- Lesson details
- Transcript

- Instructor
- Erik Olson
- Subjects
- Drawing, Perspective
- Materials
- Colored Pencil, Drafting triangle, Ruler
- Duration
- 6h 47m 53s
- Series
- Perspective for Artists

Erik Olson introduces the concept of side-to-side symmetrical drawing and referencing, an especially useful approach for man-made objects. Eric draws various arches, curved patterns, multiple levels of basic curved shapes, and simple bridges.

Materials

- 45-45-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- 30-60-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- Alvin Pro-Matic Lead Holder – 2H Lead
- Alvin Rotary Lead Pointer
- T-Square Ruler
- Protractor
- Prismacolor Verithin Colored Pencil – Red/Blue
- Paintbrush
- Kneaded Eraser
- Hard Eraser
- Helix Technical Compass

Intermediate

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AUTO SCROLL

In this lecture, Erik Olson introduces the concept of side-to-side symmetrical drawing

and referencing, an especially useful approach for man-made objects. This involves creating

and designing curved patterns and/or shapes and then doubling them or referencing them

over across a center plane to achieve an opposite or mirror image of the initial shapes or design.

Erik draws various sketches, curved patterns, multiple levels of basic

curved shapes and simple bridges.

and referencing, an especially useful approach for man-made objects. This involves creating

and designing curved patterns and/or shapes and then doubling them or referencing them

over across a center plane to achieve an opposite or mirror image of the initial shapes or design.

Erik draws various sketches, curved patterns, multiple levels of basic

curved shapes and simple bridges.

AUTO SCROLL

Here we are. So in context of completing auxiliary perspective; slopes, inclines, declines, measuring

slopes, thinking about angles of all kinds that raise in the air off a standard ground

plane direction, that type of thing. We’ve done quite a bit with that. So now I want

to go over a few more points. Again, so we’re through lectures 10, 11, 12, and 13, and we

want to in context just talk about it after having done it and see what we think. Just

wanted to talk about a few points.

Again, just real quick review. Are you definitely getting used to and/or are having a method

for drawing and drafting the diagrams. Of course, we’ve made it clear at the beginning

of the lecture series. We’re drafting and carefully drawing the diagrams together, and

you’re taking notes. So whereas I’m speaking about what I’m doing and making points on

the diagrams as I’m talking, you’re taking those as notes and drawing along with the

arrows and the shaded planes and all the careful stuff that you need as a permanent record.

The point is you want to be able to go back in six months, a year or two years after maybe

not using much of it and say, oh, I can get back to that in 15 minutes because I made

it clear to myself. I did the diagrams. I understood it at the time, and I got the concept.

So I’m just getting back to where I was. It’s not reading some complicated Xeroxed

book all in black and white with no color references or differences in line and saying,

wow, this is just a mass of black and white and words. I’m not getting this.

Making your own notebook, carefully drawing and making your own notes for records later

is already a huge part of your memory, and you’ll get back to it much faster. So it’s

critical, again, that you’re drawing and drafting the diagrams and taking careful notes.

One, two, three; A, B, C. Why did we do this? What was this for?

Not crazy notes all over the place.

Make them clear so it’s like you’re drawing the diagram and then leaving

space around to make good notes. Five or six lines, note here, note there. Make it a reasonable

amount, but most of it is visually driven. I want to make that clear. The visual diagram

by the way the arrows go, the toned planes should lead the written material which is

led by my verbal explanations. Don’t go overkill with the notes. Make it clear about

the points you need to get onto the next step and understand the conceptualization. That’s

what you’re doing. So we’re actually trying to minimize the notes to be efficient.

So again, point number one, always about that. Are you making a permanent record? Pulling

other supplemental material that’s helpful for you. There’s some great books out there.

We should have some informational files now for the syllabus for the lecture series that

would mention all those books. Certainly we’ll be delivering that material to you one way

or another, but I would prefer to have them in downloadable files or information just

on the site underneath my lecture series, that type of thing. No problems there.

Either way.

Second, thinking critically of angles now. Now that we’ve done this from our station

point, what are we really looking at? Are you really looking at where angles are going

on the ground plane and then up to the auxiliaries and getting used to the fact that you’re

thinking in terms of, oh, zero degrees; oh, 90 degrees straight up. Zero on the ground

plane then 1-89 is a tilt anything could have: roof, a staircase, anything that you consider

a slope or a declining or an inclining plane. Being critical about also thinking about objects

angles to each other. So not just our station point view to the objects and how they behave

but also then angles to objects to each other is important too. You know you want to get

used to looking at this type of stuff.

Number three. Are you starting to formulate how you want to use perspective with variable

thumbnail sketches and your finished process with transfers and however you might want

to do your surface setup. What makes the most sense to you? A grid transfer, so we’ll

go into that. So are you starting to understand that I like to draw and sketch this way, really

casually with thumbnails to understand how my basic kind of almost notan value grouping

and line drawing thumbnails make sense to me. Then you’re drawing them out a little

further in sketches and trying to refine things and still giving yourself variables of views

for composition, feel, objects, you know, subject matter. Anything you’re changing

in and out until you’re starting to lock down. Then how are you drawing up your more

formal or your more finished drawings? Are you drawing directly on a canvas or a mural?

Are you a person that likes to do smaller drawings then make an even, divided in half,

then quarters, then eighths, the sixteenths grid, and just blow up that grid too and sketch

in what you see in that grid. Still thinking about things. You can do that too on canvases.

I do that often. Are you doing a direct drawing with a brush drawing? That type of thing.

Being careful. What type of things are you doing? You can also take a smaller drawing

and then section it with much larger prints proportional to your finished size if it’s

larger. You can tape the prints together and then do a graphite transfer on the canvas

and transfer it that way by the rub and burnish method. Any traditional way you want, of course.

You know digitally, obviously, you can do a drawing any size and immediately transfer

it as an underlayer. So that’s easy.

Thinking about it, how is this stuff—even though we haven’t covered, you know, we’ve

covered a third of the material. Maybe a little more, I’m not even sure. But, we’ve got

a lot to go. But already, how is this stuff kind of sitting with you as far as how it

helps your sketch process? How does it help you just think about ideas when you’re waking

up? Can you think in perspective in that 3-D platform just kind of thinking about it, when

you’re relaxing or doing other things that art? In your observational work as well. How

is this sitting with your thumbnail sketches? Your kind of sketch, kind of work-out drawings?

Your finished efforts? That’s your homework, whereas in my class when I was a student it

was furious note taking in class and talking about it. Then, of course, talking about homework.

The bottom line to me is my perspective classes have, the ones I’ve taught in the past intensely

is 50% of the grade is on the notebook, the correctness of the diagrams in the notes and

being correct as a permanent record. That’s 50% of the grade. The other 50% was applied

thumbnails, variable sketches, and finished homework. Well, those are things you have

to take control of and play with and integrate into your life and your creative life. That’s

your homework as I mentioned basically in some of the lecture talks before. What I can

supply and what I most critically want to supply from my philosophy is the hard information

in building a suitcase, a heavy suitcase, or that warehouse we talked about at the beginning

of the lectures. Can I gradually turn on 100 cubicles in a warehouse that all have their

individual lights and purposes but eventually we can illuminate the entire warehouse, then

turn off a lot of the lights we don’t need and select things because of our knowledge

base being vast. Eventually, or first we want to peak and climax at that 100 cubicles being

illuminated so you have a full understanding of them. Then we can turn all those little

light switches we have off if we don’t need them. So that kind of thing. Are you building

that kind of notebook or kind of supplemental information, taking in and filling in between

the spots in our lectures, in my lectures and stuff. I’d prefer you do that because

then you have a very broad reference base that articulates, you don’t have to ask

anybody anything because you’ve already got a great library. So that’s important.

Again, transferring a sense of how you’re going to integrate it into your finished work

and, you know, figure some of that stuff out. Try different things. I can certainly talk

about them specifically and kind of do during the lectures, but more specifically right

now, again, are you someone that likes to work at a really nailed drawing and then somehow

artificially magnify it up. Meaning, you’ve done your own drawing. It’s your design

100%. You’ve figured out some problems. You’re working large enough to manipulate things

the way you want. Then you might grit it up. That’s a very old way of doing it. That’s

a couple thousand years old obviously or more. You can actually do it by, as I said, prints

now, or you can draw directly on the surface if you prefer. So you know, deliberate what’s

best for you.

Okay, that being said at this stage, let’s talk about what we learned and how it might

relate to specifics now. Learning angles from 0 to 90 in a given direction and the ground

being zero degrees and verticals being 90. What are we doing with the ground plane. Specifically,

I’ll turn around and we’ll talk about, yeah, if the flush with the ground is zero

degrees, as you know, and then up like that is 90 degrees, true vertically. You’re deliberating

different ground plane directions and then tilting up. Don’t forget. Whenever you’re

having trouble visualizing why a slope works you have to identify its simplest form that

it can be broken down to. What is its actual ground plane direction so you can get that

vanishing point? Then you are behaving up to the degree of that slope. Considering its

ground plane, vanishing point first, then tipping up to that degree of slope. One degree

is barely above the ground plane. All the way to 89 degrees would be incredibly steep

and almost unperceivably steep. Also, on the ground plane are you considering is this zero

neutral, or are we saying this is zero degrees all the way to 180 degrees. I have to consider

everything between 1 degree and 89 because those are all the degrees I can consider turning

and rotating on the ground. Zero would be kind of no perspective in one point with everything

has a real angle or 180 if we talked about flush with the picture plane. But 1-89 is

pretty much where you can look into our picture as a viewer. Then of course you have the thing—am

I going above the ground plane or am I going below? You have zero to 90 degrees up, zero

to 90 degrees down if you want to think about it that way.

So again, lots of things to consider about what are you actually thinking of in that

kind of half dome of our view when we look into a picture, looking down, straight in,

and up. How does that affect us? Panning ground planes and the space is front of you, as I

mentioned, to be 180 degrees left and right is really important because we have to deliberate

that more and more as we get into three-point. When we get into three-point then we’re

actually looking down or up and considering how we’re moving to the side, so very important.

C, thinking of basic angles possible when you’re sketching an observed space. So even

though we did some mechanical things and measured mechanical angles, you’re thinking of 0 to

90 or the degrees generally when you’re just observing form and drawing normally,

just sketching for fun. Just try to integrate this stuff and have more of a conversation

with yourself about why this space works in relation to perspective as well as why it

might be compositionally or creatively interesting to do by the technique. So make that part

of the discussion with yourself when your drawing: How are these formal perspective

concepts integrated? Especially with angles and stuff because a lot people get confused

or don’t want to think about it. Oh, it’s too mathematical. We’re only introducing

the formal so that you can relax actually and be able to think more casually about it,

about all these ground plane directions, as I mentioned, as well as tipping up and tipping

down, as the diagram should very clearly point out. We made transparent box ideas of houses

on Photoshop and photo overdraws. That type of thing is very helpful too. We just did

the basic stuff. Some people go into much more detail with millions of lines. Ours get

kind of congested, but the idea is you really want to be able to think through reference

when you’re shooting it or looking at the world. So what we do is we’re saying is

our observed space is the—you know, photography a lot of time or some of the master paintings

we’ve done before, and then we’re drawing over that for that reason.

D, formally measuring angles with auxiliary VP’s. We learned that. Measuring points

and a protractor. And also, then, the more kind of instinctive clock method, the clock

face method with squares. So if you can create a believable square in a particular perspective

and then just deliberate what the angle is compared to true 90. Zero may be flush with

the ground and somewhere in between, 45 being the true bisecting angle of that imagined

square properly in perspective. You can get a close approximation of what angle you’re

just creating and have that move and behave that way throughout the picture. Again, that’s

just a guesstimation method that can work very well as well. Plus, we obviously did

measured perspective fully from those measuring points, really going down or up to our auxiliary

vanishing points, things like that.

Also, ground plane direction and angles of independent floating objects. What’s the

true position of an object? Is a box, or something like that we talked about, truly parallel

and perpendicular to the ground and standing straight up vertically and horizontally? And

then what angle is a turned at? Okay, even if it doesn’t have an auxiliary tip to it

where exactly is that box floating directly over the ground. We have to kind of drop a

line like a little line in a plumb bob like we talked about with a weight on it and say,

oh, is that box here. Where directly is it over the ground. That has to do with how you

scale its size. So if you want a giant floating object behaving a particular way, not only

do you have to deliberate its perspective angles, but you also have to say, oh if it

was dropped straight to the ground, dead straight vertically down to the ground where would

it be. That would tell you what its size is. Either it’s going to be huge—if it’s

still a pretty big object way in the background then that’s a pretty big object. But, if

actually you’re saying that this floating object here actually comes pretty far in the

foreground and just touches the ground in front of us it might be very small.

That’s important too.

Then on top of that once you have those free-floating objects behaving to the standard vanishing

points and being truly horizontal and vertical, then you have to consider if one tips to an

auxiliary vanishing point. Then we briefly talked about if it tips on the other axis

it becomes a free, independent three-point object. That would take a different setup,

which we’re going to cover in three-point, just to explain why that happens. Slopes and

obviously boxes and things like that that turn actually go into three-point behavior,

and the surfaces on them or the things projecting off the slopes are actually behaving in three-point.

But we can still gauge them off the methods I still consider in two-point. Technically

the three-point, but it doesn’t matter. They’re still behaving to auxiliaries, and

we can still go down at that 90 and get the perpendicular behavior by going way down or

way up as we did with some of those surfaces they’re standing straight against at a 90

degree angle of our slopes. As opposed to people that we talked about, trying to balance

and stand straight up on slope. Imagine a wedding that is being performed on a slope.

To look good everybody is going to be basically standing straight up and tipping so that they

don’t fall over by gravity. But if you had a wedding cake or a cart that cart would be

behaving perpendicular to that sloped surface. So we consider that with people pulling little

boxes. Very simple ideas but those are really important. Don’t overlook the fact that

even though we did fairly simply diagrams that pretty much opens up the whole idea of

why it’s important to think of how someone is leaning into a slope; what is true vertical;

how would that person shift their weight; and a figure or an animal going up a slope

or down a slope, how do we have to walk up and down one. You know, consider all that.

You’ve seen it your whole life in photography and done it yourself. I’m just giving you

the lead about thinking about it in relationship to auxiliary vanishing point slopes, inclines,

and declines. I’m just kind of giving you the start of the fire. You have to kind of

fill in the blanks and say how further could I deliberate how people and things move down

steeper slopes, more shallow slopes, and obviously staircases too as we covered. Those are important

to because staircases are everywhere.

Again, to conclude, we’re really trying to think all the way from independent objects

that are not attached to the ground but still might be performing an auxiliary move with

a slope or tipping. How do we deliberate all sorts of staircases, their true angle? How

do we measure things around our real environment, around our house and in public spaces to actually

understand how real angles behave that are things we see every day but might assume things

that aren’t actually true. What is the actual slope of average staircases? Steeper attic

staircases like those little pull-down ladders? Again, courthouses have very shallow slopes,

maybe only 25 degrees, maybe something like that. Little gardens have that too, depending.

Just kind of make this kind of review in your mind about what we did with auxiliaries and

slopes and inclines and declines. It’s basically slope centric whether it be staircases, rooftops,

dormers meeting the house, all that kind of stuff intersecting. Start thinking more and

more in terms of that center plane we talked about with houses and then working out from

the center to find how things intersect, like dormers intersect a straight roof. All of

things are going to get more and more complex as we go into man-made objects, which are

typically side-to-side symmetrical from a central plane to deliberate heights and everything.

The way we’re built is mostly side-to-side from a center plane. Most man-made objects

work like that, so it’s great to know that stuff. We’ll be going into more of that

when we get to curves and archways and all that stuff.

Okay, so that’s pretty much it. Keep carrying it on. And the slopes are something where

some people feel like, God, I don’t really want to think about these numbers, but it’s

not really about numbers. It’s hard to say this. Make it organic to yourself and think

of the idea of zero or 90. Once you take away the math and the number it’s really instinctive.

You know, 100, 200, 300,000 years ago in our ancient history we were looking at a horizon,

and so in art the formal is more one and two-point because we’re looking straight into the

horizon. Most of the time we’re actually looking down or up a little, probably. Watching

kids running, make sure they’re safe. Oh, have to look down to read and look at where

we’re stepping so we don’t fall off something.

We’re agreeing that one and two-point is a little more formal, but when we start with

slopes and start deliberating three-point, then we get more into incidental ways people

casually look around the world and have to look to be able to know where they’re going.

That could be a compositional and a conceptual lead as well. So it just kind of starts getting

thicker from here about all the different ways you can use perspective and want to know

the basic mechanics of it. Ninety degrees, 0 degrees, up and down. Am I panning across?

How do I describe to myself or others that I want to shift something? Can I describe

that to myself? If I’m at the center of vision here at zero, do I want to go 20 degrees

to the left which would mean I’d have to go 70 degrees to the right? All that kind

of logic, just start building it up for yourself because that’s how you’re going to think

when you do sketches. Even if you want to keep it more organic if you have a sense of

yourself looking into the world, and we’re always in front of our cone parallel to our

own picture plane this way and perpendicular that way, you’ll get a sense of, oh yeah

that’s right; the world has to accommodate the picture plane and the headgear I carry

around. So it’s not about what the world is doing first, it’s about what the world

might be doing, and where am I to it with that picture plane and all that headgear we

talked about. We’ve done that a lot, but remember it’s really critical when you start

composing angles and thinking about counting 90 degree turns and getting those vanishing

points out at 90 degrees from the SP. How much am I tipping up or down for a staircase?

It all becomes where’s that ground plane first, direction, and then how do I tip that

slope up or down. All those things, just get used to thinking of those ideas. As you look

at observational material in the world when you’re sketching and drawing from life,

all the way to purely inventing stuff.

Okay, so just make it, again, slope centric. That’s basically it. We’ll just plunge

on into, again, things like archways, curved objects, domes, intersecting planes, intersecting

objects, and how figures are affected by foreshortening and how you position them when they’re more

extending and in extended positions to still be correct in foreshortening in the space

they take up in perspective. That can be difficult. That’s a long list. It’s going to be a

lot of lectures based on those things I just mentioned next.

Okay, so hang in there and keep drawing, keep taking down the diagrams and the lectures.

I hope this has been helpful. Alright, we’ll see you in the lectures.

slopes, thinking about angles of all kinds that raise in the air off a standard ground

plane direction, that type of thing. We’ve done quite a bit with that. So now I want

to go over a few more points. Again, so we’re through lectures 10, 11, 12, and 13, and we

want to in context just talk about it after having done it and see what we think. Just

wanted to talk about a few points.

Again, just real quick review. Are you definitely getting used to and/or are having a method

for drawing and drafting the diagrams. Of course, we’ve made it clear at the beginning

of the lecture series. We’re drafting and carefully drawing the diagrams together, and

you’re taking notes. So whereas I’m speaking about what I’m doing and making points on

the diagrams as I’m talking, you’re taking those as notes and drawing along with the

arrows and the shaded planes and all the careful stuff that you need as a permanent record.

The point is you want to be able to go back in six months, a year or two years after maybe

not using much of it and say, oh, I can get back to that in 15 minutes because I made

it clear to myself. I did the diagrams. I understood it at the time, and I got the concept.

So I’m just getting back to where I was. It’s not reading some complicated Xeroxed

book all in black and white with no color references or differences in line and saying,

wow, this is just a mass of black and white and words. I’m not getting this.

Making your own notebook, carefully drawing and making your own notes for records later

is already a huge part of your memory, and you’ll get back to it much faster. So it’s

critical, again, that you’re drawing and drafting the diagrams and taking careful notes.

One, two, three; A, B, C. Why did we do this? What was this for?

Not crazy notes all over the place.

Make them clear so it’s like you’re drawing the diagram and then leaving

space around to make good notes. Five or six lines, note here, note there. Make it a reasonable

amount, but most of it is visually driven. I want to make that clear. The visual diagram

by the way the arrows go, the toned planes should lead the written material which is

led by my verbal explanations. Don’t go overkill with the notes. Make it clear about

the points you need to get onto the next step and understand the conceptualization. That’s

what you’re doing. So we’re actually trying to minimize the notes to be efficient.

So again, point number one, always about that. Are you making a permanent record? Pulling

other supplemental material that’s helpful for you. There’s some great books out there.

We should have some informational files now for the syllabus for the lecture series that

would mention all those books. Certainly we’ll be delivering that material to you one way

or another, but I would prefer to have them in downloadable files or information just

on the site underneath my lecture series, that type of thing. No problems there.

Either way.

Second, thinking critically of angles now. Now that we’ve done this from our station

point, what are we really looking at? Are you really looking at where angles are going

on the ground plane and then up to the auxiliaries and getting used to the fact that you’re

thinking in terms of, oh, zero degrees; oh, 90 degrees straight up. Zero on the ground

plane then 1-89 is a tilt anything could have: roof, a staircase, anything that you consider

a slope or a declining or an inclining plane. Being critical about also thinking about objects

angles to each other. So not just our station point view to the objects and how they behave

but also then angles to objects to each other is important too. You know you want to get

used to looking at this type of stuff.

Number three. Are you starting to formulate how you want to use perspective with variable

thumbnail sketches and your finished process with transfers and however you might want

to do your surface setup. What makes the most sense to you? A grid transfer, so we’ll

go into that. So are you starting to understand that I like to draw and sketch this way, really

casually with thumbnails to understand how my basic kind of almost notan value grouping

and line drawing thumbnails make sense to me. Then you’re drawing them out a little

further in sketches and trying to refine things and still giving yourself variables of views

for composition, feel, objects, you know, subject matter. Anything you’re changing

in and out until you’re starting to lock down. Then how are you drawing up your more

formal or your more finished drawings? Are you drawing directly on a canvas or a mural?

Are you a person that likes to do smaller drawings then make an even, divided in half,

then quarters, then eighths, the sixteenths grid, and just blow up that grid too and sketch

in what you see in that grid. Still thinking about things. You can do that too on canvases.

I do that often. Are you doing a direct drawing with a brush drawing? That type of thing.

Being careful. What type of things are you doing? You can also take a smaller drawing

and then section it with much larger prints proportional to your finished size if it’s

larger. You can tape the prints together and then do a graphite transfer on the canvas

and transfer it that way by the rub and burnish method. Any traditional way you want, of course.

