here on the trim.

All those go back on the base to go back and hit the spine back here. So that would be our reference

for all the seams if we wanted to follow and just make little seams going back like this.

They basically do this. Even if there was one here with this back here it would still

come back to there, basically. Again, here it would come back follow back to that red

section. If we had little seams or ideas of that being transparent little sections.

That's their reference point back there on the spine after they come down and flatten out at the

bottom like these do. Flat bottom, flat bottom, flat bottom here. Those sections. Even back

here that section would still follow to there, come out and meet that idea back here.

So that’s if there were little trim seams in that piece of chrome here.

But we’ll do that.

We can add some fins and other stuff later. We can add that trim idea later.

Okay, so now we’re starting to thicken the body. Come down as a shape here. We come down

like this and came down at the back so now we’re here. We’re back here.

We’re saying that that front meets right there and actually comes there. That’s really important to

identify the three places we’re going to start our curves from. I’m going to make

a rectangle from there, and also we’re going to come forward with our thicker body part

on the ground of this area here just to see if we can make another curve.

Start back in this back wall here, about right there.

The important thing is that this comes out and comes down and goes all the way and makes

a reference here. Then this also comes down to make a reference there. Now we’re really

dealing with this, and this is the doubled over rectangle now because we’ve got this

outside perimeter here now. Another thing I

could do, once I make my curve I could do the same thing as we did up there

for the bubble. I can come back now and say the body of the curve is coming from here

where the spine meets the floor. Make that equivalent projection at an angle for our

doubled over side there. That way when I get a crossing from my curve coming from here

and here, I try to mimic this in a slightly bigger way. We also have to do this seam as

well, by the way. I’m going to start getting mine working on the floor first to kind of

get a rationale of how it works. Then we’re going to raise it up. Whatever curve we get

on floor we’re going to kind of raise up like we did with objects when we had three

different levels a couple diagrams ago. We’re going to try and get that curve here from

that point, that point. I should actually make it clear that back here it’s there.

There it’s here. There it’s there. Then we’re dealing with that space, that space,

and that space as well on that level.

Okay, now I’ll make my curve. We can come around to the front a little bit like this.

Then we start curving away also. Go forward a little bit and start curving away. We’re

just trying to replicate the idea of that curve there.

Realistically if we wanted to we could extend the idea of that up here.

Then up to there.

Now to make it even I would say easiest thing to do here would be,

we have that to be dropped there. What I could do...

is reference a second line to there.

I’m just thinking the best way to do that—we recognize that this is here.

I’m going to drop that straight down to meet that blue.

Why don’t we do this? I’m going to mimic these little rectangles we made originally

in red so that we have the two sets for how to drop this and then thicken it down here.

What I’m trying to get to is the original drop of the bubble there

so that was originally right there.

So that front goes there.

I’m going to make a red version of that.

I’ll explain what I’m doing here in a second. Then we go back to the inside corner here.

That original rectangle dropped to here. The back wall there.

We also remember a drop there with a bubble coming back to here.

That dropped right there, right there on the inside there.

Coming forward. There we go. Inside. So what I’m creating this idea, this idea

like it was here, was up here coming down, like there coming out.

Okay, so new corner for the red, which represent what was happening here up in the blue area.

Then we put the diagonal back to here.

That little bit of difference will help us explain where these points stopped here.

If we remember, that one stopped right there. If we know that

reference was there we can drop it straight down. I’ll use my T-square. What I’m doing

is I’m replicating the original rotation of the bubble so that I can get a larger version

of it on the floor and make that thicker piece actually look more proper. I’m coming down

here. I’ve got it right there. There’s the original turn of that. If we come forward

from this reference point, from our right vanishing point, we can know make this. What

I’m doing is I’m trying to replicate that original curve and then see the larger one

as the body gets thicker. We can kind of replicate it. It will help us. I’m dropping to the

ground and saying, alright. The original curve was from there and drops straight down to

here, those parts here. It comes around here. We know it comes around like that. Comes around.

It goes straight up here for a little bit and then came around. We know it comes just

like that. Also, it comes around to here, straight through there. Straight through there

just like me made that curve up here. This was on the floor now.

Again, a lot like we did with those shapes where we made three different levels of them.

Just trying to figure out how a get a friendly way to say, alright, there’s that one. We

know that the bigger part of the body for here now back here to here and this front

taper to here now. We want to follow that basically and make it look fairly natural.

So what I’m doing here is pretty much following that one through and following that curve,

how we know it should fit out here. We’ve got this much difference in space. This much

back here. This much right here. If I’m just trying to follow that around like that.

That’s pretty much what I want. Nice and light. There we go. So that feels natural

for the body to follow that curve.

Remember, we’re not seeing this inner curve of the bubble and the real object be down

here. All we’re saying is that we’re seeing the outside curve. But I went ahead and referenced

down this inside curve for the bubble. I replicated that same situation on the floor so I could

get a natural curve of the inside of the bubble here and kind of get a silhouette of it down

where it would be on the floor so I could kind of get a natural place for this to cross

there. That looks pretty good. It comes back and meets that part there. There we go.

I’ll just take note and say, alright, with the original blue line that I took out this

time and doubled over, now I can go back to that and say, alright, if that crosses there

and looks pretty natural I’ll give myself a little bit of help and say, alright, I’ll

go across and hit my other side right there, over here, which is there. So that should

cross at the same point where that same turning body here of this right around there. That

would come out about that and start turning, so I’ll straighten here and start turning.

I come through here. That’s my angle there. That’s my angle turning there. Come out

gradually, connect up with that. This would shoot out to here, slowly turning out,

coming through there. That should do that.

We also can connect up there. That will help a lot.

One way we can do that is to simply reference back to this, so now what I want to do is

I want to take this natural curve that I did on the floor right here, pretty much right through there.

I’m going to bring it up to the level of where it needs to be right here again.

So just to be officially referencing with all this.

We’ll do it again and say, alright. Well, we know we have this point here, this point here, this point back here,

and the invisible part. We need that reference.

One way to get it would be to say if we know it’s here

I can go straight back from this point to my left vanishing point like here.

Let me make sure, let me get rid of that. Straight back from here. Be real accurate, back to

the left. Hit my back wall. Go straight up with my T-square.

Get this level here so I come up, that level right there.

If I come from that point there out to meet this plane.

Of course, we have to make this plane coming straight up like when we elevated those other

objects. There we go. Like that. I’ve made a plane, which I’ll point out in a second here.

Let me just get it back. There we go.

So I’ve just made a plane from here to here back up to here because of that level there

coming back. Why that level? Because that’s the height of this wrapping around. All these

point that out. That will really help me. Then I can also come back from this point

now. Go back to the wall right there to that mark.

Again, go straight up.

I have to go straight up from my original mark here on the floor. Meet that plane like this.

Now this, this, and that are all the ones where that curve hits for that widening piece,

which I’ll explain if it’s confusing.

This tapers and gets thicker here. We already know from the front profile that tapered there.

We already decided on the back that tapered there to get thicker to there, landing there

and going to the back. We had to find that we had this, this, and this. We needed to

find those by saying, well, I found them on the floor pretty comfortably with the help

of those blue diagonals. I’m just going to raise a plane back up to find them there.

Now we know I’m going to get a lead now from my perspective here.

Forward, forward, and then forward from here.

Now I know we’re coming by around here to meet that, so I make that real concrete.

We come straight from that, and then if we’re moving through here

it naturally would be moving in this same idea a little more.

Right through here. I’m just going to try to make that look natural.

from here going to the back wall like this. This move from the back of that to that for

the trim. It’s the same thing back here, hitting this back wall, this one hitting this

back wall here. Just trying to get the idea right, so when I come around I’m going to

give myself a lead with my

right vanishing point at the bottom of that trim just about there, just to give myself

a lead that the direction would go. I’d also give myself a lead down here and comes

over and goes back over there. We have the right levels. I just want to give my perspective

from my vanishing points so that I know. It’s going to start out straight and start curving

that piece of trim as well.

I also want to keep going and find—I have to make another plane that’s going to help

my find where that curve goes and follows this. It should look in perspective, but that

piece of trim here, coming out here and here follows and comes out and is thicker and comes

out from this curve of the bubble here, but it’s a little wider. What we’ll do is

we’ll just look at it and go, well, we know it comes out here. That’s pretty much the

edge of what we can see. We can kind of work it back like this and say, well, I’m going

to come back, meet it here, come forward. Move the trim like this, a little deeper.

Come forward so we can see how this would wrap under basically on the way there.

Push it out like that. That looks like the side of that trim there. See it there just to kind

of make sense of it. This comes out here. This goes along here, starts turning.

We can draw that in. We can just feel it out.

Now, if we wanted to we could say that that piece of trim there is right under there,

about here and come up to this one. If we drew it out and kind of thought about it,

the logic would be that it’s about right up here on that piece of blue down that far.

So if I wanted to I could also verify that idea by just bringing that point back over

here just in front of the other one. Just to think about it and say, alright, somewhere

over here, straight down about that far would be that one’s position.

So it really does come right there. Off that diagonal, that diagonal. So yeah, I want to come through

about there. That makes sense because it feels right. I want to make sure the thickness feels

about right. It should about there.

Let’s try it out. Start here, coming through. Keeping the thickness about here. So we turn

and we want to meet up with that. So that’s about right. It’s a little thick down here

at the bottom, so I’m going to taper it off a little. Don’t want to quite be that

thick. I’ll move through right here instead. Thin that out a little, coming over,

meeting up with that one. Keep going.

Again, I have to kind of slow down and draw like this because the paper is stationary.

I’m at odd angles to this so I have to arc my arm around. This isn’t natural. If I

was actually drawing something or drafting it, I’d be moving all around the table.

I’d be in the way in the camera, or I’d be spinning this piece of paper actually,

which would be much easier, as you see a lot of industrial designers do. You just keep

using your most natural angle as you spin the paper. But, I want this kind of fixed

position so it’s understandable for you to draft this. I want you to be drafting these

and drawing very carefully for your own diagram note. I have to move around this.

So it's a little awkward.

I’ve raised that line a little bit. We’re moving real nice and slow here. There’s

the back thing. There’s that piece of trim under our bubble that we’re just drawn in

like we have many other objects in this series. Kind of feeling it out. Sometimes the line

gets a little thick, but I’m not trying to be overly eloquent here.

I’m trying to really let see me work out, push and pull, erase and readjust lines and

trim and thicknesses. That’s how you have to fight this stuff out when you’re a beginner

and intermediate anyway. Sure, we could use ship curves or French curves or flexible curves

to do this. Again, I’m not that concerned with those items because I want you to just

be able to kind of draw this out and get good at hand drawing and then cleaning it up.

No question, the computer you’d be using a curved device and a really clean system there.

Of course, if you want to clean up hand drawings, again, French curves, ship curves, flexible

curves are a great idea. It’s just that I don’t want that to be the focus here.

We did use ellipse guides in some of the ellipses in the earlier lectures just to show you how

clean you can do them. Of course, that’s what ship curves and French curves, and flexible

curves also give you once you’ve gotten your very light idea.

We’re just going to go ahead and do this. I’ll just try to keep grabbing a sharper

pencil here. Alright. So there’s that piece of trim. I’m not sure what I’m going to

do next. I think I wanted to kick out. Remember, this comes out this far from here so now this

comes down at an angle and this drops straight down to here. Then we reference that line

back to the spine. I’m going to reference that line back out to both sides now.

So remember this comes back to there at the top, which is here. This goes back, which is over there

touching the side walls of our original rectangle.

Now, the design calls for a slight tapered angle to come out and make the base a little

thicker. It’s going to come out here thicker and back here thicker too. I’m going to

jam our reference back to the middle spine right about there and come through from my

right vanishing point and go over. So I make this reference here, this reference right

here on my back wall here. I went from here, touched the back spine here, went both ways.

Now I know where that taper is. Now I have to estimate how far this distance is over

here. I’m going to just shoot another line a little further out from here, a little further

out from there. And say, okay, this looks like, what—does that look about the same.

Okay, roughly. We’re at about a 45 and 45. It would be very close to the same. I’m

just going to say, yeah, I’d say it’s about that. Why not? There it is. I’m going

to say this is the same as that from here. Actually, this would be from here. Let me

straighten this out. There’s another one. I have to take that one in cause this actually

only comes from there. I forgot I was moving over from there. With that in mind, that amount

of distance is only going to be about there.

Okay, there it is. I just want to be clear. Okay, so there’s that little move. Then

back here we’re just going to say, alright, if that’s for—this foreshortened back

to here I’d day good enough if we say it’s about there. We can’t really see all that

behind the body. There’s going to be things like a record here and maybe a stack of records

here. This is going to be all having stuff inside of it. We’ll still using the transparent

idea to see through our object design. I just made

this move right here right back there to the back wall.

Then I guess I’m going to drop straight down to the floor surface, so I have to extend

my back wall reference now here possibly and to get anything else going for that.

Let me do that. Okay, so this drops straight to the ground here. This drops straight to the ground

there. We need to come out where this little thing came out further because the body now

has gotten a little thicker. It’s the same move that we’re doing out here and kind

of dropping right here straight to the ground to make that reference. We’re going to have

a little opening here so I’m not going to make that really a hard line. But, we are

saying that is that part of the body flushing out here. We’re now taking this to the ground.

We’re not going to get too dark with it though. That’s a straight drop. I also take

this one over here to the ground back there. So now I have this little added space here,

and this little added space doubled over in space back there. Now we have to decide on

the curve once it hits the ground because we kind of, we’ve got that curve going.

We kind of see the back curve here. It comes in a little bit right here then it comes down.

Sorry that this gets a little too thick in some places.

Let me try to make that a little thinner.

Have this come back a little easier here for you. That’s going to turn and do

a nice little curve right under there. Alright. That will have to be thickened up back here.

Let me do that a little bit more here. Not quite that thick but a little bit.

Okay, remember if you had seams they’d be dropping like this and kind of doing this idea.

This would go straight back to the spine actually. Let me make that clear. Since these

are straight here. I don’t want to be confusing. Let’s make those blue.

I forgot to mention this. That little red shape here and that little red seam here on the trim.

All those go back on the base to go back and hit the spine back here. So that would be our reference

for all the seams if we wanted to follow and just make little seams going back like this.

They basically do this. Even if there was one here with this back here it would still

come back to there, basically. Again, here it would come back follow back to that red

section. If we had little seams or ideas of that being transparent little sections.

That's their reference point back there on the spine after they come down and flatten out at the

bottom like these do. Flat bottom, flat bottom, flat bottom here. Those sections. Even back

here that section would still follow to there, come out and meet that idea back here.

So that’s if there were little trim seams in that piece of chrome here.

But we’ll do that.

We can add some fins and other stuff later. We can add that trim idea later.

Okay, so now we’re starting to thicken the body. Come down as a shape here. We come down

like this and came down at the back so now we’re here. We’re back here.

We’re saying that that front meets right there and actually comes there. That’s really important to

identify the three places we’re going to start our curves from. I’m going to make

a rectangle from there, and also we’re going to come forward with our thicker body part

on the ground of this area here just to see if we can make another curve.

Start back in this back wall here, about right there.

The important thing is that this comes out and comes down and goes all the way and makes

a reference here. Then this also comes down to make a reference there. Now we’re really

dealing with this, and this is the doubled over rectangle now because we’ve got this

outside perimeter here now. Another thing I

could do, once I make my curve I could do the same thing as we did up there

for the bubble. I can come back now and say the body of the curve is coming from here

where the spine meets the floor. Make that equivalent projection at an angle for our

doubled over side there. That way when I get a crossing from my curve coming from here

and here, I try to mimic this in a slightly bigger way. We also have to do this seam as

well, by the way. I’m going to start getting mine working on the floor first to kind of

get a rationale of how it works. Then we’re going to raise it up. Whatever curve we get

on floor we’re going to kind of raise up like we did with objects when we had three

different levels a couple diagrams ago. We’re going to try and get that curve here from

that point, that point. I should actually make it clear that back here it’s there.

There it’s here. There it’s there. Then we’re dealing with that space, that space,

and that space as well on that level.

Okay, now I’ll make my curve. We can come around to the front a little bit like this.

Then we start curving away also. Go forward a little bit and start curving away. We’re

just trying to replicate the idea of that curve there.

Realistically if we wanted to we could extend the idea of that up here.

Then up to there.

Now to make it even I would say easiest thing to do here would be,

we have that to be dropped there. What I could do...

is reference a second line to there.

I’m just thinking the best way to do that—we recognize that this is here.

I’m going to drop that straight down to meet that blue.

Why don’t we do this? I’m going to mimic these little rectangles we made originally

in red so that we have the two sets for how to drop this and then thicken it down here.

What I’m trying to get to is the original drop of the bubble there

so that was originally right there.

So that front goes there.

I’m going to make a red version of that.

I’ll explain what I’m doing here in a second. Then we go back to the inside corner here.

That original rectangle dropped to here. The back wall there.

We also remember a drop there with a bubble coming back to here.

That dropped right there, right there on the inside there.

Coming forward. There we go. Inside. So what I’m creating this idea, this idea

like it was here, was up here coming down, like there coming out.

Okay, so new corner for the red, which represent what was happening here up in the blue area.

Then we put the diagonal back to here.

That little bit of difference will help us explain where these points stopped here.

If we remember, that one stopped right there. If we know that

reference was there we can drop it straight down. I’ll use my T-square. What I’m doing

is I’m replicating the original rotation of the bubble so that I can get a larger version

of it on the floor and make that thicker piece actually look more proper. I’m coming down

here. I’ve got it right there. There’s the original turn of that. If we come forward

from this reference point, from our right vanishing point, we can know make this. What

I’m doing is I’m trying to replicate that original curve and then see the larger one

as the body gets thicker. We can kind of replicate it. It will help us. I’m dropping to the

ground and saying, alright. The original curve was from there and drops straight down to

here, those parts here. It comes around here. We know it comes around like that. Comes around.

It goes straight up here for a little bit and then came around. We know it comes just

like that. Also, it comes around to here, straight through there. Straight through there

just like me made that curve up here. This was on the floor now.

Again, a lot like we did with those shapes where we made three different levels of them.

Just trying to figure out how a get a friendly way to say, alright, there’s that one. We

know that the bigger part of the body for here now back here to here and this front

taper to here now. We want to follow that basically and make it look fairly natural.

So what I’m doing here is pretty much following that one through and following that curve,

how we know it should fit out here. We’ve got this much difference in space. This much

back here. This much right here. If I’m just trying to follow that around like that.

That’s pretty much what I want. Nice and light. There we go. So that feels natural

for the body to follow that curve.

Remember, we’re not seeing this inner curve of the bubble and the real object be down

here. All we’re saying is that we’re seeing the outside curve. But I went ahead and referenced

down this inside curve for the bubble. I replicated that same situation on the floor so I could

get a natural curve of the inside of the bubble here and kind of get a silhouette of it down

where it would be on the floor so I could kind of get a natural place for this to cross

there. That looks pretty good. It comes back and meets that part there. There we go.

I’ll just take note and say, alright, with the original blue line that I took out this

time and doubled over, now I can go back to that and say, alright, if that crosses there

and looks pretty natural I’ll give myself a little bit of help and say, alright, I’ll

go across and hit my other side right there, over here, which is there. So that should

cross at the same point where that same turning body here of this right around there. That

would come out about that and start turning, so I’ll straighten here and start turning.

I come through here. That’s my angle there. That’s my angle turning there. Come out

gradually, connect up with that. This would shoot out to here, slowly turning out,

coming through there. That should do that.

We also can connect up there. That will help a lot.

One way we can do that is to simply reference back to this, so now what I want to do is

I want to take this natural curve that I did on the floor right here, pretty much right through there.

I’m going to bring it up to the level of where it needs to be right here again.

So just to be officially referencing with all this.

We’ll do it again and say, alright. Well, we know we have this point here, this point here, this point back here,

and the invisible part. We need that reference.

One way to get it would be to say if we know it’s here

I can go straight back from this point to my left vanishing point like here.

Let me make sure, let me get rid of that. Straight back from here. Be real accurate, back to

the left. Hit my back wall. Go straight up with my T-square.

Get this level here so I come up, that level right there.

If I come from that point there out to meet this plane.

Of course, we have to make this plane coming straight up like when we elevated those other

objects. There we go. Like that. I’ve made a plane, which I’ll point out in a second here.

Let me just get it back. There we go.

So I’ve just made a plane from here to here back up to here because of that level there

coming back. Why that level? Because that’s the height of this wrapping around. All these

point that out. That will really help me. Then I can also come back from this point

now. Go back to the wall right there to that mark.

Again, go straight up.

I have to go straight up from my original mark here on the floor. Meet that plane like this.

Now this, this, and that are all the ones where that curve hits for that widening piece,

which I’ll explain if it’s confusing.

This tapers and gets thicker here. We already know from the front profile that tapered there.

We already decided on the back that tapered there to get thicker to there, landing there

and going to the back. We had to find that we had this, this, and this. We needed to

find those by saying, well, I found them on the floor pretty comfortably with the help

of those blue diagonals. I’m just going to raise a plane back up to find them there.

Now we know I’m going to get a lead now from my perspective here.

Forward, forward, and then forward from here.

Now I know we’re coming by around here to meet that, so I make that real concrete.

We come straight from that, and then if we’re moving through here

it naturally would be moving in this same idea a little more.

Right through here. I’m just going to try to make that look natural.

AUTO SCROLL

There we go. Then we go from that piece of trim there. That would be our side angle trim,

same as that. Same as that. We have to connect up our other piece as well, which would be

right about there. That piece of trim connects back right down where it should. It looks

good. That’s the actual edge I’m getting from the shape, just like that is that edge.

This comes down but I’m going to have another shape here. That’s how that would come down

too. Now we have to figure out where we want this one coming around so that comes out straight.

It wants to meet up naturally with this one. Come around here like that.

That would be another seam line right about there.

Come around like that.

That angle would just be pretty straight on to us, pretty hard to see. We have that angle, that angle,

the back angle, this one again, that one. Then those drop in a reference there on the floor as well.

Here, here, here, and here. It’s just constantly thinking back is how I create that thing.

Okay, now I could have fins coming off that again. Even bigger. Let’s create a little

doorway thing here. We said in the original plan we might have something come like this,

double over. We could do that and just carve it out and say, well, this thing is coming

out fairly straight and then starting to turn here.

We can double that over.

Doubled over would be about here.

We could also pick a thickness on that. I’m just going back to

my left vanishing point here. Back to the left and just say, alright, if I had of thickness

of that, came down. I can just kind of draw it in and feel it out and say, alright, there’s

some weird opening. Also then that would shoot straight across.

Might also have that thickness of that opening, so I have that wraparound

or turnabout like that.

We could do that.

There’s some weird speaker there.

It’d be another opening through that.

I'll just leave it as this kind of weird metal lip possibly.

Maybe there’s some kind of speaker material inside.

I’ll just kind of draw vertical lines like that. That seam would kind of taper

out, but it’s following a slight curve so it’ll just taper out a little more like that.

Maybe it fins back. We could put a curve on that if we wanted to and meet the seam.

I’m just trying to think of a real skeletal idea here. What else could be happening? We’re

going to put some fins on we wanted to, which would be this coming off and going straight

down. This coming out to meet and angle. We could do that. We have these sections here.

We have landmark sections so we could put a couple fins in there.

So let's just draw one again.

It would be the idea of extending—again, they’d be all going to the center, which

is the spine hitting the floor now. Where that spine started here, remember, and it

goes all the way to the floor right here. If we had fins touching the floor they’d

be going back to that point kind of like how crenellations in a rook castle. When you shoot

the arrows through they all go to the center. I’ll also throw this out from this reference

point. This one is in the center. Throw it out from here. Of course, we know that goes

out. Alright, I’ll put the idea of, again, fins falling at another angle like this. They

have slight thickness like that going back to this. We can have one fall here. It’d

be close. The idea is we have to bring this idea forward again, this thickness again from

the left vanishing point on the floor, just as a reference. We have to increase that rectangle

size again like that. Again, this fin coming down at that approximate angle of that straight

down to here. We want to travel about that distance, just approximate it. Say alright.

That’s where it would start there. Go back up, basically, and come down like this. It

stops right on the roof of that space. It has a little thickness. It’s this weird

fin idea that would come out here. That would be the front of it, but we stopped for the

door. That doesn’t mean the footprint would still be about here. Now we’ve got that

thickness out of that. Then back here again we could estimate it quite easily and just

say, alright, it’s probably about that.

So I’m going to come forward from there just to get the outside of that rectangle

apart out here. Again, we could roughly sketch in this curve now and just kind of say the

fins basically meet here. We can turn round, follow that curve. Let me get a sharp pencil

here. There we go. Follow that curve like you do when you draw freehand, putting it

in really lightly. Go back there. Bring that around here. Alright, so we’re saying the

fin—that’s a little thick, so I’m going to take that one back again a little bit.

More like that. It turns around. Now, we’d have another fin coming out here, let’s

say. Can’t really see very well, but we’ll put some others in the middle. That would

be the actual thickness probably. Maybe it comes back a hair right here, goes straight

up vertically. Something like that. We’ll have one right back here in the middle. We

have to come here a little bit down to there. There’s that seam. We’ll say, alright,

back here about here on that curve. Let me get my kneaded eraser. There we go.

I’ll put another fin about there, let’s say. Same angle or something like that. Go

straight up and down here. Come out to there. Meet back up here. There’s the thickness

of the fin, something like that. It meets right there. One more about here. That drops

straight down again to there. It goes back to the middle seam there. Reference the middle.

The fin would come back up and meet this. We could give it some slight thickness. Just

kind of a meet-up idea. That fin is turning around there. Put one in the middle between

this, and it’d probably be about here. Come straight down. The fin would kick out the

reference in the middle back spine, come back in, hit about there. There’s that spine

coming up. Can see a tiny bit of thickness coming away but not much. There we go.

Then we’d have one more back here. We’d come straight across in a reference to our

right vanishing point. We wanted to all the way back over here, come out to be there and

start there. We can’t see that one. We can still imply what it is doing vertically then

coming back up like this. That would be a back fin because we just referenced it from

that. We could have referenced one from this, but we just kind of guesstimated. The idea

would be we could have come over straight over from this one if we know we’re accurate.

Come over to the vanishing point. We could have cranked that in a little bit. Come back

over here. Start at about right there a tiny bit over so it’ll be a slight bit over this way.

We’re just trying to get the basic feel of how that curve would go with that weird

door. Let’s darken it in now. We have our original bubble here. There’s our seam of

our bubble. We all have that piece of trim that came out again like this. It could have

sections and chrome in it or something like that. The idea is you’re just thinking of

the basic structure kind of like when we did that stadium shape, which the structure. I

have to make it nice. I like to make it nice and dark for the camera. There is that second

seam as this thing tapers out. Tapers out, tapers out, goes around. Got our back plane

we’ve been working with. Then that drops straight down. We made a footprint of that

after making a footprint of the inner seam of the bubble come to the floor. It helped

us to kind of figure out that curve. We have this weird kind of door opening. This could

be the inside of some kind of speaker surface. Who knows? It’s just some kind of weird

idea. The real bottom edge of this is here between the fins. We have the fins come up,

so I’m going to draw really thick on the outside of the fins. That’s the outside

of our shape. That’s the outside of our shape. This could be outside of the shape,

just being this weird round shape coming back here, coming back there for the back wall.

It might have some thickness on it a little bit. There’s a back shape there against

the wall outside of the bubble again. Outside a shape there, curves around, just a little

bit. The fin comes out here nice and dark. Comes back in. There’s that doorway we have

here. That comes in, bottom fin comes around. We move around to this. The fin, come back

to here. Right. Fin, super thick fin back in there.

So there’s the outside of our shape. We just used a whole bunch of referencing. Of

course, I’m drawing pretty dark so it’s seeable by the camera. When you’re referencing

you can use these little lines or tap away eraser lines and real obviously very thin,

but these are kind of overstating it. Then, you know, we could have, again, a stack of

records in here if we wanted to. We could just say, oh alright, that something was coming

out from the back wall. The basic idea. We could say what would be the height of little

45s or what they used to be. It doesn’t really matter what media they are. Let’s

make what we think is about a square. Go back to our other vanishing point. Just the make

the idea of a box. Put some ellipses in there if we want. Gives yourself some kind of sketch

lead. Where is the X of that box? It was there. Major axis would be a little in front of it.

Meeting about there for a minor coming through. We can just set one basically in here and

say, alright. Again, if this is our minor axis right here, you know, we can have our

major crossing right at 90 about there if you want to just talk about making your ellipses

like that, so a real 90 degrees.

Remember, alright, so we can contain that. We just kind

of wrap it in here. Have a whole bunch of records going on there.

Just keep going. Have a whole row. Just keep making your 90 crossings.

Endless roll of old records. We could put one right here, pulling across.

Put a weird disc there.

Little record arm coming across. Kind of weird turntable there.

The idea is you could just start sketching in whatever ideas you had if there were selection charts

up here or some writing in there on the back bubble wall for display.

Whatever you had could be rows of that.

All sorts of stuff.

So it’s just the idea of this weird jukebox shape. I just kind of winged it and made it

up for the sake of just playing with reference ideas. There is not just one way of doing

them again. It’s just the logic of all these little things. When I wanted to drop some

of the curvature to the ground I just used it to be helpful. So this one is a little

more winged, and there is a little more of me kind of talking to myself about what I

need to do for it. I kind of winged this shape. I didn’t really rehearse it much. It’s

just kind of like adding on and adding on. Again, we have this kind of weird, old-style

50’s callback to art deco from the 20’s and 30’s jukebox idea. I hope it’s been

helpful. Then we outlined the actual outside of the shape. We added these fins on. We had

this tapered to make the body thicker. The idea that it could still hold old records

or something in here or whatever. You could just play around with those any way you want.

That’s kind of the perspective sketch idea of you how you build that up from the back

wall. Remember, we started with this just standing rectangle. We definitely made a middle

seam. Then we built out the idea to the sides but we referenced this as we went because

we have to have certain points here referenced directly back to the back wall and come out

to the front and the back properly in order to reference.

So there’s that one, this odd jukebox shape.

Hopefully play it back because I’m being, I’m kind of thinking out loud there as we

go. I tried to put this one in closer so you could see it a little easier. And yeah, just

go through it until you get stuck and then rewind it and keep building, build your own

version. Add on different things than I am. It’s just the idea of referencing side-to-side

after you have kind of a middle plane idea. That way it’s easier. I’ll go ahead and

tone in these little ideas here. Here is that trim piece there. Separate fins.

There’s that weird part there, half of the fin going in the background. We had a couple lighter

ones here. Then go into the back there. Draw that last fin there.

Light one there.

There's that idea. Then we have piece of trim here which actually gets thicker

so I’ll go ahead and shade that in.

That continued coming back to basically there.

You got your bubble obviously, but that’s self-apparent.

Okay, on to the next.

same as that. Same as that. We have to connect up our other piece as well, which would be

right about there. That piece of trim connects back right down where it should. It looks

good. That’s the actual edge I’m getting from the shape, just like that is that edge.

This comes down but I’m going to have another shape here. That’s how that would come down

too. Now we have to figure out where we want this one coming around so that comes out straight.

It wants to meet up naturally with this one. Come around here like that.

That would be another seam line right about there.

Come around like that.

That angle would just be pretty straight on to us, pretty hard to see. We have that angle, that angle,

the back angle, this one again, that one. Then those drop in a reference there on the floor as well.

Here, here, here, and here. It’s just constantly thinking back is how I create that thing.

Okay, now I could have fins coming off that again. Even bigger. Let’s create a little

doorway thing here. We said in the original plan we might have something come like this,

double over. We could do that and just carve it out and say, well, this thing is coming

out fairly straight and then starting to turn here.

We can double that over.

Doubled over would be about here.

We could also pick a thickness on that. I’m just going back to

my left vanishing point here. Back to the left and just say, alright, if I had of thickness

of that, came down. I can just kind of draw it in and feel it out and say, alright, there’s

some weird opening. Also then that would shoot straight across.

Might also have that thickness of that opening, so I have that wraparound

or turnabout like that.

We could do that.

There’s some weird speaker there.

It’d be another opening through that.

I'll just leave it as this kind of weird metal lip possibly.

Maybe there’s some kind of speaker material inside.

I’ll just kind of draw vertical lines like that. That seam would kind of taper

out, but it’s following a slight curve so it’ll just taper out a little more like that.

Maybe it fins back. We could put a curve on that if we wanted to and meet the seam.

I’m just trying to think of a real skeletal idea here. What else could be happening? We’re

going to put some fins on we wanted to, which would be this coming off and going straight

down. This coming out to meet and angle. We could do that. We have these sections here.

We have landmark sections so we could put a couple fins in there.

So let's just draw one again.

It would be the idea of extending—again, they’d be all going to the center, which

is the spine hitting the floor now. Where that spine started here, remember, and it

goes all the way to the floor right here. If we had fins touching the floor they’d

be going back to that point kind of like how crenellations in a rook castle. When you shoot

the arrows through they all go to the center. I’ll also throw this out from this reference

point. This one is in the center. Throw it out from here. Of course, we know that goes

out. Alright, I’ll put the idea of, again, fins falling at another angle like this. They

have slight thickness like that going back to this. We can have one fall here. It’d

be close. The idea is we have to bring this idea forward again, this thickness again from

the left vanishing point on the floor, just as a reference. We have to increase that rectangle

size again like that. Again, this fin coming down at that approximate angle of that straight

down to here. We want to travel about that distance, just approximate it. Say alright.

That’s where it would start there. Go back up, basically, and come down like this. It

stops right on the roof of that space. It has a little thickness. It’s this weird

fin idea that would come out here. That would be the front of it, but we stopped for the

door. That doesn’t mean the footprint would still be about here. Now we’ve got that

thickness out of that. Then back here again we could estimate it quite easily and just

say, alright, it’s probably about that.

So I’m going to come forward from there just to get the outside of that rectangle

apart out here. Again, we could roughly sketch in this curve now and just kind of say the

fins basically meet here. We can turn round, follow that curve. Let me get a sharp pencil

here. There we go. Follow that curve like you do when you draw freehand, putting it

in really lightly. Go back there. Bring that around here. Alright, so we’re saying the

fin—that’s a little thick, so I’m going to take that one back again a little bit.

More like that. It turns around. Now, we’d have another fin coming out here, let’s

say. Can’t really see very well, but we’ll put some others in the middle. That would

be the actual thickness probably. Maybe it comes back a hair right here, goes straight

up vertically. Something like that. We’ll have one right back here in the middle. We

have to come here a little bit down to there. There’s that seam. We’ll say, alright,

back here about here on that curve. Let me get my kneaded eraser. There we go.

I’ll put another fin about there, let’s say. Same angle or something like that. Go

straight up and down here. Come out to there. Meet back up here. There’s the thickness

of the fin, something like that. It meets right there. One more about here. That drops

straight down again to there. It goes back to the middle seam there. Reference the middle.

The fin would come back up and meet this. We could give it some slight thickness. Just

kind of a meet-up idea. That fin is turning around there. Put one in the middle between

this, and it’d probably be about here. Come straight down. The fin would kick out the

reference in the middle back spine, come back in, hit about there. There’s that spine

coming up. Can see a tiny bit of thickness coming away but not much. There we go.

Then we’d have one more back here. We’d come straight across in a reference to our

right vanishing point. We wanted to all the way back over here, come out to be there and

start there. We can’t see that one. We can still imply what it is doing vertically then

coming back up like this. That would be a back fin because we just referenced it from

that. We could have referenced one from this, but we just kind of guesstimated. The idea

would be we could have come over straight over from this one if we know we’re accurate.

Come over to the vanishing point. We could have cranked that in a little bit. Come back

over here. Start at about right there a tiny bit over so it’ll be a slight bit over this way.

We’re just trying to get the basic feel of how that curve would go with that weird

door. Let’s darken it in now. We have our original bubble here. There’s our seam of

our bubble. We all have that piece of trim that came out again like this. It could have

sections and chrome in it or something like that. The idea is you’re just thinking of

the basic structure kind of like when we did that stadium shape, which the structure. I

have to make it nice. I like to make it nice and dark for the camera. There is that second

seam as this thing tapers out. Tapers out, tapers out, goes around. Got our back plane

we’ve been working with. Then that drops straight down. We made a footprint of that

after making a footprint of the inner seam of the bubble come to the floor. It helped

us to kind of figure out that curve. We have this weird kind of door opening. This could

be the inside of some kind of speaker surface. Who knows? It’s just some kind of weird

idea. The real bottom edge of this is here between the fins. We have the fins come up,

so I’m going to draw really thick on the outside of the fins. That’s the outside

of our shape. That’s the outside of our shape. This could be outside of the shape,

just being this weird round shape coming back here, coming back there for the back wall.

It might have some thickness on it a little bit. There’s a back shape there against

the wall outside of the bubble again. Outside a shape there, curves around, just a little

bit. The fin comes out here nice and dark. Comes back in. There’s that doorway we have

here. That comes in, bottom fin comes around. We move around to this. The fin, come back

to here. Right. Fin, super thick fin back in there.

So there’s the outside of our shape. We just used a whole bunch of referencing. Of

course, I’m drawing pretty dark so it’s seeable by the camera. When you’re referencing

you can use these little lines or tap away eraser lines and real obviously very thin,

but these are kind of overstating it. Then, you know, we could have, again, a stack of

records in here if we wanted to. We could just say, oh alright, that something was coming

out from the back wall. The basic idea. We could say what would be the height of little

45s or what they used to be. It doesn’t really matter what media they are. Let’s

make what we think is about a square. Go back to our other vanishing point. Just the make

the idea of a box. Put some ellipses in there if we want. Gives yourself some kind of sketch

lead. Where is the X of that box? It was there. Major axis would be a little in front of it.

Meeting about there for a minor coming through. We can just set one basically in here and

say, alright. Again, if this is our minor axis right here, you know, we can have our

major crossing right at 90 about there if you want to just talk about making your ellipses

like that, so a real 90 degrees.

Remember, alright, so we can contain that. We just kind

of wrap it in here. Have a whole bunch of records going on there.

Just keep going. Have a whole row. Just keep making your 90 crossings.

Endless roll of old records. We could put one right here, pulling across.

Put a weird disc there.

Little record arm coming across. Kind of weird turntable there.

The idea is you could just start sketching in whatever ideas you had if there were selection charts

up here or some writing in there on the back bubble wall for display.

Whatever you had could be rows of that.

All sorts of stuff.

So it’s just the idea of this weird jukebox shape. I just kind of winged it and made it

up for the sake of just playing with reference ideas. There is not just one way of doing

them again. It’s just the logic of all these little things. When I wanted to drop some

of the curvature to the ground I just used it to be helpful. So this one is a little

more winged, and there is a little more of me kind of talking to myself about what I

need to do for it. I kind of winged this shape. I didn’t really rehearse it much. It’s

just kind of like adding on and adding on. Again, we have this kind of weird, old-style

50’s callback to art deco from the 20’s and 30’s jukebox idea. I hope it’s been

helpful. Then we outlined the actual outside of the shape. We added these fins on. We had

this tapered to make the body thicker. The idea that it could still hold old records

or something in here or whatever. You could just play around with those any way you want.

That’s kind of the perspective sketch idea of you how you build that up from the back

wall. Remember, we started with this just standing rectangle. We definitely made a middle

seam. Then we built out the idea to the sides but we referenced this as we went because

we have to have certain points here referenced directly back to the back wall and come out

to the front and the back properly in order to reference.

So there’s that one, this odd jukebox shape.

Hopefully play it back because I’m being, I’m kind of thinking out loud there as we

go. I tried to put this one in closer so you could see it a little easier. And yeah, just

go through it until you get stuck and then rewind it and keep building, build your own

version. Add on different things than I am. It’s just the idea of referencing side-to-side

after you have kind of a middle plane idea. That way it’s easier. I’ll go ahead and

tone in these little ideas here. Here is that trim piece there. Separate fins.

There’s that weird part there, half of the fin going in the background. We had a couple lighter

ones here. Then go into the back there. Draw that last fin there.

Light one there.

There's that idea. Then we have piece of trim here which actually gets thicker

so I’ll go ahead and shade that in.

That continued coming back to basically there.

You got your bubble obviously, but that’s self-apparent.

Okay, on to the next.

AUTO SCROLL

Here we are back again. Now we’re going on to a ship that is above the horizon line.

We have a low horizon line in this case. And again it’s just going a little off camera

here. What we’ve done is I’ve drawn up the idea of a ship, just basically an organic

idea of this weird little shape. We’re going to start from a silhouette. This is, in fact,

just a middle plane in space of the exact center plane of the ship, just a flat little

thin idea. We have to bring it out towards us to the left and back to the, you know,

down to the right, up like this. We’re going to bring it out first, you know, to the upper

left and realize its dimensions in volume that way and go back in space.

We also have these ideas of how we can do propeller blades and kind of gauge the number

of blades quickly when we’re doing propeller blade ellipses or anything that has fan blades

and turbine blades, that kind of thing. How to gauge three blades easily. Four blades

is easier because it’s an even number. Five blades, six blades again quickly and evenly.

And again, eight blades to remind everybody why the X and the T together make the eight

blade. Seven blades is a little more difficult as far as you get so many little references

without anything even to refer to. I find it kind of almost pointless to show a little

method there. You can obviously take it out and, you know, divide 360 degrees by seven

and get each degree you want to meet the fan blade at or get used to that pattern. But

I’m just going to show the more convenient ways to do it here with some fan blades when

we get to it. This part here will be our propeller blade in our diagram when we actually get

volumetric perspective working from the center plane.

That’s all. So I have a general idea what my design is based on kind of an old fun design

I did awhile back. We’ll just kind of experience this as we go. Again, we’ll talk about intimate

side-to-side referencing. In this case too, in particular—I forgot to draw this little

door out. We’ll do this right now. We’re also going to show how two planes can intersect

each other with this referencing method or begin to understand how that works with this

little door here. A very simple introduction to it with this little door here and how the

wings kind of come in and meet into the center plane of this roundish shape. The idea is

we’re taking the idea of a wing and coming out with it but also referencing it properly

as it meets the surface of this kind of submarine round shape or half of this shape that will

come out like a submarine. That will be interesting to learn. We’ll go further with that after

this diagram. We’ll go into intersecting planes on their own. I wanted to make the

point here.

Again, we’re not really talking much about composition and picture making at this point

because we have to focus so much when we started with the archways all the way through intersecting

planes just on the idea how to reference all this stuff and try to figure out how to do

it. No one of these methods is an exact way to do things. We are basically feeling out

the idea of a center plane and basically then feeling out how we want our first half of

our objects to come out so we can double them over. That really is the point, obviously,

as we’ve been doing.

Later we’ll get to exact designs of a few things that are actually in plan from, you

know, above and a side view and front and back views as well with no perspective and

actually then convert those onto a perspective view on a grid. We’ll do that with objects

a little later on in plan view as well as whole environments. If we, let’s say, create

a dungeon or some simple scene and actually look at it as a design and having figures

moving around it and being able to move for different scenes and stuff like that. What

things stay the same, what are permanent. Those things are all coming up. Just as a

reminder we do want to just keep doing this until we get the referencing down. Since we’ve

been kind of the high eye-level lower object I just decided to reverse it in this case

to give it a little freshness here.

Again, I’m kind of making this up as I go. What I’m going to do now is I’m just going

to make some points here and draw out the first half of the ship as I see it in its

roundness. I’ll do a little bit of drafting, just kind of round it out like that as we

go.

Let’s start out with the main hull of the ship, let’s say, or the submarine shape.

What I’m going to do is I’m going to first say how do I want to give basic width now

to this main body of the ship. And so I’ll start up here with these points here. We’ll

always make it really clear that this is a straight up and down reference of a seam that

we’re going to actually round out because it’s going to come out in volume like a

lot of our other designs have started to do. I’ll start with that. Let’s come down

like that, and we’ll double that one over. We’re not going to double anything over.

Again, we could say why don’t you just draw it in and stop monkeying around with all these

references. I want these diagrams to be very clear about the method of how and why we can

reference. If you go on to a much more complex object and start getting lost it’s the method

at which we’re referencing strictly that helps you out. Even though in some cases with

these diagrams some things would be easy enough to just say, oh, oh, I’m good enough to

just freehand it in. The point of the diagrams have been to reference and clearly understand

how you create a doubled over reference from a center plane and to get depth to things

in different ways. It’s really the method we’re sticking to, and I just want to clarify

that. It’s not about this being an exact professional method. It’s about being a

concept in a diagram to understand that concept, and the diagrams building on each other to

understand these various referencing and doubling over space concepts, stuff like that.

So there’s that first seam that would be part of the thickness of the ship here. So

I’ll make that a little darker than our underwork there. Then we also have another

scene here which we can come out with. That will be a little deeper, let’s say.

Then again, it comes to a fairly sharp end here. Really the idea here is we’re not really

sure what this ship is for. It’s not for a particular purpose. I’m just saying it’s

the ship that I want. I’m going to have it a little deeper here, so I’m going to

sketch in where I kind of want it to peak here. Say okay, now, it’s going to get a

little thicker like this. Peak down and come back to the seam here. It’s going to grow

a little there from the other one. This other seam is going to get even fatter, so these

two seams are going to have the most volume. Let me try to figure out where I want those,

probably out there or something thick like that. Let’s try that, coming down, coming

way back. Here we go. And also make this one fairly thick. We’ll make it really robust

out here. Try to turn over. Curve around here, come back again. Just to make it nice and

dark and clear. Again, where the door is we’ll start tapering that in a little more. I’m

not being quite as thick. Figure that out about there.

Again, I’m drawing out the surfaces with seams that would be the actual dimension coming

out from the center plane. We haven’t gone back into the back half of the object yet.

We won’t until we have a pretty complete idea of what we want the front half to do.

To understand these it’s a little easier to make the ellipses because this is going

to be actually a rounded shaft here with the propeller. Otherwise, we’ll just kind of

double it out and talk about what it will look like. This will be about equivalent to

that. I’ll put about the same thickness onto there, roughly, about like that so it

should be fine right there. The last one here will be tapered and not quite so thick again.

Maybe coming back just to here. So I’ll do that. Let’s come back to there. We do

it a little bit faster like that. Alright, so there we have all our seams. Pretty much

this whole kind of banana shape down fin, this knife shape back here, down here. We’re

going to still see that as a center shape because our view isn’t obstructed by the

volume of the body coming forward nor the top that’s going to be pretty much straight.

I’ll go ahead and I’ll go darken that idea again in so we can start seeing the shape

more of what we intend. That will be something we can see the whole time. I’ll also darken

in this side again just to kind of make it clear and take our time.

Also, the top I’ll just go ahead and put it in. Go to my left vanishing point down

here below and also kind of the idea that this goes, follows the body in like this.

Then we do have this center wing that’s different. That’s a different idea. We have

to decide what we want to do with that. The back wing and of course we have the main wing

and this weird little body thing we’re going to do here. These are all points meeting here.

I’ll put those points in like that so we understand what we’re doing. These are also

points of meeting. We’ll do that top shape first. Say, okay, what is that thing going

to be? How wide is it going to be? This, again, is only weird shape of the exact thin center

plane. It has no thickness yet. We just added half of our thickness to kind of our submarine

body thing of this weird little flying ship.

What I’ll do is I’ll go to my right vanishing point and describe the fact that these come

out in width. Obviously, our width basically of our vehicle here is being described by

going back and forth to the right vanishing point down here over here. Let’s go ahead

and just draw lines in that would kind of lead that idea out back and forth, coming

back and forth from the center towards us and away from us. Just the idea of what those

leads would like if it was kind of squared off. We’ll explain that in a second. I don’t

think this is going to be that wide. I just want to draw the idea of it to the vanishing

point here to the right so we can get an idea of where our leads would be if that was a

fairly straight object. We’ll see what we want to do with it.

We’ll just have different types of shapes here. Then I have that back seam kind of meeting

here also. I’m not sure how thick I want it to be. If I decide I might want this neck

idea to taper. I’m not sure what I want it to do yet. Let’s say I want this to be

pretty solid and consistent. Then I guess I would I can just basically say I want it

that wide there. What does that mean? Well, that means I can come out this wide and make

that my bottom plane here. That meets here so that’s half that thickness. We can always

double over later. There’s the center seam there. We can decide if we want this neck

shape to be repeated or actually taper in toward a place here. We’d have to decide,

alright, how are we fitting that on? How thick is that going to be? Is that going to come

out? Or is it going to taper onto a part that comes a little further down on the submarine

shape? We’ll have to figure that out later as well.

I’m going to take this same tapered idea and kind of bring it up here just basically

and say that’s about there. Again, it’s going to double over it we want, so we can

always take this rectangle and double it over. We’re just trying to figure out how it comes

out. Then that is going to go to kind of an auxiliary and say it’s not quite parallel.

It tapers a little bit, so we’re going to bring that up to here, basically find it there

and also find that this will be a tiny bit smaller than that, but that’s about what

we’re dealing with there. Now we can keep referencing or we can just kind of wing it

by hand if we want. Or we can just make another joint here and say along the middle of this

curve somewhere where it really turns we could put another idea from the center.

Remember, this line here is still the center seam of this original one. Center seam. If

you want to different colors we can start that. I wanted to kind of start just doing

it as a drawing. We can put a light idea of the center seam here and go, oh that’s right.

This width here basically carried up. Well, if I know that’s consistently looking pretty

good I’ll go ahead and bring that up and just sketch it in and say, alright. I mean

if I don’t have to reference the whole thing but I can pretty much say that looks pretty

good. We can double it over later and get the proper diminished thickness to the other

side. I’ll just leave that like that and say, alright, there we go.

We can say that’s that part.

Now this is our outside shape here.

Remember, this is not the whole shape. We are only doing the front half and then that’s

our center plane. It has to be doubled over. We can tone it in but I’m only going to

draw thickly for what eventually turns out to be our exterior, which is that and this

line. I’ll come down and even make that a little thicker and darker. Then this will

start doubling over here and coming back here. But that’s inside our wing. In the end if

our wing is coming up from here I’ll just keep these ideas lighter here. That’s not

confusing there. This will be thick to about up there. There’s that shape. That’s half

of that shape. Now you can say can’t we just double it over now, or do we want to

take out half of this. We could double it over so if you want, let’s do it maybe with

a little red. We can just make up a reason to X it over. It’s pretty simple but we’ll

do it anyway. We can make that our X plane. Just the idea. Go ahead and X it through.

We don’t have to be accurate here. There we go. You know, just the whole idea of simply

saying, well, take that middle plane and take it to our right vanishing point, lower vanishing

point. Drive it through and say okay. There’s our reference point. We take a real corner

there. Drive it through. Get half of that basically there.

Go to my left vanishing point now and draw the idea of that second slightly smaller part.

That would be the bottom right there. We are going into the wing here, so I’m going to

hold off on that, taper it off. We’re going to make these lines nice and thick before

we start anything else. But we’re going to do most of the body first. Now, we’ve

just got that doubled over body. That part would be pretty thick here. Now we understand

that if we want to do it here we could. The idea we can just kind of draw it up and say,

well, it goes up a little bit. That’s pretty accurate. Again, if you need help you could

double that over by creating a little rectangle plane or whatever you needed to do between

them. But, you know, what’s the point, really? You could actually create a little rectangle

here. Double that over and get it. But if it’s that close we can fake that pretty

well. There’s that part there.

Again, this will all be behind a big massive wing coming out, so I’ll hold off on that.

But at least we have the thickness now of that simple shape. No big deal. Maybe we’ll

have something on the side like a vent or something we could put on here. That would

be vertical down, maybe meeting and coming down like this and then coming out again as

a vent. We could do that later. The idea of having thickness like this.

Then it’s going to go behind the wing anyway. I’ll kind of hold off on that, just the idea that this

could be a certain thickness there. Go back into that kind of space there. Who knows?

We’ve got the basic body of the submarine shape. We could come down and now try this.

We have to square that off because if we’re dealing with ellipses, that’s going to actually

be a square in perspective so that we set an ellipse inside of it or just take note

of how it looks when it’s kind of squared off.

The idea of the propeller coming through is different because the center of this thing

is not necessarily the same as the propeller. What we could do is we could say, well, if

that’s the case how to ensure this center point is the center of the propeller but a

little off on that. That turbine might be something that turns, you know, just in here

a little short of it, and then is left with this larger shell. We could do either. Let’s

turn that in and say, alright, where are the sides of that coming from?

Again, if we take the idea of this vanishing point we can start getting the idea of that

ellipse down there, also from the one back here. Just the idea of how round it would be.

Again, the reason we’re doing this is to get the ideas right of where we’re going

with them. Same with this little back part. We could have that common reference too. Remember

we’re starting from the center plane, so it’s just the weird idea of how do we get

a square now. We’ll hold off on this seam after we get the square of this. What we’re

doing is we’re saying there’s the center seam front, and we’re creating what we think

is a decent standing square in perspective. We think the first half is this and feel out

the second half, what’s a real standing square? Is that good enough? Along with a

little less, and I’ll try to just sketch it in and say, alright, is that pretty good.

Yeah. That could be standing square or an ellipse. It comes to about here, I think.

It’s realistic for that and maybe a little more foreshortened. I’ll say there.

So what I’ll do in blue is I’ll bring that one down just as a guess. Then we’ll

show the kind of square we’re creating and double it over for the idea of the ellipse

of that part of the engine. That’s touching there and basically there. We have to imagine

that this square starts here and comes through here. Then we’re going to have to draw the

ellipse and connect up the side. We’ll just do that in blue. It’s just the idea of what

the ellipse fits into. If I want to I can take this and double it over. Then we have

to remember how our major and minor axis works. We can do that. Take that. Double that over

from the top corner if we want, like this. Drive that to there. Make sure that’s accurate.

Create the reference point. Come down. The center so I was about right.

Looks like it was about there. I’ll make the back half of that.

We know this is the perspective center.

So if we know that that’s the perspective a little bit in front of that will be the

major. The minor is coming through this way so we know that. I’m going to go back to

my left and say oh that’s right; there’s the little minor. Then the major is truly

90 degrees to that. I’ll make my best guess at 90 degrees, something like this, being

a little forward. There’s the major for that one. Then again, we’ll just feel it

out now and say, well, we know that it’s touching here and touching back there. That’s

the front and back wall. We know it’s touching here as well like we’re used to.

We’ll go ahead and just draw it up and see what we think. Alright, like that. Draw there.

Start coming up there. Going back. Just kind of feeling out what we’re doing here.

There's the front of that, a little shorter than that, I think, so I’ll put it that way. This part

here would come to the outside. That would be the true top of this now. I’m just trying

to show what we’re doing here. The major is a little bit in front of that with our

blue we’re coming around. We’re making that total sweep, trying to make it even down

here. There we go. Then we’re going to go back here straight to the seams.

Then we’re going to taper a bit to here. You can see this. We’ll make that other ellipse through

this seam there, just trying to make that thicker. We’ll make the idea of the propeller

either coming—we’re going to make the propeller a circle within this that’s offset

just to make it interesting in the turbine, and then make the propeller out here. I’ll

go ahead and lighten that up and see if we can make this turbine kind of come out in

a weird way. That’s different. I might go ahead and center the propeller here. I’m

not sure what I want to do. Here we go again. We’ll make a little box here for the back

and say, okay, make it in blue and say if that back end like this wants to be a little

square is that about right. Be a little wider. We can just guess and say, alright, good enough.

If that’s the case we know the square the ellipse fits into is about there, a little

space for the back space. We’ll just do that. The idea of that center is about there.

I want it there to that shaft, so that’s a little higher-set ellipse, so I’ll say

the center is here. I’ll have the major coming a little front in perspective. Obviously,

in perspective space a little smaller this way. I’m going to bring it up, cross it

at 90 so that’s our little bit of our minor. Just want to point that out. And you’re

thinking in terms of that being the major.

We’ll go ahead and put that one in. Just kind of put a simple ellipse in there.

So now we have that. We have a little bit of extra tail part that comes out, tapers

down like that. That will be the end of our shape coming back to here and then tapering

that way. We could still say this seam here wants to mimic that. I’m just going to try

to make the best kind of doubled over idea that I can here, slightly smaller seam like that.

Make a very thin show of this if we want. The propeller will be in front of it,

but we could still draw out the idea.

I already have that kind of idea in that one.

We have a low horizon line in this case. And again it’s just going a little off camera

here. What we’ve done is I’ve drawn up the idea of a ship, just basically an organic

idea of this weird little shape. We’re going to start from a silhouette. This is, in fact,

just a middle plane in space of the exact center plane of the ship, just a flat little

thin idea. We have to bring it out towards us to the left and back to the, you know,

down to the right, up like this. We’re going to bring it out first, you know, to the upper

left and realize its dimensions in volume that way and go back in space.

We also have these ideas of how we can do propeller blades and kind of gauge the number

of blades quickly when we’re doing propeller blade ellipses or anything that has fan blades

and turbine blades, that kind of thing. How to gauge three blades easily. Four blades

is easier because it’s an even number. Five blades, six blades again quickly and evenly.

And again, eight blades to remind everybody why the X and the T together make the eight

blade. Seven blades is a little more difficult as far as you get so many little references

without anything even to refer to. I find it kind of almost pointless to show a little

method there. You can obviously take it out and, you know, divide 360 degrees by seven

and get each degree you want to meet the fan blade at or get used to that pattern. But

I’m just going to show the more convenient ways to do it here with some fan blades when

we get to it. This part here will be our propeller blade in our diagram when we actually get

volumetric perspective working from the center plane.

That’s all. So I have a general idea what my design is based on kind of an old fun design

I did awhile back. We’ll just kind of experience this as we go. Again, we’ll talk about intimate

side-to-side referencing. In this case too, in particular—I forgot to draw this little

door out. We’ll do this right now. We’re also going to show how two planes can intersect

each other with this referencing method or begin to understand how that works with this

little door here. A very simple introduction to it with this little door here and how the

wings kind of come in and meet into the center plane of this roundish shape. The idea is

we’re taking the idea of a wing and coming out with it but also referencing it properly

as it meets the surface of this kind of submarine round shape or half of this shape that will

come out like a submarine. That will be interesting to learn. We’ll go further with that after

this diagram. We’ll go into intersecting planes on their own. I wanted to make the

point here.

Again, we’re not really talking much about composition and picture making at this point

because we have to focus so much when we started with the archways all the way through intersecting

planes just on the idea how to reference all this stuff and try to figure out how to do

it. No one of these methods is an exact way to do things. We are basically feeling out

the idea of a center plane and basically then feeling out how we want our first half of

our objects to come out so we can double them over. That really is the point, obviously,

as we’ve been doing.

Later we’ll get to exact designs of a few things that are actually in plan from, you

know, above and a side view and front and back views as well with no perspective and

actually then convert those onto a perspective view on a grid. We’ll do that with objects

a little later on in plan view as well as whole environments. If we, let’s say, create

a dungeon or some simple scene and actually look at it as a design and having figures

moving around it and being able to move for different scenes and stuff like that. What

things stay the same, what are permanent. Those things are all coming up. Just as a

reminder we do want to just keep doing this until we get the referencing down. Since we’ve

been kind of the high eye-level lower object I just decided to reverse it in this case

to give it a little freshness here.

Again, I’m kind of making this up as I go. What I’m going to do now is I’m just going

to make some points here and draw out the first half of the ship as I see it in its

roundness. I’ll do a little bit of drafting, just kind of round it out like that as we

go.

Let’s start out with the main hull of the ship, let’s say, or the submarine shape.

What I’m going to do is I’m going to first say how do I want to give basic width now

to this main body of the ship. And so I’ll start up here with these points here. We’ll

always make it really clear that this is a straight up and down reference of a seam that

we’re going to actually round out because it’s going to come out in volume like a

lot of our other designs have started to do. I’ll start with that. Let’s come down

like that, and we’ll double that one over. We’re not going to double anything over.

Again, we could say why don’t you just draw it in and stop monkeying around with all these

references. I want these diagrams to be very clear about the method of how and why we can

reference. If you go on to a much more complex object and start getting lost it’s the method

at which we’re referencing strictly that helps you out. Even though in some cases with

these diagrams some things would be easy enough to just say, oh, oh, I’m good enough to

just freehand it in. The point of the diagrams have been to reference and clearly understand

how you create a doubled over reference from a center plane and to get depth to things

in different ways. It’s really the method we’re sticking to, and I just want to clarify

that. It’s not about this being an exact professional method. It’s about being a

concept in a diagram to understand that concept, and the diagrams building on each other to

understand these various referencing and doubling over space concepts, stuff like that.

So there’s that first seam that would be part of the thickness of the ship here. So

I’ll make that a little darker than our underwork there. Then we also have another

scene here which we can come out with. That will be a little deeper, let’s say.

Then again, it comes to a fairly sharp end here. Really the idea here is we’re not really

sure what this ship is for. It’s not for a particular purpose. I’m just saying it’s

the ship that I want. I’m going to have it a little deeper here, so I’m going to

sketch in where I kind of want it to peak here. Say okay, now, it’s going to get a

little thicker like this. Peak down and come back to the seam here. It’s going to grow

a little there from the other one. This other seam is going to get even fatter, so these

two seams are going to have the most volume. Let me try to figure out where I want those,

probably out there or something thick like that. Let’s try that, coming down, coming

way back. Here we go. And also make this one fairly thick. We’ll make it really robust

out here. Try to turn over. Curve around here, come back again. Just to make it nice and

dark and clear. Again, where the door is we’ll start tapering that in a little more. I’m

not being quite as thick. Figure that out about there.

Again, I’m drawing out the surfaces with seams that would be the actual dimension coming

out from the center plane. We haven’t gone back into the back half of the object yet.

We won’t until we have a pretty complete idea of what we want the front half to do.

To understand these it’s a little easier to make the ellipses because this is going

to be actually a rounded shaft here with the propeller. Otherwise, we’ll just kind of

double it out and talk about what it will look like. This will be about equivalent to

that. I’ll put about the same thickness onto there, roughly, about like that so it

should be fine right there. The last one here will be tapered and not quite so thick again.

Maybe coming back just to here. So I’ll do that. Let’s come back to there. We do

it a little bit faster like that. Alright, so there we have all our seams. Pretty much

this whole kind of banana shape down fin, this knife shape back here, down here. We’re

going to still see that as a center shape because our view isn’t obstructed by the

volume of the body coming forward nor the top that’s going to be pretty much straight.

I’ll go ahead and I’ll go darken that idea again in so we can start seeing the shape

more of what we intend. That will be something we can see the whole time. I’ll also darken

in this side again just to kind of make it clear and take our time.

Also, the top I’ll just go ahead and put it in. Go to my left vanishing point down

here below and also kind of the idea that this goes, follows the body in like this.

Then we do have this center wing that’s different. That’s a different idea. We have

to decide what we want to do with that. The back wing and of course we have the main wing

and this weird little body thing we’re going to do here. These are all points meeting here.

I’ll put those points in like that so we understand what we’re doing. These are also

points of meeting. We’ll do that top shape first. Say, okay, what is that thing going

to be? How wide is it going to be? This, again, is only weird shape of the exact thin center

plane. It has no thickness yet. We just added half of our thickness to kind of our submarine

body thing of this weird little flying ship.

What I’ll do is I’ll go to my right vanishing point and describe the fact that these come

out in width. Obviously, our width basically of our vehicle here is being described by

going back and forth to the right vanishing point down here over here. Let’s go ahead

and just draw lines in that would kind of lead that idea out back and forth, coming

back and forth from the center towards us and away from us. Just the idea of what those

leads would like if it was kind of squared off. We’ll explain that in a second. I don’t

think this is going to be that wide. I just want to draw the idea of it to the vanishing

point here to the right so we can get an idea of where our leads would be if that was a

fairly straight object. We’ll see what we want to do with it.

We’ll just have different types of shapes here. Then I have that back seam kind of meeting

here also. I’m not sure how thick I want it to be. If I decide I might want this neck

idea to taper. I’m not sure what I want it to do yet. Let’s say I want this to be

pretty solid and consistent. Then I guess I would I can just basically say I want it

that wide there. What does that mean? Well, that means I can come out this wide and make

that my bottom plane here. That meets here so that’s half that thickness. We can always

double over later. There’s the center seam there. We can decide if we want this neck

shape to be repeated or actually taper in toward a place here. We’d have to decide,

alright, how are we fitting that on? How thick is that going to be? Is that going to come

out? Or is it going to taper onto a part that comes a little further down on the submarine

shape? We’ll have to figure that out later as well.

I’m going to take this same tapered idea and kind of bring it up here just basically

and say that’s about there. Again, it’s going to double over it we want, so we can

always take this rectangle and double it over. We’re just trying to figure out how it comes

out. Then that is going to go to kind of an auxiliary and say it’s not quite parallel.

It tapers a little bit, so we’re going to bring that up to here, basically find it there

and also find that this will be a tiny bit smaller than that, but that’s about what

we’re dealing with there. Now we can keep referencing or we can just kind of wing it

by hand if we want. Or we can just make another joint here and say along the middle of this

curve somewhere where it really turns we could put another idea from the center.

Remember, this line here is still the center seam of this original one. Center seam. If

you want to different colors we can start that. I wanted to kind of start just doing

it as a drawing. We can put a light idea of the center seam here and go, oh that’s right.

This width here basically carried up. Well, if I know that’s consistently looking pretty

good I’ll go ahead and bring that up and just sketch it in and say, alright. I mean

if I don’t have to reference the whole thing but I can pretty much say that looks pretty

good. We can double it over later and get the proper diminished thickness to the other

side. I’ll just leave that like that and say, alright, there we go.

We can say that’s that part.

Now this is our outside shape here.

Remember, this is not the whole shape. We are only doing the front half and then that’s

our center plane. It has to be doubled over. We can tone it in but I’m only going to

draw thickly for what eventually turns out to be our exterior, which is that and this

line. I’ll come down and even make that a little thicker and darker. Then this will

start doubling over here and coming back here. But that’s inside our wing. In the end if

our wing is coming up from here I’ll just keep these ideas lighter here. That’s not

confusing there. This will be thick to about up there. There’s that shape. That’s half

of that shape. Now you can say can’t we just double it over now, or do we want to

take out half of this. We could double it over so if you want, let’s do it maybe with

a little red. We can just make up a reason to X it over. It’s pretty simple but we’ll

do it anyway. We can make that our X plane. Just the idea. Go ahead and X it through.

We don’t have to be accurate here. There we go. You know, just the whole idea of simply

saying, well, take that middle plane and take it to our right vanishing point, lower vanishing

point. Drive it through and say okay. There’s our reference point. We take a real corner

there. Drive it through. Get half of that basically there.

Go to my left vanishing point now and draw the idea of that second slightly smaller part.

That would be the bottom right there. We are going into the wing here, so I’m going to

hold off on that, taper it off. We’re going to make these lines nice and thick before

we start anything else. But we’re going to do most of the body first. Now, we’ve

just got that doubled over body. That part would be pretty thick here. Now we understand

that if we want to do it here we could. The idea we can just kind of draw it up and say,

well, it goes up a little bit. That’s pretty accurate. Again, if you need help you could

double that over by creating a little rectangle plane or whatever you needed to do between

them. But, you know, what’s the point, really? You could actually create a little rectangle

here. Double that over and get it. But if it’s that close we can fake that pretty

well. There’s that part there.

Again, this will all be behind a big massive wing coming out, so I’ll hold off on that.

But at least we have the thickness now of that simple shape. No big deal. Maybe we’ll

have something on the side like a vent or something we could put on here. That would

be vertical down, maybe meeting and coming down like this and then coming out again as

a vent. We could do that later. The idea of having thickness like this.

Then it’s going to go behind the wing anyway. I’ll kind of hold off on that, just the idea that this

could be a certain thickness there. Go back into that kind of space there. Who knows?

We’ve got the basic body of the submarine shape. We could come down and now try this.

We have to square that off because if we’re dealing with ellipses, that’s going to actually

be a square in perspective so that we set an ellipse inside of it or just take note

of how it looks when it’s kind of squared off.

The idea of the propeller coming through is different because the center of this thing

is not necessarily the same as the propeller. What we could do is we could say, well, if

that’s the case how to ensure this center point is the center of the propeller but a

little off on that. That turbine might be something that turns, you know, just in here

a little short of it, and then is left with this larger shell. We could do either. Let’s

turn that in and say, alright, where are the sides of that coming from?

Again, if we take the idea of this vanishing point we can start getting the idea of that

ellipse down there, also from the one back here. Just the idea of how round it would be.

Again, the reason we’re doing this is to get the ideas right of where we’re going

with them. Same with this little back part. We could have that common reference too. Remember

we’re starting from the center plane, so it’s just the weird idea of how do we get

a square now. We’ll hold off on this seam after we get the square of this. What we’re

doing is we’re saying there’s the center seam front, and we’re creating what we think

is a decent standing square in perspective. We think the first half is this and feel out

the second half, what’s a real standing square? Is that good enough? Along with a

little less, and I’ll try to just sketch it in and say, alright, is that pretty good.

Yeah. That could be standing square or an ellipse. It comes to about here, I think.

It’s realistic for that and maybe a little more foreshortened. I’ll say there.

So what I’ll do in blue is I’ll bring that one down just as a guess. Then we’ll

show the kind of square we’re creating and double it over for the idea of the ellipse

of that part of the engine. That’s touching there and basically there. We have to imagine

that this square starts here and comes through here. Then we’re going to have to draw the

ellipse and connect up the side. We’ll just do that in blue. It’s just the idea of what

the ellipse fits into. If I want to I can take this and double it over. Then we have

to remember how our major and minor axis works. We can do that. Take that. Double that over

from the top corner if we want, like this. Drive that to there. Make sure that’s accurate.

Create the reference point. Come down. The center so I was about right.

Looks like it was about there. I’ll make the back half of that.

We know this is the perspective center.

So if we know that that’s the perspective a little bit in front of that will be the

major. The minor is coming through this way so we know that. I’m going to go back to

my left and say oh that’s right; there’s the little minor. Then the major is truly

90 degrees to that. I’ll make my best guess at 90 degrees, something like this, being

a little forward. There’s the major for that one. Then again, we’ll just feel it

out now and say, well, we know that it’s touching here and touching back there. That’s

the front and back wall. We know it’s touching here as well like we’re used to.

We’ll go ahead and just draw it up and see what we think. Alright, like that. Draw there.

Start coming up there. Going back. Just kind of feeling out what we’re doing here.

There's the front of that, a little shorter than that, I think, so I’ll put it that way. This part

here would come to the outside. That would be the true top of this now. I’m just trying

to show what we’re doing here. The major is a little bit in front of that with our

blue we’re coming around. We’re making that total sweep, trying to make it even down

here. There we go. Then we’re going to go back here straight to the seams.

Then we’re going to taper a bit to here. You can see this. We’ll make that other ellipse through

this seam there, just trying to make that thicker. We’ll make the idea of the propeller

either coming—we’re going to make the propeller a circle within this that’s offset

just to make it interesting in the turbine, and then make the propeller out here. I’ll

go ahead and lighten that up and see if we can make this turbine kind of come out in

a weird way. That’s different. I might go ahead and center the propeller here. I’m

not sure what I want to do. Here we go again. We’ll make a little box here for the back

and say, okay, make it in blue and say if that back end like this wants to be a little

square is that about right. Be a little wider. We can just guess and say, alright, good enough.

If that’s the case we know the square the ellipse fits into is about there, a little

space for the back space. We’ll just do that. The idea of that center is about there.

I want it there to that shaft, so that’s a little higher-set ellipse, so I’ll say

the center is here. I’ll have the major coming a little front in perspective. Obviously,

in perspective space a little smaller this way. I’m going to bring it up, cross it

at 90 so that’s our little bit of our minor. Just want to point that out. And you’re

thinking in terms of that being the major.

We’ll go ahead and put that one in. Just kind of put a simple ellipse in there.

So now we have that. We have a little bit of extra tail part that comes out, tapers

down like that. That will be the end of our shape coming back to here and then tapering

that way. We could still say this seam here wants to mimic that. I’m just going to try

to make the best kind of doubled over idea that I can here, slightly smaller seam like that.

Make a very thin show of this if we want. The propeller will be in front of it,

but we could still draw out the idea.

I already have that kind of idea in that one.

AUTO SCROLL

Now this is the idea of these out here, and we don’t know how far out we want it on

there. Here’s how we make that. This is on the center seam so we have to kick it as

far out as we did here from our center. If we know that was our center seam right there,

how far out did we kick this. There to that line. So in a sense we can do the same thing

here. We can say if we took this all the way to the center line and kicked it out that

far to the other vanishing point. We came back. It’s basically where it starts.

We're making a little reference trail so it’s there. That leg would basically start out

there. The whole thing would be referenced forward. So it just made a reference plane

of taking this point and saying, well, if it comes forward to here, up, out to there,

we could say that that is basically this point starting here.

We could also say if that’s the center here,

that is starting a bit out from that, just as an idea. Catch this.

How far out? You could say, oh, about there. It’s coming down. It’s about out here.

We can mimic that idea and just kind of draw the shape out and mimic it. You’re just

referencing basically forward on this idea,

about that much, about that much.

We can draw that idea here out.

It’ll be our actual turn.

So that’s where that little leg would start there on the back and kind f kick out.

Then we could have it start flat right there.

Go back to the left vanishing point down here. Trails away. Again, like

we did in the blue. All we did was say how, if we take it from the center seam where that

original plane was, how do we make a plane forward, come back and over between it. We’ve

made a little plane here to bring the idea of that out to about here. That point comes

out to there, so I’m just kind of mimicking the shape, referencing. Even in a freehand

manner where that would come out there. Finishing off the shape out here as it’s kicked out.

Then we kick out the other way, doubled over in the other way too. We’ll do that when

we double it over. I’m just trying to get a little bit more hands-on idea here but also

using some referencing when we are doubling. That comes out there. So we just basically

eyeballed the fact that this thickness came out at every point here to realize the actual

little landing thing in perspective. Dropping down and coming forward from this. So it does

kick out a little bit, but it’s basically coming from this area of that shaft flushing,

going back there flush and back. Just with this much depth to the center. So this is

the travel from that prong to the idea of the center prong sitting on that center plane

that we began everything with.

So what else? We have our propeller we could realize. We could bring our wings forward.

We can bring our shapes forward like this doorway back here has to be brought forward

to its counterpoint ideas here, which we can do with just basic corners. If we want we

can take the idea of these points here and bring them forward. We’re going to do that

as well as our wings. Yeah, so let’s do those first. Then we’ll come back to our

propeller because then I’ll know where our propeller exists. I’ll lighten this stuff

up and then start drawing in the idea of how many blades we decided to put in after we

review this. Since we’re going to do that near the end why don’t we pretty much drop

the whole ship along with this shaft and this little idea of the center point either being

up—or I could lower it. I just want to do this kind of weird center shaft based on this

coming forward and being a smaller one in there, which I think I’ll still do. Then

the propeller will be a good deal larger, but that will be the last thing we do.