You know digitally, obviously, you can do a drawing any size and immediately transfer

it as an underlayer. So that’s easy.

Thinking about it, how is this stuff—even though we haven’t covered, you know, we’ve

covered a third of the material. Maybe a little more, I’m not even sure. But, we’ve got

a lot to go. But already, how is this stuff kind of sitting with you as far as how it

helps your sketch process? How does it help you just think about ideas when you’re waking

up? Can you think in perspective in that 3-D platform just kind of thinking about it, when

you’re relaxing or doing other things that art? In your observational work as well. How

is this sitting with your thumbnail sketches? Your kind of sketch, kind of work-out drawings?

Your finished efforts? That’s your homework, whereas in my class when I was a student it

was furious note taking in class and talking about it. Then, of course, talking about homework.

The bottom line to me is my perspective classes have, the ones I’ve taught in the past intensely

is 50% of the grade is on the notebook, the correctness of the diagrams in the notes and

being correct as a permanent record. That’s 50% of the grade. The other 50% was applied

thumbnails, variable sketches, and finished homework. Well, those are things you have

to take control of and play with and integrate into your life and your creative life. That’s

your homework as I mentioned basically in some of the lecture talks before. What I can

supply and what I most critically want to supply from my philosophy is the hard information

in building a suitcase, a heavy suitcase, or that warehouse we talked about at the beginning

of the lectures. Can I gradually turn on 100 cubicles in a warehouse that all have their

individual lights and purposes but eventually we can illuminate the entire warehouse, then

turn off a lot of the lights we don’t need and select things because of our knowledge

base being vast. Eventually, or first we want to peak and climax at that 100 cubicles being

illuminated so you have a full understanding of them. Then we can turn all those little

light switches we have off if we don’t need them. So that kind of thing. Are you building

that kind of notebook or kind of supplemental information, taking in and filling in between

the spots in our lectures, in my lectures and stuff. I’d prefer you do that because

then you have a very broad reference base that articulates, you don’t have to ask

anybody anything because you’ve already got a great library. So that’s important.

Again, transferring a sense of how you’re going to integrate it into your finished work

and, you know, figure some of that stuff out. Try different things. I can certainly talk

about them specifically and kind of do during the lectures, but more specifically right

now, again, are you someone that likes to work at a really nailed drawing and then somehow

artificially magnify it up. Meaning, you’ve done your own drawing. It’s your design

100%. You’ve figured out some problems. You’re working large enough to manipulate things

the way you want. Then you might grit it up. That’s a very old way of doing it. That’s

a couple thousand years old obviously or more. You can actually do it by, as I said, prints

now, or you can draw directly on the surface if you prefer. So you know, deliberate what’s

best for you.

Okay, that being said at this stage, let’s talk about what we learned and how it might

relate to specifics now. Learning angles from 0 to 90 in a given direction and the ground

being zero degrees and verticals being 90. What are we doing with the ground plane. Specifically,

I’ll turn around and we’ll talk about, yeah, if the flush with the ground is zero

degrees, as you know, and then up like that is 90 degrees, true vertically. You’re deliberating

different ground plane directions and then tilting up. Don’t forget. Whenever you’re

having trouble visualizing why a slope works you have to identify its simplest form that

it can be broken down to. What is its actual ground plane direction so you can get that

vanishing point? Then you are behaving up to the degree of that slope. Considering its

ground plane, vanishing point first, then tipping up to that degree of slope. One degree

is barely above the ground plane. All the way to 89 degrees would be incredibly steep

and almost unperceivably steep. Also, on the ground plane are you considering is this zero

neutral, or are we saying this is zero degrees all the way to 180 degrees. I have to consider

everything between 1 degree and 89 because those are all the degrees I can consider turning

and rotating on the ground. Zero would be kind of no perspective in one point with everything

has a real angle or 180 if we talked about flush with the picture plane. But 1-89 is

pretty much where you can look into our picture as a viewer. Then of course you have the thing—am

I going above the ground plane or am I going below? You have zero to 90 degrees up, zero

to 90 degrees down if you want to think about it that way.

So again, lots of things to consider about what are you actually thinking of in that

kind of half dome of our view when we look into a picture, looking down, straight in,

and up. How does that affect us? Panning ground planes and the space is front of you, as I

mentioned, to be 180 degrees left and right is really important because we have to deliberate

that more and more as we get into three-point. When we get into three-point then we’re

actually looking down or up and considering how we’re moving to the side, so very important.

C, thinking of basic angles possible when you’re sketching an observed space. So even

though we did some mechanical things and measured mechanical angles, you’re thinking of 0 to

90 or the degrees generally when you’re just observing form and drawing normally,

just sketching for fun. Just try to integrate this stuff and have more of a conversation

with yourself about why this space works in relation to perspective as well as why it

might be compositionally or creatively interesting to do by the technique. So make that part

of the discussion with yourself when your drawing: How are these formal perspective

concepts integrated? Especially with angles and stuff because a lot people get confused

or don’t want to think about it. Oh, it’s too mathematical. We’re only introducing

the formal so that you can relax actually and be able to think more casually about it,

about all these ground plane directions, as I mentioned, as well as tipping up and tipping

down, as the diagram should very clearly point out. We made transparent box ideas of houses

on Photoshop and photo overdraws. That type of thing is very helpful too. We just did

the basic stuff. Some people go into much more detail with millions of lines. Ours get

kind of congested, but the idea is you really want to be able to think through reference

when you’re shooting it or looking at the world. So what we do is we’re saying is

our observed space is the—you know, photography a lot of time or some of the master paintings

we’ve done before, and then we’re drawing over that for that reason.

D, formally measuring angles with auxiliary VP’s. We learned that. Measuring points

and a protractor. And also, then, the more kind of instinctive clock method, the clock

face method with squares. So if you can create a believable square in a particular perspective

and then just deliberate what the angle is compared to true 90. Zero may be flush with

the ground and somewhere in between, 45 being the true bisecting angle of that imagined

square properly in perspective. You can get a close approximation of what angle you’re

just creating and have that move and behave that way throughout the picture. Again, that’s

just a guesstimation method that can work very well as well. Plus, we obviously did

measured perspective fully from those measuring points, really going down or up to our auxiliary

vanishing points, things like that.

Also, ground plane direction and angles of independent floating objects. What’s the

true position of an object? Is a box, or something like that we talked about, truly parallel

and perpendicular to the ground and standing straight up vertically and horizontally? And

then what angle is a turned at? Okay, even if it doesn’t have an auxiliary tip to it

where exactly is that box floating directly over the ground. We have to kind of drop a

line like a little line in a plumb bob like we talked about with a weight on it and say,

oh, is that box here. Where directly is it over the ground. That has to do with how you

scale its size. So if you want a giant floating object behaving a particular way, not only

do you have to deliberate its perspective angles, but you also have to say, oh if it

was dropped straight to the ground, dead straight vertically down to the ground where would

it be. That would tell you what its size is. Either it’s going to be huge—if it’s

still a pretty big object way in the background then that’s a pretty big object. But, if

actually you’re saying that this floating object here actually comes pretty far in the

foreground and just touches the ground in front of us it might be very small.

That’s important too.

Then on top of that once you have those free-floating objects behaving to the standard vanishing

points and being truly horizontal and vertical, then you have to consider if one tips to an

auxiliary vanishing point. Then we briefly talked about if it tips on the other axis

it becomes a free, independent three-point object. That would take a different setup,

which we’re going to cover in three-point, just to explain why that happens. Slopes and

obviously boxes and things like that that turn actually go into three-point behavior,

and the surfaces on them or the things projecting off the slopes are actually behaving in three-point.

But we can still gauge them off the methods I still consider in two-point. Technically

the three-point, but it doesn’t matter. They’re still behaving to auxiliaries, and

we can still go down at that 90 and get the perpendicular behavior by going way down or

way up as we did with some of those surfaces they’re standing straight against at a 90

degree angle of our slopes. As opposed to people that we talked about, trying to balance

and stand straight up on slope. Imagine a wedding that is being performed on a slope.

To look good everybody is going to be basically standing straight up and tipping so that they

don’t fall over by gravity. But if you had a wedding cake or a cart that cart would be

behaving perpendicular to that sloped surface. So we consider that with people pulling little

boxes. Very simple ideas but those are really important. Don’t overlook the fact that

even though we did fairly simply diagrams that pretty much opens up the whole idea of

why it’s important to think of how someone is leaning into a slope; what is true vertical;

how would that person shift their weight; and a figure or an animal going up a slope

or down a slope, how do we have to walk up and down one. You know, consider all that.

You’ve seen it your whole life in photography and done it yourself. I’m just giving you

the lead about thinking about it in relationship to auxiliary vanishing point slopes, inclines,

and declines. I’m just kind of giving you the start of the fire. You have to kind of

fill in the blanks and say how further could I deliberate how people and things move down

steeper slopes, more shallow slopes, and obviously staircases too as we covered. Those are important

to because staircases are everywhere.

Again, to conclude, we’re really trying to think all the way from independent objects

that are not attached to the ground but still might be performing an auxiliary move with

a slope or tipping. How do we deliberate all sorts of staircases, their true angle? How

do we measure things around our real environment, around our house and in public spaces to actually

understand how real angles behave that are things we see every day but might assume things

that aren’t actually true. What is the actual slope of average staircases? Steeper attic

staircases like those little pull-down ladders? Again, courthouses have very shallow slopes,

maybe only 25 degrees, maybe something like that. Little gardens have that too, depending.

Just kind of make this kind of review in your mind about what we did with auxiliaries and

slopes and inclines and declines. It’s basically slope centric whether it be staircases, rooftops,

dormers meeting the house, all that kind of stuff intersecting. Start thinking more and

more in terms of that center plane we talked about with houses and then working out from

the center to find how things intersect, like dormers intersect a straight roof. All of

things are going to get more and more complex as we go into man-made objects, which are

typically side-to-side symmetrical from a central plane to deliberate heights and everything.

The way we’re built is mostly side-to-side from a center plane. Most man-made objects

work like that, so it’s great to know that stuff. We’ll be going into more of that

when we get to curves and archways and all that stuff.

Okay, so that’s pretty much it. Keep carrying it on. And the slopes are something where

some people feel like, God, I don’t really want to think about these numbers, but it’s

not really about numbers. It’s hard to say this. Make it organic to yourself and think

of the idea of zero or 90. Once you take away the math and the number it’s really instinctive.

You know, 100, 200, 300,000 years ago in our ancient history we were looking at a horizon,

and so in art the formal is more one and two-point because we’re looking straight into the

horizon. Most of the time we’re actually looking down or up a little, probably. Watching

kids running, make sure they’re safe. Oh, have to look down to read and look at where

we’re stepping so we don’t fall off something.

We’re agreeing that one and two-point is a little more formal, but when we start with

slopes and start deliberating three-point, then we get more into incidental ways people

casually look around the world and have to look to be able to know where they’re going.

That could be a compositional and a conceptual lead as well. So it just kind of starts getting

thicker from here about all the different ways you can use perspective and want to know

the basic mechanics of it. Ninety degrees, 0 degrees, up and down. Am I panning across?

How do I describe to myself or others that I want to shift something? Can I describe

that to myself? If I’m at the center of vision here at zero, do I want to go 20 degrees

to the left which would mean I’d have to go 70 degrees to the right? All that kind

of logic, just start building it up for yourself because that’s how you’re going to think

when you do sketches. Even if you want to keep it more organic if you have a sense of

yourself looking into the world, and we’re always in front of our cone parallel to our

own picture plane this way and perpendicular that way, you’ll get a sense of, oh yeah

that’s right; the world has to accommodate the picture plane and the headgear I carry

around. So it’s not about what the world is doing first, it’s about what the world

might be doing, and where am I to it with that picture plane and all that headgear we

talked about. We’ve done that a lot, but remember it’s really critical when you start

composing angles and thinking about counting 90 degree turns and getting those vanishing

points out at 90 degrees from the SP. How much am I tipping up or down for a staircase?

It all becomes where’s that ground plane first, direction, and then how do I tip that

slope up or down. All those things, just get used to thinking of those ideas. As you look

at observational material in the world when you’re sketching and drawing from life,

all the way to purely inventing stuff.

Okay, so just make it, again, slope centric. That’s basically it. We’ll just plunge

on into, again, things like archways, curved objects, domes, intersecting planes, intersecting

objects, and how figures are affected by foreshortening and how you position them when they’re more

extending and in extended positions to still be correct in foreshortening in the space

they take up in perspective. That can be difficult. That’s a long list. It’s going to be a

lot of lectures based on those things I just mentioned next.

Okay, so hang in there and keep drawing, keep taking down the diagrams and the lectures.

I hope this has been helpful. Alright, we’ll see you in the lectures.

AUTO SCROLL

Alright, welcome back. Now we’re in the lectures that are going to concern arches,

curved objects, curved planes, intersecting planes and objects. A lot of referencing now.

The type of things we’ve done with some of the basic objects and ellipses and things,

but now we’re going to get more specific and more and more involved in many, many references

in both width, length, and height and get more complex ideas going, drawing seams on

the skin of things as it’s called as we’re going to get into pretty quickly here. But

we’re going to start with some basic standing arches because that’s the best way or I

think the simplest way to learn how to double over a mirror image of a particular curve

and arch. These eventually will turn into standing sections that will be with sections

of certain objects, and then we’ll also draw length sections over them, much like

vehicles and many objects in industrial design and obviously manmade objects of all kinds.

You can even do it with organic objects, but those would be asymmetrical. The things we’re

doing are fairly symmetrical side-to-side or side A, side B flipped over, kind of like

a reflection of one would be what it’s reflected to be, the A side and the B side, that type of thing.

So we’ll just get into it and explain as we go. So what I’ve done is I’ve sketched

out some space here, but now we’re going to get real specific. We’ll create a basic

arch. This is what is going to be called a segmental arch, a basic one. We’re only

going to do half of it at first. Here’s the basic space I want it to take up. These

are flat so I’ll write that down as a note. These two up here are going to be the flat

views, and then down here we’re going to do the perspective view. This will be the

perspective view of that one. This is the flat. That will be the perspective view of

that one. These are the flats.

Again, this is the segmental arch.

Okay, so first thing we’re going to do is we’re going to recognize that the arch won’t quite come up to the

top of the shape that will almost, cause that’s what, you know, maybe some thickness would

be left up there. I’ll put it on this one as well. That will represent the arch peak right here.

But, first thing I’m going to do is cut my idea in half cause I’m going to only

work on one half and then mirror that. That’s what we’re going to be doing with many,

many of these shapes soon as we’ll get into the more and more complex as we go. So there’s

our middle plane, as you know, and I’ll go ahead and divide that. I can also divide

that in half both ways. Just start getting an idea of what I might want to do as reference

points. These halves can be reference points easily as well. I am going to just freehand

the arch and just make it spontaneous. It’s the idea that it’s not going to be, you

know, it’s going to be a fairly shallow one. The idea is I’m just going to say I’m

going to start it here on this side, and it’s going to peak right here. And I’m going

to go ahead in draw it in a way that it’s going to start here. Try to get out of the

camera way here. I’m just going to lightly say, alright, I want it to go like this and

come really slowly down here. It’s right about there. Alright, there’s my first reference.

Now it looks really simple but we’re going to try to, you know, start dividing in our

minds the idea of the second half. That’s an easy one. With my cross-section for half

of one I’m going to actually make that a point. I can do that in red if I want to be

really clear at first. These are going to be really simple.

So now I want to double that idea over. Now this would just be the side of the arch down

here. We’re just going to make these very, very simple shapes and ideas. That would be

the side of the inside of a typical archway. So in a sense we have this in the middle.

This little red mark is the one we’re taking reference on. It basically ends here so we

could put that in blue if you want. The idea is we’re just going to double that over.

The simplest way to do that, of course, with a simple arch and simple shape would be we’re

going to draw across from the arch touches the side wall on the left. We’re going to

draw a perfect reference right over here and recognize that’s going to be over here.

Of course, our center is the same here. We’re also going to go ahead and draw a reference

over here. We already have the X’ng of the entire space, so that makes a convenient reference

because we’re literally duplicating this with the opposite. Now I know that one lands

right there. We’re going to do the left side first. We’ll say left first. So we’ve

done our left side first. I’ll even make that darker. That’s our arch right there.

It’s just completely randomly drawn in. The idea is we’re going to get more and

more complex as things have more extensions, more curves. We’re going to get more complicated

with our referencing. We’ve just made a basic side-to-side reference here. First these,

and then we’re doubling over to those. So now just like we did with our ellipses we

can say, well, if I can stay fairly even there I’m just going to sketch it in really light

until I think I have an even side that’s pretty even.

So what I’ll do is I’ll extend that over; reach it over and just draw it in. Now this

is very simple but it’s really the basis of all the sectioning we’re going to do

both for width, depth, verticals. Even in three-point with the verticals having a diminishment,

we’re still using these same ideas over and over again for that. So that’s our first

simple arch. These shouldn’t take that long because they’re simple ideas. The more complex

we get, getting to make a couple of vehicles and complex objects, that are in some ways

very organic with a lot of different curves that aren’t all necessarily that mechanical.

Then it becomes more and more important to reference these different ideas. Much like

we did with uneven ground surfaces in the earlier lectures. This will be very much the

same as that. Okay, so there’s our segmental arch.

Now we’re going to go ahead and draw its equivalent in perspective down here. I’ll

go ahead and get my bigger ruler, and I’ll go ahead and draw in just a general idea.

We’re not going to transfer it directly or measure anything. We’re just really estimating

now. We really want to just get into the drawing of objects a little more and just be using

our perspective in very basic ways. It’s going to be the referencing and all the little

vertical references and all the little depth and width references we make. Think of everything

as being transparent. That’s where it’s going to get complex as the objects get more

complex. The use of our perspective is very simple. We’re pretty much only using the

right vanishing point, the left vanishing point, verticals, and maybe an occasional

auxiliary depending on the object. But most of it is going to be careful referencing like

a little spider showing little straight webs to the vanishing point left, vanishing point

right, and the idea of dropping down and going up vertically. It’s going to be pretty simple.

Here we go. I’m just going to put these side walls in now as our representation.

A lot of you might have already done this type of thing, of course. It’s done to a very

complex degree on many websites and in books on design and stuff. But a lot of people that

are starting out on the art or artistic side of it don’t get a lot of this and don’t

think about it much. This is a very easy way when we get into drawing more objects how

to reference things as they diminish in perspective and double over like we’ve already done

with many objects. You realize you can go more and more complex with this concept. That’s

what we’re going to do.

Okay, so now I’m going to draw in that idea of where the arch is at the top of the rectangular

shape, so right there. Now the same thing. We’re going to do the exact same motions

we did with our flat version, with our perspective version. Obviously this is going to be pretty

simple but it’s important that you just get a system of thinking. Since I already

have the halfway marks and my X’ng I can use those lines as references I did above.

I’m going to also go ahead and put in that middle division, which we have to have for

this type of thinking. I’ll go ahead and put in my horizontal in the middle. Same ideas

up there.

Now what we’re going to do is we’re going to say, well, alright if I’m drawing the

same basic idea in perspective then, okay, how far down was I? Well, let’s analyze

it. We’re not going to measure it. We’re just going to say, let’s say you’re just

estimating and drawing well, and you’re just doing side-to-side symmetrical drawing

in a quality manner. I’m using real vanishing points and straight edges and the T-square

still cause I want to be exact make sure it’s clear what we’re doing and move slowly.

You can do all this freehand. If you can do good diminishment and straight up and down

verticals, you know, you’re welcome to do any type of practice you want. We’ll be

doing some basic sketching like that, but to me it’s very important you understand

the logic of why the perspective and how it works within this type of referencing.

We’re going to do it pretty cleanly here mechanically. So this is a little more than

half down from here. This falls a little shy of being right in the half so I’ll go ahead

and say, okay, from here to here it’d be about here. Okay, that’s about the same

as there. So there’s my mark there thinking like that. We know the other one is there.

This one, again, where does that mark fall? You could say, oh okay, if we made that line

first here representing the idea of what this line was draw across. We could say, oh yeah,

the other one lines up, again, a little above the halfway mark there. So if I’m going

to be technical it’s probably right about there. I’d say right about there. I’m

just guesstimating off that about there. So that’s where I’m guessing that that is.

I’m going to make that my guess. Here are my other initial ones just like we did here.

I’ll go ahead and draw my curve then based on that idea in perspective, trying to replicate

that one. Again, we’re not being exact. We’re just referencing half and third and

quarter spaces, doubling things visually. We’re really not measuring as much as we’re

letting the perspective and the crossings of many of these types of ideas be our references

and just be logical about it. There’s no one way to do this. You could say you could

reference from there and gone down to the base middle.

We’ll do these kind of combinations to try to fill out the ideas here. There’s never

just one way to do it. I’m just starting out with this real simple way. We know this

top part kind of straightens out for just a little bit here and starts gently curving

down, so I’m going to go ahead and put that in perspective. Then we’ll just start moving

up and then connect that there just like you do when you draw. But I just want to show

that if you can think like this more mechanically sometimes when you’re having trouble with

more complex objects then it really does help to do these references.

So now I’ll go ahead and reference that middle red dot over there from the middle

of the arch back over here. That gives me its counterpart over here. Again, we’re

starting on doing the left side first. And to complete the left side, of course, I want

to put the idea of the side of that archway down here. This could be the beginning of

the windowsill and arched window, whatever we want it to be. Right now it’s just a

standing arch. We’ll keep going with that idea. Then we’ll go down here and we’ll

make that other reference down here because we brought this one over here. So now we can

just kind of feel it out. I’m not going to commit to too dark of a line until I think

I’ve got it where I want. Make it just kind of come over, come down nice like that. If

we think it peaks a little too hard we can tap away. Kneaded eraser, clean it up. Whatever

you want. It’s just like in a virtual program when you’re just bending that arcing tool

a bit. So there’s that idea in perspective. It’s real simple stuff, but we’re going

to keep getting a little more complex as the ideas go.

Okay now we can give this arch some thickness now in the other dimension to the left, to

the left vanishing point. We’re a little bit steep here. We’ll get near the edge

of the cone of vision, but I just wanted to put these two in. I did want the vanishing

points visible within the diagram and camera space just so we can keep it clear what we’re

doing. They get a little than desired in some points, but that’s fine. It all works the

same. This edge is a little out of the cone. No big deal. Let’s draw it back and give

it some thickness. We’ll just take note of all of our corners, first of all. I’ll

do this very quickly. We’re just going to reference back things to a certain depth completely

randomly. We can take our center line back to here. Everything will help. Everything

is helpful. This will be helpful.

These center lines here also back and even take our center point back here just as a guide.

That kind of idea. Then we can decide on the thickness.

I don’t want to make it super thick or super thin, so I’ll just randomly say why don’t

we make it something we can see fairly easily. We’ll just do this. On that windowsill surface

or the bottom surface say that’s my dedicated idea to how thick the arch is. I’m going

to go ahead and square that off now in the back. Kind of come around and do all that.

Now we know the dimensions of the left side. Go back to our right vanishing point on top.

Square it all off. Also come up with our back corner. Back to that corner like that.

So now I’m going to darken in our shape that we drew just to kind of clean it up here

so we can keep focused on some line weight here.

We can keep focused on what our original

shape is, and our referencing won’t get in the way too badly. But, we have to make

it clear enough to see on camera.

We’ve got our arch.

We have our bottom sill. So, there’s our main shape right there.

I’ll go ahead and put the line weight a little thicker. Alright, so there’s our

main shape. Let’s start taking it back. We also can take these back in space and reference

them back to that back plane as well, as well as red dot. I’ll go ahead and do that there.

If we want we can do those in blue just to make them different.

There’s that. There’s that obviously.

We can do the other ones in red from here. Middle of the arch on each

side. We have to find where those land. It happens to go through that one. So now what

we can do is what we know about the center seam as well will be helpful.

What we'll do is we’ll run that center seam in the back up as well. We have to make our X too.

That will be helpful a little bit because that will give us that reference we used earlier.

So there’s our center seam in the back.

So now how do we find where these land? And this is where the referencing starts getting

interesting. We already know this blue one lands on the back at its reference where it

meets the middle seam, so we already know that blue reference is there. I’ll go ahead

and put that in blue actually. There’s this one coming back, referenced back there. The

red line happens to be right on top of it, but they’re actually both the same length

basically. Okay, so right there. How do we come straight across? Well, if we get our

X in the back we decided early that this landed here on the X and so did this. Therefore,

we should be able to find our X in the back. It’s not the only way to do it, but that’s

one way we can do it. We can lightly cross that with our X. Now, it’s going to get

a little confusing, so you have to keep it clear to yourself: Okay, there’s my X, my

center point, and my X comes to my back corner here. Now, where that back X meets this projection

back from the front which would be meeting right where that arch should be crossing right

here and also right back here. We can’t quite see it, but it would be right back here.

Why do we know that? Because we have this properly located. We’ve also found it and

we shot it straight back to our left vanishing point behind going in the direction, and all

this thickness is here. We went ahead and we didn’t know where to stop it, but we

also can reference this easily cause it’s on the center line at this height. We collided

right there with that center seam to get this one. Then we went ahead and said, okay, this

projects this way and it also touches the X on the front. If we shoot this back and

replicate the X and then accurate back plane that is the same size, where that X falls

is where this runs into it and we hit it. There’s that part of the X. We hit it there.

This part of the X for the back, and we hit it there. Now, I can draw my back arch fairly

easily because I have the same feeling. I want to feel out a little bit of straightness

here just a little. And I want to start about at this angle and just get a feel and go through

this. I have to kind of pay attention and respect integrity of this shape, how I feel

it feels, and also using the reference point. So it’s still about feeling just like when

you’re observationally drawing, I should say. But you’re combining all your skills.

Your perspective thinking, your gut feeling about the feel of the shape as it recedes

in perspective, the roundness of it. How to be sensitive to a curve like a letter form—if

you draw letter forms by hand and understand spacing and negative/positive shapes it’s

very important.

Now we can also get the back of the curve going like this, and it will go through this

and land here. We have to be sensitive that it comes around just about like that and lands

down there. There’s our shape. We can shade that plane in let’s say in blue really lightly.

Let’s say the top of the arch that is set within the block of the arch. I’ll go ahead

and just very lightly shade that idea in of that archway we’re looking for as its thickness.

I’ve got to draw the top of the archway now from its very peak where the climax of

the shape basically turns on itself and we no longer can see it. It’s the very edge

of—the farthest we can see that shape is right there as it turns back over. Then I’ll

keep shading that in. Even though this is very elementary stuff it’s really not that

easy necessarily when you’re just learning and no one shows you why these type of moves

are important. They’re shown in many different ways and many different sources. So I’m

trying to add it on to the logic of our lectures together in the colors and the simple ways

of we know we’re going to start simple. I’m going to do a couple at a time, and

we’re just going to slowly build objects.

Some people in design have hundreds or a thousand of these drawings they do of different shapes

and get incredibly fast at it. They’re great at their line width. Everything is beautiful.

The problem is that artists and other people that are just beginning can really get railroaded

by people drawing too fast in perspective. You understand the basic perspective. Of course,

you understand vanishing point right and vanishing point left and verticals. But, you’re not

understanding how they get all this fast and many, many reference points and are able to

see in their mind the three dimensionality of everything, the volumetric referencing

from point to point and the logic of how to make little X’s and little points and little

marks. That’s what you have to learn so we’re going to start with this very basic

shape, of course. We already did some of it for ellipses and drawing objects with thicknesses

before when we did a lot of our little sheets we had simple objects. I’ve kept them very simple.

The reason is once you can do simple and medium-level objects, going to more difficult objects if

you just keep your mind clear in why the perspective works, and you have good reference on the

objects you’re drawing, or you’re careful of how you invent and object, you can easily

get much better at this with much more complex drawings very quickly. It’s a matter of

understanding the concept that the careful referencing and double and triple-checking

referencing is important. That’s the most important lesson, why this stuff works and

doing it slowly at first.

curved objects, curved planes, intersecting planes and objects. A lot of referencing now.

The type of things we’ve done with some of the basic objects and ellipses and things,

but now we’re going to get more specific and more and more involved in many, many references

in both width, length, and height and get more complex ideas going, drawing seams on

the skin of things as it’s called as we’re going to get into pretty quickly here. But

we’re going to start with some basic standing arches because that’s the best way or I

think the simplest way to learn how to double over a mirror image of a particular curve

and arch. These eventually will turn into standing sections that will be with sections

of certain objects, and then we’ll also draw length sections over them, much like

vehicles and many objects in industrial design and obviously manmade objects of all kinds.

You can even do it with organic objects, but those would be asymmetrical. The things we’re

doing are fairly symmetrical side-to-side or side A, side B flipped over, kind of like

a reflection of one would be what it’s reflected to be, the A side and the B side, that type of thing.

So we’ll just get into it and explain as we go. So what I’ve done is I’ve sketched

out some space here, but now we’re going to get real specific. We’ll create a basic

arch. This is what is going to be called a segmental arch, a basic one. We’re only

going to do half of it at first. Here’s the basic space I want it to take up. These

are flat so I’ll write that down as a note. These two up here are going to be the flat

views, and then down here we’re going to do the perspective view. This will be the

perspective view of that one. This is the flat. That will be the perspective view of

that one. These are the flats.

Again, this is the segmental arch.

Okay, so first thing we’re going to do is we’re going to recognize that the arch won’t quite come up to the

top of the shape that will almost, cause that’s what, you know, maybe some thickness would

be left up there. I’ll put it on this one as well. That will represent the arch peak right here.

But, first thing I’m going to do is cut my idea in half cause I’m going to only

work on one half and then mirror that. That’s what we’re going to be doing with many,

many of these shapes soon as we’ll get into the more and more complex as we go. So there’s

our middle plane, as you know, and I’ll go ahead and divide that. I can also divide

that in half both ways. Just start getting an idea of what I might want to do as reference

points. These halves can be reference points easily as well. I am going to just freehand

the arch and just make it spontaneous. It’s the idea that it’s not going to be, you

know, it’s going to be a fairly shallow one. The idea is I’m just going to say I’m

going to start it here on this side, and it’s going to peak right here. And I’m going

to go ahead in draw it in a way that it’s going to start here. Try to get out of the

camera way here. I’m just going to lightly say, alright, I want it to go like this and

come really slowly down here. It’s right about there. Alright, there’s my first reference.

Now it looks really simple but we’re going to try to, you know, start dividing in our

minds the idea of the second half. That’s an easy one. With my cross-section for half

of one I’m going to actually make that a point. I can do that in red if I want to be

really clear at first. These are going to be really simple.

So now I want to double that idea over. Now this would just be the side of the arch down

here. We’re just going to make these very, very simple shapes and ideas. That would be

the side of the inside of a typical archway. So in a sense we have this in the middle.

This little red mark is the one we’re taking reference on. It basically ends here so we

could put that in blue if you want. The idea is we’re just going to double that over.

The simplest way to do that, of course, with a simple arch and simple shape would be we’re

going to draw across from the arch touches the side wall on the left. We’re going to

draw a perfect reference right over here and recognize that’s going to be over here.

Of course, our center is the same here. We’re also going to go ahead and draw a reference

over here. We already have the X’ng of the entire space, so that makes a convenient reference

because we’re literally duplicating this with the opposite. Now I know that one lands

right there. We’re going to do the left side first. We’ll say left first. So we’ve

done our left side first. I’ll even make that darker. That’s our arch right there.

It’s just completely randomly drawn in. The idea is we’re going to get more and

more complex as things have more extensions, more curves. We’re going to get more complicated

with our referencing. We’ve just made a basic side-to-side reference here. First these,

and then we’re doubling over to those. So now just like we did with our ellipses we

can say, well, if I can stay fairly even there I’m just going to sketch it in really light

until I think I have an even side that’s pretty even.

So what I’ll do is I’ll extend that over; reach it over and just draw it in. Now this

is very simple but it’s really the basis of all the sectioning we’re going to do

both for width, depth, verticals. Even in three-point with the verticals having a diminishment,

we’re still using these same ideas over and over again for that. So that’s our first

simple arch. These shouldn’t take that long because they’re simple ideas. The more complex

we get, getting to make a couple of vehicles and complex objects, that are in some ways

very organic with a lot of different curves that aren’t all necessarily that mechanical.

Then it becomes more and more important to reference these different ideas. Much like

we did with uneven ground surfaces in the earlier lectures. This will be very much the

same as that. Okay, so there’s our segmental arch.

Now we’re going to go ahead and draw its equivalent in perspective down here. I’ll

go ahead and get my bigger ruler, and I’ll go ahead and draw in just a general idea.

We’re not going to transfer it directly or measure anything. We’re just really estimating

now. We really want to just get into the drawing of objects a little more and just be using

our perspective in very basic ways. It’s going to be the referencing and all the little

vertical references and all the little depth and width references we make. Think of everything

as being transparent. That’s where it’s going to get complex as the objects get more

complex. The use of our perspective is very simple. We’re pretty much only using the

right vanishing point, the left vanishing point, verticals, and maybe an occasional

auxiliary depending on the object. But most of it is going to be careful referencing like

a little spider showing little straight webs to the vanishing point left, vanishing point

right, and the idea of dropping down and going up vertically. It’s going to be pretty simple.

Here we go. I’m just going to put these side walls in now as our representation.

A lot of you might have already done this type of thing, of course. It’s done to a very

complex degree on many websites and in books on design and stuff. But a lot of people that

are starting out on the art or artistic side of it don’t get a lot of this and don’t

think about it much. This is a very easy way when we get into drawing more objects how

to reference things as they diminish in perspective and double over like we’ve already done

with many objects. You realize you can go more and more complex with this concept. That’s

what we’re going to do.

Okay, so now I’m going to draw in that idea of where the arch is at the top of the rectangular

shape, so right there. Now the same thing. We’re going to do the exact same motions

we did with our flat version, with our perspective version. Obviously this is going to be pretty

simple but it’s important that you just get a system of thinking. Since I already

have the halfway marks and my X’ng I can use those lines as references I did above.

I’m going to also go ahead and put in that middle division, which we have to have for

this type of thinking. I’ll go ahead and put in my horizontal in the middle. Same ideas

up there.

Now what we’re going to do is we’re going to say, well, alright if I’m drawing the

same basic idea in perspective then, okay, how far down was I? Well, let’s analyze

it. We’re not going to measure it. We’re just going to say, let’s say you’re just

estimating and drawing well, and you’re just doing side-to-side symmetrical drawing

in a quality manner. I’m using real vanishing points and straight edges and the T-square

still cause I want to be exact make sure it’s clear what we’re doing and move slowly.

You can do all this freehand. If you can do good diminishment and straight up and down

verticals, you know, you’re welcome to do any type of practice you want. We’ll be

doing some basic sketching like that, but to me it’s very important you understand

the logic of why the perspective and how it works within this type of referencing.

We’re going to do it pretty cleanly here mechanically. So this is a little more than

half down from here. This falls a little shy of being right in the half so I’ll go ahead

and say, okay, from here to here it’d be about here. Okay, that’s about the same

as there. So there’s my mark there thinking like that. We know the other one is there.

This one, again, where does that mark fall? You could say, oh okay, if we made that line

first here representing the idea of what this line was draw across. We could say, oh yeah,

the other one lines up, again, a little above the halfway mark there. So if I’m going

to be technical it’s probably right about there. I’d say right about there. I’m

just guesstimating off that about there. So that’s where I’m guessing that that is.

I’m going to make that my guess. Here are my other initial ones just like we did here.

I’ll go ahead and draw my curve then based on that idea in perspective, trying to replicate

that one. Again, we’re not being exact. We’re just referencing half and third and

quarter spaces, doubling things visually. We’re really not measuring as much as we’re

letting the perspective and the crossings of many of these types of ideas be our references

and just be logical about it. There’s no one way to do this. You could say you could

reference from there and gone down to the base middle.

We’ll do these kind of combinations to try to fill out the ideas here. There’s never

just one way to do it. I’m just starting out with this real simple way. We know this

top part kind of straightens out for just a little bit here and starts gently curving

down, so I’m going to go ahead and put that in perspective. Then we’ll just start moving

up and then connect that there just like you do when you draw. But I just want to show

that if you can think like this more mechanically sometimes when you’re having trouble with

more complex objects then it really does help to do these references.

So now I’ll go ahead and reference that middle red dot over there from the middle

of the arch back over here. That gives me its counterpart over here. Again, we’re

starting on doing the left side first. And to complete the left side, of course, I want

to put the idea of the side of that archway down here. This could be the beginning of

the windowsill and arched window, whatever we want it to be. Right now it’s just a

standing arch. We’ll keep going with that idea. Then we’ll go down here and we’ll

make that other reference down here because we brought this one over here. So now we can

just kind of feel it out. I’m not going to commit to too dark of a line until I think

I’ve got it where I want. Make it just kind of come over, come down nice like that. If

we think it peaks a little too hard we can tap away. Kneaded eraser, clean it up. Whatever

you want. It’s just like in a virtual program when you’re just bending that arcing tool

a bit. So there’s that idea in perspective. It’s real simple stuff, but we’re going

to keep getting a little more complex as the ideas go.

Okay now we can give this arch some thickness now in the other dimension to the left, to

the left vanishing point. We’re a little bit steep here. We’ll get near the edge

of the cone of vision, but I just wanted to put these two in. I did want the vanishing

points visible within the diagram and camera space just so we can keep it clear what we’re

doing. They get a little than desired in some points, but that’s fine. It all works the

same. This edge is a little out of the cone. No big deal. Let’s draw it back and give

it some thickness. We’ll just take note of all of our corners, first of all. I’ll

do this very quickly. We’re just going to reference back things to a certain depth completely

randomly. We can take our center line back to here. Everything will help. Everything

is helpful. This will be helpful.

These center lines here also back and even take our center point back here just as a guide.

That kind of idea. Then we can decide on the thickness.

I don’t want to make it super thick or super thin, so I’ll just randomly say why don’t

we make it something we can see fairly easily. We’ll just do this. On that windowsill surface

or the bottom surface say that’s my dedicated idea to how thick the arch is. I’m going

to go ahead and square that off now in the back. Kind of come around and do all that.

Now we know the dimensions of the left side. Go back to our right vanishing point on top.

Square it all off. Also come up with our back corner. Back to that corner like that.

So now I’m going to darken in our shape that we drew just to kind of clean it up here

so we can keep focused on some line weight here.

We can keep focused on what our original

shape is, and our referencing won’t get in the way too badly. But, we have to make

it clear enough to see on camera.

We’ve got our arch.

We have our bottom sill. So, there’s our main shape right there.

I’ll go ahead and put the line weight a little thicker. Alright, so there’s our

main shape. Let’s start taking it back. We also can take these back in space and reference

them back to that back plane as well, as well as red dot. I’ll go ahead and do that there.

If we want we can do those in blue just to make them different.

There’s that. There’s that obviously.

We can do the other ones in red from here. Middle of the arch on each

side. We have to find where those land. It happens to go through that one. So now what

we can do is what we know about the center seam as well will be helpful.

What we'll do is we’ll run that center seam in the back up as well. We have to make our X too.

That will be helpful a little bit because that will give us that reference we used earlier.

So there’s our center seam in the back.

So now how do we find where these land? And this is where the referencing starts getting

interesting. We already know this blue one lands on the back at its reference where it

meets the middle seam, so we already know that blue reference is there. I’ll go ahead

and put that in blue actually. There’s this one coming back, referenced back there. The

red line happens to be right on top of it, but they’re actually both the same length

basically. Okay, so right there. How do we come straight across? Well, if we get our

X in the back we decided early that this landed here on the X and so did this. Therefore,

we should be able to find our X in the back. It’s not the only way to do it, but that’s

one way we can do it. We can lightly cross that with our X. Now, it’s going to get

a little confusing, so you have to keep it clear to yourself: Okay, there’s my X, my

center point, and my X comes to my back corner here. Now, where that back X meets this projection

back from the front which would be meeting right where that arch should be crossing right

here and also right back here. We can’t quite see it, but it would be right back here.

Why do we know that? Because we have this properly located. We’ve also found it and

we shot it straight back to our left vanishing point behind going in the direction, and all

this thickness is here. We went ahead and we didn’t know where to stop it, but we

also can reference this easily cause it’s on the center line at this height. We collided

right there with that center seam to get this one. Then we went ahead and said, okay, this

projects this way and it also touches the X on the front. If we shoot this back and

replicate the X and then accurate back plane that is the same size, where that X falls

is where this runs into it and we hit it. There’s that part of the X. We hit it there.

This part of the X for the back, and we hit it there. Now, I can draw my back arch fairly

easily because I have the same feeling. I want to feel out a little bit of straightness

here just a little. And I want to start about at this angle and just get a feel and go through

this. I have to kind of pay attention and respect integrity of this shape, how I feel

it feels, and also using the reference point. So it’s still about feeling just like when

you’re observationally drawing, I should say. But you’re combining all your skills.

Your perspective thinking, your gut feeling about the feel of the shape as it recedes

in perspective, the roundness of it. How to be sensitive to a curve like a letter form—if

you draw letter forms by hand and understand spacing and negative/positive shapes it’s

very important.

Now we can also get the back of the curve going like this, and it will go through this

and land here. We have to be sensitive that it comes around just about like that and lands

down there. There’s our shape. We can shade that plane in let’s say in blue really lightly.

Let’s say the top of the arch that is set within the block of the arch. I’ll go ahead

and just very lightly shade that idea in of that archway we’re looking for as its thickness.

I’ve got to draw the top of the archway now from its very peak where the climax of

the shape basically turns on itself and we no longer can see it. It’s the very edge

of—the farthest we can see that shape is right there as it turns back over. Then I’ll

keep shading that in. Even though this is very elementary stuff it’s really not that

easy necessarily when you’re just learning and no one shows you why these type of moves

are important. They’re shown in many different ways and many different sources. So I’m

trying to add it on to the logic of our lectures together in the colors and the simple ways

of we know we’re going to start simple. I’m going to do a couple at a time, and

we’re just going to slowly build objects.

Some people in design have hundreds or a thousand of these drawings they do of different shapes

and get incredibly fast at it. They’re great at their line width. Everything is beautiful.

The problem is that artists and other people that are just beginning can really get railroaded

by people drawing too fast in perspective. You understand the basic perspective. Of course,

you understand vanishing point right and vanishing point left and verticals. But, you’re not

understanding how they get all this fast and many, many reference points and are able to

see in their mind the three dimensionality of everything, the volumetric referencing

from point to point and the logic of how to make little X’s and little points and little

marks. That’s what you have to learn so we’re going to start with this very basic

shape, of course. We already did some of it for ellipses and drawing objects with thicknesses

before when we did a lot of our little sheets we had simple objects. I’ve kept them very simple.

The reason is once you can do simple and medium-level objects, going to more difficult objects if

you just keep your mind clear in why the perspective works, and you have good reference on the

objects you’re drawing, or you’re careful of how you invent and object, you can easily

get much better at this with much more complex drawings very quickly. It’s a matter of

understanding the concept that the careful referencing and double and triple-checking

referencing is important. That’s the most important lesson, why this stuff works and

doing it slowly at first.

AUTO SCROLL

We could have our vanishing points much farther out if we wanted to, but I did want to include

them just to make it clear where we’re drawing. That is simple but the referencing becomes

a little more difficult. So there’s a basic arch. It’s not really based on an entire

half of a circle. It’s more of a segmental arch again.

That’s that shape taken out to thickness. There it is.

So next we’ll do more of one that’s truly half a circle, so we’ll go ahead and draw

this out, and so I have put it in as a little ghost here so I can get my composition correct

and not to distort it because our vanishing points are a little close together. I’ll

go ahead and draw out our next kind of outside dimensions of our next arch we’re going

to have. It’s pretty much just going to be what’s called a round arch because it’s

basically showing half a circle, so I’ll do that.

I’d say the circle is there. Here’s the bottom.

I'm going to go ahead and X our shape here like that.

It’s a round arch.

What we’re doing is we’re saying, okay, now if we know that for this width a circle

fits right into here and has to be halfway, what we’re doing is we’re trying to find

on the center line where we can find that. We can use a compass if we want. That would

be easy, or we could draw it. But we’ll see what we do here. Let’s find our center.

We’re just using these lines for reference. Then we’ll add lines as we need them or

they’re necessary or convenient for referencing side-to-side. That’s the idea here. Again,

start there. Now we realize with a compass, of course, if we take that and say, oh alright,

well that’s going to fall short here. If that’s my reference there that’s my length,

but that’s going to fall short up here. I’m actually going to come up and say, alright,

where does this come right where I need that arch keeping it on the center right about

there. There’s that arch. I’m just going to pretend and we’re going to try to fill

one in by hand for the other half just to see how good our referencing can be or how

simple it can be.