So let’s go ahead and bring some of the wings out, stuff like that. We’ll finish

that mark up there. Okay, I decided one wing will do this and be about this long. We just

decide how far we want to come out with a wing like this. Come over. I’m extending

out from this point right here. Front of the wing, back of the wing.

We can make some reference points.

It’s about right, maybe about that far is fine.

A little farther. That'll be straight as well, just as an idea.

Alright, so that’s that wing. I’m going to say, how does it taper up here? Then it’s

going to come back and meet this shape there. So I will kind of shoot it out straight for

a little bit from my right vanishing point from the back of the wing here just for a

little bit, like maybe that far. Then I’ll turn, taper to meet this, something like that.

Okay, so we’ll double that idea over.

I have to figure out how thick or thin this is going to get.

We know it’s this thick here, so we’re going to draw that in.

We have to bring that forward to see where that meets the body. So that’s from the center

point obviously. We have to see where that meets that.

We’re going to put some seams on the wing too.

on the wing too. We’ll do the center seams and get the thickness. Just as this is the

center seam right here, on the flat part where we started our whole silhouette of the flat

part we have to also decide is there a couple of other seams I want in here that might represent it.

We’ll put one down somewhere around here.

And probably one here. One more up here.

Something like that just for that heck of it. Show some thickness to that wing. We already

have the thickness here. Imagine there and we have to bring it forward to meet the body

before we do anything else. We want to see how thick that intersects with the idea of this.

With our red we can say need a reference right here to go straight up because remember this shape

is the flat silhouette of our original piece. We need to know how forward we’re going

to come from here. What we know is this seam is represented here. If we know the wings

cross here and here we know that that space is brought forward from the right vanishing

point here, forward until it hits those seams. We’re going to do that. That’s how we’re

going to start this idea of intersecting planes, the idea of the wing intersecting the submarine

body shape. They come and meet it there. This is in blue. This is the point where these are here.

And the idea of this shape, the end of the wing coming down here will be coming

up here. We’re saying oh that’s right, we want the body to mimic what it’s doing

here, basically. It’s kind of doing this. So in a sense we have to then bring this idea

up to meet that. I’ll explain that in a second. I created another seam here. We had

one for the door so I wanted to create a little fatter one here to bring this point up. So

there’s where the wing would start right there from the flap.

So this original wing in pencil was the flat one and then bringing it forward to meet the

seams. I had to go reference the top and bring a similar seam down and do that. That little

space becomes how I find where this point of the wing of the very tip starts out here.

It can come forward right there.

That starts there.

I’ll also then take the other seams. These points would meet this seam here just to show

you coming forward in space to reference forward there.

This seam again, of course, would be meeting its counter seam up here.

The wing actually starts right there.

To have this wing that we’re starting to see has, well,

at least at this part of the wing coming in,

meeting at that center plane had this exact thickness and shape. If we extend that straight

out then we’ll extend those a little further then we will get a particular seam. Let’s

do the seam together here. I’m just trying to show you the logic of how the rest come out here.

I’ll draw the seam in red at first. So this now is here. This original wing shape

coming out from the center plane comes out this far to here to start the wing, and also

this seam shape here hit by the original straight seam out its real volumetric seam is met here.

That’s the second shape. One, two. Also, this seam here met by its volumetric counterpart

here. Again, this end of the wing here meaning out there would be there. So there it is.

So we’ll be connecting those ideas right there. I’m going to come basically through

here. Let’s go ahead with my pencil.

As a shape it kind of flattens out to about right here because you have this shape that’s

slightly rounded and flat at the bottom meeting outside of that shape. So it comes up in perspective.

It comes back here. I’ll try to clean that up. Make that room right there.

That’s where the real seam of the wing is even though we had its silhouette of its thickness on the

center plane, we had to bring it out to meet the submarine thickness of the seams that

come out like, you know, the edge of the banana shape. That would be this right here connecting

these parts here to this thicker idea of the wing here. That’s that wing coming out.

That comes in front. All that comes out in front of that. Then we have to decide also

how the wing tapers and how thick it gets, basically. So if we want to do that we can

just double back in space. Here’s the center point again here and here to remind ourselves.

What do want these wings to do?

We can decide where they get thick and bend and all that stuff.

We can say, alright, this is going to be pretty narrow, pretty thick like this.

We could say transparently that wing seems to be about that thick.

We give it some volume that way.

We could also say this section does something like that. We can imagine what we

want to do with it if we have the surface, but then we could say it flattens out rather quickly.

So in one weird sense we could maybe make a seam start right here where that begins.

Going to there and kind of then tapering up to here or something.

That would just a seam that would connect there.

And this would be the skin seam of that seam coming up on the

bottom of the wing like this. The other seam up here is just on the top of the wing. We’re

just looking at it transparently. We could also say there’s another one coming up here

possibly from the seam and just say, okay, as the wing comes up and flattens it also

turns up a bit as it goes up.

Say alright, according to the thickness of that this starts

turning up and around. It stays about the same thickness, so we have to figure out that

if it’s straight up to here, starts turning, narrowing out. Instead of tapering then I’m

going to have that go there. It just goes straight to here. Just describe movement,

basically, to the left vanishing point, down to that wing there if we had to.

That would be overall that referencing.

Then we’d have to also describe if we wanted to, if we wanted to we could describe thickness

in here. We did put that middle seam in. Put that in in blue so it’s not so confusing.

It would be about the same thickness as here, just coming forward basically. We put that

seam in, let’s see, I think it was here. So if we took that spot we could say up there

again it’s doing something like this.

Remembering that the thickness of this seam in the middle was right here. That’s the

seam there coming out to meet it. On top we could do it lighter. That seam is meeting

all these places there come across, meet here, right up to there.

That’s another spot there.

Kind of come like that. So we’re just trying to connect these gently.

This is the actual seam you’d see meeting the side of this, the side of this coming down like that.

We might have a couple more seams on that weird wing, but it’s not that thick. It’s

about the original thickness of that original seam. Now we have to double it over. If we

just want to do that we’ll just take what it has in common with its other sign and double

that over from the seam. We’ll make a little rectangle of it from here to here from the

original middle seam. We’ll come up to the idea of this.

Obviously, we can double it over here.

Making a little bit of a rectangle, coming up from here.

Then we have our different points here, but the major thing is to double it over its proper length over here to that

middle space in that middle plane, so that’s what we’ve done. Here’s that middle plane

again. Now we can X it off very lightly right up there to the corner there. There’s our

middle X. That might help us reference-wise. We’ll go ahead and do this for the seams.

You can do it in a corner if we wanted to.

Again, we have now one, two, three, four for the middle.

Now, let’s take the whole shape and double it over into space behind.

We'll see if we can actually see the wing doubled over. Let’s see how much. We’re taking

this middle seam here, obviously, and driving it all the way down to the right vanishing point.

The center is right here, right to there. We hit that middle seam right there.

We take the corner—so that’s where it ends right there. That’s the corner of our

wing on the other side. Not that much showing of it really because of all the foreshortening.

That would come back to that space there. This doubled over would go from here back

to that line there. That’s how we know. Then the halfway point would be half of that again.

We can get our quarter again so we can gauge our other ideas.

There’s our half.

One-half, middle, one-half, end, end; end, end.

Now we’ve got half these again.

Find it there.

Alright, so now we have a quarter, quarter, quarter into here; one, two, three, four.

Alright, so that wing comes back obviously here, tapers back. Now we have to double this

over as well. This comes and almost hits a little over the quarter, so let’s make it

clear where the quarter is here to help us out with this reference where this straight

part comes all the way through the body of the plane.

This last quarter obviously moves right here.

right here. Let’s bring that forward here right to about the quarter. So that turns

right at the first quarter. So we have one, two coming down. That first quarter, that

comes down there. This straight part here comes to right about there. That’s part

of the wing. If we were drawing it through it would be coming through to about there.

That taper swings and we have our wing right here coming right around that last quarter

there so we could say that part there. Here is here. So that helps us a lot. Good deal.

Now I know that my wing should be coming something like—let me bend my body out of the way

here so I can get my arc right. It swings about like this so we get this shape here

coming in about like that. It’s just inside that.

That wing there should be just like about through here continuing like that. That’s

the doubled over space of that wing. This is just inside the quarter here.

So that would be—that space we could say, okay, it’d be about there.

Very foreshortened piece here.

We can say that part is that part. We can also identify this. It falls closer to this

than that so it’s closer to the outside than that. So I’d say about there. Again,

the center in the right perspective will leave us with about—that section would be that.

That would be that kind of thing. If you wanted to continue with this we could obviously say

that seems to be meeting right on the first quarter. We could, again, double that over

and say, alright, that’s meeting on the first quarter. The center of that is a little

past the first quarter going out to the wing. First quarter past a little bit, first quarter

past a little bit. We could say if that straight line is right like that, that seam is that.

We could roughly estimate that wing coming through like that.

That kind of section like that.

I’m just going by basically the idea of how it would diminish in space because

it’s all behind. So the idea is we could sit there and take the exact thickness of

the wing and then transport it all the way through and double it over and all that. At

this point you’re like, well, these thicknesses and sizes were just placing by the fact that

I took the original half of the total length of both wings. We said, okay, one quarter,

two quarter, three quarter, four quarter. I’m just estimating where those quarters

cross, and basically when I double over and realize that the perspective

these are going to I’m just mirroring it.

there. Here’s how we make that. This is on the center seam so we have to kick it as

far out as we did here from our center. If we know that was our center seam right there,

how far out did we kick this. There to that line. So in a sense we can do the same thing

here. We can say if we took this all the way to the center line and kicked it out that

far to the other vanishing point. We came back. It’s basically where it starts.

We're making a little reference trail so it’s there. That leg would basically start out

there. The whole thing would be referenced forward. So it just made a reference plane

of taking this point and saying, well, if it comes forward to here, up, out to there,

we could say that that is basically this point starting here.

We could also say if that’s the center here,

that is starting a bit out from that, just as an idea. Catch this.

How far out? You could say, oh, about there. It’s coming down. It’s about out here.

We can mimic that idea and just kind of draw the shape out and mimic it. You’re just

referencing basically forward on this idea,

about that much, about that much.

We can draw that idea here out.

It’ll be our actual turn.

So that’s where that little leg would start there on the back and kind f kick out.

Then we could have it start flat right there.

Go back to the left vanishing point down here. Trails away. Again, like

we did in the blue. All we did was say how, if we take it from the center seam where that

original plane was, how do we make a plane forward, come back and over between it. We’ve

made a little plane here to bring the idea of that out to about here. That point comes

out to there, so I’m just kind of mimicking the shape, referencing. Even in a freehand

manner where that would come out there. Finishing off the shape out here as it’s kicked out.

Then we kick out the other way, doubled over in the other way too. We’ll do that when

we double it over. I’m just trying to get a little bit more hands-on idea here but also

using some referencing when we are doubling. That comes out there. So we just basically

eyeballed the fact that this thickness came out at every point here to realize the actual

little landing thing in perspective. Dropping down and coming forward from this. So it does

kick out a little bit, but it’s basically coming from this area of that shaft flushing,

going back there flush and back. Just with this much depth to the center. So this is

the travel from that prong to the idea of the center prong sitting on that center plane

that we began everything with.

So what else? We have our propeller we could realize. We could bring our wings forward.

We can bring our shapes forward like this doorway back here has to be brought forward

to its counterpoint ideas here, which we can do with just basic corners. If we want we

can take the idea of these points here and bring them forward. We’re going to do that

as well as our wings. Yeah, so let’s do those first. Then we’ll come back to our

propeller because then I’ll know where our propeller exists. I’ll lighten this stuff

up and then start drawing in the idea of how many blades we decided to put in after we

review this. Since we’re going to do that near the end why don’t we pretty much drop

the whole ship along with this shaft and this little idea of the center point either being

up—or I could lower it. I just want to do this kind of weird center shaft based on this

coming forward and being a smaller one in there, which I think I’ll still do. Then

the propeller will be a good deal larger, but that will be the last thing we do.

So let’s go ahead and bring some of the wings out, stuff like that. We’ll finish

that mark up there. Okay, I decided one wing will do this and be about this long. We just

decide how far we want to come out with a wing like this. Come over. I’m extending

out from this point right here. Front of the wing, back of the wing.

We can make some reference points.

It’s about right, maybe about that far is fine.

A little farther. That'll be straight as well, just as an idea.

Alright, so that’s that wing. I’m going to say, how does it taper up here? Then it’s

going to come back and meet this shape there. So I will kind of shoot it out straight for

a little bit from my right vanishing point from the back of the wing here just for a

little bit, like maybe that far. Then I’ll turn, taper to meet this, something like that.

Okay, so we’ll double that idea over.

I have to figure out how thick or thin this is going to get.

We know it’s this thick here, so we’re going to draw that in.

We have to bring that forward to see where that meets the body. So that’s from the center

point obviously. We have to see where that meets that.

We’re going to put some seams on the wing too.

on the wing too. We’ll do the center seams and get the thickness. Just as this is the

center seam right here, on the flat part where we started our whole silhouette of the flat

part we have to also decide is there a couple of other seams I want in here that might represent it.

We’ll put one down somewhere around here.

And probably one here. One more up here.

Something like that just for that heck of it. Show some thickness to that wing. We already

have the thickness here. Imagine there and we have to bring it forward to meet the body

before we do anything else. We want to see how thick that intersects with the idea of this.

With our red we can say need a reference right here to go straight up because remember this shape

is the flat silhouette of our original piece. We need to know how forward we’re going

to come from here. What we know is this seam is represented here. If we know the wings

cross here and here we know that that space is brought forward from the right vanishing

point here, forward until it hits those seams. We’re going to do that. That’s how we’re

going to start this idea of intersecting planes, the idea of the wing intersecting the submarine

body shape. They come and meet it there. This is in blue. This is the point where these are here.

And the idea of this shape, the end of the wing coming down here will be coming

up here. We’re saying oh that’s right, we want the body to mimic what it’s doing

here, basically. It’s kind of doing this. So in a sense we have to then bring this idea

up to meet that. I’ll explain that in a second. I created another seam here. We had

one for the door so I wanted to create a little fatter one here to bring this point up. So

there’s where the wing would start right there from the flap.

So this original wing in pencil was the flat one and then bringing it forward to meet the

seams. I had to go reference the top and bring a similar seam down and do that. That little

space becomes how I find where this point of the wing of the very tip starts out here.

It can come forward right there.

That starts there.

I’ll also then take the other seams. These points would meet this seam here just to show

you coming forward in space to reference forward there.

This seam again, of course, would be meeting its counter seam up here.

The wing actually starts right there.

To have this wing that we’re starting to see has, well,

at least at this part of the wing coming in,

meeting at that center plane had this exact thickness and shape. If we extend that straight

out then we’ll extend those a little further then we will get a particular seam. Let’s

do the seam together here. I’m just trying to show you the logic of how the rest come out here.

I’ll draw the seam in red at first. So this now is here. This original wing shape

coming out from the center plane comes out this far to here to start the wing, and also

this seam shape here hit by the original straight seam out its real volumetric seam is met here.

That’s the second shape. One, two. Also, this seam here met by its volumetric counterpart

here. Again, this end of the wing here meaning out there would be there. So there it is.

So we’ll be connecting those ideas right there. I’m going to come basically through

here. Let’s go ahead with my pencil.

As a shape it kind of flattens out to about right here because you have this shape that’s

slightly rounded and flat at the bottom meeting outside of that shape. So it comes up in perspective.

It comes back here. I’ll try to clean that up. Make that room right there.

That’s where the real seam of the wing is even though we had its silhouette of its thickness on the

center plane, we had to bring it out to meet the submarine thickness of the seams that

come out like, you know, the edge of the banana shape. That would be this right here connecting

these parts here to this thicker idea of the wing here. That’s that wing coming out.

That comes in front. All that comes out in front of that. Then we have to decide also

how the wing tapers and how thick it gets, basically. So if we want to do that we can

just double back in space. Here’s the center point again here and here to remind ourselves.

What do want these wings to do?

We can decide where they get thick and bend and all that stuff.

We can say, alright, this is going to be pretty narrow, pretty thick like this.

We could say transparently that wing seems to be about that thick.

We give it some volume that way.

We could also say this section does something like that. We can imagine what we

want to do with it if we have the surface, but then we could say it flattens out rather quickly.

So in one weird sense we could maybe make a seam start right here where that begins.

Going to there and kind of then tapering up to here or something.

That would just a seam that would connect there.

And this would be the skin seam of that seam coming up on the

bottom of the wing like this. The other seam up here is just on the top of the wing. We’re

just looking at it transparently. We could also say there’s another one coming up here

possibly from the seam and just say, okay, as the wing comes up and flattens it also

turns up a bit as it goes up.

Say alright, according to the thickness of that this starts

turning up and around. It stays about the same thickness, so we have to figure out that

if it’s straight up to here, starts turning, narrowing out. Instead of tapering then I’m

going to have that go there. It just goes straight to here. Just describe movement,

basically, to the left vanishing point, down to that wing there if we had to.

That would be overall that referencing.

Then we’d have to also describe if we wanted to, if we wanted to we could describe thickness

in here. We did put that middle seam in. Put that in in blue so it’s not so confusing.

It would be about the same thickness as here, just coming forward basically. We put that

seam in, let’s see, I think it was here. So if we took that spot we could say up there

again it’s doing something like this.

Remembering that the thickness of this seam in the middle was right here. That’s the

seam there coming out to meet it. On top we could do it lighter. That seam is meeting

all these places there come across, meet here, right up to there.

That’s another spot there.

Kind of come like that. So we’re just trying to connect these gently.

This is the actual seam you’d see meeting the side of this, the side of this coming down like that.

We might have a couple more seams on that weird wing, but it’s not that thick. It’s

about the original thickness of that original seam. Now we have to double it over. If we

just want to do that we’ll just take what it has in common with its other sign and double

that over from the seam. We’ll make a little rectangle of it from here to here from the

original middle seam. We’ll come up to the idea of this.

Obviously, we can double it over here.

Making a little bit of a rectangle, coming up from here.

Then we have our different points here, but the major thing is to double it over its proper length over here to that

middle space in that middle plane, so that’s what we’ve done. Here’s that middle plane

again. Now we can X it off very lightly right up there to the corner there. There’s our

middle X. That might help us reference-wise. We’ll go ahead and do this for the seams.

You can do it in a corner if we wanted to.

Again, we have now one, two, three, four for the middle.

Now, let’s take the whole shape and double it over into space behind.

We'll see if we can actually see the wing doubled over. Let’s see how much. We’re taking

this middle seam here, obviously, and driving it all the way down to the right vanishing point.

The center is right here, right to there. We hit that middle seam right there.

We take the corner—so that’s where it ends right there. That’s the corner of our

wing on the other side. Not that much showing of it really because of all the foreshortening.

That would come back to that space there. This doubled over would go from here back

to that line there. That’s how we know. Then the halfway point would be half of that again.

We can get our quarter again so we can gauge our other ideas.

There’s our half.

One-half, middle, one-half, end, end; end, end.

Now we’ve got half these again.

Find it there.

Alright, so now we have a quarter, quarter, quarter into here; one, two, three, four.

Alright, so that wing comes back obviously here, tapers back. Now we have to double this

over as well. This comes and almost hits a little over the quarter, so let’s make it

clear where the quarter is here to help us out with this reference where this straight

part comes all the way through the body of the plane.

This last quarter obviously moves right here.

right here. Let’s bring that forward here right to about the quarter. So that turns

right at the first quarter. So we have one, two coming down. That first quarter, that

comes down there. This straight part here comes to right about there. That’s part

of the wing. If we were drawing it through it would be coming through to about there.

That taper swings and we have our wing right here coming right around that last quarter

there so we could say that part there. Here is here. So that helps us a lot. Good deal.

Now I know that my wing should be coming something like—let me bend my body out of the way

here so I can get my arc right. It swings about like this so we get this shape here

coming in about like that. It’s just inside that.

That wing there should be just like about through here continuing like that. That’s

the doubled over space of that wing. This is just inside the quarter here.

So that would be—that space we could say, okay, it’d be about there.

Very foreshortened piece here.

We can say that part is that part. We can also identify this. It falls closer to this

than that so it’s closer to the outside than that. So I’d say about there. Again,

the center in the right perspective will leave us with about—that section would be that.

That would be that kind of thing. If you wanted to continue with this we could obviously say

that seems to be meeting right on the first quarter. We could, again, double that over

and say, alright, that’s meeting on the first quarter. The center of that is a little

past the first quarter going out to the wing. First quarter past a little bit, first quarter

past a little bit. We could say if that straight line is right like that, that seam is that.

We could roughly estimate that wing coming through like that.

That kind of section like that.

I’m just going by basically the idea of how it would diminish in space because

it’s all behind. So the idea is we could sit there and take the exact thickness of

the wing and then transport it all the way through and double it over and all that. At

this point you’re like, well, these thicknesses and sizes were just placing by the fact that

I took the original half of the total length of both wings. We said, okay, one quarter,

two quarter, three quarter, four quarter. I’m just estimating where those quarters

cross, and basically when I double over and realize that the perspective

these are going to I’m just mirroring it.

AUTO SCROLL

In essence I’m just trying to get a good enough feel for how they double over so I

can actually start my perspective.

If something has more detail over here you could be

more precise from carrying it over here in visible space. As long as you know you’re constructing

your object well, and really what you’re showing that’s what’s visible is this

side. All we’re concerned with is doubling it over properly. Same with this idea up here.

Now we’ve got this shape. We know that only this much of it shows. We have this seam here

which can be thicker, thicker here.

Going up here and here. This all is invisible behind

here and basically disappears that shape we wanted there. We could say we have a seam

here so we could get darker, darker. I’m just leaving all this kind of sloppy work

visible because, frankly, it’s on camera and I want to make sure that’s it is seeable.

That seam there repeated over here is essentially that.

This, this, this, this tip of wing because we

carried it over, and we know the basic arc. So we’re doing the same type of referencing.

Now we have to take this door and do the back wing as well. Then we’ll darken everything

in later. So the obvious part about the door if we say these four points are where it really

touches the straight seams that was on our true center silhouette here. Again, we’re

just bringing them out to intersect with their volumetric counterparts, or the real skin

of what we’re saying the edge is. We have to bring them forward from the

right vanishing point like this here.

So there are the counterpoints there. That’s where the door would exist.

I’ll go ahead and still close enough my rectangle. What I’m doing is I’m replicating

that rectangle back here. We’ll do it blue back here. The other sides of the door, plus

there’s the curved part up here, which we can put one up there and say, oh yeah, the

curve would be falling right in the middle here. So it would meet its counterpoint up

there and say, oh, it meets right there.

And oh, there’s a little bit of a curve down here. I could say, okay, about halfway

there. Perspective coming from the right point would be coming back to meet it down here

about halfway. Just about there. So I will draw my door in with the idea of

those points coming forward.

The door can obviously have thickness. Here it kind of spindles away and

is sharper coming up like that.

There. So there’s my door extended out to the submarine-like

tapering volumetric body skin there that we have our seams on. My original door that started

in here like this. We could have thickness to that door, of course.

We could just kind of taper and go alright. It kind of comes around like that.

So there’s that little door. We got our back wing. We’re not sure how long that’s going to be. We just know

it kind of has that center shape. This is definitely still our center idea. Let’s

bring that wing out. It could be something really simple so maybe the back in is fairly

straight here. It comes back to our—it just curves back to here.

This is almost independent in a sense, so you’re basically just saying, alright. You

wanted a center seam here. We’d say it’s like that thick. That’s fine. This tail

comes up and meets it. It goes back as basically a flat shape, and we can double it over. It

just has a little bit of thickness so you could say, well, alright. It comes up. It

might taper like that and have a little bit of thickness there, a little bit for the front

fin here. That idea. To double it over, of course, it’s the same game of saying, alright,

well, we’ll play the game of this being the rectangle here. Back to that left vanishing

point down, coming back to the right, saying alright, this whole shape here goes to the

center. Double that over. There’s the center line.

The left vanishing point. Exit right there.

Do it to the bottom like that. Here’s the center. Drive the center toward the right VP.

Then I’m going to continue the rectangle in.

Go through the center maybe from this front square.

Basically doubling it over. Just check that to make sure it’s accurate.

It’s a little long there. And about there it looks like our little rectangle

There's that.

So if we want to bring the thickness of the tail over from here way over to the other

side we’ve got that point. We can just close off the shape to there, so now we know we

have that kind of behind, that going over. This curve can simply be described as we’ve

done many times before, right to there to that back wing. Just to know where it is if

you wanted to sketch it in or understand. If something were to hang from it you’d

know where to hang it from. Again, even though we can’t see the backside you never know

if you have things hanging from it, or if you’re making calculations for any other

reason about where someone would be under here and understanding the space you could do that.

You can also deal with the other side of this here.

We know that this comes across and tapers away to the left.

So that’s why we know the leg does that from the center piece, but

we also know it comes across to meet it’s double over here. So I’ll make very light

lines to the bottom of this over there, over from the top over there. We can find it over

there and double the space. We’re essentially just doubling from that back, and we’re

doubling over from here over to there just to get a feel for where it would be.

Obviously, this appears here and then doubled over again.

We could make a little rectangle from that if we wished.

We could say, alright, we’ll go from the top here.

Let’s make a little rectangular space there just in our minds. Also, from the top here. Just double it over.

That’s where that begins on the body over there. Again, we take that estimation there,

that to there to there, just bring it up. And here to here. We could just bring the

idea to the perspective like this. That’s there.

We’re meeting that point halfway again.

Here to about there. That’s how I just generally figure out that little thing there.

Trying not to get in the way here. I never know when I’m in the way of the thing. Let

me draw the second one in now. The other side would come down something like that.

Turn, come back.

Come up here, basically. There’s the back one there.

Here’s the front one which, we’ll put in real dark here.

These little supports are not that thick, so we

can basically say, well, if it comes to there, comes to there.

I’m going to keep this the center shaft of the propeller.

I’ll figure out, okay, the propeller would start here,

coming through the center shaft about—it’s behind a turbine right there.

There's propeller. It’s going to be slightly forward from that because that’s the—I’ll draw

the box actually from the propeller point. Just so I can do that major axis properly

in a second here. Okay, so top to bottom. I’m just going to double my space now and

just find an old piece of paper. If I choose the propeller to be that long on the box just

there. Now I’m going to have to double it up and make it accurate. Just there, so it

just misses that so I have to be a little shorter there. Just there, perfect.

I’ll just make my box again. I feel that’s a good box in that perspective.

Maybe that is about there.

We’ll come up to meet that, just this invisible idea of the box and just

make an ellipse in front of that just to be official. You know, that’s the center.

Feel the move through here. Double over right to where we thought it would be right there.

There’s our box.

That’s our perspective center again, just in front of that at a true 90 to the minor.

We know this is our minor; make that clear again. Major would be at a true 90,

so I’ll just gauge that. Maybe about right there.

So we’ll get a sharper pencil.

You can do your ellipses any way you want. You can say I don’t need all that stuff

and that boxing. That’s fine, great. Then don’t use it. But if I were doing this very

lightly and not on film or not doing the high-def stuff, I would draw this in. Even it was incredibly

light I’d still verify what I thought, you know, the space was for a basic ellipse. Again,

this is all exaggerated so I want to make it clear that even though this looks a little

hard-handed. The fact is to make it clear on the tape it’s almost like I’m trying

to make some of these red lines lighter and then these struts repeating themselves all

catching these same, you know, doubled-over angles and things like that. That’s fine.

If we’re going to do that we can also double over the little ellipses for here which is

pretty easy because these, you know, it’s just basically as deep as a submarine. It’s

not that hard to figure, oh, just a little bit of diminishment and we’d be catching

these shapes as long as we follow the perspective back to the right vanishing point.

We can do that.

The main thing is that you’re finding a way to be comfortable about creating fairly

complex shapes and being able to think about how to easily double them over or find their

thickness and reference their thicknesses. It doesn’t all have to be done by, you know,

as slowly as we went through the first few shapes. If you get pretty familiar with this,

and as long as you’re triple-checking and you’re doubling over and your foreshortening

right and you’re coming down and up in the right depths and checking in with that original

center silhouette we put in as the absolute cutting center of it, you can pretty much

reference things in many ways in one situation. There’s no one way to do that.

So that’s what we’re trying to think.

We’re trying to be practical as artists. Are we going as a far as a really rigorous

traditional industrial design drawing? No, we’re not. You’d check everything else

and make sure it’s perfect and probably use many, many references. We’re using our

eyes as artists too and making just judgments that that curve looks equal to that in reverse

space, of course. But the referencing really does help because then you are moving in real

space in accordance to maybe all the perspective. Other figures are running around, and everything

else has a consistency to it. So you are referencing to the bigger perspective spaces using the

side-to-side referencing. As to how much you need and how much you want to use all the

time, I’m not saying you have to do it totally formally. I just wanted to stop and kind of

make that clear. I’m just kind of playing with the idea of doubling this over. Is that

done masterfully to the point where you’re going, well, I don’t know. This isn’t

perfectly done point for point. I’m not that interested in that because I’m an artist.

I’m drawing on a big canvas, or I’m doing a two-dimensional digital drawing. As long

as the spaces are foreshortening correctly and I’m doubling and triple checking my

side-to-side mirrored references for what I think the thicknesses are, it will look

very correct. It’s just a matter of, yeah, when I came out here to find the real seam—we’re

going to be going more and more into that, to how you meet more complex one object butting

into another and actually the seam would appear where the two overlap. That is a little more

difficult to judge, and these little reference pointing ideas can really help with that.

We’re going to make that clear. How the door came out and the wing came out here.

Not so much the back one but this one because we had to meet that center template and come

out and meet the thickness of the skin on this closed side and get the real seam by

making those reference points. As you remember, if you don’t get that part please reverse

back to it. Also, the reason I just like making little standing squares is for the people

that are beginning really to make it clear about why we’re thinking this way. It doesn’t

matter how eloquently I draw this stuff in the end. It’s more important you see why

it’s set up properly. We know if you get sketching and get really used to putting in

a little minor and major axis, you’re just going for a freehand ellipse. That’s great.

My job is to show you why the correctness happens.

I can’t forget to put my major axis a little bit out from the perspective center. That’s

my perspective center. Again, I’ll bump it forward just a bit and say, oh that’s

right. I’ve got to put that major out just a hair in front like this. That’s where

the major is there. It’s just the kind of thinking it takes. Let’s figure out where

this is touching here. We’ve got this touching up here coming forward a little bit.

We’ll just kind of come up with that area that we believe the propeller takes up in space.

Lighten it up a little in a bit.

Fatten it up a little.

So now we’re going to figure out where

the propeller, how many blades we want to add to it. I just want to feel out

my ellipse which is a little narrow, so I’ll just keep pushing it out a little bit. My

box is a little small. I’ll keep feeling that out right here, right about there.

Sorry for the slow down. Okay.

Now we’ll take away some of the stuff in a center a bit. I’ve got the basic ideas

here. It’s still a little narrow, but anyway.

The big thing is I’ve got the wrap right here.

Alright, got my back turbine, which would be smaller, centered around that center.

Then we have that smaller centered circle in the middle, so this is offset from

the center of this. Therefore, it’d be a smaller turbine in the middle.

Just want to get the idea of that properly.

Now, we’ll put our blades in after talking about that. Let’s go and make sure we can

double these sides over. I don’t want to forget about these little sides over here.

If I make a seam in the fattest part, I think, these swell out a little bit. It’s kind

of bigger here. It comes down a little bit like this. We can then double all these ideas

over and just double them over to where the counterparts if we want. If we go to the right

vanishing point we’ll do that real quick. Don’t want to forget this. Double that over.

Take the center seam there. Double it over along that line. I’m just reminding myself

what line it would be so we can just kind of do it quick.

It’s this perspective that’s important.

When we make our guess, even if we’re not doubling it, we’re doubling

the space with a little more foreshortened space. If you were to make a rectangle right

around here over and over again, double over, I’m just guessing how much that tapering

is. Just kind of realizing it’s close to there. Not quite seeable from that angle.

Same with here. Back about there. We can double it over.

We’ll do this one. Not quite the same space because it’s foreshortened again.

Bring it down. Feel out the same shape.

Remembering that’s the center of the swell. In this case it’s like taking that space, more narrow

down there. It really does cross up here, gets thicker right there and turns back in there.

Again, you can take this one and go back to the center, go back there.

Again, we’ll be coming back there.

Just doubling the space over when you think of it. Let’s get the

propeller in. That’s going to be a little wider than I was going to do.

Alright, so the idea of a propeller. We’ve got the nose we can put right in here. Let’s just do that.

There’s the nose cone, that kind of thing. Just behind there.

Radial thing there.

Let’s refer up to our diagrams real quick.

The idea here is that when we have three blades—

I've drawn just the flat circle of the three blades and saying, alright, what’s the idea of

where the three blades would meet? And so if we know that one is a the top we’ll do this.

can actually start my perspective.

If something has more detail over here you could be

more precise from carrying it over here in visible space. As long as you know you’re constructing

your object well, and really what you’re showing that’s what’s visible is this

side. All we’re concerned with is doubling it over properly. Same with this idea up here.

Now we’ve got this shape. We know that only this much of it shows. We have this seam here

which can be thicker, thicker here.

Going up here and here. This all is invisible behind

here and basically disappears that shape we wanted there. We could say we have a seam

here so we could get darker, darker. I’m just leaving all this kind of sloppy work

visible because, frankly, it’s on camera and I want to make sure that’s it is seeable.

That seam there repeated over here is essentially that.

This, this, this, this tip of wing because we

carried it over, and we know the basic arc. So we’re doing the same type of referencing.

Now we have to take this door and do the back wing as well. Then we’ll darken everything

in later. So the obvious part about the door if we say these four points are where it really

touches the straight seams that was on our true center silhouette here. Again, we’re

just bringing them out to intersect with their volumetric counterparts, or the real skin

of what we’re saying the edge is. We have to bring them forward from the

right vanishing point like this here.

So there are the counterpoints there. That’s where the door would exist.

I’ll go ahead and still close enough my rectangle. What I’m doing is I’m replicating

that rectangle back here. We’ll do it blue back here. The other sides of the door, plus

there’s the curved part up here, which we can put one up there and say, oh yeah, the

curve would be falling right in the middle here. So it would meet its counterpoint up

there and say, oh, it meets right there.

And oh, there’s a little bit of a curve down here. I could say, okay, about halfway

there. Perspective coming from the right point would be coming back to meet it down here

about halfway. Just about there. So I will draw my door in with the idea of

those points coming forward.

The door can obviously have thickness. Here it kind of spindles away and

is sharper coming up like that.

There. So there’s my door extended out to the submarine-like

tapering volumetric body skin there that we have our seams on. My original door that started

in here like this. We could have thickness to that door, of course.

We could just kind of taper and go alright. It kind of comes around like that.

So there’s that little door. We got our back wing. We’re not sure how long that’s going to be. We just know

it kind of has that center shape. This is definitely still our center idea. Let’s

bring that wing out. It could be something really simple so maybe the back in is fairly

straight here. It comes back to our—it just curves back to here.

This is almost independent in a sense, so you’re basically just saying, alright. You

wanted a center seam here. We’d say it’s like that thick. That’s fine. This tail

comes up and meets it. It goes back as basically a flat shape, and we can double it over. It

just has a little bit of thickness so you could say, well, alright. It comes up. It

might taper like that and have a little bit of thickness there, a little bit for the front

fin here. That idea. To double it over, of course, it’s the same game of saying, alright,

well, we’ll play the game of this being the rectangle here. Back to that left vanishing

point down, coming back to the right, saying alright, this whole shape here goes to the

center. Double that over. There’s the center line.

The left vanishing point. Exit right there.

Do it to the bottom like that. Here’s the center. Drive the center toward the right VP.

Then I’m going to continue the rectangle in.

Go through the center maybe from this front square.

Basically doubling it over. Just check that to make sure it’s accurate.

It’s a little long there. And about there it looks like our little rectangle

There's that.

So if we want to bring the thickness of the tail over from here way over to the other

side we’ve got that point. We can just close off the shape to there, so now we know we

have that kind of behind, that going over. This curve can simply be described as we’ve

done many times before, right to there to that back wing. Just to know where it is if

you wanted to sketch it in or understand. If something were to hang from it you’d

know where to hang it from. Again, even though we can’t see the backside you never know

if you have things hanging from it, or if you’re making calculations for any other

reason about where someone would be under here and understanding the space you could do that.

You can also deal with the other side of this here.

We know that this comes across and tapers away to the left.

So that’s why we know the leg does that from the center piece, but

we also know it comes across to meet it’s double over here. So I’ll make very light

lines to the bottom of this over there, over from the top over there. We can find it over

there and double the space. We’re essentially just doubling from that back, and we’re

doubling over from here over to there just to get a feel for where it would be.

Obviously, this appears here and then doubled over again.

We could make a little rectangle from that if we wished.

We could say, alright, we’ll go from the top here.

Let’s make a little rectangular space there just in our minds. Also, from the top here. Just double it over.

That’s where that begins on the body over there. Again, we take that estimation there,

that to there to there, just bring it up. And here to here. We could just bring the

idea to the perspective like this. That’s there.

We’re meeting that point halfway again.

Here to about there. That’s how I just generally figure out that little thing there.

Trying not to get in the way here. I never know when I’m in the way of the thing. Let

me draw the second one in now. The other side would come down something like that.

Turn, come back.

Come up here, basically. There’s the back one there.

Here’s the front one which, we’ll put in real dark here.

These little supports are not that thick, so we

can basically say, well, if it comes to there, comes to there.

I’m going to keep this the center shaft of the propeller.

I’ll figure out, okay, the propeller would start here,

coming through the center shaft about—it’s behind a turbine right there.

There's propeller. It’s going to be slightly forward from that because that’s the—I’ll draw

the box actually from the propeller point. Just so I can do that major axis properly

in a second here. Okay, so top to bottom. I’m just going to double my space now and

just find an old piece of paper. If I choose the propeller to be that long on the box just

there. Now I’m going to have to double it up and make it accurate. Just there, so it

just misses that so I have to be a little shorter there. Just there, perfect.

I’ll just make my box again. I feel that’s a good box in that perspective.

Maybe that is about there.

We’ll come up to meet that, just this invisible idea of the box and just

make an ellipse in front of that just to be official. You know, that’s the center.

Feel the move through here. Double over right to where we thought it would be right there.

There’s our box.

That’s our perspective center again, just in front of that at a true 90 to the minor.

We know this is our minor; make that clear again. Major would be at a true 90,

so I’ll just gauge that. Maybe about right there.

So we’ll get a sharper pencil.

You can do your ellipses any way you want. You can say I don’t need all that stuff

and that boxing. That’s fine, great. Then don’t use it. But if I were doing this very

lightly and not on film or not doing the high-def stuff, I would draw this in. Even it was incredibly

light I’d still verify what I thought, you know, the space was for a basic ellipse. Again,

this is all exaggerated so I want to make it clear that even though this looks a little

hard-handed. The fact is to make it clear on the tape it’s almost like I’m trying

to make some of these red lines lighter and then these struts repeating themselves all

catching these same, you know, doubled-over angles and things like that. That’s fine.

If we’re going to do that we can also double over the little ellipses for here which is

pretty easy because these, you know, it’s just basically as deep as a submarine. It’s

not that hard to figure, oh, just a little bit of diminishment and we’d be catching

these shapes as long as we follow the perspective back to the right vanishing point.

We can do that.

The main thing is that you’re finding a way to be comfortable about creating fairly

complex shapes and being able to think about how to easily double them over or find their

thickness and reference their thicknesses. It doesn’t all have to be done by, you know,

as slowly as we went through the first few shapes. If you get pretty familiar with this,

and as long as you’re triple-checking and you’re doubling over and your foreshortening

right and you’re coming down and up in the right depths and checking in with that original

center silhouette we put in as the absolute cutting center of it, you can pretty much

reference things in many ways in one situation. There’s no one way to do that.

So that’s what we’re trying to think.

We’re trying to be practical as artists. Are we going as a far as a really rigorous

traditional industrial design drawing? No, we’re not. You’d check everything else

and make sure it’s perfect and probably use many, many references. We’re using our

eyes as artists too and making just judgments that that curve looks equal to that in reverse

space, of course. But the referencing really does help because then you are moving in real

space in accordance to maybe all the perspective. Other figures are running around, and everything

else has a consistency to it. So you are referencing to the bigger perspective spaces using the

side-to-side referencing. As to how much you need and how much you want to use all the

time, I’m not saying you have to do it totally formally. I just wanted to stop and kind of

make that clear. I’m just kind of playing with the idea of doubling this over. Is that

done masterfully to the point where you’re going, well, I don’t know. This isn’t

perfectly done point for point. I’m not that interested in that because I’m an artist.

I’m drawing on a big canvas, or I’m doing a two-dimensional digital drawing. As long

as the spaces are foreshortening correctly and I’m doubling and triple checking my

side-to-side mirrored references for what I think the thicknesses are, it will look

very correct. It’s just a matter of, yeah, when I came out here to find the real seam—we’re

going to be going more and more into that, to how you meet more complex one object butting

into another and actually the seam would appear where the two overlap. That is a little more

difficult to judge, and these little reference pointing ideas can really help with that.

We’re going to make that clear. How the door came out and the wing came out here.

Not so much the back one but this one because we had to meet that center template and come

out and meet the thickness of the skin on this closed side and get the real seam by

making those reference points. As you remember, if you don’t get that part please reverse

back to it. Also, the reason I just like making little standing squares is for the people

that are beginning really to make it clear about why we’re thinking this way. It doesn’t

matter how eloquently I draw this stuff in the end. It’s more important you see why

it’s set up properly. We know if you get sketching and get really used to putting in

a little minor and major axis, you’re just going for a freehand ellipse. That’s great.

My job is to show you why the correctness happens.

I can’t forget to put my major axis a little bit out from the perspective center. That’s

my perspective center. Again, I’ll bump it forward just a bit and say, oh that’s

right. I’ve got to put that major out just a hair in front like this. That’s where

the major is there. It’s just the kind of thinking it takes. Let’s figure out where

this is touching here. We’ve got this touching up here coming forward a little bit.

We’ll just kind of come up with that area that we believe the propeller takes up in space.

Lighten it up a little in a bit.

Fatten it up a little.

So now we’re going to figure out where

the propeller, how many blades we want to add to it. I just want to feel out

my ellipse which is a little narrow, so I’ll just keep pushing it out a little bit. My

box is a little small. I’ll keep feeling that out right here, right about there.

Sorry for the slow down. Okay.

Now we’ll take away some of the stuff in a center a bit. I’ve got the basic ideas

here. It’s still a little narrow, but anyway.

The big thing is I’ve got the wrap right here.

Alright, got my back turbine, which would be smaller, centered around that center.

Then we have that smaller centered circle in the middle, so this is offset from

the center of this. Therefore, it’d be a smaller turbine in the middle.

Just want to get the idea of that properly.

Now, we’ll put our blades in after talking about that. Let’s go and make sure we can

double these sides over. I don’t want to forget about these little sides over here.

If I make a seam in the fattest part, I think, these swell out a little bit. It’s kind

of bigger here. It comes down a little bit like this. We can then double all these ideas

over and just double them over to where the counterparts if we want. If we go to the right

vanishing point we’ll do that real quick. Don’t want to forget this. Double that over.

Take the center seam there. Double it over along that line. I’m just reminding myself

what line it would be so we can just kind of do it quick.

It’s this perspective that’s important.

When we make our guess, even if we’re not doubling it, we’re doubling

the space with a little more foreshortened space. If you were to make a rectangle right

around here over and over again, double over, I’m just guessing how much that tapering

is. Just kind of realizing it’s close to there. Not quite seeable from that angle.

Same with here. Back about there. We can double it over.

We’ll do this one. Not quite the same space because it’s foreshortened again.

Bring it down. Feel out the same shape.

Remembering that’s the center of the swell. In this case it’s like taking that space, more narrow

down there. It really does cross up here, gets thicker right there and turns back in there.

Again, you can take this one and go back to the center, go back there.

Again, we’ll be coming back there.

Just doubling the space over when you think of it. Let’s get the

propeller in. That’s going to be a little wider than I was going to do.

Alright, so the idea of a propeller. We’ve got the nose we can put right in here. Let’s just do that.

There’s the nose cone, that kind of thing. Just behind there.

Radial thing there.

Let’s refer up to our diagrams real quick.

The idea here is that when we have three blades—

I've drawn just the flat circle of the three blades and saying, alright, what’s the idea of

where the three blades would meet? And so if we know that one is a the top we’ll do this.

AUTO SCROLL

I’ll just draw in a blade shape like that. If you take the half of that second part of

the circle of the down here, half of this to here. That’s why I put half there, and

you cross back. You realize about halfway down this space a little further down there,

down there. That’s where the other two should go. Every time you’re doing it you’re

just basically just saying, alright, they go to about there to there. Again, about over

here back over there. We should get an even space. So that’s the flat version.

Again, if you’re coming through and you’re realizing that you want to say that at this angle you’re

saying the half is right here. That’s the second half below or something.

You’re saying that’s where the blade comes up. If the one blade comes up here you’re doing that

perspective there. That’s about half. The other one would come down right about to there

right around to about there. The idea is that’s how you’re trying to foreshorten for that

idea. If you’re talking about that setting it off that way.

For five blades the idea is where you can meet them is if one is straight up

we have a space that is one-half here, one-quarter

here, and one-third here; two-thirds, one-third, and then the quarter here. So one-quarter

of this space, one-third up from that space. Draw across.

You’re basically going to see the idea,

blades meeting about there again where they touch out here. So just where is

here is where they touch out here, touch, touch, touch here.

We can then have them come down and touch here at the quarter.

Here at the quarter.

Here basically. Up there at the half, basically like that.

That’s the idea. At the one-third up there, at the outside.

One-third, one-third, one-quarter, one-quarter up. One quarter up from the bottom to the

half. One-third up from the half up to the top. It’s where you’d meet to do the five

blades. In perspective again you had this as your center blade here. It happened to

come up like that. Then you took the first third up here and said, okay, there’s my

halfway point there. My first third is about there, and my quarter is way down here, probably.

For one-half, one-quarter.

You get the idea of these contact points here, about there, there, there, and there roughly.

And it’s pretty easy to figure out than just a simple way to put the blades in if

you can remember that or refer to it in that manner and look pretty good.

So there's the five blades. You know, again, from any angle and a true ellipse if you can find where

you decide which one is sticking straight up here, which one identifies that, and then

how would the others splay out in a pattern depending on how many you have.

The six blades is the same idea. It’s pretty simple. It’s not unlike the third. What you have is, you

kind of have this doubled and then flipped over to get twice as many, so six blades would

be that one. That and that. Then you’d have it reversed and flip the idea over.

You could say then again you have that and this. This is the one-half point here. Again, this is

one-half of this space, one half of that space. Here half and half. So again, you have the

idea of the one-half, one-half. When you flip it over the idea is this comes down, this

comes down. Splays out like this, like that and like that.

A total of six. One, two, three, four, five, six.

Eight blades obviously is just looking at the true T that we already

know exists and the diagonal that already exists. What we’ve done over and over again

when we have space and stuff. In this case, obviously, we’re talking about

one, two,

three,

four,

five,

six,

seven,

eight.

So eight is obviously pretty easy because it’s even just like two and four. Six is

not so easy to figure out even though it’s an even number. It takes a little bit of logic

of doubling and flipping over the idea of three blades. Five blades are a little harder

to figure out. It’s good to know that it’s the quarter at the bottom and then the second

half is the first third of the top half. You can meet your star shape there.

As I mentioned before seven becomes so kind of tedious it’s not really a proportion

that you can figure out too easily, but I always felt that obviously two blades like

the old sopwith camels from World War I. The biplanes had just two. It’s just up and

down or wherever they’re opposite; one, two. Four is easy because you just do the

cross and put them in. So three, five, six, and eight are the more practical ones that

are easier to just memorize this proportion or this method, and you can always put them in.

In our case here, what do we want? We could try to do the five blades. Again, if I wanted

to here we’ll just do them in blue. I could say, alright in perspective then if we wanted

to we could even tilt it off and say, alright, I want my first one going this way for that

blade. If we did that I could say, well, that’s that one blade there. I have to set my half

according to that perspective. What I’ll do is say alright, there it is. My quarter

would be down here then, so one-half, one-quarter. I’ll use a little perspective because these

would be diminishing toward each other a little bit on the face and the first third. So if

that’s half, that’s about a third, one-half, a little less would be a third, and that would

also be in some perspective like that.

Now I could say, oh okay, so be meeting there, meeting about there. Then the fourth would

be meeting just down about here, down about over there.

What I’d do is I’d draw out to that idea.

And almost any perspective you want to start with that’s pretty much where you’d end

up. Not the most eloquent blades possible, but the idea is it’s really about instruction.

You could make your propeller a lot nicer than mine. My point is that we could, you

know, pretty much plug in any of these and anything in between. Two, three, four is easy.

Five, six, seven not so easy. Again, you’d have to kind of play with it. I usually sketch

it out and just say, okay, if this is six I’ll add an extra blade and squeeze the

other ones in a bit until I get a really light drawing of I think seven equal ones. Eight

is easy to figure out. That’s the idea. Here again, if this was our initial blade

number one, and it was easy to find the one-quarter here for this, and then this is the top third

above the second half. Here’s the one-half. That’s the top third and then a quarter

down here where these meet.

That’s the idea. Push the idea out here a little. You could

keep adding blades obviously to that.

The most important idea—you can draw the blades as carefully as you want, wide like

fan blades in a room, whatever you want. The idea is to get the ellipse. Mind was a little

narrow. To be honest with you I would still widen out my ellipse a little bit to there,

that kind of thing. Get it working a little more robustly there. Anyway, the idea is I

set my center point there. We have this inner turbine working which is not centered in the

bigger circle here. It’s in there so the shaft runs back. If you’re just trying to

get the idea the blade has to be short enough not to hit the body of it. We came close.

These blades are pretty close within that space there. That’s just the idea of a ship.

Again, we have to thicken it in. We can certainly go, okay, what’s actually showing here.

So if I want to kind of tap it out, get rid of some of this mess. We can say, okay, that

came down from the other side. This is this side, center column. I’m going to get really

thick with this cause that’s the bottom part of the ship. Then I’m going to have

that back wing. I can clearly see that.

Again, outside of the ship we’ll make real thick. We have a wing overlapping. This actually

comes up like that outside wing.

Comes back in. The body is here, coming down.

Come down like that. It’s the actual body of the vehicle. Same here.

This top part as well.

Leg is really thick.

Again, that’s the middle plane so we’ll leave that alone.

There’s the other one.

Comes back, comes in. We did have this other seam here coming around like that. We

had this turbine here. We could put thickness to that. Go all the way around with it. You’ve

got this kind of middle idea here.

Do the blades if you want to. So we did the five.

If it was not flying and spinning and being blurry. That kind of idea.

Again, the five there. What else?

That’s right. We had the original—remember the original silhouette idea of where the

wings started and had to come out to meet it to where it met the skin to get our new

seam. That was an important seam. And again, the door coming out to meet its actual existence

on the curved skin of the object. That type of thing. Yeah, that's about it.

I mean it’s a pretty simple idea. What we’re just trying to do is get familiar

with side to side drawing, but make it accurate. As artists not necessarily making it so important

that’s it’s perfect, you know, every tiny little curve is perfectly referenced over.

It’s just a matter of how clean do you want it when you end up drawing that final object

in? Is the side-to-side referencing in the volumetric movement of the thickness of the

object look correct for the space it takes up in perspective? That’s the important

thing. I know I get a sloppy here but my patience wears thin actually too because I’m not

so interested in doing lots of finished object as much as you understanding the perspective

concept and how and why it works for that three-dimensional platform I keep talking

about so that you go on and do things with all your eagerness as clean as you want and

as elaborate as you want. You know, please do. For homework, again, beyond taking the

notes and exactly why we did things—this was a little bit longer one, and I know that

you probably want to do an extra page of notes if you want to talk about laying the propellers

out, the idea. Again, I was a little narrow on this ellipse. Yeah, whatever.

The idea is do you understand how to make a shape, a silhouette idea flush it out on

one side, double it over properly and actually do shapes. It’s not that big of a deal.

This is taught in what’s called Viscom all the time and further and further and more

eloquent forms than this, certainly, but this is the basic concept behind it. Can you keep

track of the depths and the references and the heights and moving around something that

you started more as a silhouette maybe from the side or even a top silhouette to show

if it’s basic design you want to yourself, just as you start sketching. Then volumetrically

push it out to the front and the back and double it over with good referencing and,

you know, the type of the perspective you’re using to the vanishing points and true verticals.

Obviously, if we were doing this in three-point, our verticals would be diminishing up like

this because we’re looking up at the object. Then where verticals would not be truly vertical

like this, they’d be doing either severely this or slightly this. Again, it all works

perfectly. This referencing method works great in three point just like it works in one and

two point. It’s just the idea of what we’re doing. Don’t think you have to be at a 45,

45 perspective to do this stuff. You don’t. I’m using it because it’s convenient to

get out to the vanishing points and show the, you know, the width, the depth, and the height

pretty easily. We can see the bottom of this, the left side, and a little bit of the right

side go in like this. That’s why we do it. But you could do this one with any, any type

of this stuff you could do with the vanishing point way out to the left and very close to

the right, and in one-point however you want it. As long as you can make the transparent

idea of this thing made of Plexiglas with little seams running everywhere so we can

run referencing was we’ve been doing. That’s the important thing. It doesn’t matter that

I did it like this. Again, please clean a couple of these ideas up for your diagrams.

The idea is you get them as clean as possible. My thing here is to get us to much subject

matter and hey-did-you-know kinds of things as you can as a record on these lectures so

that you can make your notes and do whatever you need to do on your complex clean drawing.

Or maybe this is just going to help you with sketching very loose shapes that are twisted

out and stylized a bit. This logic helps you feel out those weird shapes you’re going

to do even though it’s in a stylized world of semi-representational painting, let’s

say. Who cares? That’s great. This still helps with that stuff.

Anyway, so there again we have this little weird alien ship type of thing that has kind

of a submarine body, little wings coming out, a propeller. We talked about the different

ways to think about a quick way to realize even spacing. You know if you want propellers

you want to take notes on that. And there you have it. Again, another simple idea. We’ll

move now to intersecting planes with simpler objects again like we did when we started

with the archways. We’re going to join two planes hitting each other so we can get the

idea when things do cross over and interconnect as shapes, how do I make the seam right. Like

when a dormer hits a roof. We did that basically with the roof and the house example way back

in probably lecture—who knows, lecture eight or something like that. Maybe number seven

or nine. He idea is that kind of interconnecting and understand how to run the seam between

two things becomes important the more you do shapes and objects and understand different

complex objects. So we will go into the basics of that and how two thing would meet. We would

do the skin seams that meet between them and reference deep inside the object to their

center planes. Okay? So we’ll do intersecting planes and objects like that next.

Okay, we’ll move on.

the circle of the down here, half of this to here. That’s why I put half there, and

you cross back. You realize about halfway down this space a little further down there,

down there. That’s where the other two should go. Every time you’re doing it you’re

just basically just saying, alright, they go to about there to there. Again, about over

here back over there. We should get an even space. So that’s the flat version.

Again, if you’re coming through and you’re realizing that you want to say that at this angle you’re

saying the half is right here. That’s the second half below or something.

You’re saying that’s where the blade comes up. If the one blade comes up here you’re doing that

perspective there. That’s about half. The other one would come down right about to there

right around to about there. The idea is that’s how you’re trying to foreshorten for that

idea. If you’re talking about that setting it off that way.

For five blades the idea is where you can meet them is if one is straight up

we have a space that is one-half here, one-quarter

here, and one-third here; two-thirds, one-third, and then the quarter here. So one-quarter

of this space, one-third up from that space. Draw across.

You’re basically going to see the idea,

blades meeting about there again where they touch out here. So just where is

here is where they touch out here, touch, touch, touch here.

We can then have them come down and touch here at the quarter.

Here at the quarter.

Here basically. Up there at the half, basically like that.

That’s the idea. At the one-third up there, at the outside.

One-third, one-third, one-quarter, one-quarter up. One quarter up from the bottom to the

half. One-third up from the half up to the top. It’s where you’d meet to do the five

blades. In perspective again you had this as your center blade here. It happened to

come up like that. Then you took the first third up here and said, okay, there’s my

halfway point there. My first third is about there, and my quarter is way down here, probably.

For one-half, one-quarter.

You get the idea of these contact points here, about there, there, there, and there roughly.

And it’s pretty easy to figure out than just a simple way to put the blades in if

you can remember that or refer to it in that manner and look pretty good.

So there's the five blades. You know, again, from any angle and a true ellipse if you can find where

you decide which one is sticking straight up here, which one identifies that, and then

how would the others splay out in a pattern depending on how many you have.

The six blades is the same idea. It’s pretty simple. It’s not unlike the third. What you have is, you

kind of have this doubled and then flipped over to get twice as many, so six blades would

be that one. That and that. Then you’d have it reversed and flip the idea over.

You could say then again you have that and this. This is the one-half point here. Again, this is

one-half of this space, one half of that space. Here half and half. So again, you have the

idea of the one-half, one-half. When you flip it over the idea is this comes down, this

comes down. Splays out like this, like that and like that.

A total of six. One, two, three, four, five, six.

Eight blades obviously is just looking at the true T that we already

know exists and the diagonal that already exists. What we’ve done over and over again

when we have space and stuff. In this case, obviously, we’re talking about

one, two,

three,

four,

five,

six,

seven,

eight.

So eight is obviously pretty easy because it’s even just like two and four. Six is

not so easy to figure out even though it’s an even number. It takes a little bit of logic

of doubling and flipping over the idea of three blades. Five blades are a little harder

to figure out. It’s good to know that it’s the quarter at the bottom and then the second

half is the first third of the top half. You can meet your star shape there.

As I mentioned before seven becomes so kind of tedious it’s not really a proportion

that you can figure out too easily, but I always felt that obviously two blades like

the old sopwith camels from World War I. The biplanes had just two. It’s just up and

down or wherever they’re opposite; one, two. Four is easy because you just do the

cross and put them in. So three, five, six, and eight are the more practical ones that

are easier to just memorize this proportion or this method, and you can always put them in.

In our case here, what do we want? We could try to do the five blades. Again, if I wanted

to here we’ll just do them in blue. I could say, alright in perspective then if we wanted

to we could even tilt it off and say, alright, I want my first one going this way for that

blade. If we did that I could say, well, that’s that one blade there. I have to set my half

according to that perspective. What I’ll do is say alright, there it is. My quarter

would be down here then, so one-half, one-quarter. I’ll use a little perspective because these

would be diminishing toward each other a little bit on the face and the first third. So if

that’s half, that’s about a third, one-half, a little less would be a third, and that would

also be in some perspective like that.

Now I could say, oh okay, so be meeting there, meeting about there. Then the fourth would

be meeting just down about here, down about over there.

What I’d do is I’d draw out to that idea.

And almost any perspective you want to start with that’s pretty much where you’d end

up. Not the most eloquent blades possible, but the idea is it’s really about instruction.

You could make your propeller a lot nicer than mine. My point is that we could, you

know, pretty much plug in any of these and anything in between. Two, three, four is easy.

Five, six, seven not so easy. Again, you’d have to kind of play with it. I usually sketch

it out and just say, okay, if this is six I’ll add an extra blade and squeeze the

other ones in a bit until I get a really light drawing of I think seven equal ones. Eight

is easy to figure out. That’s the idea. Here again, if this was our initial blade

number one, and it was easy to find the one-quarter here for this, and then this is the top third

above the second half. Here’s the one-half. That’s the top third and then a quarter

down here where these meet.

That’s the idea. Push the idea out here a little. You could

keep adding blades obviously to that.

The most important idea—you can draw the blades as carefully as you want, wide like

fan blades in a room, whatever you want. The idea is to get the ellipse. Mind was a little

narrow. To be honest with you I would still widen out my ellipse a little bit to there,

that kind of thing. Get it working a little more robustly there. Anyway, the idea is I

set my center point there. We have this inner turbine working which is not centered in the

bigger circle here. It’s in there so the shaft runs back. If you’re just trying to

get the idea the blade has to be short enough not to hit the body of it. We came close.

These blades are pretty close within that space there. That’s just the idea of a ship.

Again, we have to thicken it in. We can certainly go, okay, what’s actually showing here.

So if I want to kind of tap it out, get rid of some of this mess. We can say, okay, that

came down from the other side. This is this side, center column. I’m going to get really

thick with this cause that’s the bottom part of the ship. Then I’m going to have

that back wing. I can clearly see that.

Again, outside of the ship we’ll make real thick. We have a wing overlapping. This actually

comes up like that outside wing.

Comes back in. The body is here, coming down.

Come down like that. It’s the actual body of the vehicle. Same here.

This top part as well.

Leg is really thick.

Again, that’s the middle plane so we’ll leave that alone.

There’s the other one.

Comes back, comes in. We did have this other seam here coming around like that. We

had this turbine here. We could put thickness to that. Go all the way around with it. You’ve

got this kind of middle idea here.

Do the blades if you want to. So we did the five.

If it was not flying and spinning and being blurry. That kind of idea.

Again, the five there. What else?

That’s right. We had the original—remember the original silhouette idea of where the

wings started and had to come out to meet it to where it met the skin to get our new

seam. That was an important seam. And again, the door coming out to meet its actual existence

on the curved skin of the object. That type of thing. Yeah, that's about it.

I mean it’s a pretty simple idea. What we’re just trying to do is get familiar

with side to side drawing, but make it accurate. As artists not necessarily making it so important

that’s it’s perfect, you know, every tiny little curve is perfectly referenced over.

It’s just a matter of how clean do you want it when you end up drawing that final object

in? Is the side-to-side referencing in the volumetric movement of the thickness of the

object look correct for the space it takes up in perspective? That’s the important

thing. I know I get a sloppy here but my patience wears thin actually too because I’m not

so interested in doing lots of finished object as much as you understanding the perspective

concept and how and why it works for that three-dimensional platform I keep talking

about so that you go on and do things with all your eagerness as clean as you want and

as elaborate as you want. You know, please do. For homework, again, beyond taking the

notes and exactly why we did things—this was a little bit longer one, and I know that

you probably want to do an extra page of notes if you want to talk about laying the propellers

out, the idea. Again, I was a little narrow on this ellipse. Yeah, whatever.

The idea is do you understand how to make a shape, a silhouette idea flush it out on

one side, double it over properly and actually do shapes. It’s not that big of a deal.

This is taught in what’s called Viscom all the time and further and further and more

eloquent forms than this, certainly, but this is the basic concept behind it. Can you keep

track of the depths and the references and the heights and moving around something that

you started more as a silhouette maybe from the side or even a top silhouette to show

if it’s basic design you want to yourself, just as you start sketching. Then volumetrically

push it out to the front and the back and double it over with good referencing and,

you know, the type of the perspective you’re using to the vanishing points and true verticals.

Obviously, if we were doing this in three-point, our verticals would be diminishing up like

this because we’re looking up at the object. Then where verticals would not be truly vertical

like this, they’d be doing either severely this or slightly this. Again, it all works

perfectly. This referencing method works great in three point just like it works in one and

two point. It’s just the idea of what we’re doing. Don’t think you have to be at a 45,

45 perspective to do this stuff. You don’t. I’m using it because it’s convenient to

get out to the vanishing points and show the, you know, the width, the depth, and the height

pretty easily. We can see the bottom of this, the left side, and a little bit of the right

side go in like this. That’s why we do it. But you could do this one with any, any type

of this stuff you could do with the vanishing point way out to the left and very close to

the right, and in one-point however you want it. As long as you can make the transparent

idea of this thing made of Plexiglas with little seams running everywhere so we can

run referencing was we’ve been doing. That’s the important thing. It doesn’t matter that

I did it like this. Again, please clean a couple of these ideas up for your diagrams.

The idea is you get them as clean as possible. My thing here is to get us to much subject

matter and hey-did-you-know kinds of things as you can as a record on these lectures so

that you can make your notes and do whatever you need to do on your complex clean drawing.

Or maybe this is just going to help you with sketching very loose shapes that are twisted

out and stylized a bit. This logic helps you feel out those weird shapes you’re going

to do even though it’s in a stylized world of semi-representational painting, let’s

say. Who cares? That’s great. This still helps with that stuff.

Anyway, so there again we have this little weird alien ship type of thing that has kind

of a submarine body, little wings coming out, a propeller. We talked about the different

ways to think about a quick way to realize even spacing. You know if you want propellers

you want to take notes on that. And there you have it. Again, another simple idea. We’ll

move now to intersecting planes with simpler objects again like we did when we started

with the archways. We’re going to join two planes hitting each other so we can get the

idea when things do cross over and interconnect as shapes, how do I make the seam right. Like

when a dormer hits a roof. We did that basically with the roof and the house example way back

in probably lecture—who knows, lecture eight or something like that. Maybe number seven

or nine. He idea is that kind of interconnecting and understand how to run the seam between

two things becomes important the more you do shapes and objects and understand different

complex objects. So we will go into the basics of that and how two thing would meet. We would

do the skin seams that meet between them and reference deep inside the object to their

center planes. Okay? So we’ll do intersecting planes and objects like that next.

Okay, we’ll move on.

AUTO SCROLL

Hello, we’re back. We are now going to start some intersecting planes and intersecting

objects. The reason for that is a lot of the objects you might draw will have different

shaped things emerging into each other. Then we have to figure out what the skin or the

surface of the two objects are doing at the seam points where they meet because they are

different than each individual objects. When they merge together they make a new seam line

often. Of course, we’ll talk about that with this diagram and many others. Not unlike

how when we did the little house with the dormers how that roof line had to meet from

the dormer to the main roofline way back when we were doing some two-point. Same type of

idea of where is the seam of that dormer roof meeting the main roof line as the same idea

of two planes meeting that and finding the middle seam.

We’re going to be doing that here.

What we’re just going to start with here is two objects. I have my eye level up here

a little higher. I’m just going to draw this out and then pause and reverse as you,

you know, as we build, and we’re just going to have two ideas. Kind of a long, bent piece

of wood. You could consider it a block, or you can consider it just a free-standing thing.

What I’m doing is I’m just making it, casting it to the left vanishing point over

here which are off camera. Then I’m just make this kind of a curled piece here randomly.

What I’ve did is I’ve kind of drawn out what I wanted. Then I’m going to just show

you what my thinking was. First of all, I’d be making this a random line which will lead

the back shape in the other seams I have representing this same shape going back in perspective.

There’s my first randomly assigned curve between these two planes or top and bottom here.

There’s the bottom again so we’ll just make it a little darker so we can have

an idea of what will be intersecting. I’ve decided basically to make it about this long

here, let’s say. Then the idea of how we cast back and we drop straight down from this

back corner is important. From here, so we’ll just do that simply over to the right vanishing

point to say, okay. If I wanted to find the other end somewhere down here of this shape

I could cast back here. I could come then straight up, and again, we’re drafting these,

but of course you’re free to this freehand if you’re skilled enough. The idea would be for

these diagrams I want to make sure that we’re dead

clear about how we reference this stuff.

So I’m going to go ahead and do it slower and draft it and take my time and put in some

color to be able to understand where some planes merge. That shape is going to look

like that. This could just be a bent piece of paper or a thin piece of wood. Or it could

be in a solid block of wood. It wouldn’t much matter when these two seams meet because

we’re going to have another shape similar to this butting in perpendicular into it.

So now that little reference drops there so I can get my line for the back of the object

going back to my left vanishing point. That helps me understand where I end the object

when I want it back here such as this. I want draw that in quite as hard. Then that ends

right around back here somewhere. I know that cause I can drop straight down. So what I

have to do is go to this end point on this line and find out how that drops straight

down. I’ll make it official by dropping it down with the T-square like this.

Then we’ll come forward from that vanishing point again, so we can figure out that we’re right

there. So now I know two things basically. I know the beginning, bottom, top of this

and where this begins, but in order to make a simple reference I’m going to pick a middle

point and a plane somewhere here and another point, and I’m going to cast that point

over in this direction toward the left vanishing point just lightly. That way if I also drop

straight down from that point I just put on there, make a little reference point on the ground.

I’m making a reference plane so I can find where this exists on the other

end properly in space. I can close off my curve. I find that it hits here and then I

go straight up like my little lay-in drawing indicates like this.

That makes a point where the corner meets. That plane represents this counterpart over

here. So now I can fill in my shape. I go straight up because I went a little bit straight

up here. I’m going to back to right VP for a little bit here so the same thing would

be true here if I wanted to draw back to that a little bit. Now I’ll fill in my curve

just like that between the idea there passing through on the way to this.

I’ll darken that in a little bit.

So there’s the back of my object. We could pick thickness to that, but essentially we’re

just thinking about it as a bent form like that.

Going back like this, and that back edge on the top.

Everything else is for referencing. We did create a reference plane to get back

down to that end. We can put in color but I’m going to trust that you can figure,

okay, I’m just going to do it pencil. We’ll have some color when we come into our reference

planes where we start referencing why the two objects meet at a particular seam between

the two. But this is a plane that we figured simply out here to get from here to here to

get that curve, okay. Alright, so now what we can do is we can decide where we might

want another plane hitting it as my sketch indicates. What I’ll do is I’ll just kind

of fill in what I had working here. This will be another shape, and it’s going to hit

and collide right here with that. I’m going to keep going on it so I can complete the

shape somewhat behind here. I’m not sure how far, so what I’ll do is I’ll draw

it. I want the top of it maybe that wide, maybe to come down to here.

I’ll just estimate it and draw the top at about here also.

Then I’ve got to figure out if it’s stopping about somewhere there how do I figure out

how deep it is this way? I can say I want to stop here and drop straight to the ground.

If I’m stopped here I go straight over here with a plane, and then I go straight up to

meet that other point. I don’t really know where to maker that off until I meet it. I

have a little pre-sketch here. You need to kind of come up and say, alright, the idea

is how deep do I want this? If I want to stop the line here and I’m starting from here

I have to draw over and then draw straight down to meet that line. Then I know where

the shape closes off, like right here. Just draw down to meet it there. There’s that

little corner. Now I know my, if I’m doing another bent shape it will start on its way

this way, and it will start on its way up like this.

Now I’ve got to figure out the curve again.

So this will be random again. Now I’ve got to go I’m just going to follow the idea

I had before. Draw the curve in like this. Make that nice and dark cause that’s another

object now meeting the first object. We have to make the two shapes fairly dark. I don’t

know where it’s going to meet up here yet. I do know that it meets here. I’m going

to darken that idea in. I’m also going to darken in the idea of this.

We’ve darkened the idea of the top of this already, and we have this nice, dark curve here.

This line here, now we get the feeling, okay, if that’s going to be there we can also darken in this

part here. This will overlap there somewhat. We just don’t know where it’s going to

meet against this line. What I’m going to do is I’m going to darken this and then

trail it off a little bit until we figure that out. I’ll make sure I darken in the curve again.

Alright, so we know it meets there. That’s an important point as well. Now, there’s

two ways you can do this. We’ll probably discuss both. I’ll try more of an internal

referencing method, where what I’m going to do from this point is I’m going to match

this curve this far down here, and I’m also going to match this one. But first I have

to get the back end of this object somewhere through here. I’ll try to find a point that’s

not too confusing to see, but what I’ll do is I will probably end at about here, let’s

say. So that means I’ll shoot over to this back line. I’ve got to make this backline

to you guys a little more obvious here. We haven’t made it yet. There’s that back

seem there. That corner would go back to here. I’ll draw that in lightly. I’ll take this

idea of it being this long along this plane and shoot it toward the left vanishing point,

a little bit right there. Hit that back plane there. Don’t get it confused with this dot.

It just happens to end there.

Now this is a shape that stops here and goes out here, which is different than this point

with its little line there just above that. Now, I’ll just go straight up my plane and

meet right here. That’s replicating the back end of this, the idea of here. Now I

have this and this. Replicating that—how do I get that curve? I can just pick a random

point, let’s say here again. We’ll do this in pencil again. We’ll drop that point

in the middle of the arch or the middle of the arc; drop it to the ground, let’s say.

Reference it all the way back to the right vanishing point from here right there. Go

back to where we see it hits here about there.

Then we’ll go back up until we get this point here.

Why do I know the height of this? Because I’ve drawn this straight back to

here. I have to cast this over here after I did this line here in order to say, oh,

here and here meet up as an entire plane. I’m just creating a reference plane to understand

where the counterpoint of this point would properly fall in perspective in relationship

where I wanted to end the back of this shape. It’s really just getting the curve but we’re

still pretending these blocks are solid in our minds because we need the references from

them. They could still be just curved shapes, and the rest are all little plum bobs dropping

to the ground and things like that. That’s fine.

So now fill in this curve a little bit and just say, alright, the back of this shape

will go back here. I’m not going to make it super dark, but that will be back there.

I’ll imagine that is a little more transparent. A little more dark back there. There is that

shape. Front, back of that. Because we can see it through this shape. There’s the curved

piece of paper. But really, we’re just saying that if this is where they collide we’ll

make this a little darker to see it a little better. Then we can see the top a little more

like this. Then we can also see that back curve through there. But I won’t make it

as dark as the other stuff just so we don’t get confused. So that’s that back shape.

Now we have two shapes that move through each other. Our job is to figure out how would

the actual surface seam look when they actually meet.

How do we reference that? There is a couple different ways. We could do one a long way

this way all the way around where we just needed the heights of different points on

one end, and we could come all the way around and find them on another. We’re going to

do that as well, but first I want to do more of an interior method. We’ll say, okay,

what if we re-create at this point right here, this same arch in perspective from right here.

How would we reference that. Well, we would go back along this line to the right vanishing

point to here. This back wall from here. Go straight up. What we’re doing is we’re

replicating the idea of this whole section being moved to right here. So what we have

to do is say this section is going to be replicated right here somehow with the curve. We’re

going to pretend there’s a seam going straight up here, all the way from here, here, up to

here to this point here. Then we have to find the curve. I need to have this reference plane

again we made before so I can find it here. All I do is go back from here again where

we drop this down before and cast it forward. I run along here until I hit right here. Then

I go straight up until I meet this line from it. We make another reference plane just like

that. So try that. I could do these in colors, but I’m really going to wait until we actually

do the referencing to find the seam. All I’m doing is replicating this end of this arc,

again right here.