Alright, so there’s our half. I use the center point. I’ll use a little red mark

there and say that’s where I put my compass, right there. So that space there equals that

space across there. So if we want we can put a little red reference there. Okay, that’s

interesting, but that’s right where the arch meets. It’s right there. We can go

across. That’s our first little clue. Again, you can find your own logic for referencing

and what you use as references. I like to have things, put them in quarters, have that

available so we can also say there’s another common point here obviously. This is where

they meet, halfway point. Do we need more than that? Probably not for this simple object

especially if we want to practice drawing good curves and getting better at them by

freehand. This has basic reference like we did before, so it should be pretty simple.

We’ll go ahead and carry that over. We’ve already carried over this reference here so

we’re starting with our left side. I’ll just make the note again, left first. When

the diagram is finished and you look at the finished diagram we understand we go back

in the action here, and it is the left side first.

We’ll go ahead and reference over there.

We’re also going to get that there signed there. Then one carries over here.

It seems pretty simple. Again, let’s just be sensitive to what our arch is doing. It

leaves and acts like a circle. So let’s just see. It doesn’t actually go straight

for very long, just a tiny bit.

Here, we’re going to get comfortable with that fact that we’re creating the opposite

archway here, and they’re just trying to draw it out here.

Not to commit too much to something that’s off.

We can connect it up there.

So the idea is no matter how you’re drawing you can say, oh, why don’t you just,

you know, a lot of people that are designers

will put this paper on a spinning thing then you can just draw really fast freehand. That’s

fine. We can do that later. Maybe I’ll actually put a little spinner on here I have from an

old game set later with paper. The idea here is we’re just slowly creating the idea.

You can draw these any way you want. If you think I’m going way too slow, fantastic.

Do whatever you want. I just want this as a permanent diagram record of these lectures

and why we’re referencing this way. So there’s the second half and obviously we can draw

in a perspective version below it now. Let’s do that.

I’ll go ahead and put in our right

side diminishment for the front of the arch in this case. We’re going to put in also

where the arch reaches up there, that second line just kind of generally represents that.

Then we’ll go up with our verticals, and we’ll just try to dissect this idea the

same way and see how we do.

We’ll make the same move as we did on the flat version. Go ahead and X off the entire

thing. Little center point. We’ll put in our vertical. We’ll just replicate everything

we do there. Not that you always need a flat. Certainly not. You don’t need a flat version

all the time, but we’re going to be doing it for the first few just to be able to visualize

it. Then we’re most certainly going to come back to a flattened version for some other

curved objects and little bridges, wherever we think we need them and it will help. Eventually,

we’ll be doing fairly complex vehicles and/or objects from real planes that are not only

from a flat elevation or side view but also from a front and a back view and a top view

all coming together in a particular method using 45 degree angles to really tell us what

an entire object would do with a very complex referencing picture, which we’ll be getting

into also. There’s the center line there.

There we have that. We’ll go ahead and marcate our other points. We know one is there for

sure. I’m just going to estimate this and go, okay, according to the logic of my diagram

here if this generally represents this in steeper perspective it’s relatively the

same. How much further is this red line above the halfway line. I’ll say this is a little

taller than this diagram. They’re certainly not one to one by the way. You can obviously

see that. The flaps are a little smaller. I’ll go ahead and I think I believe that’s

about the right height for that or something like this. Probably down here. I’m not quite

there. I’ll just say, okay, there’s our beginning. I’ll go ahead and put in that

equivalent reference there. Come across.

There’s the red.

So now I have that on both sides. I can also take kind of an observational idea of what’s

the length here compared to here. If I look at that compared to that I’ll just say,

oh okay, and it’s obviously falling right there. I could say, alright, that looks like

it’s about there, in my mind roughly right here. Let’s just say it’s there.

It's a little bit interpretive what an exact ellipse would do. It can still look like an ellipse

because we can squash the face a little bit with a little more foreshortening.

Widen it out a little more.

In this case, I’m saying I believe that’s where this is happening from my flat example.

There’s my counterpart. Again, of course we started with the left side and we’re

flipping it over like a reflection of itself from that center seam and drawing side-to-side

symmetrically, but we’re flipping it over. Now I’ve got that so I should have pretty

much everything I need to do my arch. I’m going to go ahead and just feel out what I

think the top would do in perspective like this. Sometimes it’s a little difficult.

It’ll start slowly leading up here. Make sure my head is not in the way. Again, it’ll

go right through our little red reference right up to there. I might have to flush this

out a little more. It might foreshorten faster than I think. I don’t want to draw too hard

too fast. I used to do more finished paintings and things. I did a lot of this kind of drawing

for more finishes. I tend to be more of a draftsperson, and to me my work was always

more complete before a lot of the digital programs came out. A lot of this stuff is

just shown with freehand methods these days, which is wonderful. It’s just the logic

is exactly the same. But now that’s a little too much of an arch. I want to expand out

that top a little, to round a little more, let it get a little more robust. I’m going

to literally like we did with our ellipses in this pencil, which is not my favorite tool

to do it with, I’m going to come up a little more and give it a little more roundness at

the top just to feel it out having more integrity there. Kind of like this, then coming down

a little faster like that to look more like a half circle. There we go. Better.

Alright, so there we have that. We have a little center dot here that’s a little above that.

I forgot that.

Okay, so now we can drive some of these ideas back in space again because we’re

going to go to the left vanishing point and put some thickness to this. I guess I’d

call it an arch block, so let’s do that. Let’s first do our square. Corners of our

block, I should say. And then randomly pick our thickness again.

So let’s do that.

I'm also going to bring back those halfway points here just to be thorough and complete. I’ll

do them a little lighter. Not to get in the way too much, but then we’ll darken in our

shape a little bit. Not to get confused with all our little reference lines and stuff.

I’m also going to drive the red lines back now because even if you’re not doing all

of this when you draw an object, which you’re really not going to be a lot of the time you’re

doing it in your mind. You’re being careful and saying, oh yeah, that was a little above

that. I don’t necessarily have to draw the whole thing out, but I’m going to make a

little tick and a tack and I’m going to think about it being that far above and still

moving to these proper vanishing points and true verticals. You know, we’re in two-point;

we’re not doing three-point. We’re still using just the vanishing points and,

of course, true verticals.

Now I will also carry back the middle idea both here at the top of the block.

And then I can also carry back the middle here. That’s helpful. I can also then take my red dot in

the middle and carry it back just very lightly. That’s going to be helpful later. And of

course, our middle of the arch on each side. Left side first, middle of the arch on the

right side. Can carry that back as well. Just the idea of it.

Then the blue peak of the arch in the center.

Okay, so I think I have everything I need. Get the halfway points, all the references,

all that stuff. That’s going to be helpful. Again, we’ll just set a random thickness

at the base. Say that’s going to be something like this. It’s fine. Alright. I’m going

to go ahead and square that off. Reference that thickness on up to my top plane just

like that. Still trying to be accurate. Right up there; it’s very close to the blue line,

but there is that official projection back from the front corner. Remember that’s the

front corners back to that thickness. I’ll go back to my right VP then.

Also come back from my back corner. Just because the object is transparent I want to take advantage

of that and not forget about the fact that I can get an exact read on that back corner

to match up here. Just in case there is any inaccuracy. I want to check to see that I

think my referencing, especially if you’re drawing by hand, people that get really skilled

at it and spend a lot of time practicing it, still very hard to land accurately on some

of these true verticals meeting real seams and real corners, especially if you’re doing

it freehand. Then the struggle can be more about getting that correct and that skill

rather than the correctness of the perspective. Of course, with the programs or traditionally

drafting you’re going to pretty much be right on the money if you’re using your

drafting tools accurately. Of course, the programs are measured extremely accurately

and perfectly. That’s not such an issue. Freehand drawing you have to be very precise

and double and triple check your movements before you commit to the that line. Welcome

you to do a lot of this freehand if you feel like sketching these objects. I would prefer

you do that after you get the gist of the diagrams and we draft them together for your

versions of your diagrams for this particular diagram (Diagram 112 I think this should be)

then go ahead and do a bunch of freehand drawings with these exact same concepts. That would

be great. That’s what you should be practicing. These concepts are exactly the same freehand.

There’s no difference. It’s just the matter that you’re not drafting them with precise

tools and straight edges necessarily. Maybe you’re using a transparent triangle assist

only sometimes and then doing some verticals and freehand shapes. We’ll be doing more

and more freehand referencing as we get into vehicles and/or objects that are complex-like

vehicles. Okay, so now I’m going to bring this back and recognize where these are. So

what are critical for me to understand? Well, obviously I go straight across here. That

will help me. Then I can tangibly get the places I need to have my arch here.

That goes back and meets there.

Of course, I have to put a reference up for my middle plane as well. Here we go.

That meets back there or right there. So if know that now I can meet this blue reference for

the top of the arch back here where it drives into that middle plane line I just put in

right here. That becomes that. That would be middle of the back of the arch too. Now,

as we know again I went ahead and picked a reference right on the diagonal from the X’ng

of the front plane. I’m going to lightly X off the back plane in the same manor as

I did the front plane. That should give me two very convenient references if that’s

what I choose to do. It’s not the only way to do it, but that’s what we’ll do on this one.

So now when I drive back my red middles of my arch, here on the left side then the right

and I drive them back to that X’ng of the back I should find my two reference points

right there. Of course, we know that we’re over here for the beginning of the arches.

Now I should have a pretty good idea. With my pencil I’m going to just draw it in.

I still want the integrity of that angle. It’s slightly different perspective in the

back, but I want to curve around. I want to feel that arch out the same way I felt out

the front one. Again, that was a very basic, but bottom line is as we get more and more

complex with the referencing it’s easy to get lost because you can then go, wait, wait,

wait; how did you get over there and get over there? It’s pretty simple to understand

these. We’re going to keep them simple and do a lot of simple shapes, a few more arches.

We’re going to do some curved objects and just simple standing planes. Very simple ideas

until you get really kind of acrobatic in thinking in 3-D with depth verticals X, Y, Z.

You need to really be good at that, and then people get very experienced at this,

but if you’re an artist you might only do this once in a while. As long as you can refer

back to your notes and you know the basics, you can always build up your confidence and

your complexity within a few minutes on a new object, in a new painting, in a new project.

You have the experience and you understand the concepts of why the works, and you have

your references, your notes, your diagrams.

Again, no one is saying that you’re going to become a full-blown designer and be able

to whip these drawings out like car designers of old and stuff. You might have an interest

in doing that, but this gives you the principles those people have used for a couple hundred,

a few hundred years frankly. It’s been a long time. People had to design objects this

way. As you can imagine many objects in Europe were designed just like this hundreds of years

ago. Just these same ideas and that’s how the design turned into the CAD programs and

all the 3-D programs. It’s all the same stuff.

Alright, so now I come around, try to feel out that right arch there. Come down. Okay,

so I’m going to draw out like we did before. If anybody is confused, I’ll draw out my

front shape and we’ll rehearse this again real quick. I’m going to draw it in a little

darker here just to make it clear. Nice dark arch. There’s my front shape. Then we just

repeated it back here. I’ll make the back shape a little darker. There’s that back

wall we found. There’s the back windowsill at the bottom. There’s that arch. We’ll

go right to our points, curve, feel it out. Come right back down. Then the top climax

of arch is pretty much right on that blue line, but I’ll go ahead and draw it a hair

over. It’s just a tiny bit above it in perspective. Remember, it leads directly back to our left

vanishing point. I’ll go ahead and there it is.

Okay, there’s the top of that. I’ll go ahead and tone that in in blue again to show

that arch where it actually starts right here at the red reference. Go ahead and do that.

Then of course we come up like that. There.

So there’s that arch kind of as a three-dimensional object there.

So we’ve got a segmental arch, a round arch, rounded arch, half a circle basically, now

in perspective below. They’re not to scale. These are different sizes. These are slightly

smaller, just little simple flat ideas. We start out our thinking as referencing here.

If you ever get lost in an object check your side view, your front view, and top view.

That’s going to be how you correct these complex objects we’ll be doing in a little

while when you get lost in them. All sorts of things. Even a ski boot if you’re designing

that. You still have to have your side-to-side references right if you’re drawing a careful

version of it for any reason. If you’re doing it just as part of a painting, then

you’re thinking only in terms of this basically in your mind and using your observation and

your kind of spontaneous artistic observational skills too. But this stuff, this side-to-side

diminished movement, side-to-side symmetrical diminishment with foreshortening still has

to be in mind for solid drawing. Same with the figure. You know, this kind of thing you

have to think about space. After the segment on curves, curved planes and these archways

and intersecting shapes and all sorts of stuff, we’re then going to probably go to the figure

in perspective in two point and different ways foreshortening; laying on the ground

and how you kind of bring those references down. These shapes will be very helpful in

how we bring down our references from the figure as well. It’s the exact same kind

of behavior, it’s just the figure is much more organic with a lot more gesture.

Alright, so there we have it. There’s our segmental.

There’s our round arch in perspective.

So there we go, flat perspective.

Alright, so just think about it. Go back and just think,

okay, if I can just keep dialing this type of thinking in more and more complexly as

we have two sides rounding into each other, but we’re going to start with standing shapes

and arch shapes at first. We pretty much tired of them a little bit, because then you’re

really understand the idea of why these standing planes are going to help be part of a complete

shape but not entirely. Then we’re going to go forward and start curving the other

plane. In this case, it was going to vanishing point left. We just left all that straight

as a block, but we’ll actually start curving that type of idea. Then also our verticals

won’t be vertical anymore because those will also be curving and doing random things

as well as we design shapes.

Okay, so there we are and we’ll go on to the

next series of little arches and perspective arches.

them just to make it clear where we’re drawing. That is simple but the referencing becomes

a little more difficult. So there’s a basic arch. It’s not really based on an entire

half of a circle. It’s more of a segmental arch again.

That’s that shape taken out to thickness. There it is.

So next we’ll do more of one that’s truly half a circle, so we’ll go ahead and draw

this out, and so I have put it in as a little ghost here so I can get my composition correct

and not to distort it because our vanishing points are a little close together. I’ll

go ahead and draw out our next kind of outside dimensions of our next arch we’re going

to have. It’s pretty much just going to be what’s called a round arch because it’s

basically showing half a circle, so I’ll do that.

I’d say the circle is there. Here’s the bottom.

I'm going to go ahead and X our shape here like that.

It’s a round arch.

What we’re doing is we’re saying, okay, now if we know that for this width a circle

fits right into here and has to be halfway, what we’re doing is we’re trying to find

on the center line where we can find that. We can use a compass if we want. That would

be easy, or we could draw it. But we’ll see what we do here. Let’s find our center.

We’re just using these lines for reference. Then we’ll add lines as we need them or

they’re necessary or convenient for referencing side-to-side. That’s the idea here. Again,

start there. Now we realize with a compass, of course, if we take that and say, oh alright,

well that’s going to fall short here. If that’s my reference there that’s my length,

but that’s going to fall short up here. I’m actually going to come up and say, alright,

where does this come right where I need that arch keeping it on the center right about

there. There’s that arch. I’m just going to pretend and we’re going to try to fill

one in by hand for the other half just to see how good our referencing can be or how

simple it can be.

Alright, so there’s our half. I use the center point. I’ll use a little red mark

there and say that’s where I put my compass, right there. So that space there equals that

space across there. So if we want we can put a little red reference there. Okay, that’s

interesting, but that’s right where the arch meets. It’s right there. We can go

across. That’s our first little clue. Again, you can find your own logic for referencing

and what you use as references. I like to have things, put them in quarters, have that

available so we can also say there’s another common point here obviously. This is where

they meet, halfway point. Do we need more than that? Probably not for this simple object

especially if we want to practice drawing good curves and getting better at them by

freehand. This has basic reference like we did before, so it should be pretty simple.

We’ll go ahead and carry that over. We’ve already carried over this reference here so

we’re starting with our left side. I’ll just make the note again, left first. When

the diagram is finished and you look at the finished diagram we understand we go back

in the action here, and it is the left side first.

We’ll go ahead and reference over there.

We’re also going to get that there signed there. Then one carries over here.

It seems pretty simple. Again, let’s just be sensitive to what our arch is doing. It

leaves and acts like a circle. So let’s just see. It doesn’t actually go straight

for very long, just a tiny bit.

Here, we’re going to get comfortable with that fact that we’re creating the opposite

archway here, and they’re just trying to draw it out here.

Not to commit too much to something that’s off.

We can connect it up there.

So the idea is no matter how you’re drawing you can say, oh, why don’t you just,

you know, a lot of people that are designers

will put this paper on a spinning thing then you can just draw really fast freehand. That’s

fine. We can do that later. Maybe I’ll actually put a little spinner on here I have from an

old game set later with paper. The idea here is we’re just slowly creating the idea.

You can draw these any way you want. If you think I’m going way too slow, fantastic.

Do whatever you want. I just want this as a permanent diagram record of these lectures

and why we’re referencing this way. So there’s the second half and obviously we can draw

in a perspective version below it now. Let’s do that.

I’ll go ahead and put in our right

side diminishment for the front of the arch in this case. We’re going to put in also

where the arch reaches up there, that second line just kind of generally represents that.

Then we’ll go up with our verticals, and we’ll just try to dissect this idea the

same way and see how we do.

We’ll make the same move as we did on the flat version. Go ahead and X off the entire

thing. Little center point. We’ll put in our vertical. We’ll just replicate everything

we do there. Not that you always need a flat. Certainly not. You don’t need a flat version

all the time, but we’re going to be doing it for the first few just to be able to visualize

it. Then we’re most certainly going to come back to a flattened version for some other

curved objects and little bridges, wherever we think we need them and it will help. Eventually,

we’ll be doing fairly complex vehicles and/or objects from real planes that are not only

from a flat elevation or side view but also from a front and a back view and a top view

all coming together in a particular method using 45 degree angles to really tell us what

an entire object would do with a very complex referencing picture, which we’ll be getting

into also. There’s the center line there.

There we have that. We’ll go ahead and marcate our other points. We know one is there for

sure. I’m just going to estimate this and go, okay, according to the logic of my diagram

here if this generally represents this in steeper perspective it’s relatively the

same. How much further is this red line above the halfway line. I’ll say this is a little

taller than this diagram. They’re certainly not one to one by the way. You can obviously

see that. The flaps are a little smaller. I’ll go ahead and I think I believe that’s

about the right height for that or something like this. Probably down here. I’m not quite

there. I’ll just say, okay, there’s our beginning. I’ll go ahead and put in that

equivalent reference there. Come across.

There’s the red.

So now I have that on both sides. I can also take kind of an observational idea of what’s

the length here compared to here. If I look at that compared to that I’ll just say,

oh okay, and it’s obviously falling right there. I could say, alright, that looks like

it’s about there, in my mind roughly right here. Let’s just say it’s there.

It's a little bit interpretive what an exact ellipse would do. It can still look like an ellipse

because we can squash the face a little bit with a little more foreshortening.

Widen it out a little more.

In this case, I’m saying I believe that’s where this is happening from my flat example.

There’s my counterpart. Again, of course we started with the left side and we’re

flipping it over like a reflection of itself from that center seam and drawing side-to-side

symmetrically, but we’re flipping it over. Now I’ve got that so I should have pretty

much everything I need to do my arch. I’m going to go ahead and just feel out what I

think the top would do in perspective like this. Sometimes it’s a little difficult.

It’ll start slowly leading up here. Make sure my head is not in the way. Again, it’ll

go right through our little red reference right up to there. I might have to flush this

out a little more. It might foreshorten faster than I think. I don’t want to draw too hard

too fast. I used to do more finished paintings and things. I did a lot of this kind of drawing

for more finishes. I tend to be more of a draftsperson, and to me my work was always

more complete before a lot of the digital programs came out. A lot of this stuff is

just shown with freehand methods these days, which is wonderful. It’s just the logic

is exactly the same. But now that’s a little too much of an arch. I want to expand out

that top a little, to round a little more, let it get a little more robust. I’m going

to literally like we did with our ellipses in this pencil, which is not my favorite tool

to do it with, I’m going to come up a little more and give it a little more roundness at

the top just to feel it out having more integrity there. Kind of like this, then coming down

a little faster like that to look more like a half circle. There we go. Better.

Alright, so there we have that. We have a little center dot here that’s a little above that.

I forgot that.

Okay, so now we can drive some of these ideas back in space again because we’re

going to go to the left vanishing point and put some thickness to this. I guess I’d

call it an arch block, so let’s do that. Let’s first do our square. Corners of our

block, I should say. And then randomly pick our thickness again.

So let’s do that.

I'm also going to bring back those halfway points here just to be thorough and complete. I’ll

do them a little lighter. Not to get in the way too much, but then we’ll darken in our

shape a little bit. Not to get confused with all our little reference lines and stuff.

I’m also going to drive the red lines back now because even if you’re not doing all

of this when you draw an object, which you’re really not going to be a lot of the time you’re

doing it in your mind. You’re being careful and saying, oh yeah, that was a little above

that. I don’t necessarily have to draw the whole thing out, but I’m going to make a

little tick and a tack and I’m going to think about it being that far above and still

moving to these proper vanishing points and true verticals. You know, we’re in two-point;

we’re not doing three-point. We’re still using just the vanishing points and,

of course, true verticals.

Now I will also carry back the middle idea both here at the top of the block.

And then I can also carry back the middle here. That’s helpful. I can also then take my red dot in

the middle and carry it back just very lightly. That’s going to be helpful later. And of

course, our middle of the arch on each side. Left side first, middle of the arch on the

right side. Can carry that back as well. Just the idea of it.

Then the blue peak of the arch in the center.

Okay, so I think I have everything I need. Get the halfway points, all the references,

all that stuff. That’s going to be helpful. Again, we’ll just set a random thickness

at the base. Say that’s going to be something like this. It’s fine. Alright. I’m going

to go ahead and square that off. Reference that thickness on up to my top plane just

like that. Still trying to be accurate. Right up there; it’s very close to the blue line,

but there is that official projection back from the front corner. Remember that’s the

front corners back to that thickness. I’ll go back to my right VP then.