Why is that true? I go up and go straight a little from here. Then I go toward my vanishing

point a little from here. Then I’ve got that reference point which is here slammed

into there. I dropped down, went over, went up, over, found that reference point. Now

I can make my arc very similarly to how I did before. So this is a pretend seam. It’s

not necessarily on the form, but it’s going to help me reference where I need to be. So

that’s a little seam. That might be real or not real. The only real seam we’re going

to be concerned with is when we reference the seam between this object butting into

this larger object. That’s all we really want. But, I’m going to also create this

from here on this side, this end cap from here rolling over. All I have to do, again,

is take this point and move all the way to my left vanishing point until I hit the back

wall here of this object. Come straight up until I meet this back wall here. I’ll come

straight up. I’ll use my T-square to make sure that’s correct.

Again, not to say every time you draw out two objects like this butting together—you

can guess as an artist just from observation where the seam would be. We’re actually

showing and going over slowly why the referencing of this type of thing, why and how the perspective

and the referencing works carefully so that you can use it in a more complex situation,

or if you’re doing a really large drawing and you want it correct. If it’s been looking

funny because you tried to wing it but it doesn’t look right. You can break things

down like this and reference them. Now we need to take this reference point, drop it

to the ground, run it to here. In a sense that’s what we did already to get the back

end. So let’s use that again and say, okay, I run this far until I run into what? I’ve

got this part here going to there, there, and that’s the point. I need to run to this

point and found it straight up. If I go straight up with this to meet that point here I’ve

created a reference plane going up to that point because it runs into this plane. It’s

like a little invisible plane with little rods, little thin rods and little balls at the end.

Now, I’ve found where the curve starts for this side. This side replicating this starts

here, kind of starts coming out like this. This from the bottom comes up a little like

here at our base where we meet the two planes. Then I can draw my curve through a little

bit like this. I should be able to gently draw down and probably meet this like this,

just based on that one curve. I’m just looking at the other curve. Instead of having five,

six points here. To get the seam we’re going to use more points than we might actually

need when we’re really drawing. But that’s okay because we’re strictly learning why

the concept of these reference planes and reference points works within these objects.

Okay, so there’s that pretend seam going back the other way. This matching this, this

matching that now. Now, I can do some referencing. Another thing I need is I need a reference

pole. I’m going to do that in blue because now this reference pole is going to help my

understand how to turn a corner with reference plane at different points. I’m just going

to get a different color not to be confusing. Right here I’m going to plant like a flagpole

right here and go straight up. I’m going to go farther up than I need. So that blue

line becomes a reference line. That’s a pretend little standing pole right at the

intersection of the two objects I can refer to because now I’m going to take different

points here on this curve, if I want, drive them forward to the pole and then find them

elsewhere in depth. And I’m going to draw little planes each time. I don’t know how

many I need. I can certainly take this point as one so that will start me there. I’m

doing it on this curve to find these same points over here and intersect, where the

two intersect is where we’re going to find the points where we actually draw our seam.

Here is one. I’m just going to overstate them. Let’s find one down here, let’s say.

Let’s say this far down right here. One right at the top.

objects. The reason for that is a lot of the objects you might draw will have different

shaped things emerging into each other. Then we have to figure out what the skin or the

surface of the two objects are doing at the seam points where they meet because they are

different than each individual objects. When they merge together they make a new seam line

often. Of course, we’ll talk about that with this diagram and many others. Not unlike

how when we did the little house with the dormers how that roof line had to meet from

the dormer to the main roofline way back when we were doing some two-point. Same type of

idea of where is the seam of that dormer roof meeting the main roof line as the same idea

of two planes meeting that and finding the middle seam.

We’re going to be doing that here.

What we’re just going to start with here is two objects. I have my eye level up here

a little higher. I’m just going to draw this out and then pause and reverse as you,

you know, as we build, and we’re just going to have two ideas. Kind of a long, bent piece

of wood. You could consider it a block, or you can consider it just a free-standing thing.

What I’m doing is I’m just making it, casting it to the left vanishing point over

here which are off camera. Then I’m just make this kind of a curled piece here randomly.

What I’ve did is I’ve kind of drawn out what I wanted. Then I’m going to just show

you what my thinking was. First of all, I’d be making this a random line which will lead

the back shape in the other seams I have representing this same shape going back in perspective.

There’s my first randomly assigned curve between these two planes or top and bottom here.

There’s the bottom again so we’ll just make it a little darker so we can have

an idea of what will be intersecting. I’ve decided basically to make it about this long

here, let’s say. Then the idea of how we cast back and we drop straight down from this

back corner is important. From here, so we’ll just do that simply over to the right vanishing

point to say, okay. If I wanted to find the other end somewhere down here of this shape

I could cast back here. I could come then straight up, and again, we’re drafting these,

but of course you’re free to this freehand if you’re skilled enough. The idea would be for

these diagrams I want to make sure that we’re dead

clear about how we reference this stuff.

So I’m going to go ahead and do it slower and draft it and take my time and put in some

color to be able to understand where some planes merge. That shape is going to look

like that. This could just be a bent piece of paper or a thin piece of wood. Or it could

be in a solid block of wood. It wouldn’t much matter when these two seams meet because

we’re going to have another shape similar to this butting in perpendicular into it.

So now that little reference drops there so I can get my line for the back of the object

going back to my left vanishing point. That helps me understand where I end the object

when I want it back here such as this. I want draw that in quite as hard. Then that ends

right around back here somewhere. I know that cause I can drop straight down. So what I

have to do is go to this end point on this line and find out how that drops straight

down. I’ll make it official by dropping it down with the T-square like this.

Then we’ll come forward from that vanishing point again, so we can figure out that we’re right

there. So now I know two things basically. I know the beginning, bottom, top of this

and where this begins, but in order to make a simple reference I’m going to pick a middle

point and a plane somewhere here and another point, and I’m going to cast that point

over in this direction toward the left vanishing point just lightly. That way if I also drop

straight down from that point I just put on there, make a little reference point on the ground.

I’m making a reference plane so I can find where this exists on the other

end properly in space. I can close off my curve. I find that it hits here and then I

go straight up like my little lay-in drawing indicates like this.

That makes a point where the corner meets. That plane represents this counterpart over

here. So now I can fill in my shape. I go straight up because I went a little bit straight

up here. I’m going to back to right VP for a little bit here so the same thing would

be true here if I wanted to draw back to that a little bit. Now I’ll fill in my curve

just like that between the idea there passing through on the way to this.

I’ll darken that in a little bit.

So there’s the back of my object. We could pick thickness to that, but essentially we’re

just thinking about it as a bent form like that.

Going back like this, and that back edge on the top.

Everything else is for referencing. We did create a reference plane to get back

down to that end. We can put in color but I’m going to trust that you can figure,

okay, I’m just going to do it pencil. We’ll have some color when we come into our reference

planes where we start referencing why the two objects meet at a particular seam between

the two. But this is a plane that we figured simply out here to get from here to here to

get that curve, okay. Alright, so now what we can do is we can decide where we might

want another plane hitting it as my sketch indicates. What I’ll do is I’ll just kind

of fill in what I had working here. This will be another shape, and it’s going to hit

and collide right here with that. I’m going to keep going on it so I can complete the

shape somewhat behind here. I’m not sure how far, so what I’ll do is I’ll draw

it. I want the top of it maybe that wide, maybe to come down to here.

I’ll just estimate it and draw the top at about here also.

Then I’ve got to figure out if it’s stopping about somewhere there how do I figure out

how deep it is this way? I can say I want to stop here and drop straight to the ground.

If I’m stopped here I go straight over here with a plane, and then I go straight up to

meet that other point. I don’t really know where to maker that off until I meet it. I

have a little pre-sketch here. You need to kind of come up and say, alright, the idea

is how deep do I want this? If I want to stop the line here and I’m starting from here

I have to draw over and then draw straight down to meet that line. Then I know where

the shape closes off, like right here. Just draw down to meet it there. There’s that

little corner. Now I know my, if I’m doing another bent shape it will start on its way

this way, and it will start on its way up like this.

Now I’ve got to figure out the curve again.

So this will be random again. Now I’ve got to go I’m just going to follow the idea

I had before. Draw the curve in like this. Make that nice and dark cause that’s another

object now meeting the first object. We have to make the two shapes fairly dark. I don’t

know where it’s going to meet up here yet. I do know that it meets here. I’m going

to darken that idea in. I’m also going to darken in the idea of this.

We’ve darkened the idea of the top of this already, and we have this nice, dark curve here.

This line here, now we get the feeling, okay, if that’s going to be there we can also darken in this

part here. This will overlap there somewhat. We just don’t know where it’s going to

meet against this line. What I’m going to do is I’m going to darken this and then

trail it off a little bit until we figure that out. I’ll make sure I darken in the curve again.

Alright, so we know it meets there. That’s an important point as well. Now, there’s

two ways you can do this. We’ll probably discuss both. I’ll try more of an internal

referencing method, where what I’m going to do from this point is I’m going to match

this curve this far down here, and I’m also going to match this one. But first I have

to get the back end of this object somewhere through here. I’ll try to find a point that’s

not too confusing to see, but what I’ll do is I will probably end at about here, let’s

say. So that means I’ll shoot over to this back line. I’ve got to make this backline

to you guys a little more obvious here. We haven’t made it yet. There’s that back

seem there. That corner would go back to here. I’ll draw that in lightly. I’ll take this

idea of it being this long along this plane and shoot it toward the left vanishing point,

a little bit right there. Hit that back plane there. Don’t get it confused with this dot.

It just happens to end there.

Now this is a shape that stops here and goes out here, which is different than this point

with its little line there just above that. Now, I’ll just go straight up my plane and

meet right here. That’s replicating the back end of this, the idea of here. Now I

have this and this. Replicating that—how do I get that curve? I can just pick a random

point, let’s say here again. We’ll do this in pencil again. We’ll drop that point

in the middle of the arch or the middle of the arc; drop it to the ground, let’s say.

Reference it all the way back to the right vanishing point from here right there. Go

back to where we see it hits here about there.

Then we’ll go back up until we get this point here.

Why do I know the height of this? Because I’ve drawn this straight back to

here. I have to cast this over here after I did this line here in order to say, oh,

here and here meet up as an entire plane. I’m just creating a reference plane to understand

where the counterpoint of this point would properly fall in perspective in relationship

where I wanted to end the back of this shape. It’s really just getting the curve but we’re

still pretending these blocks are solid in our minds because we need the references from

them. They could still be just curved shapes, and the rest are all little plum bobs dropping

to the ground and things like that. That’s fine.

So now fill in this curve a little bit and just say, alright, the back of this shape

will go back here. I’m not going to make it super dark, but that will be back there.

I’ll imagine that is a little more transparent. A little more dark back there. There is that

shape. Front, back of that. Because we can see it through this shape. There’s the curved

piece of paper. But really, we’re just saying that if this is where they collide we’ll

make this a little darker to see it a little better. Then we can see the top a little more

like this. Then we can also see that back curve through there. But I won’t make it

as dark as the other stuff just so we don’t get confused. So that’s that back shape.

Now we have two shapes that move through each other. Our job is to figure out how would

the actual surface seam look when they actually meet.

How do we reference that? There is a couple different ways. We could do one a long way

this way all the way around where we just needed the heights of different points on

one end, and we could come all the way around and find them on another. We’re going to

do that as well, but first I want to do more of an interior method. We’ll say, okay,

what if we re-create at this point right here, this same arch in perspective from right here.

How would we reference that. Well, we would go back along this line to the right vanishing

point to here. This back wall from here. Go straight up. What we’re doing is we’re

replicating the idea of this whole section being moved to right here. So what we have

to do is say this section is going to be replicated right here somehow with the curve. We’re

going to pretend there’s a seam going straight up here, all the way from here, here, up to

here to this point here. Then we have to find the curve. I need to have this reference plane

again we made before so I can find it here. All I do is go back from here again where

we drop this down before and cast it forward. I run along here until I hit right here. Then

I go straight up until I meet this line from it. We make another reference plane just like

that. So try that. I could do these in colors, but I’m really going to wait until we actually

do the referencing to find the seam. All I’m doing is replicating this end of this arc,

again right here.

Why is that true? I go up and go straight a little from here. Then I go toward my vanishing

point a little from here. Then I’ve got that reference point which is here slammed

into there. I dropped down, went over, went up, over, found that reference point. Now

I can make my arc very similarly to how I did before. So this is a pretend seam. It’s

not necessarily on the form, but it’s going to help me reference where I need to be. So

that’s a little seam. That might be real or not real. The only real seam we’re going

to be concerned with is when we reference the seam between this object butting into

this larger object. That’s all we really want. But, I’m going to also create this

from here on this side, this end cap from here rolling over. All I have to do, again,

is take this point and move all the way to my left vanishing point until I hit the back

wall here of this object. Come straight up until I meet this back wall here. I’ll come

straight up. I’ll use my T-square to make sure that’s correct.

Again, not to say every time you draw out two objects like this butting together—you

can guess as an artist just from observation where the seam would be. We’re actually

showing and going over slowly why the referencing of this type of thing, why and how the perspective

and the referencing works carefully so that you can use it in a more complex situation,

or if you’re doing a really large drawing and you want it correct. If it’s been looking

funny because you tried to wing it but it doesn’t look right. You can break things

down like this and reference them. Now we need to take this reference point, drop it

to the ground, run it to here. In a sense that’s what we did already to get the back

end. So let’s use that again and say, okay, I run this far until I run into what? I’ve

got this part here going to there, there, and that’s the point. I need to run to this

point and found it straight up. If I go straight up with this to meet that point here I’ve

created a reference plane going up to that point because it runs into this plane. It’s

like a little invisible plane with little rods, little thin rods and little balls at the end.

Now, I’ve found where the curve starts for this side. This side replicating this starts

here, kind of starts coming out like this. This from the bottom comes up a little like

here at our base where we meet the two planes. Then I can draw my curve through a little

bit like this. I should be able to gently draw down and probably meet this like this,

just based on that one curve. I’m just looking at the other curve. Instead of having five,

six points here. To get the seam we’re going to use more points than we might actually

need when we’re really drawing. But that’s okay because we’re strictly learning why

the concept of these reference planes and reference points works within these objects.

Okay, so there’s that pretend seam going back the other way. This matching this, this

matching that now. Now, I can do some referencing. Another thing I need is I need a reference

pole. I’m going to do that in blue because now this reference pole is going to help my

understand how to turn a corner with reference plane at different points. I’m just going

to get a different color not to be confusing. Right here I’m going to plant like a flagpole

right here and go straight up. I’m going to go farther up than I need. So that blue

line becomes a reference line. That’s a pretend little standing pole right at the

intersection of the two objects I can refer to because now I’m going to take different

points here on this curve, if I want, drive them forward to the pole and then find them

elsewhere in depth. And I’m going to draw little planes each time. I don’t know how

many I need. I can certainly take this point as one so that will start me there. I’m

doing it on this curve to find these same points over here and intersect, where the

two intersect is where we’re going to find the points where we actually draw our seam.

Here is one. I’m just going to overstate them. Let’s find one down here, let’s say.

Let’s say this far down right here. One right at the top.

AUTO SCROLL

Let’s see…back here. Right there. That’s almost straight there anyway. Then we go back

here, of course, and we find this. We know that varies in. So that’s important too.

We already know we have this at the bottom. That might be enough to find it. We could

even make another little tiny one, but it’s going to be so small it’s right here. But

we could put the idea of it just for the heck of it in there. What I’m doing—let’s

start with this bottom one and say what does all this mean. I’ll tell you, if we drive

this point from this seam which is perpendicular to this object, this object is perpendicular

to that object. If we drive this point to our blue reference line just a little bit

like that. Turn a corner and drive it back to the other curve, meeting from here back

we find we make a little point there. Then we go back in space toward the left again,

the idea. We’re making a little reference plane. Then we cross over to the right again.

Where that back corner is is where our seam actually is or one of our points for the seam.

There’s a little shaded red plane there, and that very back seam becomes the reference

point where the plane meets the back corner is the point where the seam between the two

butting, rounded objects meet. So I made that mark right there.

Here you could do it a tiny bit and just imagine it’s right in the middle there too. It’s

hardly significant to do it. This one, also again, I’ll drive it forward right from

that point from our left vanishing point. Driving it to our reference pole to be accurate.

Turn the corner to the right vanishing point and touch our other curve from our other object

on the other seam or our imaginary seam. We have that point now. We can drive that back

to the left vanishing point again. Overdraw it and meet up where that seam comes back

to the right vanishing point from that original point on that curve. Again, where we get the

back corner is where we meet the seam and draw in the seam eventually. We’re going

to wait to draw that seam in. There’s that little reference plane. Yet again, we’re

going to take this height, and we’re going to say, alright, I’m drawing from here straight

to the pole. It’s going to be very much on the same height as the other one back here.

But we’re not worried about that now. Turn a corner there on the pole. Go to the right

vanishing point. Make sure I’m accurate just show we’re showing it properly. Even

if you were doing this by hand you’d have to slow down if you wanted to do it accurately.

Now again, does it take all these reference points to really draw a middle seam between

two butting curved objects? Not if you know what these shapes do, necessarily, but that’s

how we learn to make these shapes because as the shapes become more complex maybe we’re

doing dormers on rounded French buildings, you know, on rooftops. This stuff can get

complicated. We’re going to go into slightly more and slightly more complex stuff. But

this is the very beginning of just two rounded curved shapes. They could be whole blocks,

or as I said they could just be standing pieces of thick paper or wood. We take that point

now; drive it back to the left vanishing point. Where that original point here is driven back

to the right vanishing point we’re going to collide with the other plane and find,

once again, another point here. Now we have this point, this point, this little point

here. This point in the back of this one and now this plane. I’ll go ahead and tone that

in lightly as well.

Once again I’m going to find the slightly higher point back in the corner, drive it

to the blue plane just above the other line, just a tiny bit above. That’s going to hit

right here. Go back to the right vanishing point and hit that curve just a little higher

there. That reference will give me the ability to go back to the left vanishing point. Drive

back like this all the way back to the back plane.

We need to go back to the back plane because where the back plane shape actually

hits the back curve of our rounded shape here.

I’ll explain that. This line needs to keep going from this point until it hits and collides

with this little plain above it now back here because that’s where the top of this object

actually strikes and goes into this slightly tall or larger rounded shape. Then this seam

follows these dots. Here is the top plane. This position here, this position here. We

went around at a reference plane. This position there to there. So now I’ll draw in the

curve in red between the marks.

Let’s just make it clear. First make, second mark, third mark, fourth, and a little one

just for the heck of it. Because it’s so close we’ll just officially say no, but

if we went from here forward, back, and back the little back corner would be there. Now

let’s draw in the seam in red between them. I’m going to draw that up from there, and

it’s going to turn fairly quickly like this.

Right down like that.

Okay, so there's our new seam.

I can even darken that in with a pencil again.

Our reference dots on the back of those seams there, there, there, and there basically.

Again, to get this. Coming down more shallow through that point.

Through this point. Slamming down to here.

So we could say the difference is rather than this wall

we originally had for this shape going back the difference of the seam now is this much.

I’ll go ahead and tone that in in blue. There’s the difference.

So what was originally here as a seam that started following this contour at this point coming up as a

section right here right as it met the base of the new shape. But as it extends into and meets

and butts with that shape, that’s where the edge is.

So it turns a little faster than expected, just right there. So there is the new seam

there. Of course, this is the other seam coming off the other end here, which we had to match

like that. Now, we could do a second method by coming around the front. I’ll just do

the first couple points we could, or we could do arbitrary points now. We could actually

pick a point, let’s say between this here, and say how would we carry this level all

the way around to find—where the two blue lines I’m about to draw cross that will

be where the seam is. Let’s see how close we were.

This is another method. We’re going to start here on this curve and say we’re going to

project the idea of these planes forward like this to make a corner.

That corner is right there.

I make another standing reference line. I’ll make it in red this time, for this

is a second method. So this is the first method.

By kind of more internally referencing space

internally this is kind of more of an external corner, a transparent imaginary box corner

we’re going to turn. That will be the second method in red. Have that reference plane come

up like this. That should be far enough for what we need. That line is standing up right

there in the front corner of our picture basically. That’s just an imaginary reference plane.

But now I can take this blue dot and I can carry it and project it from the left vanishing

point to my corner here. A little arrow there,

touching right there, turning the corner to the right.

Now we find this exact height, of course, by carrying it through to the perspective

as a reference plane. This is this exact height off the ground on this second object over

here. We know this because it’s like an imaginary rail that goes right there.

So now when I project to the right vanishing point from my original reference dot here,

I will find a crossing.

Oops. I misdrew that; excuse me. There is the one. Let me erase that.

This crossing from this blue line meeting the next blue line should be where the seam

is. Let me get rid of that misdrawn little line there, not to be confusing. It’s going

to be hard to get rid of in Prisma. No big deal. This is our line. This one comes here

and keeps going into space like this. But we’re going to meet it with this now, this

height, and coming back to the left vanishing point. Sure enough it should meet right up

with our other seam because what we’re doing is we’re drawing from this point meeting

in here. So sure enough, as we come over from there it meets right here because the two

intersecting levels meet right there. And that’s right on our seam. So we’re getting

the same idea or same result from this much larger reference plane taken from the height

here to our imaginary corner between the two objects back to this standing curve at that

proper height. Carry it all the way over and back over. When the two planes across the

surface of the curves meet, that meeting or intersection is, in fact, where you draw your

seam. We should be able to do it with one other as well. What I’ll do is take this

height right here again on that original curve.

Okay, so I’m taking this reference point again. I’m going to carry it all the way

over to my red corner standing reference pole. Look, there’s a little bug there. That’s

called a Japanese beetle, I think. It’s good luck, everybody. This one should go magical.

Let me scoot this out of the way without killing it. There’s a record, folks. Never had that

happen before. We’re going to keep moving, though.

Maybe our little karma from our beetle can help.

We’re going to turn the corner, go back to the right, and we now have that same height

referenced right there. So this point carried to our imaginary corner reference line in

red back to this curve now as that’s the height. So now if I project this toward the

vanishing point to the right again, over, cross over my area and then project back to

the left vanishing point, not killing our little bug. There we are.

We should meet at the exact same seam again.

That’s how we do it.

Sure enough, right there. That’s where we meet.

That curves right over there. So that

meeting place is right on our seam too. We’re only going to do two here and here. Still

meet right on our seam that we got from our red referencing from the first method. This

is the second method. If you want to take in your notes the second method is simply

where the outside parameters of the two planes meeting as an imaginary corner which takes

larger reference planes but nonetheless works. The initial one we had to draw out curves

that meet at this intersecting point as planes perpendicularly to each other with an imaginary

seam of each curve to get the seam here by referencing these heights to the imaginary

reference line here in blue. Either way works. This is a little cleaner and easier to use

probably in picture methods with more intimate objects and things like this. But if you had

a bigger thing and you have a whole bunch of work going on here, and you wouldn’t

necessarily want to get in any, you know, any referencing going there that would get

in your way of something you could lightly go on the outside.

Again, always remember these lines I’m putting in much thicker except for your finished lines

of your objects all these lines are incredibly light, just light enough so that you can just

understand them and follow them back and be careful and then draw that seam. Now, I know

it’s a long journey for just that seam. But as you know, most of these diagrams are

showing is that that’s how we prove to ourselves that two objects in the real world that would

have this exact nature in our view to them at that size would, in fact, have a seam that

would meet right there. That is the seam of this object here butting into this larger

object. This edge goes in and meets here, comes down. The seam comes down like that

and meets down there. These are imaginary seams or would be seams that are still parallel

to the end blocks of each of the objects. This is the only one that behaves a little

differently. It’s not that different, but the logic is how did we get and thick about

how to move from these two in order to get that middle seam. Or in this case, how did

we plot different points here which we could continue and do more of moving forward to

a corner back to this curve all at the same height. These planes and these two points

are at the same height, and those seams thrusting into each other and intersecting actually

become where we draw our seam. It’s kind of like connect the dots again. So it’s

the same idea two different ways. Method one with more of the internal work. Method two

more of the external box corner. And that’s all we’re doing.

So again, to make it really clear our only actual objects are this curve here; these

nice, thick lines going back all the way back down to here; this curve at the top; and then,

of course, this object meeting here, going all the way through, meeting back here and

coming out. We did draw through like a solid shape, but actually it’s just to get referencing.

We don’t have to. All these ideas would be incredibly light except for the actual

objects we wanted to see. There might be texture over the surface. It may be made of wood,

metal, reflections, painting, all that stuff. But, at least we can prove where our seams

work. We’re going to do a little more, little more complex objects as we go. I wanted to

make that clear for this diagram even though I’m overstating it and some people are probably

rolling their eyes going, okay, we get it. Just remember, you have to be kind of an acrobat

to think about how to do these different referencing from rectangles and perpendicular planes to

turn them into, you know, reference points that help you draw the skin or the seam on

the surface of an object that’s two butting objects coming together, a little bit like

we did with the wing on that little vehicle we did last and that kind of thing and bringing

the door forward on to the roundness of the skin. We did a little bit of it. Now this

is just a different way. Okay, we’ll go on to the next diagram. That’s that method

there for just referencing two intersecting objects and two intersecting planes,

just two rounded objects.

here, of course, and we find this. We know that varies in. So that’s important too.

We already know we have this at the bottom. That might be enough to find it. We could

even make another little tiny one, but it’s going to be so small it’s right here. But

we could put the idea of it just for the heck of it in there. What I’m doing—let’s

start with this bottom one and say what does all this mean. I’ll tell you, if we drive

this point from this seam which is perpendicular to this object, this object is perpendicular

to that object. If we drive this point to our blue reference line just a little bit

like that. Turn a corner and drive it back to the other curve, meeting from here back

we find we make a little point there. Then we go back in space toward the left again,

the idea. We’re making a little reference plane. Then we cross over to the right again.

Where that back corner is is where our seam actually is or one of our points for the seam.

There’s a little shaded red plane there, and that very back seam becomes the reference

point where the plane meets the back corner is the point where the seam between the two

butting, rounded objects meet. So I made that mark right there.

Here you could do it a tiny bit and just imagine it’s right in the middle there too. It’s

hardly significant to do it. This one, also again, I’ll drive it forward right from

that point from our left vanishing point. Driving it to our reference pole to be accurate.

Turn the corner to the right vanishing point and touch our other curve from our other object

on the other seam or our imaginary seam. We have that point now. We can drive that back

to the left vanishing point again. Overdraw it and meet up where that seam comes back

to the right vanishing point from that original point on that curve. Again, where we get the

back corner is where we meet the seam and draw in the seam eventually. We’re going

to wait to draw that seam in. There’s that little reference plane. Yet again, we’re

going to take this height, and we’re going to say, alright, I’m drawing from here straight

to the pole. It’s going to be very much on the same height as the other one back here.

But we’re not worried about that now. Turn a corner there on the pole. Go to the right

vanishing point. Make sure I’m accurate just show we’re showing it properly. Even

if you were doing this by hand you’d have to slow down if you wanted to do it accurately.

Now again, does it take all these reference points to really draw a middle seam between

two butting curved objects? Not if you know what these shapes do, necessarily, but that’s

how we learn to make these shapes because as the shapes become more complex maybe we’re

doing dormers on rounded French buildings, you know, on rooftops. This stuff can get

complicated. We’re going to go into slightly more and slightly more complex stuff. But

this is the very beginning of just two rounded curved shapes. They could be whole blocks,

or as I said they could just be standing pieces of thick paper or wood. We take that point

now; drive it back to the left vanishing point. Where that original point here is driven back

to the right vanishing point we’re going to collide with the other plane and find,

once again, another point here. Now we have this point, this point, this little point

here. This point in the back of this one and now this plane. I’ll go ahead and tone that

in lightly as well.

Once again I’m going to find the slightly higher point back in the corner, drive it

to the blue plane just above the other line, just a tiny bit above. That’s going to hit

right here. Go back to the right vanishing point and hit that curve just a little higher

there. That reference will give me the ability to go back to the left vanishing point. Drive

back like this all the way back to the back plane.

We need to go back to the back plane because where the back plane shape actually

hits the back curve of our rounded shape here.

I’ll explain that. This line needs to keep going from this point until it hits and collides

with this little plain above it now back here because that’s where the top of this object

actually strikes and goes into this slightly tall or larger rounded shape. Then this seam

follows these dots. Here is the top plane. This position here, this position here. We

went around at a reference plane. This position there to there. So now I’ll draw in the

curve in red between the marks.

Let’s just make it clear. First make, second mark, third mark, fourth, and a little one

just for the heck of it. Because it’s so close we’ll just officially say no, but

if we went from here forward, back, and back the little back corner would be there. Now

let’s draw in the seam in red between them. I’m going to draw that up from there, and

it’s going to turn fairly quickly like this.

Right down like that.

Okay, so there's our new seam.

I can even darken that in with a pencil again.

Our reference dots on the back of those seams there, there, there, and there basically.

Again, to get this. Coming down more shallow through that point.

Through this point. Slamming down to here.

So we could say the difference is rather than this wall

we originally had for this shape going back the difference of the seam now is this much.

I’ll go ahead and tone that in in blue. There’s the difference.

So what was originally here as a seam that started following this contour at this point coming up as a

section right here right as it met the base of the new shape. But as it extends into and meets

and butts with that shape, that’s where the edge is.

So it turns a little faster than expected, just right there. So there is the new seam

there. Of course, this is the other seam coming off the other end here, which we had to match

like that. Now, we could do a second method by coming around the front. I’ll just do

the first couple points we could, or we could do arbitrary points now. We could actually

pick a point, let’s say between this here, and say how would we carry this level all

the way around to find—where the two blue lines I’m about to draw cross that will

be where the seam is. Let’s see how close we were.

This is another method. We’re going to start here on this curve and say we’re going to

project the idea of these planes forward like this to make a corner.

That corner is right there.

I make another standing reference line. I’ll make it in red this time, for this

is a second method. So this is the first method.

By kind of more internally referencing space

internally this is kind of more of an external corner, a transparent imaginary box corner

we’re going to turn. That will be the second method in red. Have that reference plane come

up like this. That should be far enough for what we need. That line is standing up right

there in the front corner of our picture basically. That’s just an imaginary reference plane.

But now I can take this blue dot and I can carry it and project it from the left vanishing

point to my corner here. A little arrow there,

touching right there, turning the corner to the right.

Now we find this exact height, of course, by carrying it through to the perspective

as a reference plane. This is this exact height off the ground on this second object over

here. We know this because it’s like an imaginary rail that goes right there.

So now when I project to the right vanishing point from my original reference dot here,

I will find a crossing.

Oops. I misdrew that; excuse me. There is the one. Let me erase that.

This crossing from this blue line meeting the next blue line should be where the seam

is. Let me get rid of that misdrawn little line there, not to be confusing. It’s going

to be hard to get rid of in Prisma. No big deal. This is our line. This one comes here

and keeps going into space like this. But we’re going to meet it with this now, this

height, and coming back to the left vanishing point. Sure enough it should meet right up

with our other seam because what we’re doing is we’re drawing from this point meeting

in here. So sure enough, as we come over from there it meets right here because the two

intersecting levels meet right there. And that’s right on our seam. So we’re getting

the same idea or same result from this much larger reference plane taken from the height

here to our imaginary corner between the two objects back to this standing curve at that

proper height. Carry it all the way over and back over. When the two planes across the

surface of the curves meet, that meeting or intersection is, in fact, where you draw your

seam. We should be able to do it with one other as well. What I’ll do is take this

height right here again on that original curve.

Okay, so I’m taking this reference point again. I’m going to carry it all the way

over to my red corner standing reference pole. Look, there’s a little bug there. That’s

called a Japanese beetle, I think. It’s good luck, everybody. This one should go magical.

Let me scoot this out of the way without killing it. There’s a record, folks. Never had that

happen before. We’re going to keep moving, though.

Maybe our little karma from our beetle can help.

We’re going to turn the corner, go back to the right, and we now have that same height

referenced right there. So this point carried to our imaginary corner reference line in

red back to this curve now as that’s the height. So now if I project this toward the

vanishing point to the right again, over, cross over my area and then project back to

the left vanishing point, not killing our little bug. There we are.

We should meet at the exact same seam again.

That’s how we do it.

Sure enough, right there. That’s where we meet.

That curves right over there. So that

meeting place is right on our seam too. We’re only going to do two here and here. Still

meet right on our seam that we got from our red referencing from the first method. This

is the second method. If you want to take in your notes the second method is simply

where the outside parameters of the two planes meeting as an imaginary corner which takes

larger reference planes but nonetheless works. The initial one we had to draw out curves

that meet at this intersecting point as planes perpendicularly to each other with an imaginary

seam of each curve to get the seam here by referencing these heights to the imaginary

reference line here in blue. Either way works. This is a little cleaner and easier to use

probably in picture methods with more intimate objects and things like this. But if you had

a bigger thing and you have a whole bunch of work going on here, and you wouldn’t

necessarily want to get in any, you know, any referencing going there that would get

in your way of something you could lightly go on the outside.

Again, always remember these lines I’m putting in much thicker except for your finished lines

of your objects all these lines are incredibly light, just light enough so that you can just

understand them and follow them back and be careful and then draw that seam. Now, I know

it’s a long journey for just that seam. But as you know, most of these diagrams are

showing is that that’s how we prove to ourselves that two objects in the real world that would

have this exact nature in our view to them at that size would, in fact, have a seam that

would meet right there. That is the seam of this object here butting into this larger

object. This edge goes in and meets here, comes down. The seam comes down like that

and meets down there. These are imaginary seams or would be seams that are still parallel

to the end blocks of each of the objects. This is the only one that behaves a little

differently. It’s not that different, but the logic is how did we get and thick about

how to move from these two in order to get that middle seam. Or in this case, how did

we plot different points here which we could continue and do more of moving forward to

a corner back to this curve all at the same height. These planes and these two points

are at the same height, and those seams thrusting into each other and intersecting actually

become where we draw our seam. It’s kind of like connect the dots again. So it’s

the same idea two different ways. Method one with more of the internal work. Method two

more of the external box corner. And that’s all we’re doing.

So again, to make it really clear our only actual objects are this curve here; these

nice, thick lines going back all the way back down to here; this curve at the top; and then,

of course, this object meeting here, going all the way through, meeting back here and

coming out. We did draw through like a solid shape, but actually it’s just to get referencing.

We don’t have to. All these ideas would be incredibly light except for the actual

objects we wanted to see. There might be texture over the surface. It may be made of wood,

metal, reflections, painting, all that stuff. But, at least we can prove where our seams

work. We’re going to do a little more, little more complex objects as we go. I wanted to

make that clear for this diagram even though I’m overstating it and some people are probably

rolling their eyes going, okay, we get it. Just remember, you have to be kind of an acrobat

to think about how to do these different referencing from rectangles and perpendicular planes to

turn them into, you know, reference points that help you draw the skin or the seam on

the surface of an object that’s two butting objects coming together, a little bit like

we did with the wing on that little vehicle we did last and that kind of thing and bringing

the door forward on to the roundness of the skin. We did a little bit of it. Now this

is just a different way. Okay, we’ll go on to the next diagram. That’s that method

there for just referencing two intersecting objects and two intersecting planes,

just two rounded objects.

AUTO SCROLL

We’re going to do two more intersecting planes but they’re going to be a little

more complex curves meeting each other so we’ll just start out with the first one

going this way, and another one—you can see a ghost of it here. I just wanted to make

this really clear. When we get to the point of referencing you could put a tissue paper

over it. When we get to the actual referencing of the seam because we’re going to make

a fairly odd-looking curvaceous seam where these two curved planes meet in a section.

So we’ll just get started in kind of laying it out carefully. I just started basically

at this height here, worked back to the left vanishing point.

Had a plane working back this way and then I also put basic lines here.

We’ll just try to start this way simply like that.

Then of those two I made a curve starting here and just started this way. I’ll

just draw it in, the logic of what I did here coming down, coming around.

Down like that. So I’ll draw that in a little

thicker so we can be really clear about it.

Okay, so it ends right there. Begins right here.

If we want, as usual, we can take points of interest here, here, here, here, here, and here.

The reason I picked these ideas was because if we take the plane back to the right

with this we can pick ideas of dropped planes, one at the edge here. That point was taken

for where that just touches that. Then if we come straight down from the top here we

can get actually three here.

So in a sense you go ahead and draw that plane and

that plane and see where the most convenient places are to break that up. Another one that comes

obvious is the tip of this plane here. It’s right there. I can also get one here, drop

one here. That hits the ground there, there, and there in back corner. Then I can just

put another one randomly there and then drop that back to the bottom. Try to find common

places where I can make convenient references on the ground for those. Again, there’s

that curved shape. We’re casting it back here. I’ll go ahead and make the entire

shape and then we’ll drawn in another plane to intersect it about here.

So in a sense now what we need to say, alright, there’s that back plan driving back to the

left in that back corner there. So now if I want to replicate this curve back here again

you just pick a point here on the ground. Then we go back over to the right vanishing

point and meet it up, kind a make a rectangle of the whole thing. Then we have the back

corner here. We can take that up.

We have to take note that the back corner actually

continues on a plane from this point too. Back to there, essentially. It’s really

back here. What we’re interested in is we only need to meet the back corner back here.

If we take these points here, thrust them over here and raise them up, we should be

able to find all these points over there fairly quickly.

So let’s do that. Let’s move across to the left vanishing point from this point across.

Make a note right there. Also, these two points drop to right here, move back over there on

the ground, make a mark there. We’re just making planes. At this point on the ground

here as well. Move over and make a plane. So the logic we’ve been following before,

we’re just trying to find since we’ve wanted the plane this long, randomly picked

it this long. It would be convenient for the design. We’re picking these points here

where these dropped to the ground so we can find all these points on this curve and create

a new curve on the back side. So now we’ve got these points. We need to bring them up

in the air vertically, this back corner plane over here. I’m just going to drive them

up like this and like that. We have this back corner or front corner. We already know we have that.

If I want to find this one here I have to drive it over to the left vanishing point

to find this right there.

So now we’ve got this point and this point, this point and this point there. Now I have

two on this plane here and here. If I drive over and find that plane we’re talking about

taking this lower one. Making a mark there. Taking the higher one on that same plane,

moving over to the left vanishing point as well to find it right there. So we have these

two points now right there. We have this point, this point, this point, and that point over

here. Now we’re getting three points in this one, right? We take this line. We follow

it over here to there and up on here we’ll find these points. So that little one is a

little ways up here. I’ll go over to that plane. Hit it here. What else is found on

that one? This one, drive it to that same vertical over here. All I’m making is these

little rectangular planes over and over again from all these. I didn’t want to clutter

them up too hard, but if on your diagram if you want to draw them these all have standing

rectangular planes between them. This little thin one here. Over there, a little thin one

here. Going back up to here is another one. Then the same line again. We find the top.

So if we simply drive the top over, which we already have done, we find it hitting it

there. So there’s that back corner. So now we have that back corner.

We still have the idea of this at the tip of this curve here at the very back. We drive

this one to the left vanishing point again to that back standing corner vertical that

we have over here. So that would be another reference plane coming around there. Alright.

So that’s how we’re referencing. Again, I’m not going to clutter up too dark. We

need to make this point. When the diagram is finished we’re really looking for the

seam between the two planes hitting each other that both have curves, this one being more

complex. This one is going to be a little simpler as you’ll see when we draw it. But

still, I want to leave this area a little bit open to really show how you draw the seam.

But remember, we initially got the length and depth of this particular shape. We randomly

put in the curve. Then by drawing back to the vanishing point and kind of putting a

back on it, we found convenient places to make references. Drop those to the ground.

Found the distance we wanted to go back in space, mark that off, and started bringing

all these references up to there. Made our verticals and then found these dots over striking

these verticals by making little standing rectangular planes. So that’s what we did.

We should have all them now, I believe. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight.

One two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. So now we can start drawing in our curve and

just start noticing how this moves through here. I just want to make sure I kind of get

the spirit of that back curve. Again, that one is coming kind of down and through. I’m

just trying to feel out how the back curve is going straight through there. If you want

to just get a feel for what a natural curve would look like, that’s what we’re doing

here. Coming forward from that so it pretty much goes like that.

Down and through. Come up this way,

a little bit up, back down. And we’ve got our shape.

So that’s the back side, front side, and we still have our back plane, plane coming

forward, back plane, plane coming forward. There is our shape. I’ll darken it in a

little but only a little bit because I don’t know quite what the intersection is going

to be yet. I’ll darken in the top plane and make the shape more obvious. Get it pretty

dark here. Going back. And I know I want it intersecting at some point, so I’ll just

kind of draw it darker for a second here. That’s about all I’m going to do now until

I know what the second shape intersecting into it.

I’m going to take it, and I’ve decided to do these two lines from the right vanishing

point and line them up here, kind of go through like this. And again on the top. This one

is going to be a little higher than our original one. Something like that. And I decided to

make start here and end here basically and made a curved shaped randomly. So we’ll

start it down like I did before. Make kind of a natural curve.

I got an idea, this is mostly about finding out why the referencing works. If you were to joint two planes like

this, this referencing method could give you a good idea of the basic shape. We’re going

to get more specific to show you why it works and get a pretty exact manner how these two

complicated rolled shapes would move into each other.

I’m just going to draw and thicken in that curve a bit.

This cold represent anything. Again, it’s the idea. So we can cover a

lot of ground here. We can get the idea of the two ideas. So when you’re doing your

own shape you have to figure out, or if I’m doing this curved shape and that curved shape

and I can make them, you know, if they’re meeting on a perpendicular manner and I can

set these planes to the ground and square out the back, can I figure out how to use

these rectangular standing and sitting planes and reference points to be able to figure

out how the seam would behave between the two surfaces of the objects. So there’s

that curve. It ends there, ends there.

This one is taller so I can draw that in a little darker here at the top and say, okay,

it’s going to go back some ways here. I’m not sure how far. I can also draw this one

now and intersect into that one going to the right vanishing point like this.

I’ll draw that nice and dark so we can see that clearly running into that one. That’s where the

point is they intersect down on the ground, obviously. It’s right there.

So remember, this one is standing up going into this one. This one is going through it.

They’re all transparent. This one is back here. I’m not going to darken it anymore

because we want to make it clear that this obviously object is in front of it. We want

to make that real obvious. I’m just making the basic line.

We’re just doing the basic idea.

This might have thickness that you’d want to carefully draw in. Whatever it represents,

but this how you’d reference the seam between the two objects where it meets and rolls around

the surface intersecting the two objects.

Okay, so now what I would like to do is kind of pick a length for this object as well.

Kind of figure, well, to do that it’d be easier, again, to reference this back and

kind of imagine it has a slight solidity to it.

Make some estimations off this so that

would meet back there farthest it goes back. Makes a little corner. I’ll go ahead and

draw that idea of that plane back as well to the vanishing point. Line that up and say,

okay, there’s that little plane going back there. Now, I have to decide how deep do I

want this second plane. This shape moving back through the other one. We can see it.

I estimate it about here. So now I have to go to work and say if I wanted it that deep

on the ground plane I draw back to my left side and meet that back corner. So now that’s

that back corner, front corner, front corner. Drop. So now we can find some common places

where we can drop these angles and get some reference points working on this one. Carry

it over. Re-create that curve on the far side back here. So let’s do some of that.

The logic is we have the back one already dropped here from here, making the corner.

We could say, okay, that one meets there. That’s an obvious one. We have this one.

We can drop that to the ground. That also meets the curve at another place to come down

to the ground. We have that point too. A little point dropping to the ground. And it’s a

pretty simple shape so let’s say we only need, I don’t know, one more reference,

something dropping to the ground about here, there, making that mark. Now, we’ve got

one, two, three, four points plus the fifth here on the ground, so a total of five. Let

me get a sharper pencil. Now we’re going to drive these points, drop to the ground

here all the way back. We already know we have this point here. We know we have this

back point over here. We’ll drop the other two over on the ground from here.

Going over, making a mark here.

Also from over here—

right there, coming over and making a mark back here.

Now we can make some verticals from that back wall to catch these points, draw

them over. Hitting those verticals. We’ll be able to reference the shape again. I’ll

just make a quick verticals off those points here.

Going up a certain degree and the one in the back.

So now I want to follow that logic and this logic. Let’s take this last one. We dropped

on the curve here, and we drop to the back. We can take it back to the right vanishing

point. Shuttle it back. Line that one up.

So now I find a point right here because what

I’ve done is I’ve taken this idea, dropped to the ground, come here, hit this kind of

up the same height, made a reference plane there. That’s why I know that point is there

from this back corner on the ground. So this is here over here. I’ll take this point

which contains this one and this one. I’ll drop that over. I’m going to carry that

lower one over to the right vanishing point. Okay, right there. Going right to the vanishing

point there. Carry that one over. It’s going to hit right there.

Also, this one now up here is going to drive over there and hit that same plane. So there’s that corner

back there, this point back here. I’ve got to get this one now. That drops over, goes

up, and goes up here. We drive across from that one. And that ends up right there. A

little arrow right there on that plane.

Now we have our one, two, three, four, five. I should be able to draw the same nature of

this curve here a little bit. That one comes through about like that. This one comes up

a little so it’s coming up through there a little. It comes back down and straightens

out about there. And then this one curves down at that point like this. So that’s

a start of a clue how that looks so we’ll come around.

Back side of that.

Go through there, clean that up. Come around the side, slowly rise up like that.

Okay, so now we’re getting—

edge that out a little more curvaceously. Again, I don’t want to get that one too

dark. You have a seam to draw in front so I’ll tap that back a little. We’re getting

the idea here. So this shape brought back in perspective this far. Moving across the

cone of vision. It would look basically like that to match that.

Now we can kind of close that shape out there

real dark start getting a feeling for how it would look.

Alright, and this one looks like it would hit from there so we’d actually darken that one in

before it went below. Then we’ll just leave that up there. So now we’ve got everything

kind of accented as we need it. Now we have to consider the second part. We’ve got these

shapes working now. Now we get it. I’ll make it a little darker back here to the intersection

back here. Got these two shapes working through each other. I don’t want to darken those

too much because we’ve got to do the seam now. We have this shape with this end going

back over through here, and then this one coming through it. But we haven’t drawn

our intersecting seam where the two surfaces meet and actually make the plane change to

the seam. We have to figure that one out. We’ve got this point here. We know that.

But all the other ones we have to figure out. We’re going to use that method where we

came forward with the front corner where these two meet on a corner and reference that.

So let’s do that. We’re just going to draw straight from here. The flush side of

that shape and draw there. Come from the ride side vanishing point, draw through that plane

there. Come through. We have a corner right there. That’s going to be our imaginary

reference corner. We just have like a pole planted there. We’re going to turn that

corner. Because this is the more complex shape we’re going to start referencing a lot of

points in blue here and carrying them over to this shape and running them in. Where the

two intersect is where we’re going to find the little points that are going to make up

the pattern of our seam that we’re going to follow when we draw it in, the plane of

the seam between these two intersecting rolled planes.

I’ll go ahead and use red for this standing pole that represents the turn of the corner.

This imaginary reference corner, it’s a reference pole. I’ll make that go ahead

and go all the way above here like this. So it goes above everything. This, of course,

is standing in front of both of these a good ways here out in front of this reference box.

That’s going to represent our pole, so if you want we can say there’s a reference

pole or reference line. Just standing there. So now let’s just pick different points,

and we can start numbering them when we make our seam points on the actual seam. We can

do that in blue. We’ll do the first one fairly carefully. We’re going to start here

in blue, that dot there. What we’re doing is we’re figuring out where does this line

of this hit this shape? What we’re going to do is we’re going to use our vanishing

points, and we’re going to move this point forward in space at its height just like this.

Get that. Make a mark on that pole.

We’re then turning because it’s coming forward in space parallel to the ground, and

we’re turning, going over to the left vanishing point and going all the way back until we

hit. Make a little arrow and we hit this. That makes that one. I’ll make them a little

darker so you can see them easier. Remember, you would be making all these lines very light

and just noticeable enough for you to be able to see them until you drew your shapes out.

Then if it was in a painting, or if it was helpful on an actual canvas or piece of paper

you could tap them out or even erase them, whatever you need to do to—if they’re

not important anymore and they’ve done the purpose for any type of perspective, you can

keep those lines extremely light, cobweb thin. Just enough to understand and be able to trace

back what you’re doing with the reference planes.

Now we have this to this to this. Now we need to come back across this plane, the surface

of this plane, and the top line of this plane and where they meet and cross is where the

beginning of the seam would be. Of course, we have this line going here. We need to come

back to the right and line this plane up.

This scooting over here to hit this. This plane has come over and would be coming across.

They both cross to right here.

I'll make that and I’ll call that number one. That’s where the top of this curvature here, this

plane touches the surface of this object here. That’s the first point. We know this because

we’ve taken the reference to the imaginary corner at the same height on this shape and

then run across its actual surface until they cross. Where they cross each other like this

is where you make that point. So that’s just for that height. We’re going to fill

them in. We need more than this to really show it really clearly why the shape will

do what it does. Once you get used to these kind of shapes, or if you have to do a number

of these types of scenes or even just the logic of it, of course, you wouldn’t need

to use a whole bunch of shapes if you get used to the idea of why the shape would be

behaving between the logic of these two shapes meeting. It does get pretty complicated and

confusing. So to kind of prove it and make it more clear we’re going to do a number

of reference points, so we’ll probably do them in between the ones we’ve had set before,

but we’ll still use the ones we were using on here as well. What I’ll do is I’ll

set them in between and just kind of count them down. We’ll do another one here. We’ll

do the same one we did there, another one in between here. That one in between and that one.

Then we’ll stop at that and then kind of collect our wits after we’ve done all those.

I wanted to do quite a few just to make the seam more seeable as it’s going to come

down kind of unraveled. Let's take that second point here and run forward to the reference here.

Turn the corner go back to the left vanishing point all the way back to our shape

right here, just a little bit lower on that. We’re going to run back to our vanishing

point from this point here lightly. We’re going to run back and we’re going to see

where this one crosses over running across that plane. We’re going to see it runs across

right here. We’ll call that little point two because we ran across the very surface.

Imagining we’re actually touching the surface with a little spider web that’s straight

to here and across the surface of this one because we referenced out, came back in that

imaginary core, struck this shape running across that surface and that surface until

they meet. The little reference planes we’re making here actually allow us to see where

the back corners of the reference planes meet. Sure enough we’re finding our seam.

So let’s do it with a third here.

more complex curves meeting each other so we’ll just start out with the first one

going this way, and another one—you can see a ghost of it here. I just wanted to make

this really clear. When we get to the point of referencing you could put a tissue paper

over it. When we get to the actual referencing of the seam because we’re going to make

a fairly odd-looking curvaceous seam where these two curved planes meet in a section.

So we’ll just get started in kind of laying it out carefully. I just started basically

at this height here, worked back to the left vanishing point.

Had a plane working back this way and then I also put basic lines here.

We’ll just try to start this way simply like that.

Then of those two I made a curve starting here and just started this way. I’ll

just draw it in, the logic of what I did here coming down, coming around.

Down like that. So I’ll draw that in a little

thicker so we can be really clear about it.

Okay, so it ends right there. Begins right here.

If we want, as usual, we can take points of interest here, here, here, here, here, and here.

The reason I picked these ideas was because if we take the plane back to the right

with this we can pick ideas of dropped planes, one at the edge here. That point was taken

for where that just touches that. Then if we come straight down from the top here we

can get actually three here.

So in a sense you go ahead and draw that plane and

that plane and see where the most convenient places are to break that up. Another one that comes

obvious is the tip of this plane here. It’s right there. I can also get one here, drop

one here. That hits the ground there, there, and there in back corner. Then I can just

put another one randomly there and then drop that back to the bottom. Try to find common

places where I can make convenient references on the ground for those. Again, there’s

that curved shape. We’re casting it back here. I’ll go ahead and make the entire

shape and then we’ll drawn in another plane to intersect it about here.

So in a sense now what we need to say, alright, there’s that back plan driving back to the

left in that back corner there. So now if I want to replicate this curve back here again

you just pick a point here on the ground. Then we go back over to the right vanishing

point and meet it up, kind a make a rectangle of the whole thing. Then we have the back

corner here. We can take that up.

We have to take note that the back corner actually

continues on a plane from this point too. Back to there, essentially. It’s really

back here. What we’re interested in is we only need to meet the back corner back here.

If we take these points here, thrust them over here and raise them up, we should be

able to find all these points over there fairly quickly.

So let’s do that. Let’s move across to the left vanishing point from this point across.

Make a note right there. Also, these two points drop to right here, move back over there on

the ground, make a mark there. We’re just making planes. At this point on the ground

here as well. Move over and make a plane. So the logic we’ve been following before,

we’re just trying to find since we’ve wanted the plane this long, randomly picked

it this long. It would be convenient for the design. We’re picking these points here

where these dropped to the ground so we can find all these points on this curve and create

a new curve on the back side. So now we’ve got these points. We need to bring them up

in the air vertically, this back corner plane over here. I’m just going to drive them

up like this and like that. We have this back corner or front corner. We already know we have that.

If I want to find this one here I have to drive it over to the left vanishing point

to find this right there.

So now we’ve got this point and this point, this point and this point there. Now I have

two on this plane here and here. If I drive over and find that plane we’re talking about

taking this lower one. Making a mark there. Taking the higher one on that same plane,

moving over to the left vanishing point as well to find it right there. So we have these

two points now right there. We have this point, this point, this point, and that point over

here. Now we’re getting three points in this one, right? We take this line. We follow

it over here to there and up on here we’ll find these points. So that little one is a

little ways up here. I’ll go over to that plane. Hit it here. What else is found on

that one? This one, drive it to that same vertical over here. All I’m making is these

little rectangular planes over and over again from all these. I didn’t want to clutter

them up too hard, but if on your diagram if you want to draw them these all have standing

rectangular planes between them. This little thin one here. Over there, a little thin one

here. Going back up to here is another one. Then the same line again. We find the top.

So if we simply drive the top over, which we already have done, we find it hitting it

there. So there’s that back corner. So now we have that back corner.

We still have the idea of this at the tip of this curve here at the very back. We drive

this one to the left vanishing point again to that back standing corner vertical that

we have over here. So that would be another reference plane coming around there. Alright.

So that’s how we’re referencing. Again, I’m not going to clutter up too dark. We

need to make this point. When the diagram is finished we’re really looking for the

seam between the two planes hitting each other that both have curves, this one being more

complex. This one is going to be a little simpler as you’ll see when we draw it. But

still, I want to leave this area a little bit open to really show how you draw the seam.

But remember, we initially got the length and depth of this particular shape. We randomly

put in the curve. Then by drawing back to the vanishing point and kind of putting a

back on it, we found convenient places to make references. Drop those to the ground.

Found the distance we wanted to go back in space, mark that off, and started bringing

all these references up to there. Made our verticals and then found these dots over striking

these verticals by making little standing rectangular planes. So that’s what we did.

We should have all them now, I believe. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight.

One two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. So now we can start drawing in our curve and

just start noticing how this moves through here. I just want to make sure I kind of get

the spirit of that back curve. Again, that one is coming kind of down and through. I’m

just trying to feel out how the back curve is going straight through there. If you want

to just get a feel for what a natural curve would look like, that’s what we’re doing

here. Coming forward from that so it pretty much goes like that.

Down and through. Come up this way,

a little bit up, back down. And we’ve got our shape.

So that’s the back side, front side, and we still have our back plane, plane coming

forward, back plane, plane coming forward. There is our shape. I’ll darken it in a

little but only a little bit because I don’t know quite what the intersection is going

to be yet. I’ll darken in the top plane and make the shape more obvious. Get it pretty

dark here. Going back. And I know I want it intersecting at some point, so I’ll just

kind of draw it darker for a second here. That’s about all I’m going to do now until

I know what the second shape intersecting into it.

I’m going to take it, and I’ve decided to do these two lines from the right vanishing

point and line them up here, kind of go through like this. And again on the top. This one

is going to be a little higher than our original one. Something like that. And I decided to

make start here and end here basically and made a curved shaped randomly. So we’ll

start it down like I did before. Make kind of a natural curve.

I got an idea, this is mostly about finding out why the referencing works. If you were to joint two planes like

this, this referencing method could give you a good idea of the basic shape. We’re going

to get more specific to show you why it works and get a pretty exact manner how these two

complicated rolled shapes would move into each other.

I’m just going to draw and thicken in that curve a bit.

This cold represent anything. Again, it’s the idea. So we can cover a

lot of ground here. We can get the idea of the two ideas. So when you’re doing your

own shape you have to figure out, or if I’m doing this curved shape and that curved shape

and I can make them, you know, if they’re meeting on a perpendicular manner and I can

set these planes to the ground and square out the back, can I figure out how to use

these rectangular standing and sitting planes and reference points to be able to figure

out how the seam would behave between the two surfaces of the objects. So there’s

that curve. It ends there, ends there.

This one is taller so I can draw that in a little darker here at the top and say, okay,

it’s going to go back some ways here. I’m not sure how far. I can also draw this one

now and intersect into that one going to the right vanishing point like this.

I’ll draw that nice and dark so we can see that clearly running into that one. That’s where the

point is they intersect down on the ground, obviously. It’s right there.

So remember, this one is standing up going into this one. This one is going through it.

They’re all transparent. This one is back here. I’m not going to darken it anymore

because we want to make it clear that this obviously object is in front of it. We want

to make that real obvious. I’m just making the basic line.

We’re just doing the basic idea.

This might have thickness that you’d want to carefully draw in. Whatever it represents,

but this how you’d reference the seam between the two objects where it meets and rolls around

the surface intersecting the two objects.

Okay, so now what I would like to do is kind of pick a length for this object as well.

Kind of figure, well, to do that it’d be easier, again, to reference this back and

kind of imagine it has a slight solidity to it.

Make some estimations off this so that

would meet back there farthest it goes back. Makes a little corner. I’ll go ahead and

draw that idea of that plane back as well to the vanishing point. Line that up and say,

okay, there’s that little plane going back there. Now, I have to decide how deep do I

want this second plane. This shape moving back through the other one. We can see it.

I estimate it about here. So now I have to go to work and say if I wanted it that deep

on the ground plane I draw back to my left side and meet that back corner. So now that’s

that back corner, front corner, front corner. Drop. So now we can find some common places

where we can drop these angles and get some reference points working on this one. Carry

it over. Re-create that curve on the far side back here. So let’s do some of that.

The logic is we have the back one already dropped here from here, making the corner.

We could say, okay, that one meets there. That’s an obvious one. We have this one.

We can drop that to the ground. That also meets the curve at another place to come down

to the ground. We have that point too. A little point dropping to the ground. And it’s a

pretty simple shape so let’s say we only need, I don’t know, one more reference,

something dropping to the ground about here, there, making that mark. Now, we’ve got

one, two, three, four points plus the fifth here on the ground, so a total of five. Let

me get a sharper pencil. Now we’re going to drive these points, drop to the ground

here all the way back. We already know we have this point here. We know we have this

back point over here. We’ll drop the other two over on the ground from here.

Going over, making a mark here.

Also from over here—

right there, coming over and making a mark back here.

Now we can make some verticals from that back wall to catch these points, draw

them over. Hitting those verticals. We’ll be able to reference the shape again. I’ll

just make a quick verticals off those points here.

Going up a certain degree and the one in the back.

So now I want to follow that logic and this logic. Let’s take this last one. We dropped

on the curve here, and we drop to the back. We can take it back to the right vanishing

point. Shuttle it back. Line that one up.

So now I find a point right here because what

I’ve done is I’ve taken this idea, dropped to the ground, come here, hit this kind of

up the same height, made a reference plane there. That’s why I know that point is there

from this back corner on the ground. So this is here over here. I’ll take this point

which contains this one and this one. I’ll drop that over. I’m going to carry that

lower one over to the right vanishing point. Okay, right there. Going right to the vanishing

point there. Carry that one over. It’s going to hit right there.

Also, this one now up here is going to drive over there and hit that same plane. So there’s that corner

back there, this point back here. I’ve got to get this one now. That drops over, goes

up, and goes up here. We drive across from that one. And that ends up right there. A

little arrow right there on that plane.

Now we have our one, two, three, four, five. I should be able to draw the same nature of

this curve here a little bit. That one comes through about like that. This one comes up

a little so it’s coming up through there a little. It comes back down and straightens

out about there. And then this one curves down at that point like this. So that’s

a start of a clue how that looks so we’ll come around.

Back side of that.

Go through there, clean that up. Come around the side, slowly rise up like that.

Okay, so now we’re getting—

edge that out a little more curvaceously. Again, I don’t want to get that one too

dark. You have a seam to draw in front so I’ll tap that back a little. We’re getting

the idea here. So this shape brought back in perspective this far. Moving across the

cone of vision. It would look basically like that to match that.

Now we can kind of close that shape out there

real dark start getting a feeling for how it would look.

Alright, and this one looks like it would hit from there so we’d actually darken that one in

before it went below. Then we’ll just leave that up there. So now we’ve got everything

kind of accented as we need it. Now we have to consider the second part. We’ve got these

shapes working now. Now we get it. I’ll make it a little darker back here to the intersection

back here. Got these two shapes working through each other. I don’t want to darken those

too much because we’ve got to do the seam now. We have this shape with this end going

back over through here, and then this one coming through it. But we haven’t drawn

our intersecting seam where the two surfaces meet and actually make the plane change to

the seam. We have to figure that one out. We’ve got this point here. We know that.

But all the other ones we have to figure out. We’re going to use that method where we

came forward with the front corner where these two meet on a corner and reference that.

So let’s do that. We’re just going to draw straight from here. The flush side of

that shape and draw there. Come from the ride side vanishing point, draw through that plane

there. Come through. We have a corner right there. That’s going to be our imaginary

reference corner. We just have like a pole planted there. We’re going to turn that

corner. Because this is the more complex shape we’re going to start referencing a lot of

points in blue here and carrying them over to this shape and running them in. Where the

two intersect is where we’re going to find the little points that are going to make up

the pattern of our seam that we’re going to follow when we draw it in, the plane of

the seam between these two intersecting rolled planes.

I’ll go ahead and use red for this standing pole that represents the turn of the corner.

This imaginary reference corner, it’s a reference pole. I’ll make that go ahead

and go all the way above here like this. So it goes above everything. This, of course,

is standing in front of both of these a good ways here out in front of this reference box.

That’s going to represent our pole, so if you want we can say there’s a reference

pole or reference line. Just standing there. So now let’s just pick different points,

and we can start numbering them when we make our seam points on the actual seam. We can

do that in blue. We’ll do the first one fairly carefully. We’re going to start here

in blue, that dot there. What we’re doing is we’re figuring out where does this line

of this hit this shape? What we’re going to do is we’re going to use our vanishing

points, and we’re going to move this point forward in space at its height just like this.

Get that. Make a mark on that pole.

We’re then turning because it’s coming forward in space parallel to the ground, and

we’re turning, going over to the left vanishing point and going all the way back until we

hit. Make a little arrow and we hit this. That makes that one. I’ll make them a little

darker so you can see them easier. Remember, you would be making all these lines very light

and just noticeable enough for you to be able to see them until you drew your shapes out.

Then if it was in a painting, or if it was helpful on an actual canvas or piece of paper

you could tap them out or even erase them, whatever you need to do to—if they’re

not important anymore and they’ve done the purpose for any type of perspective, you can

keep those lines extremely light, cobweb thin. Just enough to understand and be able to trace

back what you’re doing with the reference planes.

Now we have this to this to this. Now we need to come back across this plane, the surface

of this plane, and the top line of this plane and where they meet and cross is where the

beginning of the seam would be. Of course, we have this line going here. We need to come

back to the right and line this plane up.

This scooting over here to hit this. This plane has come over and would be coming across.

They both cross to right here.

I'll make that and I’ll call that number one. That’s where the top of this curvature here, this

plane touches the surface of this object here. That’s the first point. We know this because

we’ve taken the reference to the imaginary corner at the same height on this shape and

then run across its actual surface until they cross. Where they cross each other like this

is where you make that point. So that’s just for that height. We’re going to fill

them in. We need more than this to really show it really clearly why the shape will

do what it does. Once you get used to these kind of shapes, or if you have to do a number

of these types of scenes or even just the logic of it, of course, you wouldn’t need

to use a whole bunch of shapes if you get used to the idea of why the shape would be

behaving between the logic of these two shapes meeting. It does get pretty complicated and

confusing. So to kind of prove it and make it more clear we’re going to do a number

of reference points, so we’ll probably do them in between the ones we’ve had set before,

but we’ll still use the ones we were using on here as well. What I’ll do is I’ll

set them in between and just kind of count them down. We’ll do another one here. We’ll

do the same one we did there, another one in between here. That one in between and that one.

Then we’ll stop at that and then kind of collect our wits after we’ve done all those.

I wanted to do quite a few just to make the seam more seeable as it’s going to come

down kind of unraveled. Let's take that second point here and run forward to the reference here.

Turn the corner go back to the left vanishing point all the way back to our shape

right here, just a little bit lower on that. We’re going to run back to our vanishing

point from this point here lightly. We’re going to run back and we’re going to see

where this one crosses over running across that plane. We’re going to see it runs across

right here. We’ll call that little point two because we ran across the very surface.

Imagining we’re actually touching the surface with a little spider web that’s straight

to here and across the surface of this one because we referenced out, came back in that

imaginary core, struck this shape running across that surface and that surface until

they meet. The little reference planes we’re making here actually allow us to see where

the back corners of the reference planes meet. Sure enough we’re finding our seam.

So let’s do it with a third here.

AUTO SCROLL

Drive that one forward to our red reference pole just like that.

And again, like we did in the last diagram

we kind of noticed two ways of being able to do it. One that’s

kind of more in the form, but this one is curvaceous enough where I would find this

method easier. Again, you’re not necessarily going to be doing a lot of this kind of thing.

It is for the lecture series, just making it clear why this type of referencing can

be helpful in these situations. We just want to make it very clear, be patient, and take

our time. We’re not rushing this. We’re trying to explain and talk about it. So now

we run across there. Now we need to drive this one forward to the left like that and

say, okay, those seams meet about right there. So there’s our next one. This one comes

forward, goes back, runs across the surface of that curve and the surface of this one

until we meet right there. So the cross right there. Take the next one down here.

Drive that one forward.

Make sure I line up to the vanishing points correctly. Come forward, turn the corner here.

Go to the vanishing point. It’s touching that curve at that height.

So this height now here coming forward equals that height off the ground. We’re

both the same height off the ground coming to each other, and we’re going to cast them

back to those vanishing points carefully.

Make another one coming forward there, also from this one. Coming forward to there, also

from this one. Coming forward to there. Again, where does that one cross? Right there. They

cross right there. There’s the next one. That’s that. So we’ll go ahead and number

that one number three. Get these out of the way. Number four. Number five is right here.

We’ll go ahead and come forward with that one again. I’m just going to do these carefully

until we’re done. Then we’re going to carefully draw in the shape to make sure we

can fill in the dots, even though they’re close, to still accurately represent where

this thing is going to get a little tough. This deep curve is going to be difficult to

see over here and figure out. We want to make a nice, even natural curve so that it looks

good. Not just because it’s correct with the dots, but it actually, we’re adjusting

for the little points. We might be off or just the way the natural curve would look

as a design too. We’re taking this one here, coming forward. Make a mark. It’s kind of

tangent to that line. Coming back to the left. Making a mark on that object. That height

coming forward equals that height on that object. We’re going to drive that plane

over here again. Let me make sure I can line up properly to my vanishing point. It should

be correct. Come right across. Again, we’re going to meet this point over there. So we

have to come across from here to the left and, again, meet that plane. That intersects

right about there. That will be number five. Okay, number six is about here. Actually,

I’m going to make it on the top right here. I’m going to make it right there and drive

that forward right from there. Get more of a center. Turns the corner right there. It

goes back to the left vanishing point there to strike there. Again, we can put arrows

on that. I just want to make it clear.

As I’ve said before, if you need to do this with a tissue over here after you get to your

shapes, that’s fine. Or just make another color where you’re clear that the work on

top in blue and when we number is for the actual references. Now we’re finding where

the planes intersect in the back corner to actually make the seam, which is a separate

function than actually drawing and referencing the shapes front and back edges. That’s

important too. So we understand what the shape is doing as an entire thing as well as the

seam between the two when they’re intersecting. We’ve taken six back over here. We’ll

carefully take that back to the vanishing point again. Again, some of these ideas would

be simpler in a hand drawing, but yet again, I just want to do them nice and clean so we

all understand they intersect. I have to pay attention to how that one is coming across,

and we’re meeting this one. So we want to come all the way to the left vanishing point

here and across like this. We’re meeting this one. So now that’s there. This lower

one, I just want to make sure I’m not making a mistake. This lower one meets this one right

there. Yep, and it comes back. I’m just making sure I have the right alignment

So there’s number six. There’s that one. We’ll call that one number seven.

Our little friend is back again, our Japanese beetle bug. Wow, really active. Get away from us!

Alright, here we go. Next one, coming forward again, turning the corner here, going

back up. We’re just missing the top so we’ll actually go back over here and make a mark.

That’s the correct height there.

And we’re going to move across now. We’re on this

one here. We’re going to move across from that again to the vanishing point.

Make sure I got that line. Go across to this to the left.

Make sure I get the right one. It looks like

it’s right there. That one coming across, meeting this one definitely meets right there.

That would be seven.

So far, so could. We have to remember, we don’t want to get confused

by that. That’s not a point. We have to remember that, the one that fell originally.

Now, we’re going to be using these as well, but I still want some more intersecting in

between. I’ll get a sharper pencil here. I’ll probably make another one here. If

this was seven, so if we say one, two, three, four, five, six, seven. We can introduce one

right in the middle here, eight. Let’s draw that forward. There is goes right from here.

Makes a mark there. Make sure I have the right one. Oops, sorry about that. That’s a mistake.

Wrong angle there. Lets get rid of that. So that’s a no-no.

Let me draw to number eight again. There’s eight.

Where does eight hit back here? We can take note it hits there.

We’re just going to come forward to where we think that level has to hit that object. It’s going to be

a little weird here, so we’re going to come across. That was number eight there. Come

back up. It’s going to be a low turning thing, so we’re going to come back on that

plane. We’re going to meet it up with number eight going to the left vanishing point. That

gives us a mark here, so we’ve got that very odd, long travel across there that we

have to figure out how it snaps over and stuff. Let’s get help from number eight. We could

do number nine but I’m going to put a red one right in the middle of seven and eight

because there is such a difference to where these come from. Let’s do this.

Put one right in the middle.

Lower the plane right to here. I just want to do one in the middle

just to see just out of curiosity. We hit it a little higher.

Next one, we’re going to call that one-half mark. Call that eight. I just want to make

sure we have enough here. Let’s try this one lower here. Number nine, come forward

and go back up, hits right there. Come back on the plane.

That lowest point there on our shape coming forward to meet that one there.

That’s nine, nine. Try number ten here. Come forward.

Meets a little bit above there.

Come back.

Make sure I track that middle mark now going from ten all the way over.

That is the middle mark. Come back up here.

Mark that one again. One mark right there.

Come over, it’s just about there.

That one hits up there.

Then we have that final one here.

So if we need some middle ones we could say we could put one here and here if we want.

See how those two red ones work. So if we know that that’s 11 here, 11 there, and

call this 12. We’ll put two in the middle just to make it clear, these two red ones.

Let’s just see where that gets us.

Alright, I’m going to bring the red one forward here,

just a little bit more just for the heck of it. That height just under there and meet

up with the reference there. So whereas that second one comes a little higher—one is

coming here, here. I just want to make sure I have the right reference there. Lower one,

lower one, lower ones. It’s that one, and I meet that with that one. I run into that

right there. That one meets right there. That’s that one-half.

We'll call that three-quarter.

Just the idea of how that rolls around so now we’re getting the roll.

Now, notice the difference between seven and the height of eight. That’s going to be

quite a roll that we’ll have to figure out. That gets difficult. We could even try this

in the middle, which I’m going to do just out of curiosity. Bring it down just of out curiosity.

Bring it over here to see what happens when we roll it over there.

There we go. That’s what I suspected. It does roll over there quite slowly. My guess is

that this rolls back and down. We’re going to back right over that. That’s a pretty

difficult one there. The reason I’m getting so particular is to try to explain how carefully

you can break that up if it’s confusing. That’s really how the 3-D programs would

do it. The reason I’m showing you the planes is just—I don’t use this very much in

this extreme in any way, but it does show you the logic and how we’re going to roll

around when we create that curve. Anyway, let’s do this. One A over here let’s call

it. One last one there. Figure out where we are. We’ll call this that little red plus

there. This one is in front of that. It rolls around.

Okay, let’s do 1A which is just a little lower again just for the heck of it. Just

a bit lower to show the theory. Lower right there, coming back in.

Getting the lower line there. There it is.

Okay, that’s 1A. Now we can take it in blue if we wish. We’ll

do a sharper one. Let’s try to design out that seam now for the logic of what we have.

If we follow this pattern here we’ll just keep track and say, alright, this kind of

goes up, kind of curves around. I’m going to try to make it look as natural as I can,

so I have to figure, okay, if this is really wrapping around I’m going to make it seem

naturally curvaceous. I’m going to come around, do that. These are more obvious. Then

the really difficult one is going to be figuring out how that comes around there.

How this all fits together is pretty obvious. We can do this.

We try to make that a natural curve there.

It comes around quite fast.

Straight down. There we go. I’m guessing if that

comes up like that, rolls over and down.

Nice and even like that. Rolls back up. So that’s

my best guess on that. So there’s the seam, as bizarre as it may seem. I believe this

lower line—let me get rid of a little of that upper one—would be it.

If I connect all the dots from our planes and try to make them reasonably curvaceous

this breaks down a little, I think comes on down there. This one keeps going back. Goes

right back in there. Comes back down again. We’re just trying to gauge how a fairly

smooth, even seam between the two intersections would happen. There it is. As bizarre as it

seems, I have to round it a little to make a more perfect curve. But in the end that

gap space is very, very wide. If we took it and said, well, what if that seven mark a

little bit below here—there’s no where else. I want to just check number seven, 7-1/2

and see where else we could go with it to try to get a hook up to that. Let’s see.

I can also do it over here. I guessed over there.

Ran one over here.

Yeah, right on track.

It really matches up perfectly. I took that to that height again to match it, just to

double check, and sure enough we’re on. There’s no question: If we wanted to match

a height back here, let’s say, in this middle part here. We could the reverse and simply

say, alright, let’s match a red dot right there and come forward and say where would

that height be from right here back on here if we wanted to kind of guess where the shapes

are going to be meeting from right here.

Turn the corner, go back up to that area again.

Go back over. Meet there and meet right where we intersect.

Yep, almost perfect. So again, very close.