Also come back from my back corner. Just because the object is transparent I want to take advantage

of that and not forget about the fact that I can get an exact read on that back corner

to match up here. Just in case there is any inaccuracy. I want to check to see that I

think my referencing, especially if you’re drawing by hand, people that get really skilled

at it and spend a lot of time practicing it, still very hard to land accurately on some

of these true verticals meeting real seams and real corners, especially if you’re doing

it freehand. Then the struggle can be more about getting that correct and that skill

rather than the correctness of the perspective. Of course, with the programs or traditionally

drafting you’re going to pretty much be right on the money if you’re using your

drafting tools accurately. Of course, the programs are measured extremely accurately

and perfectly. That’s not such an issue. Freehand drawing you have to be very precise

and double and triple check your movements before you commit to the that line. Welcome

you to do a lot of this freehand if you feel like sketching these objects. I would prefer

you do that after you get the gist of the diagrams and we draft them together for your

versions of your diagrams for this particular diagram (Diagram 112 I think this should be)

then go ahead and do a bunch of freehand drawings with these exact same concepts. That would

be great. That’s what you should be practicing. These concepts are exactly the same freehand.

There’s no difference. It’s just the matter that you’re not drafting them with precise

tools and straight edges necessarily. Maybe you’re using a transparent triangle assist

only sometimes and then doing some verticals and freehand shapes. We’ll be doing more

and more freehand referencing as we get into vehicles and/or objects that are complex-like

vehicles. Okay, so now I’m going to bring this back and recognize where these are. So

what are critical for me to understand? Well, obviously I go straight across here. That

will help me. Then I can tangibly get the places I need to have my arch here.

That goes back and meets there.

Of course, I have to put a reference up for my middle plane as well. Here we go.

That meets back there or right there. So if know that now I can meet this blue reference for

the top of the arch back here where it drives into that middle plane line I just put in

right here. That becomes that. That would be middle of the back of the arch too. Now,

as we know again I went ahead and picked a reference right on the diagonal from the X’ng

of the front plane. I’m going to lightly X off the back plane in the same manor as

I did the front plane. That should give me two very convenient references if that’s

what I choose to do. It’s not the only way to do it, but that’s what we’ll do on this one.

So now when I drive back my red middles of my arch, here on the left side then the right

and I drive them back to that X’ng of the back I should find my two reference points

right there. Of course, we know that we’re over here for the beginning of the arches.

Now I should have a pretty good idea. With my pencil I’m going to just draw it in.

I still want the integrity of that angle. It’s slightly different perspective in the

back, but I want to curve around. I want to feel that arch out the same way I felt out

the front one. Again, that was a very basic, but bottom line is as we get more and more

complex with the referencing it’s easy to get lost because you can then go, wait, wait,

wait; how did you get over there and get over there? It’s pretty simple to understand

these. We’re going to keep them simple and do a lot of simple shapes, a few more arches.

We’re going to do some curved objects and just simple standing planes. Very simple ideas

until you get really kind of acrobatic in thinking in 3-D with depth verticals X, Y, Z.

You need to really be good at that, and then people get very experienced at this,

but if you’re an artist you might only do this once in a while. As long as you can refer

back to your notes and you know the basics, you can always build up your confidence and

your complexity within a few minutes on a new object, in a new painting, in a new project.

You have the experience and you understand the concepts of why the works, and you have

your references, your notes, your diagrams.

Again, no one is saying that you’re going to become a full-blown designer and be able

to whip these drawings out like car designers of old and stuff. You might have an interest

in doing that, but this gives you the principles those people have used for a couple hundred,

a few hundred years frankly. It’s been a long time. People had to design objects this

way. As you can imagine many objects in Europe were designed just like this hundreds of years

ago. Just these same ideas and that’s how the design turned into the CAD programs and

all the 3-D programs. It’s all the same stuff.

Alright, so now I come around, try to feel out that right arch there. Come down. Okay,

so I’m going to draw out like we did before. If anybody is confused, I’ll draw out my

front shape and we’ll rehearse this again real quick. I’m going to draw it in a little

darker here just to make it clear. Nice dark arch. There’s my front shape. Then we just

repeated it back here. I’ll make the back shape a little darker. There’s that back

wall we found. There’s the back windowsill at the bottom. There’s that arch. We’ll

go right to our points, curve, feel it out. Come right back down. Then the top climax

of arch is pretty much right on that blue line, but I’ll go ahead and draw it a hair

over. It’s just a tiny bit above it in perspective. Remember, it leads directly back to our left

vanishing point. I’ll go ahead and there it is.

Okay, there’s the top of that. I’ll go ahead and tone that in in blue again to show

that arch where it actually starts right here at the red reference. Go ahead and do that.

Then of course we come up like that. There.

So there’s that arch kind of as a three-dimensional object there.

So we’ve got a segmental arch, a round arch, rounded arch, half a circle basically, now

in perspective below. They’re not to scale. These are different sizes. These are slightly

smaller, just little simple flat ideas. We start out our thinking as referencing here.

If you ever get lost in an object check your side view, your front view, and top view.

That’s going to be how you correct these complex objects we’ll be doing in a little

while when you get lost in them. All sorts of things. Even a ski boot if you’re designing

that. You still have to have your side-to-side references right if you’re drawing a careful

version of it for any reason. If you’re doing it just as part of a painting, then

you’re thinking only in terms of this basically in your mind and using your observation and

your kind of spontaneous artistic observational skills too. But this stuff, this side-to-side

diminished movement, side-to-side symmetrical diminishment with foreshortening still has

to be in mind for solid drawing. Same with the figure. You know, this kind of thing you

have to think about space. After the segment on curves, curved planes and these archways

and intersecting shapes and all sorts of stuff, we’re then going to probably go to the figure

in perspective in two point and different ways foreshortening; laying on the ground

and how you kind of bring those references down. These shapes will be very helpful in

how we bring down our references from the figure as well. It’s the exact same kind

of behavior, it’s just the figure is much more organic with a lot more gesture.

Alright, so there we have it. There’s our segmental.

There’s our round arch in perspective.

So there we go, flat perspective.

Alright, so just think about it. Go back and just think,

okay, if I can just keep dialing this type of thinking in more and more complexly as

we have two sides rounding into each other, but we’re going to start with standing shapes

and arch shapes at first. We pretty much tired of them a little bit, because then you’re

really understand the idea of why these standing planes are going to help be part of a complete

shape but not entirely. Then we’re going to go forward and start curving the other

plane. In this case, it was going to vanishing point left. We just left all that straight

as a block, but we’ll actually start curving that type of idea. Then also our verticals

won’t be vertical anymore because those will also be curving and doing random things

as well as we design shapes.

Okay, so there we are and we’ll go on to the

next series of little arches and perspective arches.

AUTO SCROLL

Alright, welcome back. We’re going to do two more arches. We’re first going to do

a trefoil arch, which is a three-part arch, and the second one would be with a different

curve called an ogee. Here we go. What we’ll do is we’ll draw out our flat versions again

like we did before. We’ll do this a few more times until we see it. We’ll be coming

back to and then dropping doing the flat version sometime. Sometimes we’ll just draw in perspective,

but for the first few we’ll go ahead and continue.

I’ve just kind of marked off some positions here.

There’s our flat space arch. If we want we have a little bit of the top

before it comes right to the top. Just a little section, very thin. Then we’re going to

X it off to find our true center like we did before. Just as an idea. There are many ways

to reference things, but we’ll point out some logic and do slightly different things

than we did before when it comes to getting the depth and all that. There’s our center.

We might as well use the complete X and the crossing of the T of our centers as reference

lines as we did before. It’s always convenient. We’ll go ahead and put those in there.

Alright, so now we’ll just draw our basic arch which is going to be the idea here starting

here. I’ll just feel out what I’m doing here. So this arch will come and it will curve

and stop one point here and then it will come out straight and then curve again to meet

down there. It’s randomly assigned by me, just how I felt I wanted that particular arch.

Then we’ll double it over. We’re starting on the left, so we’ll put in left first

again just to remind you of doing the left side first. And then we’ll go ahead and

darken in that arch so it’s a nice clear shape meeting with a side then going down

to the bottom. Obviously, we can find a couple points here, but now we have to make a few

separate references too. I can say, sure, that crosses right there on the diagonal and

also meets up here. It first contacts the wall and goes straight just about there. We

have three points of interest. Plus, we now know that 90-degree corner meeting just there

for a moment before it curves again is another point of interest. We’ll carry that over

as well. At least now we have it very close to this which is very helpful.

Let’s just double it over with our references now. What we can do is just carry this across

from here, and that’s straight there, which helps us a lot to find this point. Also, we

can carry this blue one straight over. We know the other stops over there, very simple.

We could also do some midpoint ideas as well if we wanted. Why don’t we do that? Just

for the heck of it. Say, okay, we know the other one comes out straight here and meets

just this distance here over here. That’s not so far that I’m worried about it. I’ll

just replicate that distance. That’s pretty easy to do. I’ll just replicate that distance.

That’s pretty easy to do right there. We know we have that tiny space to crawl right

there to replicate that corner. The idea is do we want something to verify that in the

middle of our arch set there. We could do that. If you want, what I’ll do is I’ll

put a red space right kind of in the middle of the arch there where I think it is at most

right at the peak in the middle right there. Another red dot there. Also, right here it

kind of goes down right there. I’ll also draw those over and that one too and then we can do some doubling

over if we want. There is, again, different ways to reference it. But I’ll use the red

tool for now and say, okay, in this particular small one if we can double that over we can

find this other corner.

So what we’re going to do is we’re going to do it in a simple way now. We’ll go ahead—again,

I’m going to use my T-square set to be really clear. But again, I can’t stress enough

this could all be done freehand or with just a partial assist from a straight edge, but

we’re going to be dead clear. I’m taking this idea now and I’m considering this whole

thing here a box to be doubled over. I’m going to simply say I’m going to start referencing

smaller and smaller now as we get into this and say if I could I’ll just as an example

do this. Now does that mean every time you do an arch just casually hand drawing with

observational skills only in a sketchbook you’d have to do all this? Absolutely not.

But mechanically, when you start doing larger objects and really need side-to-side continuity

to diminishment to the perspective, it becomes more and more important. We’re doing this

as a warmup for doing harder, more difficult objects in proper perspective, not so much

simple things you’d sketch. Obviously, you’ll have to figure out at what point do you go

to the formal when you need it as opposed to just thinking of it when you’re hand

drawing? That’s always the case. We’re always starting with, of course, the fully formal.

So there’s our middle. We can drive that little middle space now right over here.

Now that we’ve got the center this is just an example of how we double it over from that

corner. Say, alright, basically right there is our double, and we’ll draw it down.

So now we know that other red dot is right there at the top corner. So that’s how we would

officially, if this is all larger and being more officially doubled over in space, we

can also do that move in perspective. Again, there’s that one. Again, I can take the

idea of this odd one here and also make a rectangle of that. We’ll do that as well.

Now, there are other circumstances where we can drive this center line down and come through

a couple angles to then match up that same idea. We’ll try to find two ways to do some

of these too. Right now I’m just making a basic box between our true middle line here

and where that one came over. Again, I’ll just go ahead and X this box off and try to

be accurate about it. That’s a little off.

We’re taking our time with these because then when we get into more complex stuff we

do not have to slow down so much when we’re making moves because you guys will have experience

at why these concepts work as we go, and we won’t get lost. Of course, we can always

still stop the lecture and rewind, but it just makes for—there’s that middle part.

We can just take the idea of moving that box over. Now, we know it should land right over

by the other side at the equal distance, but we’re technically showing ways here to reference,

which should be accurate. Sure enough, we land that right where we should be over here.

Now, I could have just done that idea by hand. You could say why not just estimate that?

Who cares? We’re actually showing the formal drafting version of how you do it, with some

of these references, to get used to the fact that we’re transferring this idea over here

over here now.

That idea. This idea is already over here on the X. We also have a little dot for this

corner idea. Then we next have this one doubled over as well right here. Draw the arch. We’re

just trying to figure out how many ways could we do that. There are always secondary ways

to do things, but in this case it was pretty obvious that we could take this and find different

ways to use the center piece as a reference too. But in this case, it was pretty easy

to make the boxes, so we’ll stay with that. So now we’ve got all the points we need

basically to say, okay, we’ve started with that blue one and the blue one at the top.

We also then put in this basic one near the corner here, found it on the X, but then an

appropriate little space forward to find that. Doubled this idea over as a box to here, and

then first we doubled this little idea over. So we’ll just go ahead and draw in with

pencil then the idea of our arch. We could feel it out now so this passes by like this.

Come back over. Then we should land right here straight up and down before we turn a

little bit over here. Come back straight. We should then move our way over here and

feel like we’re moving just through here at about this angle looking at its mirror version.

We know we start moving away from here at the blue dot.

So if this was a much larger drawing or a more complicated form, these type of doubling

over, this type of referencing for doubling over is what you’d be doing even though

this form is small enough compared to my hand size where you could say just fake it or whatever.

That won’t teach you the referencing. What we’re doing here is we’re making small,

simple, flat versions but showing why the reference thinking is important for when it

really becomes critical. We’ll do that same reference thinking on our perspective version

of this. I want to clean that up a little nicer. No big deal though.

Okay, this again is called a trefoil arch because it has three parts. I will write that

in. And this other one will be called an ogee. So we have a trefoil arch, and we’ll do

another one that has kind of an insider turn, a little bit of a Persian arch there. Let’s

bring this down and do the perspective version. We’ll do the same moves. We’ll define

our box space that we think the total shape takes up as we did with the flat version.

We’ll go ahead and put this in here. Go across to our right vanishing point on the

bottom. Then I’m also going to put in that little bit of space between just to get that

in there. Then I’ll find my half, do our X, a true corner to corner. We’ll put those

in super dark so that we can accent later a little more with our actual arch shape.

There’s our center, and so we’ll put that T in that we did before with our flat space.

That will help us replicate kind of what we’re talking about.

Again, we’re doing the flats to show the idea of what we want to do as a design. Of

course, you can just design straight in perspective, which we’ll be doing too. But the first

few, as I said, we’ll go ahead and show ourselves our intention that we want to do

in flat space as a design. Okay, so in a sense I’m saying now if we want to take it directly

from this I can get an idea and say, well, the idea of the arch is this. This is a little

above half way here. So if I say, okay, above halfway there compared to that space compared

to that. Make sure it’s around that level somewhere, probably right around there. I’ll

just start out my arch and my halfway point here and say, okay. So I’m thinking just

a little bit in front of there it comes, so I’ll guess I’ll just build up a straight

little bit. Get my head out of the way here. Make sure I get this in perspective about

how I think it’s going. We’ve got that little bit of straight moving toward our vanishing

point, so I’ll be official. Do that about there. That meets it about there on our X

line. So much for that idea.

Now, we also have the blue starting over here, so I’ll just estimate that. It’s about

there. The blue starts about there if I estimate from there. It starts moving away from the

curve right here. I’ll just move that arch right back there. Okay, so there’s the first

half. We’ll officially reference all that. Got the center here as we did above and the

flat. We already identified that. We know there’s a little red idea here. We also

want to take into consideration that corner. We have the same basic setup. Now we’ll

reference over our little idea in blue here, our plane in red here. Make sure that comes

over properly. We’ll also guesstimate this in perspective. If you want you could say,

alright, a little smaller space because now we’re in foreshortening. Here it was equal

but, of course, just a little bit shorter here if you want to take a guess at it right

there. Otherwise, I’ll go ahead and do the same estimation and referencing methods that

I’m doing up here. We’ll do some of that.

I can pick a spot about here which I think is in the middle, so the same basic logic.

It’s not exactly important. As long as we picked our arch to double over we’ll pick

that spot. Again, right here along the apex right around there on the climax of that just

about there. We’ll do the same thing. We’ll make a little box and go over here. Let’s

do that with our T-square.

Remember, everything you’re estimating you have to take in consideration the foreshortened

space as well. But we’ll just do this real slow. Again, some of you obviously have experience

with this. But all we’re doing is taking this box now, a foreshortened version of it.

Obviously, our perspective version is larger but it is also foreshortened. So you have

to consider that in your kind of three-dimensional drawing mind that you’re constantly remembering

that the perspective version we’re doing has foreshortened elements. There’s that

center. Now we can take that, double it over just to be academic about it. Reaching about

there. So there’s our foreshortened version.

Just as the idea in our mind is that it’s a box. I’ve already got the space, but I

want to show that we double over, and it’s just the whole thinking process. These are

very, very light ideas underneath a lot of the things you might build out that are just

drawn. The perspective is simple. Vanishing point left, vanishing point right, true verticals.

It’s the referencing that gets complex, as we mentioned in our last diagram. These

ideas really help you because there is more than one way to reference. People can point

out three or four ways. You could have gone over there and done that. Why did you do that?

Why didn’t you do this? Who cares? As long as you are reasonably efficient about it,

you need to start thinking in these references to get these curves and these little spaces

done when you make little rectangular reference planes. It’s very important that you think

that way. That will also have to do with not just height across a width. It also has to

do with depth when we go that way and more complex objects.

Okay, so we’ve gotten our first point over here. Then we’ll go ahead and do the same

thing we did and make another rectangular box to reference the slightly lower curves

reference to the other side as well. We’ll go ahead and put that in. As I remember we

went all the way down to the middle line. I’ll do the same move there to there. We’ll

make a box of that to our middle plane or our middle division line and draw it over.

We’re making that the box, right? Here’s our box. I’m going to X that off.

Double it over. Find the middle.

Go back over.

Find our middle plane there.

Take that over again.

Find that right over there. Come down the other side.

Again, you have to estimate to make sure you’re right. If something is a little off you’ll

say, alright, no, that’s just still a little bit. I know in perspective it’s a little

more foreshortened. You have to be aware so that would land just about there.

Alright, so we have that other. We also have another reference point in red here with that corner

slightly forward just about there. We estimated that little tipsy corner there.

Now go ahead and draw in the best of our estimations. Oh and we have to have our blue dot over here

on the edge to represent that other side. I’ll pay attention to the nature of it from

the other side. Up here, about like that.

Rounds down and comes straight up here.

We have to make a good honest shape there that starts turning into that one. Going to make

that a little straight that we can see here. Then we start curving down toward here so

that’s a fairly steep one here as it goes down. Connect to that in a natural way. Make

sure that’s not too—it has to kind of find its way down here. It just goes for a

little bit like that straight and then starts curving out. So I have to make sure that represents

what we think it should do. Like that is pretty good. Come up, do that.

We’ll go ahead and darken in the edge.

Okay, I remember that’s the part that goes down to the bottom.

Alright, now we can make that width if we wish. Again, we have all these

reference points now. What we can do is take some of those ideas back to the vanishing

point again, so we’ll do that as we did before. Vanishing point left. Take as many

little helpful ideas as we can. We’ll take the corner of the box over.

We also have these lines at the top,

just for the heck of it.

a trefoil arch, which is a three-part arch, and the second one would be with a different

curve called an ogee. Here we go. What we’ll do is we’ll draw out our flat versions again

like we did before. We’ll do this a few more times until we see it. We’ll be coming

back to and then dropping doing the flat version sometime. Sometimes we’ll just draw in perspective,

but for the first few we’ll go ahead and continue.

I’ve just kind of marked off some positions here.

There’s our flat space arch. If we want we have a little bit of the top

before it comes right to the top. Just a little section, very thin. Then we’re going to

X it off to find our true center like we did before. Just as an idea. There are many ways

to reference things, but we’ll point out some logic and do slightly different things

than we did before when it comes to getting the depth and all that. There’s our center.

We might as well use the complete X and the crossing of the T of our centers as reference

lines as we did before. It’s always convenient. We’ll go ahead and put those in there.

Alright, so now we’ll just draw our basic arch which is going to be the idea here starting

here. I’ll just feel out what I’m doing here. So this arch will come and it will curve

and stop one point here and then it will come out straight and then curve again to meet

down there. It’s randomly assigned by me, just how I felt I wanted that particular arch.

Then we’ll double it over. We’re starting on the left, so we’ll put in left first

again just to remind you of doing the left side first. And then we’ll go ahead and

darken in that arch so it’s a nice clear shape meeting with a side then going down

to the bottom. Obviously, we can find a couple points here, but now we have to make a few

separate references too. I can say, sure, that crosses right there on the diagonal and

also meets up here. It first contacts the wall and goes straight just about there. We

have three points of interest. Plus, we now know that 90-degree corner meeting just there

for a moment before it curves again is another point of interest. We’ll carry that over

as well. At least now we have it very close to this which is very helpful.

Let’s just double it over with our references now. What we can do is just carry this across

from here, and that’s straight there, which helps us a lot to find this point. Also, we

can carry this blue one straight over. We know the other stops over there, very simple.

We could also do some midpoint ideas as well if we wanted. Why don’t we do that? Just

for the heck of it. Say, okay, we know the other one comes out straight here and meets

just this distance here over here. That’s not so far that I’m worried about it. I’ll

just replicate that distance. That’s pretty easy to do. I’ll just replicate that distance.

That’s pretty easy to do right there. We know we have that tiny space to crawl right

there to replicate that corner. The idea is do we want something to verify that in the

middle of our arch set there. We could do that. If you want, what I’ll do is I’ll

put a red space right kind of in the middle of the arch there where I think it is at most

right at the peak in the middle right there. Another red dot there. Also, right here it

kind of goes down right there. I’ll also draw those over and that one too and then we can do some doubling

over if we want. There is, again, different ways to reference it. But I’ll use the red

tool for now and say, okay, in this particular small one if we can double that over we can

find this other corner.

So what we’re going to do is we’re going to do it in a simple way now. We’ll go ahead—again,

I’m going to use my T-square set to be really clear. But again, I can’t stress enough

this could all be done freehand or with just a partial assist from a straight edge, but

we’re going to be dead clear. I’m taking this idea now and I’m considering this whole

thing here a box to be doubled over. I’m going to simply say I’m going to start referencing

smaller and smaller now as we get into this and say if I could I’ll just as an example

do this. Now does that mean every time you do an arch just casually hand drawing with

observational skills only in a sketchbook you’d have to do all this? Absolutely not.

But mechanically, when you start doing larger objects and really need side-to-side continuity

to diminishment to the perspective, it becomes more and more important. We’re doing this

as a warmup for doing harder, more difficult objects in proper perspective, not so much

simple things you’d sketch. Obviously, you’ll have to figure out at what point do you go

to the formal when you need it as opposed to just thinking of it when you’re hand

drawing? That’s always the case. We’re always starting with, of course, the fully formal.