It’s just our job to connect the dots as best as we can and say, well, there’s little

wavers here, but this is the best indication I got for how this fit together like that

when it rolled all together for this weird shape. We have to remember that. This one

has less curvature. This one has much more. So in a sense if I haven’t rounded out quite

peak enough here and stuff it would still continuously be fairly rounded, but this soffit

here rolls a bit, comes down, according to the referencing, and that’s it. In a bizarre

manner of the seam that we found from all these little references—I know this seems

fairly extreme and bizarre, but frankly by double checking and still brining some of

these middle ones out back to the same height we’re still getting this same idea here

that these two curves meeting should meet like this essentially back here and keep rolling.

Remember, as this one is cupping away here this one is pushing forward and whipping away

more quickly. There’s bound to be a little more curvaceousness in this seam, just a hair,

by pushing it out a little more elegantly. But that’s basically the seam. So in a bizarre

manner if you had this plane meeting this plane butting together, here is the seam.

Let me darken up the lines. According to our perspective, that is our seam. Let’s go

ahead and darken that bottom. We already have our lines nice and dark here. Let’s just

verify that’s our shape right there. Now we can say that goes right there, crosses

in front until it hits right there. That seam absorbs that piece and rolls around like this.

So this shape meets this back curve and forward curve at approximately that kind of rolling

curve there. There we have it.

That was quite a roller coaster ride, but nonetheless, that’s the logic.

So there you have it. I know, you know, how often are you going to have things like this meet. You

could have molding, but the logic would be if you have all these twists putting a few

in there at least will give you the example. We’re going to go back some simpler ones,

but this I just figured, well, we might as well go all the way and figure it out. I’ve

seen some of these in diagrams and stuff, really old diagrams, and it’s just interesting

to make two randomly fit together and see how these shapes are.

So one more time to recap. These two original shapes we took back to their counterparts.

There’s the back curve of this, and here’s the back curve of that. Then they meet right

here. We know on the ground. They meet here at the top. This one slams into this one here,

and then that blue line once again is the basic seam between the two shapes as they

curve in and out. I’m assuming this little peak here is where this plane turns away,

and then this one keeps turning away. It falls again more rapidly. So the only thing that

concerns me with this one is that little hump there. But I was pretty close, I think it

must come right around here and then drop rapidly and smooth into here. If mine is a

little too severe it would be softened out a bit here. That’s about the only thing

I see to concern me. Otherwise, this looks like it accurately would roll in the direction of the seam.

Okay, so as bizarre as that looks, like kind of a random spaghetti noodle, that blue line

is the seam between these two planes. To gauge this area we even put one to just check to

make sure we were fairly close with the reference method right here and an extra one here. They

all dropped right on that basic line. That seems to confirm it. So there you have it.

As bizarre as it is, there is the seam for these two meeting planes for diagram 126.

Okay, we’re going to see on the next one. We’re going to do probably an airplane wing

that we did on that little vehicle a couple diagrams ago and just a couple windows coming

forward from rounded roofs. That kind of thing.

To just see that kind of a shape going back into a rounded plane again, just to verify

that, but here's this kind of bizarre wild west one together as an example.

Okay, on to the next.

And again, like we did in the last diagram

we kind of noticed two ways of being able to do it. One that’s

kind of more in the form, but this one is curvaceous enough where I would find this

method easier. Again, you’re not necessarily going to be doing a lot of this kind of thing.

It is for the lecture series, just making it clear why this type of referencing can

be helpful in these situations. We just want to make it very clear, be patient, and take

our time. We’re not rushing this. We’re trying to explain and talk about it. So now

we run across there. Now we need to drive this one forward to the left like that and

say, okay, those seams meet about right there. So there’s our next one. This one comes

forward, goes back, runs across the surface of that curve and the surface of this one

until we meet right there. So the cross right there. Take the next one down here.

Drive that one forward.

Make sure I line up to the vanishing points correctly. Come forward, turn the corner here.

Go to the vanishing point. It’s touching that curve at that height.

So this height now here coming forward equals that height off the ground. We’re

both the same height off the ground coming to each other, and we’re going to cast them

back to those vanishing points carefully.

Make another one coming forward there, also from this one. Coming forward to there, also

from this one. Coming forward to there. Again, where does that one cross? Right there. They

cross right there. There’s the next one. That’s that. So we’ll go ahead and number

that one number three. Get these out of the way. Number four. Number five is right here.

We’ll go ahead and come forward with that one again. I’m just going to do these carefully

until we’re done. Then we’re going to carefully draw in the shape to make sure we

can fill in the dots, even though they’re close, to still accurately represent where

this thing is going to get a little tough. This deep curve is going to be difficult to

see over here and figure out. We want to make a nice, even natural curve so that it looks

good. Not just because it’s correct with the dots, but it actually, we’re adjusting

for the little points. We might be off or just the way the natural curve would look

as a design too. We’re taking this one here, coming forward. Make a mark. It’s kind of

tangent to that line. Coming back to the left. Making a mark on that object. That height

coming forward equals that height on that object. We’re going to drive that plane

over here again. Let me make sure I can line up properly to my vanishing point. It should

be correct. Come right across. Again, we’re going to meet this point over there. So we

have to come across from here to the left and, again, meet that plane. That intersects

right about there. That will be number five. Okay, number six is about here. Actually,

I’m going to make it on the top right here. I’m going to make it right there and drive

that forward right from there. Get more of a center. Turns the corner right there. It

goes back to the left vanishing point there to strike there. Again, we can put arrows

on that. I just want to make it clear.

As I’ve said before, if you need to do this with a tissue over here after you get to your

shapes, that’s fine. Or just make another color where you’re clear that the work on

top in blue and when we number is for the actual references. Now we’re finding where

the planes intersect in the back corner to actually make the seam, which is a separate

function than actually drawing and referencing the shapes front and back edges. That’s

important too. So we understand what the shape is doing as an entire thing as well as the

seam between the two when they’re intersecting. We’ve taken six back over here. We’ll

carefully take that back to the vanishing point again. Again, some of these ideas would

be simpler in a hand drawing, but yet again, I just want to do them nice and clean so we

all understand they intersect. I have to pay attention to how that one is coming across,

and we’re meeting this one. So we want to come all the way to the left vanishing point

here and across like this. We’re meeting this one. So now that’s there. This lower

one, I just want to make sure I’m not making a mistake. This lower one meets this one right

there. Yep, and it comes back. I’m just making sure I have the right alignment

So there’s number six. There’s that one. We’ll call that one number seven.

Our little friend is back again, our Japanese beetle bug. Wow, really active. Get away from us!

Alright, here we go. Next one, coming forward again, turning the corner here, going

back up. We’re just missing the top so we’ll actually go back over here and make a mark.

That’s the correct height there.

And we’re going to move across now. We’re on this

one here. We’re going to move across from that again to the vanishing point.

Make sure I got that line. Go across to this to the left.

Make sure I get the right one. It looks like

it’s right there. That one coming across, meeting this one definitely meets right there.

That would be seven.

So far, so could. We have to remember, we don’t want to get confused

by that. That’s not a point. We have to remember that, the one that fell originally.

Now, we’re going to be using these as well, but I still want some more intersecting in

between. I’ll get a sharper pencil here. I’ll probably make another one here. If

this was seven, so if we say one, two, three, four, five, six, seven. We can introduce one

right in the middle here, eight. Let’s draw that forward. There is goes right from here.

Makes a mark there. Make sure I have the right one. Oops, sorry about that. That’s a mistake.

Wrong angle there. Lets get rid of that. So that’s a no-no.

Let me draw to number eight again. There’s eight.

Where does eight hit back here? We can take note it hits there.

We’re just going to come forward to where we think that level has to hit that object. It’s going to be

a little weird here, so we’re going to come across. That was number eight there. Come

back up. It’s going to be a low turning thing, so we’re going to come back on that

plane. We’re going to meet it up with number eight going to the left vanishing point. That

gives us a mark here, so we’ve got that very odd, long travel across there that we

have to figure out how it snaps over and stuff. Let’s get help from number eight. We could

do number nine but I’m going to put a red one right in the middle of seven and eight

because there is such a difference to where these come from. Let’s do this.

Put one right in the middle.

Lower the plane right to here. I just want to do one in the middle

just to see just out of curiosity. We hit it a little higher.

Next one, we’re going to call that one-half mark. Call that eight. I just want to make

sure we have enough here. Let’s try this one lower here. Number nine, come forward

and go back up, hits right there. Come back on the plane.

That lowest point there on our shape coming forward to meet that one there.

That’s nine, nine. Try number ten here. Come forward.

Meets a little bit above there.

Come back.

Make sure I track that middle mark now going from ten all the way over.

That is the middle mark. Come back up here.

Mark that one again. One mark right there.

Come over, it’s just about there.

That one hits up there.

Then we have that final one here.

So if we need some middle ones we could say we could put one here and here if we want.

See how those two red ones work. So if we know that that’s 11 here, 11 there, and

call this 12. We’ll put two in the middle just to make it clear, these two red ones.

Let’s just see where that gets us.

Alright, I’m going to bring the red one forward here,

just a little bit more just for the heck of it. That height just under there and meet

up with the reference there. So whereas that second one comes a little higher—one is

coming here, here. I just want to make sure I have the right reference there. Lower one,

lower one, lower ones. It’s that one, and I meet that with that one. I run into that

right there. That one meets right there. That’s that one-half.

We'll call that three-quarter.

Just the idea of how that rolls around so now we’re getting the roll.

Now, notice the difference between seven and the height of eight. That’s going to be

quite a roll that we’ll have to figure out. That gets difficult. We could even try this

in the middle, which I’m going to do just out of curiosity. Bring it down just of out curiosity.

Bring it over here to see what happens when we roll it over there.

There we go. That’s what I suspected. It does roll over there quite slowly. My guess is

that this rolls back and down. We’re going to back right over that. That’s a pretty

difficult one there. The reason I’m getting so particular is to try to explain how carefully

you can break that up if it’s confusing. That’s really how the 3-D programs would

do it. The reason I’m showing you the planes is just—I don’t use this very much in

this extreme in any way, but it does show you the logic and how we’re going to roll

around when we create that curve. Anyway, let’s do this. One A over here let’s call

it. One last one there. Figure out where we are. We’ll call this that little red plus

there. This one is in front of that. It rolls around.

Okay, let’s do 1A which is just a little lower again just for the heck of it. Just

a bit lower to show the theory. Lower right there, coming back in.

Getting the lower line there. There it is.

Okay, that’s 1A. Now we can take it in blue if we wish. We’ll

do a sharper one. Let’s try to design out that seam now for the logic of what we have.

If we follow this pattern here we’ll just keep track and say, alright, this kind of

goes up, kind of curves around. I’m going to try to make it look as natural as I can,

so I have to figure, okay, if this is really wrapping around I’m going to make it seem

naturally curvaceous. I’m going to come around, do that. These are more obvious. Then

the really difficult one is going to be figuring out how that comes around there.

How this all fits together is pretty obvious. We can do this.

We try to make that a natural curve there.

It comes around quite fast.

Straight down. There we go. I’m guessing if that

comes up like that, rolls over and down.

Nice and even like that. Rolls back up. So that’s

my best guess on that. So there’s the seam, as bizarre as it may seem. I believe this

lower line—let me get rid of a little of that upper one—would be it.

If I connect all the dots from our planes and try to make them reasonably curvaceous

this breaks down a little, I think comes on down there. This one keeps going back. Goes

right back in there. Comes back down again. We’re just trying to gauge how a fairly

smooth, even seam between the two intersections would happen. There it is. As bizarre as it

seems, I have to round it a little to make a more perfect curve. But in the end that

gap space is very, very wide. If we took it and said, well, what if that seven mark a

little bit below here—there’s no where else. I want to just check number seven, 7-1/2

and see where else we could go with it to try to get a hook up to that. Let’s see.

I can also do it over here. I guessed over there.

Ran one over here.

Yeah, right on track.

It really matches up perfectly. I took that to that height again to match it, just to

double check, and sure enough we’re on. There’s no question: If we wanted to match

a height back here, let’s say, in this middle part here. We could the reverse and simply

say, alright, let’s match a red dot right there and come forward and say where would

that height be from right here back on here if we wanted to kind of guess where the shapes

are going to be meeting from right here.

Turn the corner, go back up to that area again.

Go back over. Meet there and meet right where we intersect.

Yep, almost perfect. So again, very close.

It’s just our job to connect the dots as best as we can and say, well, there’s little

wavers here, but this is the best indication I got for how this fit together like that

when it rolled all together for this weird shape. We have to remember that. This one

has less curvature. This one has much more. So in a sense if I haven’t rounded out quite

peak enough here and stuff it would still continuously be fairly rounded, but this soffit

here rolls a bit, comes down, according to the referencing, and that’s it. In a bizarre

manner of the seam that we found from all these little references—I know this seems

fairly extreme and bizarre, but frankly by double checking and still brining some of

these middle ones out back to the same height we’re still getting this same idea here

that these two curves meeting should meet like this essentially back here and keep rolling.

Remember, as this one is cupping away here this one is pushing forward and whipping away

more quickly. There’s bound to be a little more curvaceousness in this seam, just a hair,

by pushing it out a little more elegantly. But that’s basically the seam. So in a bizarre

manner if you had this plane meeting this plane butting together, here is the seam.

Let me darken up the lines. According to our perspective, that is our seam. Let’s go

ahead and darken that bottom. We already have our lines nice and dark here. Let’s just

verify that’s our shape right there. Now we can say that goes right there, crosses

in front until it hits right there. That seam absorbs that piece and rolls around like this.

So this shape meets this back curve and forward curve at approximately that kind of rolling

curve there. There we have it.

That was quite a roller coaster ride, but nonetheless, that’s the logic.

So there you have it. I know, you know, how often are you going to have things like this meet. You

could have molding, but the logic would be if you have all these twists putting a few

in there at least will give you the example. We’re going to go back some simpler ones,

but this I just figured, well, we might as well go all the way and figure it out. I’ve

seen some of these in diagrams and stuff, really old diagrams, and it’s just interesting

to make two randomly fit together and see how these shapes are.

So one more time to recap. These two original shapes we took back to their counterparts.

There’s the back curve of this, and here’s the back curve of that. Then they meet right

here. We know on the ground. They meet here at the top. This one slams into this one here,

and then that blue line once again is the basic seam between the two shapes as they

curve in and out. I’m assuming this little peak here is where this plane turns away,

and then this one keeps turning away. It falls again more rapidly. So the only thing that

concerns me with this one is that little hump there. But I was pretty close, I think it

must come right around here and then drop rapidly and smooth into here. If mine is a

little too severe it would be softened out a bit here. That’s about the only thing

I see to concern me. Otherwise, this looks like it accurately would roll in the direction of the seam.

Okay, so as bizarre as that looks, like kind of a random spaghetti noodle, that blue line

is the seam between these two planes. To gauge this area we even put one to just check to

make sure we were fairly close with the reference method right here and an extra one here. They

all dropped right on that basic line. That seems to confirm it. So there you have it.

As bizarre as it is, there is the seam for these two meeting planes for diagram 126.

Okay, we’re going to see on the next one. We’re going to do probably an airplane wing

that we did on that little vehicle a couple diagrams ago and just a couple windows coming

forward from rounded roofs. That kind of thing.

To just see that kind of a shape going back into a rounded plane again, just to verify

that, but here's this kind of bizarre wild west one together as an example.

Okay, on to the next.

AUTO SCROLL

We are here with three different ideas. We’re going to do a simple airplane, again showing

why a wing can extend out. We’re going to do some window, rounded windows like on old

French roofs that come out on a curve as well. They’re very lightly drawn in here and then

some more scrolled shapes meeting each other. Just talk about a slightly different approach,

but again very much the same approach on those. We’ll start with the airplane over here.

Just the idea of it. This will be a little more casual, not quite so much, you know,

exact, always being so exact. We have an exact setup, but I want them to be a little more

simple. I’m going to take the airplane shape.

What I did first is simply just kind of got the perspective going of the different parts

in a lighter line kind of like this. I’ve done the top of the bubble of the roof like

an old 50s jet. Got the middle of a wing kind of here. I’ll explain everything here like

this as we go, just the idea of it. Just kind of the lines for it. Then I started just doing

a middle silhouette again, saying okay, I’ll have the top of the plane meeting here and

curved down like this. Maybe meet a joint here. Again, this is how I just start thinking

of this silhouette shape in the middle again in the center plane of the airplane. That

kind of goes straight up here. Then I also want the back part to come back there and

kind of taper just slightly like that. I’ll also take the other part of the airplane,

go down a little past that line, come back up right up there.

Again, just the idea of that.

I’m putting it a little more lightly so I can see what I want to do with a bubble.

As I said this can come down and go past and kind of come up past here.

Then the bubble would actually intersect with what will be the sections of the rounded kind of

submarine shape of the airplane. We’ll just see what goes on there.

And we’ll have our sections come out. So what I’ve done is like, again, we have this

body bubble. I’ll make that a little harder. Redraw this again. Not to take that much time

this time. We’re just trying to kind of play with the idea, but I don’t want to

just do an object drawing because I still want to very carefully explain sections as

far as that goes. Certainly, these ideas in very sketched lines could be done by you freehand

or just lots of practice drawing different things. I still wanted to explain them very

clearly as far as the thinking involved of how we section and double over and do all

the stuff we’ve been doing. I’m just trying to figure out where I want to say some of these ideas are.

And then there’s kind of a nose cone idea there I could have from a straight line here.

There could be one seam here where the wing starts and the wing ends. Maybe one in the

middle. Then I just have the wing exist in this space here as we kind of did before with

that weird little alien craft. I’m just drawing in the idea of the middle silhouette.

Of course, this much darker than you might otherwise draw something that you’re just

trying to invent as an idea. It’s just getting the idea here. We might have a seam going

down the middle too, just the idea that that’s the flat middle seam again

just as we’re thinking about it.

Then we can come out in sections and say, alright, what do we want this nose cone doing?

Is it really going to be a circle or this time it might be a curved arch. What I’m

going to do with this part is probably say, no, I’m going to do this. Just kind of draw

it out kind of a flat cone thing like this.

Just as an idea. X that shape. Just run a

line to the middle. Double the space just over here real quick and just double that

idea. Just kind of that cone nose tip like that. Then we could have this thing formed

more into a circular curve a little bit. Round out a little bit. I’m just trying to figure

out the space involved in this rounding out.

I’ll have one seam there. Again, we couldX off the idea this is box real quick.

Draw on the perspective back to the right vanishing

point over here and kind of say, alright, there’s a box here kind of. And if just

the X the idea of it off from the middle plane again going through the middle, doubling over,

so we get this arch right back over here, basically.

So I’m just trying to get the peak of this part over here, doubling over in perspective.

That would be about that far away.

Lightly drawing that idea in as it turns around and curves around.

There we go. I don’t want to become too confusing. I still have the

darker nose cone which we could still have an ellipse of thickness on. If we want to

do the nose cone first we could say, okay, it has a little lip of thickness as we draw

it around now as we do a little sketch. It’s the idea of this lip having some thickness

and this weird squared-off nose kind of thing. We also have the airplane kind of coming down

like that. This seam coming around here. It just kind of built out and then

doubled over basically in perspective.

Again, starting here with a long rectangular part and like a curve coming out, where does

it peak, just the idea of its volume coming back from here. There’s the straight back

to the right vanishing point. So I make little tics that really go back to the right vanishing

point still. I get my bearings on where the other diminishment is behaving to that is

perpendicular to the left vanishing point in these diminishments. Then I’m coming

out here, peaking out here somewhere, coming back in. Drawing it out. I’ll draw that

seam out here and down. Brought back in, that kind of thing and then double it over. So

if we’re out in space here or here for the peak. If I just run the idea of this back

over again in the perspective double over, just the idea of a box if I want here. X it

off, just the idea of it. Just kind of slam this to the middle. Double that over. Come

up with a basic box like right about there. I’m just trying to get the idea this peaks

over here. Great. I’ll keep drawing. Just double over this idea like we’ve been doing

before. Peaks about over there. Comes back up. That kind of thing.

I’m going to draw the other side in a little lighter, just sketch it in. I’m going to

make this seam darker. Then we have to meet it with the window, but we’ll get the window’s

thickness later. I’m just trying to get the form of the shape here. Start seeing a

little bit of that other side over there and have that merge in. Just the idea of the bottom

being darker too as a shape so we start drawing at that end merging into that little weird

nose cone-shape thing.

Next section would be kind of here. Starting there, ending there. Peaking somewhere out

here again, probably. So I’ll just kind of follow my instincts on that. This is an

idea. Again, there’s the crossing going to the vanishing point down here, going to

the right vanishing point. Then I’ll just kind of draw out from there. I want my thickest

bubble part there, probably. I’ll still wing it way out here. Come back in. Peak here,

come back in. Play with the idea of coming up to meet this shape again like that. Probably

something like that. Come back into our perspective here. Be more clear about that. Just around

that idea there. We can draw, again, an idea of a box. Cross it off, find the middle, find

the middle spot. Bring it over. We’re just about here. We’re going to find that peak

over here so when I duplicate the thing I’m only using one real reference just trying

to get the idea of it. Round it off properly. So that will come down like that, further

over, that’s right over there. That’s the idea of coming down and meeting the bottom,

just going along. Meet that for outside seam.

Now we’re starting to get an idea of how the skin behaves on the bottom like that.

You know, one more time we’ve got another seam. Maybe that doesn’t peak out quite

as far. So again, we’re just going to come out here, make this shape, come back down.

Recognize how we pop out of there a little just like that. Double that over, again where

the peak is about here. Again, this is the box to make sure we have the middle lines.

Double that over to about here. If that’s that thick just about there. Just trying to

get a very simple reference on if I’m being fairly even when I double over just a little

bit like that. Connect these two again, the outside skin on the very edge. This is a little

too pinched. I’ll bring it over so it peaks properly about there. Alright, so there are

those sections like that.

Then I’ve got to decide how wide the glass is at this point, which I can, again come

back and kind of decide on that idea like this and say, alright, where do I want the

glass meeting this seam probably. Well, it meets it right there on the middle seam there,

so that’s interesting. So if I follow the perspective generally like this I can kind

of draw on the edge of the glass following that there and over here on the other side.

We have this line over there on the other side. Then it probably comes up meeting the

tip here. Kind of rounding in. Then if this is the other side coming forward knowing that

this edge rounds around like that. If I meet the top seam, come back down to meet that

edge kind of like our jukebox, we can kind of just extend the bubble a little bit. We’ve

got the middle of the bubble’s peak right there. We can riff on the center there. Kind

of meet it over there like that. We’ll put an arch right there or right there. I’m

not sure yet. We can go back and actually meet the back at a peak near the back. Have

that line come down flat.

Might have one little seat in here. Have a little seat back here, a very cramped little

space. Controls all up here kind of thing. Then if I wanted this seam to be expanded

out again from the seam here we’d come out here, meet the middle here. If we wanted a

seam there or somewhere forward we could just come back and meet this seam right across

like that. It’s going to say, alright, we’ll put a bubble that comes up, peaks about here,

something like that. Drops back down just trying to meet it properly, maybe where that

piece of glass slides back as people get in and out. Again, just the idea of thinking

around the bubble. I’m referencing across here once I have that span for the cockpit,

that idea. We can use that in color if we want, just in blue. Not a big deal. We could

look at it like, okay, that’s the idea. It kind of spans across here as a section.

We’re talking about doing a seam or a frame for that bubble in the middle. Just the idea

of it. You know, the cockpit was carved out of meeting here on the oval back here kind

of guessing where it met back here. Kind of a seam going through the middle like for the

cockpit here. There is a whole bunch of them actually, just kind of comes around, meets

there. Slides up here a bit, slides down there. Meets up there.

This is the center seam for the glass.

Meets right there in the center.

There’s the edge.

There are the little chairs.

Alright, so we have our seams here. Double over seams a little bit further over this

way. Fill them out, flush them out a bit. We’re just doing the logic of how to do

the seams. And now we’ve got our wings. So our wing shape I’ll put in red again.

Let’s not forget our wing shape. We’ll put our middle seam in for the wing shape

which was here to here. Go to the vanishing point. Just the idea of it like this. A little

behind here. So on these seams were looking for these seams now coming down.

One, two, three.

In our original silhouette, if you go back and remember that. Now we can push

out toward the vanishing point with our red if we want and basically come out at that

level from the center seam until we hit that first seam there.

That’s a point there.

Back here also.

That’s where we come forward from that seam there to hit the front of the

roundness here. That was our center idea, come out catching the volume of the skin or

the submarine shape with the outside shell of this and meeting it right there. That’s

where the wing would start and end back here.

Now what we can do is take our center pole and say, oh that’s right, the wing here

projects out and would meet both of these plus the center here. We could take all three

and say, oh alright, if we want to be fairly complete about that…

one,

two,

three.

Just say, okay, that’s basically the height of the wing. Remember we drew originally the

wing shape. It’s basically right here. That’s the height of it in the middle, brought out

to our middle seam. We’ve got these contact points here, middle, bottom.

We can draw our wing in with a pencil or in blue.

I’ll just go ahead and do it in pencil and say it starts

here, comes through here,

draws through and meets back up here. So this is basically looking

at our wing shape underneath and over here.

That’s our top seam which is darker, frankly.

What I’ll do is lighten that up and say, okay,

this is our wing on our center silhouette only.

It’s a flat idea. Extended out now, this is the top of the wing’s seam. We could

only see if we were doing a painting or a drawing of it. This would be the only actual

seam we would see right here of the top of the wing.

And the rest of it would jut out whatever direction we wanted it to.

For instance, in the back it would jut out from here. We’ll make this really thick.

That’s the actual wing section, right. Then we could actually taper it back saying her

it could stay out, come forward a little bit here.

It went straight for a little bit as a wing.

But then could taper back quickly or do whatever we wanted to with it.

A little bit of a thickness idea here with a rolled tip of it there. But if this is the wing shape

back in the center of the plane silhouette. This new shape here that I’ll shade in along

with the bottom which I won’t do quite as dark, but I will fill it in. This is the actual

hollow blue section we’ll call it of the wing’s shape. We could only see the top

seam or where the top seam of the wing would actually touch the rounded skin of our airplane.

That’s just the kind of thinking we’re doing.

Again, it’s not that you’re always going to be doing sectioning, but this kind of thinking

and referencing on common objects especially, you know, complex vehicles. Boats, cars, planes,

curvaceous objects, products. This kind of sectioning can really help if you’re having

trouble drawing it. Even if you use just a few if you can think from a center axis out

or a center plane out you can double over and be much more accurate. I’m not necessarily

designing this like an industrial designer in any way. Nor do I claim to be. The idea

is as an artist I can still use a lot of the helpful information about how visual communication

or what’s called Viscom works just as far as sectioning and drawing out objects and

stuff. You can get people that are really fast and use a lot of line weight and do really

beautiful drawings with this type of method. Our use for it is really to get a drawing

to work functionally with all these lines I’m putting in being very, very light. And

then only the finished lines of the seams and the things that you would have on the

positive more opaque side, would you actually draw out or paint if you wished. Of course,

you could still keep some of the transparent lighter lines looking transparently through

the object in there. That’d be great too. It’s not required obviously.

We’re just trying to say here is the middle seam on the bubble. Then there is a little

seam that goes back there, goes back there. Then the bubble also comes out. If we put

another seam on it here we come straight across. This bubble would kind of work like this,

something like that. You could also do another one here, catching the center and coming back

down like that. It’s just the idea of really simple stuff. Obviously, there are demonstrations

online of really eloquently drawn out vehicles and cars and all that stuff. All I’m interested

in at this point in the lectures, again, is to get through all the material at a basic

and very intermediate level of just showing why the sectioning, how the perspective works

with the sectioning and the referencing in a basic manner. And as long as we’re paying

attention to wear it peaks. So for instance, if we know this particular middle section

peaks about here and we can come across the proper amount to make the back of the section.

Same here. It peaks about here and comes across. You’re just thinking like this even when

you’re hand drawing. Peak here, come across there. The right vanishing point is in this

direction. Here’s our left. It’s just that real basic kind of thinking. So I’m

just really interested more in the sectioning right now, the transparent kind of heavy-drawn

diagrams that show you why things work. Again, this original shape in here, and here is our

original wing, and you’re just kicking it out there a bit. So it’s very basic stuff

where we’re building out from a center silhouette.

Alright, now we’ll go on to these windows over here. I’ll just draw out the basic

idea of what I was thinking. I was thinking of a top roof. I’m just going to draw on

these lines kind of as they would appear really simply. Top trim of a room.

And this is going to be then a slanted roof that comes down, sloping down, sloping down,

and meeting a common front line. So I’ll go ahead and draw that in just as an approximate idea.

Then I’m going to create windows and a whole bunch of things that I’ve sketched in. We’ll

go through step for step again how we take these windows and throw them back in to this

curve of this rooftop. What I’ll do is I’ll go fairly quickly here so I don’t have to

draft everything. I just want to draw on the idea of an arched window. What we’ll do

is draw in the thickness we want kind of like this. We can X that off, of course. I’m

just approximating here. I had mine stand about here. We can put in thickness or a center

if we want, of course. What we’ll do is we’ll put in a very light X on a center

plane. We can panes of a window in, whatever we want to do. There’s the X bring that

center right down, whatever we need to do.

why a wing can extend out. We’re going to do some window, rounded windows like on old

French roofs that come out on a curve as well. They’re very lightly drawn in here and then

some more scrolled shapes meeting each other. Just talk about a slightly different approach,

but again very much the same approach on those. We’ll start with the airplane over here.

Just the idea of it. This will be a little more casual, not quite so much, you know,

exact, always being so exact. We have an exact setup, but I want them to be a little more

simple. I’m going to take the airplane shape.

What I did first is simply just kind of got the perspective going of the different parts

in a lighter line kind of like this. I’ve done the top of the bubble of the roof like

an old 50s jet. Got the middle of a wing kind of here. I’ll explain everything here like

this as we go, just the idea of it. Just kind of the lines for it. Then I started just doing

a middle silhouette again, saying okay, I’ll have the top of the plane meeting here and

curved down like this. Maybe meet a joint here. Again, this is how I just start thinking

of this silhouette shape in the middle again in the center plane of the airplane. That

kind of goes straight up here. Then I also want the back part to come back there and

kind of taper just slightly like that. I’ll also take the other part of the airplane,

go down a little past that line, come back up right up there.

Again, just the idea of that.

I’m putting it a little more lightly so I can see what I want to do with a bubble.

As I said this can come down and go past and kind of come up past here.

Then the bubble would actually intersect with what will be the sections of the rounded kind of

submarine shape of the airplane. We’ll just see what goes on there.

And we’ll have our sections come out. So what I’ve done is like, again, we have this

body bubble. I’ll make that a little harder. Redraw this again. Not to take that much time

this time. We’re just trying to kind of play with the idea, but I don’t want to

just do an object drawing because I still want to very carefully explain sections as

far as that goes. Certainly, these ideas in very sketched lines could be done by you freehand

or just lots of practice drawing different things. I still wanted to explain them very

clearly as far as the thinking involved of how we section and double over and do all

the stuff we’ve been doing. I’m just trying to figure out where I want to say some of these ideas are.

And then there’s kind of a nose cone idea there I could have from a straight line here.

There could be one seam here where the wing starts and the wing ends. Maybe one in the

middle. Then I just have the wing exist in this space here as we kind of did before with

that weird little alien craft. I’m just drawing in the idea of the middle silhouette.

Of course, this much darker than you might otherwise draw something that you’re just

trying to invent as an idea. It’s just getting the idea here. We might have a seam going

down the middle too, just the idea that that’s the flat middle seam again

just as we’re thinking about it.

Then we can come out in sections and say, alright, what do we want this nose cone doing?

Is it really going to be a circle or this time it might be a curved arch. What I’m

going to do with this part is probably say, no, I’m going to do this. Just kind of draw

it out kind of a flat cone thing like this.

Just as an idea. X that shape. Just run a

line to the middle. Double the space just over here real quick and just double that

idea. Just kind of that cone nose tip like that. Then we could have this thing formed

more into a circular curve a little bit. Round out a little bit. I’m just trying to figure

out the space involved in this rounding out.

I’ll have one seam there. Again, we couldX off the idea this is box real quick.

Draw on the perspective back to the right vanishing

point over here and kind of say, alright, there’s a box here kind of. And if just

the X the idea of it off from the middle plane again going through the middle, doubling over,

so we get this arch right back over here, basically.

So I’m just trying to get the peak of this part over here, doubling over in perspective.

That would be about that far away.

Lightly drawing that idea in as it turns around and curves around.

There we go. I don’t want to become too confusing. I still have the

darker nose cone which we could still have an ellipse of thickness on. If we want to

do the nose cone first we could say, okay, it has a little lip of thickness as we draw

it around now as we do a little sketch. It’s the idea of this lip having some thickness

and this weird squared-off nose kind of thing. We also have the airplane kind of coming down

like that. This seam coming around here. It just kind of built out and then

doubled over basically in perspective.

Again, starting here with a long rectangular part and like a curve coming out, where does

it peak, just the idea of its volume coming back from here. There’s the straight back

to the right vanishing point. So I make little tics that really go back to the right vanishing

point still. I get my bearings on where the other diminishment is behaving to that is

perpendicular to the left vanishing point in these diminishments. Then I’m coming

out here, peaking out here somewhere, coming back in. Drawing it out. I’ll draw that

seam out here and down. Brought back in, that kind of thing and then double it over. So

if we’re out in space here or here for the peak. If I just run the idea of this back

over again in the perspective double over, just the idea of a box if I want here. X it

off, just the idea of it. Just kind of slam this to the middle. Double that over. Come

up with a basic box like right about there. I’m just trying to get the idea this peaks

over here. Great. I’ll keep drawing. Just double over this idea like we’ve been doing

before. Peaks about over there. Comes back up. That kind of thing.

I’m going to draw the other side in a little lighter, just sketch it in. I’m going to

make this seam darker. Then we have to meet it with the window, but we’ll get the window’s

thickness later. I’m just trying to get the form of the shape here. Start seeing a

little bit of that other side over there and have that merge in. Just the idea of the bottom

being darker too as a shape so we start drawing at that end merging into that little weird

nose cone-shape thing.

Next section would be kind of here. Starting there, ending there. Peaking somewhere out

here again, probably. So I’ll just kind of follow my instincts on that. This is an

idea. Again, there’s the crossing going to the vanishing point down here, going to

the right vanishing point. Then I’ll just kind of draw out from there. I want my thickest

bubble part there, probably. I’ll still wing it way out here. Come back in. Peak here,

come back in. Play with the idea of coming up to meet this shape again like that. Probably

something like that. Come back into our perspective here. Be more clear about that. Just around

that idea there. We can draw, again, an idea of a box. Cross it off, find the middle, find

the middle spot. Bring it over. We’re just about here. We’re going to find that peak

over here so when I duplicate the thing I’m only using one real reference just trying

to get the idea of it. Round it off properly. So that will come down like that, further

over, that’s right over there. That’s the idea of coming down and meeting the bottom,

just going along. Meet that for outside seam.

Now we’re starting to get an idea of how the skin behaves on the bottom like that.

You know, one more time we’ve got another seam. Maybe that doesn’t peak out quite

as far. So again, we’re just going to come out here, make this shape, come back down.

Recognize how we pop out of there a little just like that. Double that over, again where

the peak is about here. Again, this is the box to make sure we have the middle lines.

Double that over to about here. If that’s that thick just about there. Just trying to

get a very simple reference on if I’m being fairly even when I double over just a little

bit like that. Connect these two again, the outside skin on the very edge. This is a little

too pinched. I’ll bring it over so it peaks properly about there. Alright, so there are

those sections like that.

Then I’ve got to decide how wide the glass is at this point, which I can, again come

back and kind of decide on that idea like this and say, alright, where do I want the

glass meeting this seam probably. Well, it meets it right there on the middle seam there,

so that’s interesting. So if I follow the perspective generally like this I can kind

of draw on the edge of the glass following that there and over here on the other side.

We have this line over there on the other side. Then it probably comes up meeting the

tip here. Kind of rounding in. Then if this is the other side coming forward knowing that

this edge rounds around like that. If I meet the top seam, come back down to meet that

edge kind of like our jukebox, we can kind of just extend the bubble a little bit. We’ve

got the middle of the bubble’s peak right there. We can riff on the center there. Kind

of meet it over there like that. We’ll put an arch right there or right there. I’m

not sure yet. We can go back and actually meet the back at a peak near the back. Have

that line come down flat.

Might have one little seat in here. Have a little seat back here, a very cramped little

space. Controls all up here kind of thing. Then if I wanted this seam to be expanded

out again from the seam here we’d come out here, meet the middle here. If we wanted a

seam there or somewhere forward we could just come back and meet this seam right across

like that. It’s going to say, alright, we’ll put a bubble that comes up, peaks about here,

something like that. Drops back down just trying to meet it properly, maybe where that

piece of glass slides back as people get in and out. Again, just the idea of thinking

around the bubble. I’m referencing across here once I have that span for the cockpit,

that idea. We can use that in color if we want, just in blue. Not a big deal. We could

look at it like, okay, that’s the idea. It kind of spans across here as a section.

We’re talking about doing a seam or a frame for that bubble in the middle. Just the idea

of it. You know, the cockpit was carved out of meeting here on the oval back here kind

of guessing where it met back here. Kind of a seam going through the middle like for the

cockpit here. There is a whole bunch of them actually, just kind of comes around, meets

there. Slides up here a bit, slides down there. Meets up there.

This is the center seam for the glass.

Meets right there in the center.

There’s the edge.