So there’s our middle. We can drive that little middle space now right over here.

Now that we’ve got the center this is just an example of how we double it over from that

corner. Say, alright, basically right there is our double, and we’ll draw it down.

So now we know that other red dot is right there at the top corner. So that’s how we would

officially, if this is all larger and being more officially doubled over in space, we

can also do that move in perspective. Again, there’s that one. Again, I can take the

idea of this odd one here and also make a rectangle of that. We’ll do that as well.

Now, there are other circumstances where we can drive this center line down and come through

a couple angles to then match up that same idea. We’ll try to find two ways to do some

of these too. Right now I’m just making a basic box between our true middle line here

and where that one came over. Again, I’ll just go ahead and X this box off and try to

be accurate about it. That’s a little off.

We’re taking our time with these because then when we get into more complex stuff we

do not have to slow down so much when we’re making moves because you guys will have experience

at why these concepts work as we go, and we won’t get lost. Of course, we can always

still stop the lecture and rewind, but it just makes for—there’s that middle part.

We can just take the idea of moving that box over. Now, we know it should land right over

by the other side at the equal distance, but we’re technically showing ways here to reference,

which should be accurate. Sure enough, we land that right where we should be over here.

Now, I could have just done that idea by hand. You could say why not just estimate that?

Who cares? We’re actually showing the formal drafting version of how you do it, with some

of these references, to get used to the fact that we’re transferring this idea over here

over here now.

That idea. This idea is already over here on the X. We also have a little dot for this

corner idea. Then we next have this one doubled over as well right here. Draw the arch. We’re

just trying to figure out how many ways could we do that. There are always secondary ways

to do things, but in this case it was pretty obvious that we could take this and find different

ways to use the center piece as a reference too. But in this case, it was pretty easy

to make the boxes, so we’ll stay with that. So now we’ve got all the points we need

basically to say, okay, we’ve started with that blue one and the blue one at the top.

We also then put in this basic one near the corner here, found it on the X, but then an

appropriate little space forward to find that. Doubled this idea over as a box to here, and

then first we doubled this little idea over. So we’ll just go ahead and draw in with

pencil then the idea of our arch. We could feel it out now so this passes by like this.

Come back over. Then we should land right here straight up and down before we turn a

little bit over here. Come back straight. We should then move our way over here and

feel like we’re moving just through here at about this angle looking at its mirror version.

We know we start moving away from here at the blue dot.

So if this was a much larger drawing or a more complicated form, these type of doubling

over, this type of referencing for doubling over is what you’d be doing even though

this form is small enough compared to my hand size where you could say just fake it or whatever.

That won’t teach you the referencing. What we’re doing here is we’re making small,

simple, flat versions but showing why the reference thinking is important for when it

really becomes critical. We’ll do that same reference thinking on our perspective version

of this. I want to clean that up a little nicer. No big deal though.

Okay, this again is called a trefoil arch because it has three parts. I will write that

in. And this other one will be called an ogee. So we have a trefoil arch, and we’ll do

another one that has kind of an insider turn, a little bit of a Persian arch there. Let’s

bring this down and do the perspective version. We’ll do the same moves. We’ll define

our box space that we think the total shape takes up as we did with the flat version.

We’ll go ahead and put this in here. Go across to our right vanishing point on the

bottom. Then I’m also going to put in that little bit of space between just to get that

in there. Then I’ll find my half, do our X, a true corner to corner. We’ll put those

in super dark so that we can accent later a little more with our actual arch shape.

There’s our center, and so we’ll put that T in that we did before with our flat space.

That will help us replicate kind of what we’re talking about.

Again, we’re doing the flats to show the idea of what we want to do as a design. Of

course, you can just design straight in perspective, which we’ll be doing too. But the first

few, as I said, we’ll go ahead and show ourselves our intention that we want to do

in flat space as a design. Okay, so in a sense I’m saying now if we want to take it directly

from this I can get an idea and say, well, the idea of the arch is this. This is a little

above half way here. So if I say, okay, above halfway there compared to that space compared

to that. Make sure it’s around that level somewhere, probably right around there. I’ll

just start out my arch and my halfway point here and say, okay. So I’m thinking just

a little bit in front of there it comes, so I’ll guess I’ll just build up a straight

little bit. Get my head out of the way here. Make sure I get this in perspective about

how I think it’s going. We’ve got that little bit of straight moving toward our vanishing

point, so I’ll be official. Do that about there. That meets it about there on our X

line. So much for that idea.

Now, we also have the blue starting over here, so I’ll just estimate that. It’s about

there. The blue starts about there if I estimate from there. It starts moving away from the

curve right here. I’ll just move that arch right back there. Okay, so there’s the first

half. We’ll officially reference all that. Got the center here as we did above and the

flat. We already identified that. We know there’s a little red idea here. We also

want to take into consideration that corner. We have the same basic setup. Now we’ll

reference over our little idea in blue here, our plane in red here. Make sure that comes

over properly. We’ll also guesstimate this in perspective. If you want you could say,

alright, a little smaller space because now we’re in foreshortening. Here it was equal

but, of course, just a little bit shorter here if you want to take a guess at it right

there. Otherwise, I’ll go ahead and do the same estimation and referencing methods that

I’m doing up here. We’ll do some of that.

I can pick a spot about here which I think is in the middle, so the same basic logic.

It’s not exactly important. As long as we picked our arch to double over we’ll pick

that spot. Again, right here along the apex right around there on the climax of that just

about there. We’ll do the same thing. We’ll make a little box and go over here. Let’s

do that with our T-square.

Remember, everything you’re estimating you have to take in consideration the foreshortened

space as well. But we’ll just do this real slow. Again, some of you obviously have experience

with this. But all we’re doing is taking this box now, a foreshortened version of it.

Obviously, our perspective version is larger but it is also foreshortened. So you have

to consider that in your kind of three-dimensional drawing mind that you’re constantly remembering

that the perspective version we’re doing has foreshortened elements. There’s that

center. Now we can take that, double it over just to be academic about it. Reaching about

there. So there’s our foreshortened version.

Just as the idea in our mind is that it’s a box. I’ve already got the space, but I

want to show that we double over, and it’s just the whole thinking process. These are

very, very light ideas underneath a lot of the things you might build out that are just

drawn. The perspective is simple. Vanishing point left, vanishing point right, true verticals.

It’s the referencing that gets complex, as we mentioned in our last diagram. These

ideas really help you because there is more than one way to reference. People can point

out three or four ways. You could have gone over there and done that. Why did you do that?

Why didn’t you do this? Who cares? As long as you are reasonably efficient about it,

you need to start thinking in these references to get these curves and these little spaces

done when you make little rectangular reference planes. It’s very important that you think

that way. That will also have to do with not just height across a width. It also has to

do with depth when we go that way and more complex objects.

Okay, so we’ve gotten our first point over here. Then we’ll go ahead and do the same

thing we did and make another rectangular box to reference the slightly lower curves

reference to the other side as well. We’ll go ahead and put that in. As I remember we

went all the way down to the middle line. I’ll do the same move there to there. We’ll

make a box of that to our middle plane or our middle division line and draw it over.

We’re making that the box, right? Here’s our box. I’m going to X that off.

Double it over. Find the middle.

Go back over.

Find our middle plane there.

Take that over again.

Find that right over there. Come down the other side.

Again, you have to estimate to make sure you’re right. If something is a little off you’ll

say, alright, no, that’s just still a little bit. I know in perspective it’s a little

more foreshortened. You have to be aware so that would land just about there.

Alright, so we have that other. We also have another reference point in red here with that corner

slightly forward just about there. We estimated that little tipsy corner there.

Now go ahead and draw in the best of our estimations. Oh and we have to have our blue dot over here

on the edge to represent that other side. I’ll pay attention to the nature of it from

the other side. Up here, about like that.

Rounds down and comes straight up here.

We have to make a good honest shape there that starts turning into that one. Going to make

that a little straight that we can see here. Then we start curving down toward here so

that’s a fairly steep one here as it goes down. Connect to that in a natural way. Make

sure that’s not too—it has to kind of find its way down here. It just goes for a

little bit like that straight and then starts curving out. So I have to make sure that represents

what we think it should do. Like that is pretty good. Come up, do that.

We’ll go ahead and darken in the edge.

Okay, I remember that’s the part that goes down to the bottom.

Alright, now we can make that width if we wish. Again, we have all these

reference points now. What we can do is take some of those ideas back to the vanishing

point again, so we’ll do that as we did before. Vanishing point left. Take as many

little helpful ideas as we can. We’ll take the corner of the box over.

We also have these lines at the top,

just for the heck of it.

AUTO SCROLL

We don’t have to make it that thick. We’ll also take over the center line here which

goes back into space. We’ll take our color over as well. Got our blue, other side.

We have our blue in the center right here. That’s an idea. Take that red corner over but also

this corner over here, which we’ll do in pencil again. That little teeny corner right

here is important. We also have that corner. Go back over. Another red here just for the

heck of it. I’m overdoing it a bit, but in our minds we could this even if we’re

not going to draw it. It’s just getting used to referencing so I’m doing every little

one carried into space there I can think of.

Okay, so let’s decide on the thickness. We can just do it on the base if we wanted

to or right here. We could say I want it that thick right there. A little in. Okay, I’ll

do that. Okay, that’s my choice for thickness then I just basically make that consistent

now throughout and say, okay, we’ll make it a box first. Just in our minds.

We're coming up and we have this line here so we come right up to the corner. That box comes

up to there. Remember this was our front corner. So that box seam, it happens to line up on

one of the red references, but that doesn’t matter. We have our top box here so we can

take over to our right vanishing point that top corner. That closes off our shape.

We'll also find our back corner going through our bottom like this. We’ll go back up with

the side wall on the opposite side of the shape just to be careful and kind of think

about that volumetric space a lot up to our other corner. I’ll make that lighter as

well so we can keep in mind our real shape, which is important. Make it thicker than we

need to at this point to read it to you guys.

Okay, so there’s our arch shape. So let’s start finding references. What we can do is

we know that the simple way to do this first red point would be to say, okay, if I know

what comes forward on our box, cause our arch comes in from our box. So what I can do is

simply continue this idea until it hits the corner of the box here, turns the corner to

the left vanishing point, simply go back that far, and then turn a corner again and go back

to the right vanishing point and where it hits my line right here I know I’ve got

that corresponding depth to that point because I made a little reference plane here, obviously.

I can do the same thing on the other side if I wish. I could simply take this, continue

that over there, and then go back to the left vanishing point on the back wall. Go back

to that back wall, stop, turn.

What I’ll do is, again, we’ll take this over.

Take it back, turn right here. That’s the back wall. Don’t get lost.

I had to double check because my vision blanked on me. Then I’ve got to come over.

Then we’ve got to find that little reference there.

Okay, so here back over, comes over; very, very small. Comes back over and is just a

little bit of space to come over and hit that line right there. So there’s the counterpart

to that. So we had this first then this. The counterpart to that is right there so I want

to make sure that comes out properly right about there. So counterpart to that is right

there. It should be. Right out from there a hair just about there.

Okay. Now we have another one, which again if we want—This is on the X so if we want

we could come around the side again, or we’d find the X in the back, which is pretty simple.

Why don’t we just X or back. We can probably find those two points over there. Let me just

go ahead and take the corner and X it.

Now we should be able to find that back reference

center there. Now when I follow this line here on the X, which appears right here on

the front X like that, this one is on the front part of that X so if we drive it back

and find it, it’s on its counterpart there. Then we know that little corner is a hair

in front of it. Right? So we can find that too. Also, if we know this one also is on

the X, we can drive that back and find the X. There is that little one there.

Okay, so that’s important too. We just have to make sure we’re going in the right direction

here. That comes up through that. That will come up through that. Lead to that one. Good.

Alright, so next we have the idea of this. We have to find obviously in back, which is

easy because those are right there. That one is right there on the back wall. Check the

corner. Make sure you have the right line. So those would be that. Next one we’re going

to find is, again, we can take this one and go to the sides. What I’ll do is I’ll

come over, reference that to that corner. Go back like a little spider web.

Go back to that corner, and then where that drives back and meets that projected line through

should be where we find it in space because we’ve referenced around that bigger box

idea we had. So let me just check for that. It should be right there. So that drives back

to here past that, but then we went side to the side and then over to meet back at that

space right there. We can do the same thing with the other side. This dot over, reference

back, that back corner very important to make sure we have the corner proper. Come back

in space until we run into that same line. It should be right there basically.

Of course, we can take our top and run it just back to the other line, but we have to

remember that that’s on that center line. We have to go back over at this height of

this gap, this gap here on the flat, this gap here on this version. I’ll take my pencil

just to be official, and I’ll run it back like gaps to the side. It’s right to where

that red line is. I’ll just follow that back there. I should be able to reference

that back to the halfway point. And that should be where my halfway point seam is too.

At that same level. Or, I could have just taken my X with my T-square and found that little

dot here in the back and come up in my middle seam. That would be a second way to do it

instead of going all the way around, but both work. I should come to the same conclusion

to that second part up here, so we do.

We’ve taken what was the center of the front face to the center of the back face, and when

we meet that blue line going back that’s our thing. I’ll make that in blue. I’ll

make that reference point in blue. This back to that. Double check. It should be about

there. So let’s see what we do. We should have all our information for the arch if I

didn’t make a mistake, so let’s do it and say we’re passing through this is in

the back. I’m going to match angles kind of and just say, okay, this one should be

right here and then just go back a little past here to this so it’ll be official.

This space from the red dot to that little corner of the arch—I’m just going to make

sure we understand that it comes back to the right vanishing point. It hits that reference

line to meet that corner right there. Then also this kind of comes through like that

trying to match up properly. Then we have our blue. So let’s do that part first. Let

me get out of your way. Comes through there, up through there. I’ll make that nice and

dark. Next part comes out straight, as we know, like that following that part. We carefully

come through until we straighten out right here. So we have to make sure we meet right

there. It looks good. Okay. Alright, now next we have to check our backside references to

make sure they’re right. We’re looking for this running into that, running through

that to the corner. Did we reference our corner properly? Let’s make sure. We have this

one straight back to here. Let’s make sure that’s correct. We know we have this one

there. That runs forward. What we’ve got to do, going to make sure this comes forward

a little bit from that one like this. Tiny bit to get that one to intersect with that.

So that arch can start right there. Then it should meet right through that one. Good,

so I’m going to meet through that one. Right through there. Good. My back side, a little

thick there; I got a little clumsy. That one should come back here, through there, meet

here. So it would come a little bit up. It’s going through that dot. So that dot is represented

by that dot. So now we have to go through—I’m sorry. This dot is this dot. This dot here

is this dot. That midpoint dot comes back and became that one. This is where I have

to pay attention because we’re like whoa.

Okay, so that’s a little lower, comes down and meets and comes over and meets this way.

Correct. Then the top of the arch we can do this way with a little bit of pencil line

that we know that. We know we have this little ridge if we want to draw it. So we’re going

to draw it in pencil between the two, and then this also becomes a ridge back to that

vanishing point there to draw through. There’s our arch shape. Let me make sure it’s drawn

in more darkly or darker. This is the front one so make that even a little thicker. We’ve

just referenced all those shapes. So if you get confused, please go back when we did all

those little shapes. It’s very hard to see as a finished reference and look at a diagram

finished like this and go, oh yeah, I get it; he went there, there, and back there.

That one blah, blah, blah. You’re not going to be able to do that.

That’s what was so confusing in class when we were doing this when I was back in college

before hi-def digital. We didn’t have that choice so we had to figure out from instructions

and writing. So essentially as you’re doing this right on the side where we’ve created

room, right on the side which you did first and why and do little arrows and planes because

we’re going back. I don’t want to confuse mine utterly, but yours should be a cleaner

version that should tell you that there’s a counterpoint for each one in front going

to the back. Then you have to be able to work out in your mind for each object you do how

you want to arrange those and why they would work. You just have to find your way back

to understanding the logic of it. All of us make mistakes and go, oh no, no. I went to

that point, and it was supposed to be that one. I happened to draw mine out and it looks

proper because I happen to just triple-check all my references back in space after I had

my initial arch done in the front plane. I made sure that I tripled-checked my references

to the back arch.

Now I’ll go ahead and tone it in as we did before on the actual part of the arch here

with pencil just to make it clear like that. Okay, so there’s our arch shape there. We

can see the negative shape inside because these are just the cutout which would be in

a solid block or a block made of stone and/or brick. There’s that negative shape. It comes

up, comes around here, comes back down, comes down then continues down. Let me darken in

that last part here so the side wall is darker. Inside side wall is darker, of course, too,

because that becomes our negative shape inside the windowsill or if we’re inside facing

outside, whatever you want to look at it as.

So there’s that trefoil arch, and referenced it basically in the beginning from the flat

version. We then took it further and gave it some thickness by referencing back. There

are always two or three ways to reference any one point the more, you know, little spider

web references you have in diagonals and points from other points and estimating very closely

to an existing point that’s obvious. All that stuff you’ll just do and go off the

cuff as you go. There is no absolute one way to do it so you just make the most logical,

efficient move that you can. You just get in the habit of it.

If you’re not going to be doing a lot of this stuff try to get through these and make

very careful notes on why this referencing works so that when you haven’t done it in

quite a while or a good while as an artists, let’s say, because you’re not doing it

daily or weekly, you can still refer back to these notes and be really clear about why

it works before you start on something you want to look right. It would be, you know,

a half-hour of referencing back, looking through it, trying out some test drawings and go,

yeah, yeah, yeah. I’ve got to go through here and think about my dimensional mind very

clearly in 3-D and get back there. So again, it’s just a matter of the familiarity with

the concept to get back to it from your notes. That’s what we’re doing.

Okay, so now we’re going to go on with ogee arch. We’ll call that the ogee arch. Let

me sharpen this pencil. I dropped one so I’ll go ahead with this one. Okay, so let’s go

for this. Here we go. We’ll do this one a little quicker now that we’ve explained

things. We’ll just kind of zoom along. So I’ll do the flat version real quick. There

are the flat sides. I’ll get this in pretty quick here. Put in the bottom, top. Alright.

We’ll put a little bit where the peak starts here, just a little bit of space as we did

before like that. We’ll find the middle now with our shape, and I’ll draw in the

half of it. Double it over from the left. Again, the left side is first just like it

was on the perspective version and the flat version of the last idea. There’s our center

point. That’s helpful always.

Again, you might just create the first half. But still, finding these points, diagonals,

whatever helps, definitely is a helpful thing to do. Generally, I like to work out the actual

total space my object would take up even if I only designed the first half because the

other one would then be symmetrically carried over just in reverse like a reflection.

Alright, so there we are with that. I will go ahead and draw in my ogee. I’ll start

up here right there, and I’ll kind of figure out where do I want to land with it. Okay,

so it peaks in like that, comes around. So there it is. It lands just about here, a little

under we’ll say. I’ll take my blue and say, no, I’m saying it goes flat just about

there against that wall. Obviously, that’s our top peak in the center.

Once again, I think I’ll just go ahead and remind myself of two at the peaks right here.

Another area in red. I’ll go ahead and find the peak over here. Again, just that idea.

Again, we’ll immediately carry those ideas straight across as reference in blue.

That idea in across in red, our three ideas. I hit them right in the center and go over.

Over and over. And again, you can say, well, that’s not that long of a distance. Just

double it over and draw it. Yes, but the larger the ideas they become and the more curves

you have in an object like in a sexy shape like a boat or a car or things that have a

lot of curves to them these references really help you double the shape over properly. You

might think you’re drawing it properly, but when you look at your hand drawing and

your estimations from observational drawings you have a great amount of bias and you don’t

know it. So if you look at that shape that you’ve drawn in the front, and then if you

were to truly double it over and repeat it in foreshortened space you’ll find out how

wrong you can be until you get used to this type of drawing more.

Other people have more of an aptitude for it and do it pretty darn well freehand. This

is the idea of why the referencing helps with complex objects. So that’s why we’re showing

it. It’s the way to understand the referencing system and the way of thinking of how you

reference something side to side and in depth.

Okay, so let’s go ahead and make our little boxes. Obviously, we’ve landed this one

right over here so that’s easy. These other two will make our little boxes again and double

them over. I know it might seem kind of silly, but we’re going to go ahead and do it anyway.

If I’m really thinking there’s my drop for that little box, and if I want I can say,

alright, that’s small enough if I just double over with what I know is correct here then

I’ll just find it there. Alright, that’s fair enough. This one too. You could say,

okay. But in perspective you have to understand it’s going to foreshorten from side to side.

In this case what I’ll do is I’ll go all the way down to the blue line and I’ll go

ahead and X it off. It’s the blue corner that I’m doing.

So right down to there so we find our center.

We’ll bring our center over to here.

Double it over just an exercise in saying, oh that’s

right, it’s the logical way to double that space over. Something like that.

You’re finding your mark right where you want it. Then we’ll come down with an

equal width. Of course, we’re doing that in perspective where it’s harder to gauge

exact foreshortening especially if you want to be precise.

Again, we have to assume from these lectures that you know that we’re doing things drafted

to be as precise as we can by hand with drafting tools. You are welcome to do this freehand

and do it really well and really fast freehand if you practice a great deal, or with a straight

edge assist. That’s great, but we’re doing it a little more officially so that it’s

really clear why the referencing works. We want you to draw more and more complex objects,

or I do, as we go along. People have seen this kind of drawing all over the place on

the internet if you just look for a lot of entertainment design, all that kind of stuff.

The idea is that if you’re artist and you’re saying I don’t want to steep myself so much

into this stuff I take myself six months off course just to learn how to do this, well,

this is a logical approach for artists, in my opinion. The way I was taught is that you

do a good deal of the referencing, but you understand from knowing how to do very beginning

and intermediate complexity referencing you can easily teach yourself how to go on to

the more complex objects because the logic stays the same between the beginning and the

intermediate to make the jump to the more complex. We’ll do a couple complex objects,

and I’ll certainly show them on the video as an example, but you know, we’re not going

to spend so much time on that to take you way out of the way. We’re not doing it for

people that are becoming professional designers, necessarily. This kind of perspective is necessary

as a designer to understand—I’m not saying that. I’m saying as a whole this is mostly

for artists and designers up to a point to the intermediate stage where we want to go

on and continue talking about why the perspective works and how it works rather than saying

it’s about how to design and incredibly complex object. That’s not what we’re

doing in this lecture series. We’re really talking about the

perspective and why and how it works.

goes back into space. We’ll take our color over as well. Got our blue, other side.

We have our blue in the center right here. That’s an idea. Take that red corner over but also

this corner over here, which we’ll do in pencil again. That little teeny corner right

here is important. We also have that corner. Go back over. Another red here just for the

heck of it. I’m overdoing it a bit, but in our minds we could this even if we’re

not going to draw it. It’s just getting used to referencing so I’m doing every little

one carried into space there I can think of.

Okay, so let’s decide on the thickness. We can just do it on the base if we wanted

to or right here. We could say I want it that thick right there. A little in. Okay, I’ll

do that. Okay, that’s my choice for thickness then I just basically make that consistent

now throughout and say, okay, we’ll make it a box first. Just in our minds.

We're coming up and we have this line here so we come right up to the corner. That box comes

up to there. Remember this was our front corner. So that box seam, it happens to line up on

one of the red references, but that doesn’t matter. We have our top box here so we can

take over to our right vanishing point that top corner. That closes off our shape.

We'll also find our back corner going through our bottom like this. We’ll go back up with

the side wall on the opposite side of the shape just to be careful and kind of think

about that volumetric space a lot up to our other corner. I’ll make that lighter as

well so we can keep in mind our real shape, which is important. Make it thicker than we

need to at this point to read it to you guys.

Okay, so there’s our arch shape. So let’s start finding references. What we can do is

we know that the simple way to do this first red point would be to say, okay, if I know

what comes forward on our box, cause our arch comes in from our box. So what I can do is

simply continue this idea until it hits the corner of the box here, turns the corner to

the left vanishing point, simply go back that far, and then turn a corner again and go back

to the right vanishing point and where it hits my line right here I know I’ve got

that corresponding depth to that point because I made a little reference plane here, obviously.

I can do the same thing on the other side if I wish. I could simply take this, continue

that over there, and then go back to the left vanishing point on the back wall. Go back

to that back wall, stop, turn.

What I’ll do is, again, we’ll take this over.

Take it back, turn right here. That’s the back wall. Don’t get lost.

I had to double check because my vision blanked on me. Then I’ve got to come over.

Then we’ve got to find that little reference there.

Okay, so here back over, comes over; very, very small. Comes back over and is just a

little bit of space to come over and hit that line right there. So there’s the counterpart

to that. So we had this first then this. The counterpart to that is right there so I want

to make sure that comes out properly right about there. So counterpart to that is right

there. It should be. Right out from there a hair just about there.

Okay. Now we have another one, which again if we want—This is on the X so if we want

we could come around the side again, or we’d find the X in the back, which is pretty simple.

Why don’t we just X or back. We can probably find those two points over there. Let me just

go ahead and take the corner and X it.

Now we should be able to find that back reference

center there. Now when I follow this line here on the X, which appears right here on

the front X like that, this one is on the front part of that X so if we drive it back

and find it, it’s on its counterpart there. Then we know that little corner is a hair

in front of it. Right? So we can find that too. Also, if we know this one also is on

the X, we can drive that back and find the X. There is that little one there.

Okay, so that’s important too. We just have to make sure we’re going in the right direction

here. That comes up through that. That will come up through that. Lead to that one. Good.

Alright, so next we have the idea of this. We have to find obviously in back, which is

easy because those are right there. That one is right there on the back wall. Check the

corner. Make sure you have the right line. So those would be that. Next one we’re going

to find is, again, we can take this one and go to the sides. What I’ll do is I’ll

come over, reference that to that corner. Go back like a little spider web.

Go back to that corner, and then where that drives back and meets that projected line through

should be where we find it in space because we’ve referenced around that bigger box

idea we had. So let me just check for that. It should be right there. So that drives back

to here past that, but then we went side to the side and then over to meet back at that

space right there. We can do the same thing with the other side. This dot over, reference

back, that back corner very important to make sure we have the corner proper. Come back

in space until we run into that same line. It should be right there basically.

Of course, we can take our top and run it just back to the other line, but we have to

remember that that’s on that center line. We have to go back over at this height of

this gap, this gap here on the flat, this gap here on this version. I’ll take my pencil

just to be official, and I’ll run it back like gaps to the side. It’s right to where

that red line is. I’ll just follow that back there. I should be able to reference

that back to the halfway point. And that should be where my halfway point seam is too.

At that same level. Or, I could have just taken my X with my T-square and found that little

dot here in the back and come up in my middle seam. That would be a second way to do it

instead of going all the way around, but both work. I should come to the same conclusion

to that second part up here, so we do.

We’ve taken what was the center of the front face to the center of the back face, and when

we meet that blue line going back that’s our thing. I’ll make that in blue. I’ll

make that reference point in blue. This back to that. Double check. It should be about

there. So let’s see what we do. We should have all our information for the arch if I

didn’t make a mistake, so let’s do it and say we’re passing through this is in

the back. I’m going to match angles kind of and just say, okay, this one should be

right here and then just go back a little past here to this so it’ll be official.

This space from the red dot to that little corner of the arch—I’m just going to make

sure we understand that it comes back to the right vanishing point. It hits that reference

line to meet that corner right there. Then also this kind of comes through like that

trying to match up properly. Then we have our blue. So let’s do that part first. Let

me get out of your way. Comes through there, up through there. I’ll make that nice and

dark. Next part comes out straight, as we know, like that following that part. We carefully

come through until we straighten out right here. So we have to make sure we meet right

there. It looks good. Okay. Alright, now next we have to check our backside references to

make sure they’re right. We’re looking for this running into that, running through

that to the corner. Did we reference our corner properly? Let’s make sure. We have this

one straight back to here. Let’s make sure that’s correct. We know we have this one

there. That runs forward. What we’ve got to do, going to make sure this comes forward

a little bit from that one like this. Tiny bit to get that one to intersect with that.

So that arch can start right there. Then it should meet right through that one. Good,

so I’m going to meet through that one. Right through there. Good. My back side, a little

thick there; I got a little clumsy. That one should come back here, through there, meet

here. So it would come a little bit up. It’s going through that dot. So that dot is represented

by that dot. So now we have to go through—I’m sorry. This dot is this dot. This dot here

is this dot. That midpoint dot comes back and became that one. This is where I have

to pay attention because we’re like whoa.

Okay, so that’s a little lower, comes down and meets and comes over and meets this way.

Correct. Then the top of the arch we can do this way with a little bit of pencil line

that we know that. We know we have this little ridge if we want to draw it. So we’re going

to draw it in pencil between the two, and then this also becomes a ridge back to that

vanishing point there to draw through. There’s our arch shape. Let me make sure it’s drawn

in more darkly or darker. This is the front one so make that even a little thicker. We’ve

just referenced all those shapes. So if you get confused, please go back when we did all

those little shapes. It’s very hard to see as a finished reference and look at a diagram

finished like this and go, oh yeah, I get it; he went there, there, and back there.

That one blah, blah, blah. You’re not going to be able to do that.

That’s what was so confusing in class when we were doing this when I was back in college

before hi-def digital. We didn’t have that choice so we had to figure out from instructions

and writing. So essentially as you’re doing this right on the side where we’ve created

room, right on the side which you did first and why and do little arrows and planes because

we’re going back. I don’t want to confuse mine utterly, but yours should be a cleaner

version that should tell you that there’s a counterpoint for each one in front going

to the back. Then you have to be able to work out in your mind for each object you do how

you want to arrange those and why they would work. You just have to find your way back

to understanding the logic of it. All of us make mistakes and go, oh no, no. I went to

that point, and it was supposed to be that one. I happened to draw mine out and it looks

proper because I happen to just triple-check all my references back in space after I had

my initial arch done in the front plane. I made sure that I tripled-checked my references

to the back arch.

Now I’ll go ahead and tone it in as we did before on the actual part of the arch here

with pencil just to make it clear like that. Okay, so there’s our arch shape there. We

can see the negative shape inside because these are just the cutout which would be in

a solid block or a block made of stone and/or brick. There’s that negative shape. It comes

up, comes around here, comes back down, comes down then continues down. Let me darken in

that last part here so the side wall is darker. Inside side wall is darker, of course, too,

because that becomes our negative shape inside the windowsill or if we’re inside facing

outside, whatever you want to look at it as.

So there’s that trefoil arch, and referenced it basically in the beginning from the flat

version. We then took it further and gave it some thickness by referencing back. There

are always two or three ways to reference any one point the more, you know, little spider

web references you have in diagonals and points from other points and estimating very closely

to an existing point that’s obvious. All that stuff you’ll just do and go off the

cuff as you go. There is no absolute one way to do it so you just make the most logical,

efficient move that you can. You just get in the habit of it.

If you’re not going to be doing a lot of this stuff try to get through these and make

very careful notes on why this referencing works so that when you haven’t done it in

quite a while or a good while as an artists, let’s say, because you’re not doing it

daily or weekly, you can still refer back to these notes and be really clear about why

it works before you start on something you want to look right. It would be, you know,

a half-hour of referencing back, looking through it, trying out some test drawings and go,

yeah, yeah, yeah. I’ve got to go through here and think about my dimensional mind very

clearly in 3-D and get back there. So again, it’s just a matter of the familiarity with

the concept to get back to it from your notes. That’s what we’re doing.

Okay, so now we’re going to go on with ogee arch. We’ll call that the ogee arch. Let

me sharpen this pencil. I dropped one so I’ll go ahead with this one. Okay, so let’s go

for this. Here we go. We’ll do this one a little quicker now that we’ve explained

things. We’ll just kind of zoom along. So I’ll do the flat version real quick. There

are the flat sides. I’ll get this in pretty quick here. Put in the bottom, top. Alright.

We’ll put a little bit where the peak starts here, just a little bit of space as we did

before like that. We’ll find the middle now with our shape, and I’ll draw in the

half of it. Double it over from the left. Again, the left side is first just like it

was on the perspective version and the flat version of the last idea. There’s our center

point. That’s helpful always.

Again, you might just create the first half. But still, finding these points, diagonals,

whatever helps, definitely is a helpful thing to do. Generally, I like to work out the actual

total space my object would take up even if I only designed the first half because the

other one would then be symmetrically carried over just in reverse like a reflection.

Alright, so there we are with that. I will go ahead and draw in my ogee. I’ll start

up here right there, and I’ll kind of figure out where do I want to land with it. Okay,

so it peaks in like that, comes around. So there it is. It lands just about here, a little

under we’ll say. I’ll take my blue and say, no, I’m saying it goes flat just about

there against that wall. Obviously, that’s our top peak in the center.

Once again, I think I’ll just go ahead and remind myself of two at the peaks right here.

Another area in red. I’ll go ahead and find the peak over here. Again, just that idea.

Again, we’ll immediately carry those ideas straight across as reference in blue.

That idea in across in red, our three ideas. I hit them right in the center and go over.

Over and over. And again, you can say, well, that’s not that long of a distance. Just

double it over and draw it. Yes, but the larger the ideas they become and the more curves

you have in an object like in a sexy shape like a boat or a car or things that have a

lot of curves to them these references really help you double the shape over properly. You

might think you’re drawing it properly, but when you look at your hand drawing and

your estimations from observational drawings you have a great amount of bias and you don’t

know it. So if you look at that shape that you’ve drawn in the front, and then if you

were to truly double it over and repeat it in foreshortened space you’ll find out how

wrong you can be until you get used to this type of drawing more.

Other people have more of an aptitude for it and do it pretty darn well freehand. This

is the idea of why the referencing helps with complex objects. So that’s why we’re showing

it. It’s the way to understand the referencing system and the way of thinking of how you

reference something side to side and in depth.

Okay, so let’s go ahead and make our little boxes. Obviously, we’ve landed this one

right over here so that’s easy. These other two will make our little boxes again and double

them over. I know it might seem kind of silly, but we’re going to go ahead and do it anyway.

If I’m really thinking there’s my drop for that little box, and if I want I can say,

alright, that’s small enough if I just double over with what I know is correct here then

I’ll just find it there. Alright, that’s fair enough. This one too. You could say,

okay. But in perspective you have to understand it’s going to foreshorten from side to side.

In this case what I’ll do is I’ll go all the way down to the blue line and I’ll go

ahead and X it off. It’s the blue corner that I’m doing.

So right down to there so we find our center.

We’ll bring our center over to here.

Double it over just an exercise in saying, oh that’s

right, it’s the logical way to double that space over. Something like that.

You’re finding your mark right where you want it. Then we’ll come down with an

equal width. Of course, we’re doing that in perspective where it’s harder to gauge

exact foreshortening especially if you want to be precise.

Again, we have to assume from these lectures that you know that we’re doing things drafted

to be as precise as we can by hand with drafting tools. You are welcome to do this freehand

and do it really well and really fast freehand if you practice a great deal, or with a straight

edge assist. That’s great, but we’re doing it a little more officially so that it’s

really clear why the referencing works. We want you to draw more and more complex objects,

or I do, as we go along. People have seen this kind of drawing all over the place on

the internet if you just look for a lot of entertainment design, all that kind of stuff.

The idea is that if you’re artist and you’re saying I don’t want to steep myself so much

into this stuff I take myself six months off course just to learn how to do this, well,

this is a logical approach for artists, in my opinion. The way I was taught is that you

do a good deal of the referencing, but you understand from knowing how to do very beginning

and intermediate complexity referencing you can easily teach yourself how to go on to

the more complex objects because the logic stays the same between the beginning and the

intermediate to make the jump to the more complex. We’ll do a couple complex objects,

and I’ll certainly show them on the video as an example, but you know, we’re not going

to spend so much time on that to take you way out of the way. We’re not doing it for

people that are becoming professional designers, necessarily. This kind of perspective is necessary

as a designer to understand—I’m not saying that. I’m saying as a whole this is mostly

for artists and designers up to a point to the intermediate stage where we want to go

on and continue talking about why the perspective works and how it works rather than saying

it’s about how to design and incredibly complex object. That’s not what we’re

doing in this lecture series. We’re really talking about the

perspective and why and how it works.

AUTO SCROLL

Now we’ve got our three references and we can carry over our blue over here. I’ll

go ahead and just draw in the second half of that one. I should come down here at about

that angle. I’ll come down like that. It turns over over here, down there steeper,

and it leaves this about there. So just to come down.

Come over.

Head on down.

Okay, there’s our second half darkened in, of course the rest of the shape. Going down

there’s a windowsill. We can pretend if we want. Okay, so there’s our ogee arch

in flat. We’ll go ahead and jam in our version in perspective. Do the same moves we did generally.

There are our sides, top and bottom.

Again, these are just estimated in perspective.

We want to put in that little part where the arch comes up that’s just about that there.

That’s about right.

Alright. We’re going to go ahead and X that off right away.

Put another X there. Get the middle.

There it is. Put in our T. That will be helpful for our halves as references.

Go off to our right vanishing point to get that one. Alright, so now we’ve got the basic

same setup that we had before. Now we can just guesstimate and say, alright, this is

just a tiny bit below that so a little more space here would be about there. So immediately

can get over and get the other side of that.

Now, if we take the space if I use the blue

as a reference line down here and take that space and that space, this is smaller, larger.

So if I do that same idea, smaller, larger. I’m ending up about there, I think, with

that red dot that falls on the X. I’m just trying to say, okay. If I take that space

and then that. That space and then probably a little more like that, something like that.

So I go down from here and then down longer. Down from here and then down longer. So I

think I’m about right there. I’ll just take a shot. Okay. I’ll move that one over

to the other side. Now, we could reference it and know exactly, but I’m just going

to go ahead and say this isn’t all about being perfectly measuring everything if I

have that cross X as a lead and I can take my depths by dead reckoning like this and

say, okay, that’s very close.

A lot of times you’ll just be discovering and creating these all by themselves. Obviously,

if you’re in the middle of a drawing and saying I want this kind of window arch here

in this complex wall you can do a flat design if you want, but you’ll be putting it in

as a closely estimated version in your drawing. I’m not suggesting we’re making all these

exact measured conversions. We’re not doing that. What we’re doing is we’re showing

enough of some of the measured or I should say doubled in halved space so that you get

accurate referencing. So the word accurate is more important than always measuring. We

don’t need to always measure because we’re trying to estimate and accurately land on

doubled-over shapes that look good from good referencing from doubling and having, okay,

and X’ng and doubling.

Okay, so there’s that first choice. It comes over to here. Now, the other ones we can say,

alright, where do we think they fell. In this case we know that we’re saying they’re

about here. Again, we’re about this distance here to that. So long or shorter, how far

above that is that, and then we get our middle space. So if we want now we can use a real

estimation and say, well, you know, where would I land if I really tried to find this

exactly if it was important for me in that middle. Well, what we could do is we could

have it again, and we could say, alright, what is the half between the real halfway

mark here, little halfway mark there, we could go back if we wanted to and say, alright,

I’ll make a little X’ng of that. Little bit of X’ng of that idea.

Say it’s right there. How close is that? So if I do that here,

do that there, and say that X turned

out to be right there, little bit lower, put that mark there just as an idea.

You could say, alright, that’s only that much below it, basically. Right there it’s

just a little bit below that center. So if it’s right there it’s really only about

here, a little bit below. Just feel it out. So what we can do is we can also take an odd

angle, but we’ll do that later. But in this case, I’ll just estimate it here. Based

on this half it’s pretty close to that. Basically, if I feel the weight down to the

blue line and then this little travel here, that’s all I feel.

So I’ll carry that over until I feel it’s at the

proper distance for what I feel this space is here also.

Again, I’m not measuring as much as I’m estimating well. I want to make that clear that I think

that space represents that in perspective pretty well.

So again, I am not measuring and doing exact references for everything because I want to

imply that this is dead reckoning and good artistic guesses like when you’re doing

observational drawing. But it’s also then about referencing when I think it’s more

important to get the doubled-over curves working properly and looking good side to side when

they’re going into foreshortening. So in this case that’s fine.

Okay, so now if we wanted to find one way to this and double it over a trick you can

use is to say I’m going to continue this middle seam here all the way through there,

just remember that’s why that line is there. We went up. And now if I want I can say what

if I go from this blue on this side through the red I just established. I should be able

to then reference it to the other side. What I’ll do is I’ll reference right from the

blue through the red and go all the way up to that center line of this. It happens to

meet right below that line there. There’s our point. That’s a reference point, a little

RP. If I happen to come through back down to this space on a counterpoint back here

I shall find where this crosses as it comes down on its way down to there. Then when I

move over in space with this to the right that’s the equivalent space now for that.

So that is referenced well instead of having to guess all of that and say alright.

If I kind of winged it and said that’s the natural arch I have moving here, and it’s

coming back out. I believe I’ve replicated the left side first

so we’ll just say left first, the idea of it.

Then there are referencing ways especially if you in some cases need

to extend the middle of a big shape like this out and extend that middle of this shape because

we’re mirroring side to side in reflection get that middle plane way up and down. You

can use a lot of referencing above, well above, below, and well below that as a reference

tool. We’ll do that more when we get into lighting, reflections, and everything else

and some of these other objects. So anyway, we went from here, through here to create

a reference point, came back down to where we knew this was, but then because we could

take this line down on its way down to there and then intersect it with a projection back

toward the vanishing point right, we get this new space and that helps us.

Before, we easily could do these cause they landed right on the X’s because used it

up here as a convenient way, but this one not so. So there is that one in space, and

we found it without having to necessarily X and double over. We could also use a middle

reference, but we could have taken this space, X’d it off, doubled it over, and found that

same answer. But this time we went up here. We could take this rectangle, double it over,

find that corner. So be clear on that. Alright, so there it is.

So now we should have everything we need to get that archway, so I’m just going to try

to pay attention to what this does. Oops. We forgot the top one. Sorry about that. So

now we have to estimate that. What we could do is we could do the same thing here if we

wanted to. We can first estimate where that one is here by saying, okay, where is this

compared to that first line? That first line here and here. This is clearly on the way

up to this line more than halfway. So if I say, alright, that space has got to be about

here boxed off, basically. But then it’s this far—okay, so it’s only one-third

of the way there. If I take this space and say about one-third that’s about right there

as I feel right there should be correct. I’ll just estimate that.

So if I take a little line that way I can shoot that across. Again, I can just X this

over, or I can make a reference point from this old one right through it to the center,

and then this one back over on its way over from that little reference point I made back

over traveling to its counterpart. If that’s been placed properly in perspective then I

should get my answer by that plane crossing this projection back to the right VP from

the first one. So the first one we estimated; the second one we did by coming across, making

a reference point, came back down to this counterpoint here. As it crosses that we get

our answer there. So it’s a slightly foreshortened version. Just about there. Anyway, that’s

one way to think about it.

I know it’s particular for these not-so-difficult shapes were drawing, but as we get going we

want to kind of ramp into this. I’m going to take that and say that’s moving kind

of like that. And I get this coming down from here, and it departs very quickly from the

wall, so it’s coming through here. Right through there. Make that nice, elongated thing.

This moves a little bit up the wall and then starts going through here. I have to get this

right and try to say, alright, how do I get right through that space right into that.

Okay, so that’s the first curve. We come down again through here, through there on

its way down, curving there so I just kind of feel it out through the dots. I’ve always

been big on drawing little light tries, do my dots first. Then I’ll draw the rest of

the simple shape and the flat wall there. Okay, so that’s what we did there. Always

got to stay out of the way. Okay, we’ll throw that puppy back now. We have all these

areas. Let’s make it clear what we’re referencing to give it some dimension. Got

our blues. We’ve got our reds. Here, here, here, here, and here, and then we have our

blue here. We also have our halfway points and our X’s. Let’s go ahead and throw

some thickness on this. Do that again. I’ll get my sharper pencil.

Here we go. Go back to the left vanishing point now with our projected thicknesses.

Halfway point back there. Top corner, back, back. Halfway, lighter. Back. Take all our

references too if we want to do that. Take that back, back, a second pair here. Back.

Some of them are going to repeat and fall on each other. That’s normal. Like this

one will, yep. We have to make sure you understand that. That’s why that line is a little thicker.

It’s actually two of them very close together, and then the blue will go back as well.