There are the little chairs.

Alright, so we have our seams here. Double over seams a little bit further over this

way. Fill them out, flush them out a bit. We’re just doing the logic of how to do

the seams. And now we’ve got our wings. So our wing shape I’ll put in red again.

Let’s not forget our wing shape. We’ll put our middle seam in for the wing shape

which was here to here. Go to the vanishing point. Just the idea of it like this. A little

behind here. So on these seams were looking for these seams now coming down.

One, two, three.

In our original silhouette, if you go back and remember that. Now we can push

out toward the vanishing point with our red if we want and basically come out at that

level from the center seam until we hit that first seam there.

That’s a point there.

Back here also.

That’s where we come forward from that seam there to hit the front of the

roundness here. That was our center idea, come out catching the volume of the skin or

the submarine shape with the outside shell of this and meeting it right there. That’s

where the wing would start and end back here.

Now what we can do is take our center pole and say, oh that’s right, the wing here

projects out and would meet both of these plus the center here. We could take all three

and say, oh alright, if we want to be fairly complete about that…

one,

two,

three.

Just say, okay, that’s basically the height of the wing. Remember we drew originally the

wing shape. It’s basically right here. That’s the height of it in the middle, brought out

to our middle seam. We’ve got these contact points here, middle, bottom.

We can draw our wing in with a pencil or in blue.

I’ll just go ahead and do it in pencil and say it starts

here, comes through here,

draws through and meets back up here. So this is basically looking

at our wing shape underneath and over here.

That’s our top seam which is darker, frankly.

What I’ll do is lighten that up and say, okay,

this is our wing on our center silhouette only.

It’s a flat idea. Extended out now, this is the top of the wing’s seam. We could

only see if we were doing a painting or a drawing of it. This would be the only actual

seam we would see right here of the top of the wing.

And the rest of it would jut out whatever direction we wanted it to.

For instance, in the back it would jut out from here. We’ll make this really thick.

That’s the actual wing section, right. Then we could actually taper it back saying her

it could stay out, come forward a little bit here.

It went straight for a little bit as a wing.

But then could taper back quickly or do whatever we wanted to with it.

A little bit of a thickness idea here with a rolled tip of it there. But if this is the wing shape

back in the center of the plane silhouette. This new shape here that I’ll shade in along

with the bottom which I won’t do quite as dark, but I will fill it in. This is the actual

hollow blue section we’ll call it of the wing’s shape. We could only see the top

seam or where the top seam of the wing would actually touch the rounded skin of our airplane.

That’s just the kind of thinking we’re doing.

Again, it’s not that you’re always going to be doing sectioning, but this kind of thinking

and referencing on common objects especially, you know, complex vehicles. Boats, cars, planes,

curvaceous objects, products. This kind of sectioning can really help if you’re having

trouble drawing it. Even if you use just a few if you can think from a center axis out

or a center plane out you can double over and be much more accurate. I’m not necessarily

designing this like an industrial designer in any way. Nor do I claim to be. The idea

is as an artist I can still use a lot of the helpful information about how visual communication

or what’s called Viscom works just as far as sectioning and drawing out objects and

stuff. You can get people that are really fast and use a lot of line weight and do really

beautiful drawings with this type of method. Our use for it is really to get a drawing

to work functionally with all these lines I’m putting in being very, very light. And

then only the finished lines of the seams and the things that you would have on the

positive more opaque side, would you actually draw out or paint if you wished. Of course,

you could still keep some of the transparent lighter lines looking transparently through

the object in there. That’d be great too. It’s not required obviously.

We’re just trying to say here is the middle seam on the bubble. Then there is a little

seam that goes back there, goes back there. Then the bubble also comes out. If we put

another seam on it here we come straight across. This bubble would kind of work like this,

something like that. You could also do another one here, catching the center and coming back

down like that. It’s just the idea of really simple stuff. Obviously, there are demonstrations

online of really eloquently drawn out vehicles and cars and all that stuff. All I’m interested

in at this point in the lectures, again, is to get through all the material at a basic

and very intermediate level of just showing why the sectioning, how the perspective works

with the sectioning and the referencing in a basic manner. And as long as we’re paying

attention to wear it peaks. So for instance, if we know this particular middle section

peaks about here and we can come across the proper amount to make the back of the section.

Same here. It peaks about here and comes across. You’re just thinking like this even when

you’re hand drawing. Peak here, come across there. The right vanishing point is in this

direction. Here’s our left. It’s just that real basic kind of thinking. So I’m

just really interested more in the sectioning right now, the transparent kind of heavy-drawn

diagrams that show you why things work. Again, this original shape in here, and here is our

original wing, and you’re just kicking it out there a bit. So it’s very basic stuff

where we’re building out from a center silhouette.

Alright, now we’ll go on to these windows over here. I’ll just draw out the basic

idea of what I was thinking. I was thinking of a top roof. I’m just going to draw on

these lines kind of as they would appear really simply. Top trim of a room.

And this is going to be then a slanted roof that comes down, sloping down, sloping down,

and meeting a common front line. So I’ll go ahead and draw that in just as an approximate idea.

Then I’m going to create windows and a whole bunch of things that I’ve sketched in. We’ll

go through step for step again how we take these windows and throw them back in to this

curve of this rooftop. What I’ll do is I’ll go fairly quickly here so I don’t have to

draft everything. I just want to draw on the idea of an arched window. What we’ll do

is draw in the thickness we want kind of like this. We can X that off, of course. I’m

just approximating here. I had mine stand about here. We can put in thickness or a center

if we want, of course. What we’ll do is we’ll put in a very light X on a center

plane. We can panes of a window in, whatever we want to do. There’s the X bring that

center right down, whatever we need to do.

AUTO SCROLL

I’ll throw back this corner to here. And we’re going to find a middle plane for the

depth. So I say for my first move here we can do two things: Bring this straight up.

Understand the perspective goes like that. Then I’m going to make an arch. And I’m

just going to guesstimate why it’s even on the other side. Get a little perspective

out. That’s the idea of our window shape.

Now I’ve got to feel back how deep I want this.

So I’m going to just from here go through what will be the roof slanting down

and finding a back corner. So what I’m doing with that is just trying to find, okay, where

do these meet on a back corner plane right back here. That’s another line that’s

important. This one actually represents the back of that line all the way through. What

does that mean? When we go straight up here from this corner down and up to the roof I

find that section here. Then there’s another one in the middle. We can drive back to the

middle section. We know the middle section is right here. Also, go back to the left vanishing

point. Drive that to that. Makes a point there. We’ll even do it again for the back of the

window. We’ve kind of done this before on various things. Then when we’re going to

go up and meet that middle section to see where that’s important and meet it up here

just as an idea. Now we know it’s all meeting there.

Now we have our references for the standing window shape. We could fit this out with trip

and panes and all that, but I’m talking about really the main shape is that wide.

Also, this drives back here from this main seam, let’s say here. A little bit of thickness

possibly. It goes back to our main thing. But also, we’re designing it in this section,

the slant of our roof. What I’m doing is I’m just carefully drying in the idea of

this section meeting up here. So the roof might be this old copper type that has ridges

and such, but it actually is this shape like that. And all of the room with the exception

of this dormer will be going in that same direction. So I put two reference points,

or I’m thinking in terms of two reference points here and here.

These two points I can take and can drop to this seam here. See how this makes a whole

section of the roof slanting in? I can drop them to that bottom section and reference

them on the ground and also at that same height. I can get section after section that way just

from this section. If that’s our initial section I’ll just tone it in really lightly

in blue, not to obscure anything but just to get the idea that that’s right. Here’s

our first initial section, which was kind of random and drawn in as we felt it should

look after we got our little window boxed in or our dormer boxed in. So that represents

the surface of the roof like that. Then if we wanted another section somewhere else we

could literally just carry everything over.

We can easily drop the idea of these two references

like this as we know, carry them wherever we want.

I’m going to get a sharper pencil here. So maybe because that’s important for this

shape I’m going to take the idea of this and that and then a red dot on the ground,

red dot on the ground because that’s important to be able to carry that reference forward

back a little. Same with that.

Forward and back for this kind of sectioning.

Now if I take those same reference points and just scoot them forward I’ll know what height

they are when I meet up with them, which we’ll do in a second for another section. Just take

an idea of it here. I’m not going to all the way across because I don’t want to get

too busy in my other area. But now if I wish to start a section right here I can take the

idea of driving back here to the back and straight up.

Now to replicate this, what I can do is I can

draw verticals straight from what is this here. Here is the equivalent

drawing straight up vertically to find that there would be this. Drawing straight up vertically

here to find that. Now I’ve got my four points: one, two, three, four, and I just

draw in my curve again. A little bit lightly to make sure I’m on track.

Then I can just draw in my other section.

Now you could say, well, I could just do that freehand. Who cares? But what we’re doing

here is we’re learning how to section by actually setting reference planes and reference

points to do so. We’re going to everything the long way. Of course, you only need to

use the referencing to kind of respect the perspective. If you think you’re making

everything the same, but it’s actually coming forward and going back and foreshortening,

you need to consider foreshortening affects the way it moves. Once you get used to drawing

these things properly it’s very natural just to do it by hand. This lecture series,

again, isn’t about drawing by hand rapidly and kind of casually discussing how you reference.

People get lost. Beginners and intermediate people will have no idea where you’re going.

What we did is we simply made planes between this point. We came over and made a reference

plane right here to get this point there.

We made another reference plane coming up like this to get that one.

Again, we can do that again and again by running on the ground to wherever we want to make

new sections, and then carrying these heights where those points are over to it. Fill in,

you know, connect the dots and we have our roof. We can do that. I can kind of start

my roof here and then just kind of hand-do that to where it hits the center of the dormer

because the dormer actually does this. Drives back to the center. I can start a little roof

section here, but it stops where it hits the dormer. So that point is where it’s going

to hit that and be pretty obvious. Also, this part of the roof here drives back and touches

this right here. That’s actually where that touches even though the roof shape goes all

the way back here. It actually touches there. Again, we could take another idea where the

roof touches, comes straight down like this, drive that reference back to the vanishing

point and then cross over where this little dot here hits.

That’s where we’d find our other reference to where we

are going because the idea here is that we want to find

where does this thing come up and meet if we have this reference plane here and here

and then coming back, driving this back like this. It comes straight up and meets it.

Now we have a reference plane I’ve just made because I was able to basically come

from here, drive back to here, take the side angle, the proper way to meet it. Know where

that last corner is and come up to meet this here. We’ve made a reference plane. That’s

important. I could take this point and understand where it meets the roof. The roof curves down

like this and will continue to do so when we draw it in. But this point here is carried

back and is kind of unknown to where the roof seam would meet. We know where the roof seam

meets here. It meets right here for this line. Boom, it hits that. We know it meets the roof

right here in the center seam. So we’re just filling in the blank and saying, oh,

there’s that one. So even though it would be similar to if it went flat and didn’t

meet the roof, the real seam is a little different. This is one, that’s this one going back

to meet the seam. And then this one going back there. How I did it was just simply take

this line back to hit that actual curved seam of the roof. I know the curved seam comes

forward like this, kind of copying that one and hits the center line of the dormer right

there. Where do I find that middle spot? Make a plane, drop it, come over to the same distance

where that plane hits that. Come up and we’ve found it. Or you could make a plane also coming

over to the side, going back, and coming over. You get the same point. Now we can make our

little simple dormer seam which wraps around. It’s very simple. The idea is it kind of

flattens out now that meets that like that. The roof comes over and starts slanting over.

That’s how that works. It meets here forward here. The rest of this goes back like that.

This real arch would meet our back wall more like this back here. But we’re not drawing

that section. We’re drawing the forward part that comes forward to meet this copper

roof idea. Again, we can transfer another section to this side here of the roof, kind

of swing it back behind there if you want. What we’re interested in this seam right

now by the dormer. It’s like that darkened seam here. It turns direction, goes like that,

and then disappears behind. Then this is the top seam of the roof which would be darker.

We could take these sections as well. Go back on this side. There’s our roof darker. I’ll

just make that more clear. I mean our dormer darker. Dormer there, the little crossing

section, again, we have all that going.

Just to get this simple seam. We still want to think in terms of sectioning so things

are correct. Even little things can throw you like that. You’d go, oh yeah, we’d

come forward like that. But if you’re doing a couple curves meeting in a rounded shape

meeting in another curve these things can get complicated. So just if you need to you

just draw the plane and say oh that’s right. In this position if I dropped it down to here,

came back, found where this edge actually strikes that, came in, then came up to meet

its height, I get that little seam point. We don’t need it necessarily for the other

side because that is past us. But we could still get the idea again of this roof coming

down a bit. If we wanted to find the roof again over here we could follow these lines

back like this. This point dropping to the ground coming all the way over here, would

meet there. This point, this point dropping down meeting here, would meet there. I’d

come up to meet the height here of this line. Then this height coming up to meet there.

Why am I doing that? So I could find my one, two, three, four of that seam again. That

one behind the window would come down like that.

Obviously, we could just draw and guesstimate it perfectly fine, but we want to show what

the roof would do on the backside as the dormer went in just like it does here. We can create

a couple more. We can carry it down more and say I want to start a section here. And that

maybe will be our end section. What would I do? I’d drive that back toward our vanishing

point again to go to the back seam in the back corner. It’s kind of invisible. It

would be right there. Then we’re going to draw up, draw up the idea of that. Alright,

there’s our back seam that we’ve been using, so we’re going to draw up to that.

And I’m going to put in those two ideas that we’re meeting. We’d start up here

and meet that line. This seam, this seam, this seam. Keep going. I’d meet it up here.

Make that dot. I’ll also meet there to that section. Carry this height forward right to

there above there. Again, I’ve got the whole slant like that.

We’re going to make something happen down here, which is weird, but we’re also going

to say at this point something opposite happens, and the roof is going to bow out in the opposite

direction. In this case what I’ll do is I’ll create this curve first. I’ll do

that in blue. We’re going to actually meet this and say this roof bows out like this,

comes down and does this at the opposite section. It’s very bizarre. So this would all be

pretty much on the surface of just this side of the building going toward the left vanishing

point like this. This roof is actually the one turning in. This is pushing out. We’re

going to draw another window down here that were going to now project this window and

dormer back into a bulging roof idea. Just the idea to do the opposite. I’ll kind of

draw in this idea a little darker. Quick here. The top of the window, we’ll match the height

of the other window. This one is getting smaller. Same idea though.

We’ve got our center so I’ll just go ahead and draw in the center. It’s guesstimating

it from the other drawing. There’s our center. I’ll make our same arch again. This one

is down the way in perspective a bit. There it is. I’m going to drive this little line

back, but I don’t know where it meets that rounded part, so I’m just going to drive

it back a little and also that side plane. I’m just going to drive it back a little.

Of course, I’m going to drive these sides and the middle back to the back seam, which

we remember is here. I want to make sure I’m meeting the right seam. There it is. That

would be right there. The middle seam would be brought back to meet right there. Then

the side back there. Okay, then we want to make sure we’re meeting this back seam here,

which I want to make sure I make a little darker and more clear. It would be meeting

there, there, and there. That can give us our verticals, which go straight up like that.

So it goes with that kind of idea, above, above, and above there. This curve we’re

going to take out. Let’s start with the one here. Touching, starting here. We lead

back to the left vanishing point, and we go up to find the top. So there’s the top of

the curve equivalent to this, this. Here, here. And I’m just going to make a couple

convenient probably dots here. One here as a reference and another one here.

So let’s do that and carry those back into space a little bit. Just a little. And those

two reference dots will just kind of show us how we would create our curve and meet

up with them. This goes straight down and meets here. This one comes down and meets

right about there on this section. Let’s just say for that. Again, we could meet back

on the ground and shovel them back to the ground like this just for the heck of it like

that. Meet the other one just about there. Why am I doing that again? These two points

here on this outside curve drop down, drop down. Now we can realize them at the same

height up here by just making little sections coming here, knowing that that touches there.

It’s just the thinking involved now. It comes up and hits that. Whether you need to

do this every time is up to you. But it can help you make sure you keep your seams in

order and that has to come up. This has to go way up to here, over here to meet the side

plane going back to the left vanishing point of the dormer. It goes over here, comes up

and meets that same height. We’re just trying to get that curve.

So now we have this one point, two, next there, and then finally landing here.

We can just fill in our curve now.

There is our second curve there. We can pick one on the other

side of the window if we wanted to. We can just replicate and go, alright, we know it

lands there. You want to replicate that ins perspective. That’s pretty easy. Just come

down like that. Not hard to do. Let’s figure out how we might see this dormer hit a little

differently. If we know the middle section where we have the middle of the dormer going

back it would hit that seam of that projected-out shape, according to our other one, right about

there. It’s just an estimate. Again, we know the other side on this section here,

here to here all the way up the side of the dormer, this section going back has to hit

that there. So it’s really just a matter of making a seam from this top reference to

right here. But if wanted to be anal about it I could say, alright. If we took the middle

we could slam it back just to be official about it. From here back to the VP like that.

How would we reference where it hits that? Well, we know if we wanted to know the height

another way we could put, I’ll do this in blue. We could just put a little corner extending

up from here, straight up, take that dot, come back in perspective to our right vanishing

point and just go a little bit over here. Go back in our minds. Go back to here and

say I know it strikes—because we’ve come over to the side now just a little bit we

can come over here and say that would hit there. Then I’d have to go back to my right

vanishing point, which is seems tiny but the idea is just to say that’s where that dot would be.

We just created a plane to find out where it would be. If we know it’s there, starts

there, goes there and there, that’s how that curve flattens out to compensate for

the fact that it’s meeting this curve from the dormer, meeting this curve of the roof.

It basically behaves like this. It kind of flattens out like this. That’s how it would

look. Then it would kind of S-curve into this curve. That’s what happens. Then the top,

of course, with the dormers right there, back side of the curve, back of the window, darker

window meeting it like that.

So the real seam, of course, would be these seams coming down from the roof. But as this

rounded dormer, this half dome here went back and met the seam and the skin or the surface

of this roof, the actual seam would do this and then S curve back down. We came and we

made the middle reference, the one right here, and the one right here. It’s just kind of

simple thinking. I know these are very straightforward and who cares about that little difference.

But that’s what it would do instead of having this nice shape like this over here it can’t

do that because this roof curving out meets it. So it actually flattens that curve out

like this, and then it comes back and meets this and S-curves down with the rest of that surface.

It seems to be a small matter of detail. I know it’s kind of innocuous doing some of

this, but that’s the kind of thinking you want to prove to yourself. So it’s weird

that this little tiny blue plane was really to just get the idea here of why if we took

a little halfway through this arch right here and just went back with it, came straight

across from the right vanishing point, hit the corner of where this dorm would be, went

back to where it really hit the roof here then went back to where it meets the amount

this is out as a section. We’ve actually made a little plane. And that little plane

in an easier version to see.

We basically started like this. We moved across. We went back and moved back. We got that back

corner. That back corner we just did here in red is the seam we needed to understand

how the roof straightens out going from the top through this T where it contacts that

from that seam hitting the actual side. This is the side plane. This recedes. It goes away

from the side plane and curves in, curves in. We need to make that seam flatten out

and then whip around. It doesn’t seem like a big deal, but all these little things are

subtleties. It’s hard to gauge. You have to figure out where was that wing seam or

that wing shape in the middle section and then just pushed it out to meet these rings here.

Okay, so those are simple window shapes again. We can shade the front shape in if we want.

There’s our original window shape, and we’re just meeting a section of these things.

This is our section of roof that is curved like this. And like this one, the window, and then

the other section bowed out like this from where the other one went down.

depth. So I say for my first move here we can do two things: Bring this straight up.

Understand the perspective goes like that. Then I’m going to make an arch. And I’m

just going to guesstimate why it’s even on the other side. Get a little perspective

out. That’s the idea of our window shape.

Now I’ve got to feel back how deep I want this.

So I’m going to just from here go through what will be the roof slanting down

and finding a back corner. So what I’m doing with that is just trying to find, okay, where

do these meet on a back corner plane right back here. That’s another line that’s

important. This one actually represents the back of that line all the way through. What

does that mean? When we go straight up here from this corner down and up to the roof I

find that section here. Then there’s another one in the middle. We can drive back to the

middle section. We know the middle section is right here. Also, go back to the left vanishing

point. Drive that to that. Makes a point there. We’ll even do it again for the back of the

window. We’ve kind of done this before on various things. Then when we’re going to

go up and meet that middle section to see where that’s important and meet it up here

just as an idea. Now we know it’s all meeting there.

Now we have our references for the standing window shape. We could fit this out with trip

and panes and all that, but I’m talking about really the main shape is that wide.

Also, this drives back here from this main seam, let’s say here. A little bit of thickness

possibly. It goes back to our main thing. But also, we’re designing it in this section,

the slant of our roof. What I’m doing is I’m just carefully drying in the idea of

this section meeting up here. So the roof might be this old copper type that has ridges

and such, but it actually is this shape like that. And all of the room with the exception

of this dormer will be going in that same direction. So I put two reference points,

or I’m thinking in terms of two reference points here and here.

These two points I can take and can drop to this seam here. See how this makes a whole

section of the roof slanting in? I can drop them to that bottom section and reference

them on the ground and also at that same height. I can get section after section that way just

from this section. If that’s our initial section I’ll just tone it in really lightly

in blue, not to obscure anything but just to get the idea that that’s right. Here’s

our first initial section, which was kind of random and drawn in as we felt it should

look after we got our little window boxed in or our dormer boxed in. So that represents

the surface of the roof like that. Then if we wanted another section somewhere else we

could literally just carry everything over.

We can easily drop the idea of these two references

like this as we know, carry them wherever we want.

I’m going to get a sharper pencil here. So maybe because that’s important for this

shape I’m going to take the idea of this and that and then a red dot on the ground,

red dot on the ground because that’s important to be able to carry that reference forward

back a little. Same with that.

Forward and back for this kind of sectioning.

Now if I take those same reference points and just scoot them forward I’ll know what height

they are when I meet up with them, which we’ll do in a second for another section. Just take

an idea of it here. I’m not going to all the way across because I don’t want to get

too busy in my other area. But now if I wish to start a section right here I can take the

idea of driving back here to the back and straight up.

Now to replicate this, what I can do is I can

draw verticals straight from what is this here. Here is the equivalent

drawing straight up vertically to find that there would be this. Drawing straight up vertically

here to find that. Now I’ve got my four points: one, two, three, four, and I just

draw in my curve again. A little bit lightly to make sure I’m on track.

Then I can just draw in my other section.

Now you could say, well, I could just do that freehand. Who cares? But what we’re doing

here is we’re learning how to section by actually setting reference planes and reference

points to do so. We’re going to everything the long way. Of course, you only need to

use the referencing to kind of respect the perspective. If you think you’re making

everything the same, but it’s actually coming forward and going back and foreshortening,

you need to consider foreshortening affects the way it moves. Once you get used to drawing

these things properly it’s very natural just to do it by hand. This lecture series,

again, isn’t about drawing by hand rapidly and kind of casually discussing how you reference.

People get lost. Beginners and intermediate people will have no idea where you’re going.

What we did is we simply made planes between this point. We came over and made a reference

plane right here to get this point there.

We made another reference plane coming up like this to get that one.

Again, we can do that again and again by running on the ground to wherever we want to make

new sections, and then carrying these heights where those points are over to it. Fill in,

you know, connect the dots and we have our roof. We can do that. I can kind of start

my roof here and then just kind of hand-do that to where it hits the center of the dormer

because the dormer actually does this. Drives back to the center. I can start a little roof

section here, but it stops where it hits the dormer. So that point is where it’s going

to hit that and be pretty obvious. Also, this part of the roof here drives back and touches

this right here. That’s actually where that touches even though the roof shape goes all

the way back here. It actually touches there. Again, we could take another idea where the

roof touches, comes straight down like this, drive that reference back to the vanishing

point and then cross over where this little dot here hits.

That’s where we’d find our other reference to where we

are going because the idea here is that we want to find

where does this thing come up and meet if we have this reference plane here and here

and then coming back, driving this back like this. It comes straight up and meets it.

Now we have a reference plane I’ve just made because I was able to basically come

from here, drive back to here, take the side angle, the proper way to meet it. Know where

that last corner is and come up to meet this here. We’ve made a reference plane. That’s

important. I could take this point and understand where it meets the roof. The roof curves down

like this and will continue to do so when we draw it in. But this point here is carried

back and is kind of unknown to where the roof seam would meet. We know where the roof seam

meets here. It meets right here for this line. Boom, it hits that. We know it meets the roof

right here in the center seam. So we’re just filling in the blank and saying, oh,

there’s that one. So even though it would be similar to if it went flat and didn’t

meet the roof, the real seam is a little different. This is one, that’s this one going back

to meet the seam. And then this one going back there. How I did it was just simply take

this line back to hit that actual curved seam of the roof. I know the curved seam comes

forward like this, kind of copying that one and hits the center line of the dormer right

there. Where do I find that middle spot? Make a plane, drop it, come over to the same distance

where that plane hits that. Come up and we’ve found it. Or you could make a plane also coming

over to the side, going back, and coming over. You get the same point. Now we can make our

little simple dormer seam which wraps around. It’s very simple. The idea is it kind of

flattens out now that meets that like that. The roof comes over and starts slanting over.

That’s how that works. It meets here forward here. The rest of this goes back like that.

This real arch would meet our back wall more like this back here. But we’re not drawing

that section. We’re drawing the forward part that comes forward to meet this copper

roof idea. Again, we can transfer another section to this side here of the roof, kind

of swing it back behind there if you want. What we’re interested in this seam right

now by the dormer. It’s like that darkened seam here. It turns direction, goes like that,

and then disappears behind. Then this is the top seam of the roof which would be darker.

We could take these sections as well. Go back on this side. There’s our roof darker. I’ll

just make that more clear. I mean our dormer darker. Dormer there, the little crossing

section, again, we have all that going.

Just to get this simple seam. We still want to think in terms of sectioning so things

are correct. Even little things can throw you like that. You’d go, oh yeah, we’d

come forward like that. But if you’re doing a couple curves meeting in a rounded shape

meeting in another curve these things can get complicated. So just if you need to you

just draw the plane and say oh that’s right. In this position if I dropped it down to here,

came back, found where this edge actually strikes that, came in, then came up to meet

its height, I get that little seam point. We don’t need it necessarily for the other

side because that is past us. But we could still get the idea again of this roof coming

down a bit. If we wanted to find the roof again over here we could follow these lines

back like this. This point dropping to the ground coming all the way over here, would

meet there. This point, this point dropping down meeting here, would meet there. I’d

come up to meet the height here of this line. Then this height coming up to meet there.

Why am I doing that? So I could find my one, two, three, four of that seam again. That

one behind the window would come down like that.

Obviously, we could just draw and guesstimate it perfectly fine, but we want to show what

the roof would do on the backside as the dormer went in just like it does here. We can create

a couple more. We can carry it down more and say I want to start a section here. And that

maybe will be our end section. What would I do? I’d drive that back toward our vanishing

point again to go to the back seam in the back corner. It’s kind of invisible. It

would be right there. Then we’re going to draw up, draw up the idea of that. Alright,

there’s our back seam that we’ve been using, so we’re going to draw up to that.

And I’m going to put in those two ideas that we’re meeting. We’d start up here

and meet that line. This seam, this seam, this seam. Keep going. I’d meet it up here.

Make that dot. I’ll also meet there to that section. Carry this height forward right to

there above there. Again, I’ve got the whole slant like that.

We’re going to make something happen down here, which is weird, but we’re also going

to say at this point something opposite happens, and the roof is going to bow out in the opposite

direction. In this case what I’ll do is I’ll create this curve first. I’ll do

that in blue. We’re going to actually meet this and say this roof bows out like this,

comes down and does this at the opposite section. It’s very bizarre. So this would all be

pretty much on the surface of just this side of the building going toward the left vanishing

point like this. This roof is actually the one turning in. This is pushing out. We’re

going to draw another window down here that were going to now project this window and

dormer back into a bulging roof idea. Just the idea to do the opposite. I’ll kind of

draw in this idea a little darker. Quick here. The top of the window, we’ll match the height

of the other window. This one is getting smaller. Same idea though.

We’ve got our center so I’ll just go ahead and draw in the center. It’s guesstimating

it from the other drawing. There’s our center. I’ll make our same arch again. This one

is down the way in perspective a bit. There it is. I’m going to drive this little line

back, but I don’t know where it meets that rounded part, so I’m just going to drive

it back a little and also that side plane. I’m just going to drive it back a little.

Of course, I’m going to drive these sides and the middle back to the back seam, which

we remember is here. I want to make sure I’m meeting the right seam. There it is. That

would be right there. The middle seam would be brought back to meet right there. Then

the side back there. Okay, then we want to make sure we’re meeting this back seam here,

which I want to make sure I make a little darker and more clear. It would be meeting

there, there, and there. That can give us our verticals, which go straight up like that.

So it goes with that kind of idea, above, above, and above there. This curve we’re

going to take out. Let’s start with the one here. Touching, starting here. We lead

back to the left vanishing point, and we go up to find the top. So there’s the top of

the curve equivalent to this, this. Here, here. And I’m just going to make a couple

convenient probably dots here. One here as a reference and another one here.

So let’s do that and carry those back into space a little bit. Just a little. And those

two reference dots will just kind of show us how we would create our curve and meet

up with them. This goes straight down and meets here. This one comes down and meets

right about there on this section. Let’s just say for that. Again, we could meet back

on the ground and shovel them back to the ground like this just for the heck of it like

that. Meet the other one just about there. Why am I doing that again? These two points

here on this outside curve drop down, drop down. Now we can realize them at the same

height up here by just making little sections coming here, knowing that that touches there.

It’s just the thinking involved now. It comes up and hits that. Whether you need to

do this every time is up to you. But it can help you make sure you keep your seams in

order and that has to come up. This has to go way up to here, over here to meet the side

plane going back to the left vanishing point of the dormer. It goes over here, comes up

and meets that same height. We’re just trying to get that curve.

So now we have this one point, two, next there, and then finally landing here.

We can just fill in our curve now.

There is our second curve there. We can pick one on the other

side of the window if we wanted to. We can just replicate and go, alright, we know it

lands there. You want to replicate that ins perspective. That’s pretty easy. Just come

down like that. Not hard to do. Let’s figure out how we might see this dormer hit a little

differently. If we know the middle section where we have the middle of the dormer going

back it would hit that seam of that projected-out shape, according to our other one, right about

there. It’s just an estimate. Again, we know the other side on this section here,

here to here all the way up the side of the dormer, this section going back has to hit

that there. So it’s really just a matter of making a seam from this top reference to

right here. But if wanted to be anal about it I could say, alright. If we took the middle

we could slam it back just to be official about it. From here back to the VP like that.

How would we reference where it hits that? Well, we know if we wanted to know the height

another way we could put, I’ll do this in blue. We could just put a little corner extending

up from here, straight up, take that dot, come back in perspective to our right vanishing

point and just go a little bit over here. Go back in our minds. Go back to here and

say I know it strikes—because we’ve come over to the side now just a little bit we

can come over here and say that would hit there. Then I’d have to go back to my right

vanishing point, which is seems tiny but the idea is just to say that’s where that dot would be.

We just created a plane to find out where it would be. If we know it’s there, starts

there, goes there and there, that’s how that curve flattens out to compensate for

the fact that it’s meeting this curve from the dormer, meeting this curve of the roof.

It basically behaves like this. It kind of flattens out like this. That’s how it would

look. Then it would kind of S-curve into this curve. That’s what happens. Then the top,

of course, with the dormers right there, back side of the curve, back of the window, darker

window meeting it like that.

So the real seam, of course, would be these seams coming down from the roof. But as this

rounded dormer, this half dome here went back and met the seam and the skin or the surface

of this roof, the actual seam would do this and then S curve back down. We came and we

made the middle reference, the one right here, and the one right here. It’s just kind of

simple thinking. I know these are very straightforward and who cares about that little difference.

But that’s what it would do instead of having this nice shape like this over here it can’t

do that because this roof curving out meets it. So it actually flattens that curve out

like this, and then it comes back and meets this and S-curves down with the rest of that surface.

It seems to be a small matter of detail. I know it’s kind of innocuous doing some of

this, but that’s the kind of thinking you want to prove to yourself. So it’s weird

that this little tiny blue plane was really to just get the idea here of why if we took

a little halfway through this arch right here and just went back with it, came straight

across from the right vanishing point, hit the corner of where this dorm would be, went

back to where it really hit the roof here then went back to where it meets the amount

this is out as a section. We’ve actually made a little plane. And that little plane

in an easier version to see.

We basically started like this. We moved across. We went back and moved back. We got that back

corner. That back corner we just did here in red is the seam we needed to understand

how the roof straightens out going from the top through this T where it contacts that

from that seam hitting the actual side. This is the side plane. This recedes. It goes away

from the side plane and curves in, curves in. We need to make that seam flatten out

and then whip around. It doesn’t seem like a big deal, but all these little things are

subtleties. It’s hard to gauge. You have to figure out where was that wing seam or

that wing shape in the middle section and then just pushed it out to meet these rings here.

Okay, so those are simple window shapes again. We can shade the front shape in if we want.

There’s our original window shape, and we’re just meeting a section of these things.

This is our section of roof that is curved like this. And like this one, the window, and then

the other section bowed out like this from where the other one went down.

AUTO SCROLL

We get this, and that’s the meeting seam of that. So it’s very simple stuff. This

can be taken into very complex general shapes. Then you can figure out all your detail. Let’s

say you were doing a real French window or something. Well, then you’d have all your

detail and your trim and your thicknesses of your trim with a really sharp pencil. You’d

probably be drawing bigger than this or being much more careful with light lines and sharpening

and putting trim on everything. I’m not that concerned about finishing out the drawing

that way. I’m trying to get to as much subject matter to show why and how the perspective

works for reference. I have faith in the fact that if you guys are observational and drawing,

practicing from observing real shapes and drawing these ideas you’ll get plenty of

line weight and practice in doing your own homework doing trim and real drawing. You’re

also taking other lectures, of course, talking about drawing and that type of thing and lighting.

All that good stuff. It’s a combination of this.

The most important thing I think this lecture series on perspective can do initially is

to show you why and how the perspective works in many, many, many different ways, all sorts

of ways. This is all sectioning. We started with simple art shapes. Then we started going

into curves and volumetric side-to-side form. Now we’re talking about a couple dormers.

We’ve done a simple dormer before on a simple house way back in two-point. Again, this is

all just adding up to be simple information about referencing and reference planes. As

you know, slow down the lecture; reverse, go back, pause, and draw in these little planes.

I don’t want to draw them all in. It would look like a complete mass of confusion. What

you should do in your notes is draw on the ones that meant the most to you, starting

these little planes to know how we made these references to these points on this curve.

Make notes. Wherever you’ve got empty space on your piece of 18 x 24 or whatever you’re

using take in your notes to just point to things. Use arrows because you’ll forget

this stuff or get lost in it unless you make a clean, clear diagram from this, a cleaner

one that mine cause I’m trying to move these rapidly, frankly. More arrows and you have

explanations. I already have my complete notebook from my college, and it covered a lot of this

stuff. Then I’m also doing this lecture series. The idea is that you need to make

your own permanent record of this and explain to yourself your own way based on my lecture

order and my demonstrations, you know, pretty much repeating things two or three times with

arrows, little shaded planes and notes, ABC, 123 as I mentioned many times. You will actually

make a record of this and remember it and always be able to get back to it.

can be taken into very complex general shapes. Then you can figure out all your detail. Let’s

say you were doing a real French window or something. Well, then you’d have all your

detail and your trim and your thicknesses of your trim with a really sharp pencil. You’d

probably be drawing bigger than this or being much more careful with light lines and sharpening

and putting trim on everything. I’m not that concerned about finishing out the drawing

that way. I’m trying to get to as much subject matter to show why and how the perspective

works for reference. I have faith in the fact that if you guys are observational and drawing,

practicing from observing real shapes and drawing these ideas you’ll get plenty of

line weight and practice in doing your own homework doing trim and real drawing. You’re

also taking other lectures, of course, talking about drawing and that type of thing and lighting.

All that good stuff. It’s a combination of this.

The most important thing I think this lecture series on perspective can do initially is

to show you why and how the perspective works in many, many, many different ways, all sorts

of ways. This is all sectioning. We started with simple art shapes. Then we started going

into curves and volumetric side-to-side form. Now we’re talking about a couple dormers.

We’ve done a simple dormer before on a simple house way back in two-point. Again, this is

all just adding up to be simple information about referencing and reference planes. As

you know, slow down the lecture; reverse, go back, pause, and draw in these little planes.

I don’t want to draw them all in. It would look like a complete mass of confusion. What

you should do in your notes is draw on the ones that meant the most to you, starting

these little planes to know how we made these references to these points on this curve.

Make notes. Wherever you’ve got empty space on your piece of 18 x 24 or whatever you’re

using take in your notes to just point to things. Use arrows because you’ll forget

this stuff or get lost in it unless you make a clean, clear diagram from this, a cleaner

one that mine cause I’m trying to move these rapidly, frankly. More arrows and you have

explanations. I already have my complete notebook from my college, and it covered a lot of this

stuff. Then I’m also doing this lecture series. The idea is that you need to make

your own permanent record of this and explain to yourself your own way based on my lecture

order and my demonstrations, you know, pretty much repeating things two or three times with

arrows, little shaded planes and notes, ABC, 123 as I mentioned many times. You will actually

make a record of this and remember it and always be able to get back to it.