Alright, we got our middle plane going back. We’ll have our two blues down here going

back. We’re just taking our time here. Okay, we’ll go ahead and put our thickness in

and just guess it again and say, okay, back here again I say, I don’t know, I want it

to be this much here. I’ll just make the mark there. We’ll make the thickness from

there. Put it wherever you feel like you want to guesstimate your thickness, what you feel

you want it to be, or if it’s measured that’s different. Again, I’m not so concerned about

measuring exactness here. It’s just really good estimated referencing because it’s

about getting, you know, fairly limber with this stuff and versatile.

Later when we do plan view objects we’ll go more into why we could take a real plan

from, again, a side view, a top view, and a front and a back view, and get very exact

about exactly converting this design into this. We’re not doing that right now. We’re

just making good estimates, and then we’re referencing clearly. Once we get a regular

shape on the left side I’m very interested, and then of course really and actually doubling

it over to the best estimates and then little referencing X’ng and doubling that we can.

Again, it’s not all perfectly measured. I want to make sure that’s clear again so

that if you want to just freehand draw these ideas with the assistance of a straightedge

that’s fantastic because that’s what you need to do to get the idea of why 3-D platform

in our heads makes sense because we’re thinking in X, Y, Z, meaning, you know, width, depth

and height.

Okay, so we’ve got that coming over, and I’m going to make very light X this time

on the back plane as well, if that helps keep track of that. I’ll make my middle seam

which I can carry over from here to the back, make a mark, and that should meet up with

the middle of my X on the rear or on the back. I’ll take our time. Here we go. About there.

Good. Comes right where it should on the X back there. Perfect, okay. It’s a little

back there. That’s a little forward. Okay, that has to come down there. Alright. Clean

tht up a bit. Perfect.

Okay, so we have our X in the back. We have our plane coming up to meet that ridge. I

have to bring my thing over there. So that blue dot, we want to carry over this thickness

as well to the back, so we’re starting with that gap there where the peak starts bringing

it to the back, to that back blue line to get our blue dot on the top. So we’ve taken

the idea of this space here up here basically back and over to where it should be in the

middle, and I want to verify where the X says the middle is to come up that plane and meet

it right where it should, so that means right where it should be. So there’s that peak.

Its counterpart over there through the thickness is right there. I can obviously find my blues

from going there and going there from the back corner. So now I’ve got that relationship

there. I also now want to take my red. So again, I can do it a couple of ways, but probably

the most fastest for me is to just do the side. This one is on the X so that helps me.

But I’m going to do my lower one on the side again, so I’m going to bring it the

side on both planes right like it should be here and here. We’ll find them at the same

time. Go back across the depth to there.

Now make sure you’re referencing the actual

corner of the box we made because we have to come over from our actual reference point

and follow the right vanishing point out to the outside of the box, and the come around

the box, hit the corner of the box which would be here and there and then come back in to

meet that extended line from our original reference points right there and in this case

right there. So this one would be right here. That one would be right there.

Let me get out of your way.

So now we have this one back there, and we have this front one back here. Next, I’m

going to take my X and simply recognize these as being on the X and they’re thrust back

there so that should be where they meet on the X. This one carefully bring it back to

meet it’s counterpart on the X, so there’s that, this one in depth,

this one in front, back in depth.

Next, again, I’ll take these two and simply again reference them back around the side.

Let me get a sharper pencil actually. It’ll help me. And I’m going to take those both,

again, to the right vanishing point and bring them to the box edge.

Bring it back in my mind,

back edge. In my mind back edge and in the actual drawing, which is here.

Then I’ve got to come in to meet the line, which projects back from both of these into depth.

I’ll carefully do that and bring that right here. So that makes a point right there.

Then to bring this point that I brought around back over carefully to meet that projection

right there, which should be right about there. Alright, so make sure that one comes around.

Nope, that is incorrect. That is correct, sorry. That one, that one, and I’m going

to bring this one around here back over to the corner, back over to the corner, and over

there. That should actually land a little further.

Okay, alright. So now we can do the back corner, the back arch. We should be meeting right

up here, right here. Come down.

Come up, and we should be traveling through that one about like that.

Okay. This one should be here instead, meeting that point there. That makes sense.

That’s why it’s not bending. So here we go.

Little shallow so I’m going to push that one out. So my referencing I think is a little

shallow on the back because this wants to be a fuller shape actually like that.

So there we are. Push that one out. Okay. Push this one back over here. We should come through these.

Come down through there, do that.

There we go. Meeting about in the center there.

Make that nice and dark so we can see it. Make that back wall nice and dark so we can see that.

So my reference got a little short there because I was not really accurately

going through and realizing what it was back there. So I had to react freehand to that,

obviously, and it’s still a little shallow, but the idea is that your referencing has

to be on mechanically just like it would be in exact, precise drafting. Otherwise, when

you’re moving freehand obviously you’re till guesstimating your drawing based on just

your good observational eye saying that shape needs to float out more. In my opinion this

one needs to even float out a little more here, just a little bit as a drawing here

to get a little more robust as it goes down. There we go. It looks fine.

Now we have the top too, which is connected by that. So here we go.

Okay, the bottom is there.

I’ve got that negative shape there and then there. Okay, so front. Okay, so we

got our ogee arch like that, and I’ve found that I needed to go a little deeper with these

projections. I should have gone and met that back wall a little more, so something was

a little off, so just the idea is saying, okay, if you know you’re close how do you

please yourself with that shape and say that, you know, my artistic observational eye had

to correct that one. This one was fairly easy. This one, there was something about the referencing.

If I was a hair off on that back corner, whichever the case, I wasn’t that happy with that

one so I pushed it out.

Again, at least if you have most of a complex drawing in and you’re saying I think I’m

a little short on something just visually correct it a hair from where the references

are, and it usually works out fine. So on that one, that case of the last four I’ve

done, that one needed to be pushed a little bit. Okay, so let’s tone it in in blue again

and just remind ourselves what we did, so just dark enough to see.

There is that shape.

So there’s the logic of the referencing on that. I know it seems like a long walk

just to get these shapes, but as you get into larger curves that are really running all

transparently through an object, and you want the thing to double over correctly. Let’s

say even though your finished application is just with a paintbrush or simply over a

drawing that it is a good accurate shape, if you don’t do this kind of referencing

on those larger, intricate curved shapes with intersecting planes, let’s say a lot of

overlapping, you can go back and forth as you remember in your larger drawings on your

canvases and larger drawings and still keep waking up and going that’s just, I don’t

feel I’m really getting the accuracy I want. This stuff is greatly helpful if you’re

just making sure that you’re doubling over and your referencing is accurate. Still then

you might have to push something else like I did on this little back curve here to make

it a little more robust. But at least you feel like, yeah, that’s working. And that’s

the reason we can reference these things back. Some people are going to use these ideas in

great detail or some people just for the basic logic because you feel that you can just catch

our shapes by observational drawing mostly or inventing them with just kind of pushing

and pulling them. But these basic referencing ideas from the original thickness of the block

really do help if you use them even in a basic manner.

Okay? So we’re going to continue with them, but I wanted to mention that you can always

try freehand versions of this and actually drawing similar shapes. Anything you want

to try to apply this logic. Please do it more freehand with just a straight edge assist,

anything you feel helps. This is the logic of why we officially start referencing, and

we’re going to go into quite a bit more of this. Okay?

Alright, so on to the next diagram.

go ahead and just draw in the second half of that one. I should come down here at about

that angle. I’ll come down like that. It turns over over here, down there steeper,

and it leaves this about there. So just to come down.

Come over.

Head on down.

Okay, there’s our second half darkened in, of course the rest of the shape. Going down

there’s a windowsill. We can pretend if we want. Okay, so there’s our ogee arch

in flat. We’ll go ahead and jam in our version in perspective. Do the same moves we did generally.

There are our sides, top and bottom.

Again, these are just estimated in perspective.

We want to put in that little part where the arch comes up that’s just about that there.

That’s about right.

Alright. We’re going to go ahead and X that off right away.

Put another X there. Get the middle.

There it is. Put in our T. That will be helpful for our halves as references.

Go off to our right vanishing point to get that one. Alright, so now we’ve got the basic

same setup that we had before. Now we can just guesstimate and say, alright, this is

just a tiny bit below that so a little more space here would be about there. So immediately

can get over and get the other side of that.

Now, if we take the space if I use the blue

as a reference line down here and take that space and that space, this is smaller, larger.

So if I do that same idea, smaller, larger. I’m ending up about there, I think, with

that red dot that falls on the X. I’m just trying to say, okay. If I take that space

and then that. That space and then probably a little more like that, something like that.

So I go down from here and then down longer. Down from here and then down longer. So I

think I’m about right there. I’ll just take a shot. Okay. I’ll move that one over

to the other side. Now, we could reference it and know exactly, but I’m just going

to go ahead and say this isn’t all about being perfectly measuring everything if I

have that cross X as a lead and I can take my depths by dead reckoning like this and

say, okay, that’s very close.

A lot of times you’ll just be discovering and creating these all by themselves. Obviously,

if you’re in the middle of a drawing and saying I want this kind of window arch here

in this complex wall you can do a flat design if you want, but you’ll be putting it in

as a closely estimated version in your drawing. I’m not suggesting we’re making all these

exact measured conversions. We’re not doing that. What we’re doing is we’re showing

enough of some of the measured or I should say doubled in halved space so that you get

accurate referencing. So the word accurate is more important than always measuring. We

don’t need to always measure because we’re trying to estimate and accurately land on

doubled-over shapes that look good from good referencing from doubling and having, okay,

and X’ng and doubling.

Okay, so there’s that first choice. It comes over to here. Now, the other ones we can say,

alright, where do we think they fell. In this case we know that we’re saying they’re

about here. Again, we’re about this distance here to that. So long or shorter, how far

above that is that, and then we get our middle space. So if we want now we can use a real

estimation and say, well, you know, where would I land if I really tried to find this

exactly if it was important for me in that middle. Well, what we could do is we could

have it again, and we could say, alright, what is the half between the real halfway

mark here, little halfway mark there, we could go back if we wanted to and say, alright,

I’ll make a little X’ng of that. Little bit of X’ng of that idea.

Say it’s right there. How close is that? So if I do that here,

do that there, and say that X turned

out to be right there, little bit lower, put that mark there just as an idea.

You could say, alright, that’s only that much below it, basically. Right there it’s

just a little bit below that center. So if it’s right there it’s really only about

here, a little bit below. Just feel it out. So what we can do is we can also take an odd

angle, but we’ll do that later. But in this case, I’ll just estimate it here. Based

on this half it’s pretty close to that. Basically, if I feel the weight down to the

blue line and then this little travel here, that’s all I feel.

So I’ll carry that over until I feel it’s at the

proper distance for what I feel this space is here also.

Again, I’m not measuring as much as I’m estimating well. I want to make that clear that I think

that space represents that in perspective pretty well.

So again, I am not measuring and doing exact references for everything because I want to

imply that this is dead reckoning and good artistic guesses like when you’re doing

observational drawing. But it’s also then about referencing when I think it’s more

important to get the doubled-over curves working properly and looking good side to side when

they’re going into foreshortening. So in this case that’s fine.

Okay, so now if we wanted to find one way to this and double it over a trick you can

use is to say I’m going to continue this middle seam here all the way through there,

just remember that’s why that line is there. We went up. And now if I want I can say what

if I go from this blue on this side through the red I just established. I should be able

to then reference it to the other side. What I’ll do is I’ll reference right from the

blue through the red and go all the way up to that center line of this. It happens to

meet right below that line there. There’s our point. That’s a reference point, a little

RP. If I happen to come through back down to this space on a counterpoint back here

I shall find where this crosses as it comes down on its way down to there. Then when I

move over in space with this to the right that’s the equivalent space now for that.

So that is referenced well instead of having to guess all of that and say alright.

If I kind of winged it and said that’s the natural arch I have moving here, and it’s

coming back out. I believe I’ve replicated the left side first

so we’ll just say left first, the idea of it.

Then there are referencing ways especially if you in some cases need

to extend the middle of a big shape like this out and extend that middle of this shape because

we’re mirroring side to side in reflection get that middle plane way up and down. You

can use a lot of referencing above, well above, below, and well below that as a reference

tool. We’ll do that more when we get into lighting, reflections, and everything else

and some of these other objects. So anyway, we went from here, through here to create

a reference point, came back down to where we knew this was, but then because we could

take this line down on its way down to there and then intersect it with a projection back

toward the vanishing point right, we get this new space and that helps us.

Before, we easily could do these cause they landed right on the X’s because used it

up here as a convenient way, but this one not so. So there is that one in space, and

we found it without having to necessarily X and double over. We could also use a middle

reference, but we could have taken this space, X’d it off, doubled it over, and found that

same answer. But this time we went up here. We could take this rectangle, double it over,

find that corner. So be clear on that. Alright, so there it is.

So now we should have everything we need to get that archway, so I’m just going to try

to pay attention to what this does. Oops. We forgot the top one. Sorry about that. So

now we have to estimate that. What we could do is we could do the same thing here if we

wanted to. We can first estimate where that one is here by saying, okay, where is this

compared to that first line? That first line here and here. This is clearly on the way

up to this line more than halfway. So if I say, alright, that space has got to be about

here boxed off, basically. But then it’s this far—okay, so it’s only one-third

of the way there. If I take this space and say about one-third that’s about right there

as I feel right there should be correct. I’ll just estimate that.

So if I take a little line that way I can shoot that across. Again, I can just X this

over, or I can make a reference point from this old one right through it to the center,

and then this one back over on its way over from that little reference point I made back

over traveling to its counterpart. If that’s been placed properly in perspective then I

should get my answer by that plane crossing this projection back to the right VP from

the first one. So the first one we estimated; the second one we did by coming across, making

a reference point, came back down to this counterpoint here. As it crosses that we get

our answer there. So it’s a slightly foreshortened version. Just about there. Anyway, that’s

one way to think about it.

I know it’s particular for these not-so-difficult shapes were drawing, but as we get going we

want to kind of ramp into this. I’m going to take that and say that’s moving kind

of like that. And I get this coming down from here, and it departs very quickly from the

wall, so it’s coming through here. Right through there. Make that nice, elongated thing.

This moves a little bit up the wall and then starts going through here. I have to get this

right and try to say, alright, how do I get right through that space right into that.

Okay, so that’s the first curve. We come down again through here, through there on

its way down, curving there so I just kind of feel it out through the dots. I’ve always

been big on drawing little light tries, do my dots first. Then I’ll draw the rest of

the simple shape and the flat wall there. Okay, so that’s what we did there. Always

got to stay out of the way. Okay, we’ll throw that puppy back now. We have all these

areas. Let’s make it clear what we’re referencing to give it some dimension. Got

our blues. We’ve got our reds. Here, here, here, here, and here, and then we have our

blue here. We also have our halfway points and our X’s. Let’s go ahead and throw

some thickness on this. Do that again. I’ll get my sharper pencil.

Here we go. Go back to the left vanishing point now with our projected thicknesses.

Halfway point back there. Top corner, back, back. Halfway, lighter. Back. Take all our

references too if we want to do that. Take that back, back, a second pair here. Back.

Some of them are going to repeat and fall on each other. That’s normal. Like this

one will, yep. We have to make sure you understand that. That’s why that line is a little thicker.

It’s actually two of them very close together, and then the blue will go back as well.

Alright, we got our middle plane going back. We’ll have our two blues down here going

back. We’re just taking our time here. Okay, we’ll go ahead and put our thickness in

and just guess it again and say, okay, back here again I say, I don’t know, I want it

to be this much here. I’ll just make the mark there. We’ll make the thickness from

there. Put it wherever you feel like you want to guesstimate your thickness, what you feel

you want it to be, or if it’s measured that’s different. Again, I’m not so concerned about

measuring exactness here. It’s just really good estimated referencing because it’s

about getting, you know, fairly limber with this stuff and versatile.

Later when we do plan view objects we’ll go more into why we could take a real plan

from, again, a side view, a top view, and a front and a back view, and get very exact

about exactly converting this design into this. We’re not doing that right now. We’re

just making good estimates, and then we’re referencing clearly. Once we get a regular

shape on the left side I’m very interested, and then of course really and actually doubling

it over to the best estimates and then little referencing X’ng and doubling that we can.

Again, it’s not all perfectly measured. I want to make sure that’s clear again so

that if you want to just freehand draw these ideas with the assistance of a straightedge

that’s fantastic because that’s what you need to do to get the idea of why 3-D platform

in our heads makes sense because we’re thinking in X, Y, Z, meaning, you know, width, depth

and height.

Okay, so we’ve got that coming over, and I’m going to make very light X this time

on the back plane as well, if that helps keep track of that. I’ll make my middle seam

which I can carry over from here to the back, make a mark, and that should meet up with

the middle of my X on the rear or on the back. I’ll take our time. Here we go. About there.

Good. Comes right where it should on the X back there. Perfect, okay. It’s a little

back there. That’s a little forward. Okay, that has to come down there. Alright. Clean

tht up a bit. Perfect.

Okay, so we have our X in the back. We have our plane coming up to meet that ridge. I

have to bring my thing over there. So that blue dot, we want to carry over this thickness

as well to the back, so we’re starting with that gap there where the peak starts bringing

it to the back, to that back blue line to get our blue dot on the top. So we’ve taken

the idea of this space here up here basically back and over to where it should be in the

middle, and I want to verify where the X says the middle is to come up that plane and meet

it right where it should, so that means right where it should be. So there’s that peak.

Its counterpart over there through the thickness is right there. I can obviously find my blues

from going there and going there from the back corner. So now I’ve got that relationship

there. I also now want to take my red. So again, I can do it a couple of ways, but probably

the most fastest for me is to just do the side. This one is on the X so that helps me.

But I’m going to do my lower one on the side again, so I’m going to bring it the

side on both planes right like it should be here and here. We’ll find them at the same

time. Go back across the depth to there.

Now make sure you’re referencing the actual

corner of the box we made because we have to come over from our actual reference point

and follow the right vanishing point out to the outside of the box, and the come around

the box, hit the corner of the box which would be here and there and then come back in to

meet that extended line from our original reference points right there and in this case

right there. So this one would be right here. That one would be right there.

Let me get out of your way.

So now we have this one back there, and we have this front one back here. Next, I’m

going to take my X and simply recognize these as being on the X and they’re thrust back

there so that should be where they meet on the X. This one carefully bring it back to

meet it’s counterpart on the X, so there’s that, this one in depth,

this one in front, back in depth.

Next, again, I’ll take these two and simply again reference them back around the side.

Let me get a sharper pencil actually. It’ll help me. And I’m going to take those both,

again, to the right vanishing point and bring them to the box edge.

Bring it back in my mind,

back edge. In my mind back edge and in the actual drawing, which is here.

Then I’ve got to come in to meet the line, which projects back from both of these into depth.

I’ll carefully do that and bring that right here. So that makes a point right there.

Then to bring this point that I brought around back over carefully to meet that projection

right there, which should be right about there. Alright, so make sure that one comes around.

Nope, that is incorrect. That is correct, sorry. That one, that one, and I’m going

to bring this one around here back over to the corner, back over to the corner, and over

there. That should actually land a little further.

Okay, alright. So now we can do the back corner, the back arch. We should be meeting right

up here, right here. Come down.

Come up, and we should be traveling through that one about like that.

Okay. This one should be here instead, meeting that point there. That makes sense.

That’s why it’s not bending. So here we go.

Little shallow so I’m going to push that one out. So my referencing I think is a little

shallow on the back because this wants to be a fuller shape actually like that.

So there we are. Push that one out. Okay. Push this one back over here. We should come through these.

Come down through there, do that.

There we go. Meeting about in the center there.

Make that nice and dark so we can see it. Make that back wall nice and dark so we can see that.

So my reference got a little short there because I was not really accurately

going through and realizing what it was back there. So I had to react freehand to that,

obviously, and it’s still a little shallow, but the idea is that your referencing has

to be on mechanically just like it would be in exact, precise drafting. Otherwise, when

you’re moving freehand obviously you’re till guesstimating your drawing based on just

your good observational eye saying that shape needs to float out more. In my opinion this

one needs to even float out a little more here, just a little bit as a drawing here

to get a little more robust as it goes down. There we go. It looks fine.

Now we have the top too, which is connected by that. So here we go.

Okay, the bottom is there.

I’ve got that negative shape there and then there. Okay, so front. Okay, so we

got our ogee arch like that, and I’ve found that I needed to go a little deeper with these

projections. I should have gone and met that back wall a little more, so something was

a little off, so just the idea is saying, okay, if you know you’re close how do you

please yourself with that shape and say that, you know, my artistic observational eye had

to correct that one. This one was fairly easy. This one, there was something about the referencing.

If I was a hair off on that back corner, whichever the case, I wasn’t that happy with that

one so I pushed it out.

Again, at least if you have most of a complex drawing in and you’re saying I think I’m

a little short on something just visually correct it a hair from where the references

are, and it usually works out fine. So on that one, that case of the last four I’ve

done, that one needed to be pushed a little bit. Okay, so let’s tone it in in blue again

and just remind ourselves what we did, so just dark enough to see.

There is that shape.

So there’s the logic of the referencing on that. I know it seems like a long walk

just to get these shapes, but as you get into larger curves that are really running all

transparently through an object, and you want the thing to double over correctly. Let’s

say even though your finished application is just with a paintbrush or simply over a

drawing that it is a good accurate shape, if you don’t do this kind of referencing

on those larger, intricate curved shapes with intersecting planes, let’s say a lot of

overlapping, you can go back and forth as you remember in your larger drawings on your

canvases and larger drawings and still keep waking up and going that’s just, I don’t

feel I’m really getting the accuracy I want. This stuff is greatly helpful if you’re

just making sure that you’re doubling over and your referencing is accurate. Still then

you might have to push something else like I did on this little back curve here to make

it a little more robust. But at least you feel like, yeah, that’s working. And that’s

the reason we can reference these things back. Some people are going to use these ideas in

great detail or some people just for the basic logic because you feel that you can just catch

our shapes by observational drawing mostly or inventing them with just kind of pushing

and pulling them. But these basic referencing ideas from the original thickness of the block

really do help if you use them even in a basic manner.

Okay? So we’re going to continue with them, but I wanted to mention that you can always

try freehand versions of this and actually drawing similar shapes. Anything you want

to try to apply this logic. Please do it more freehand with just a straight edge assist,

anything you feel helps. This is the logic of why we officially start referencing, and

we’re going to go into quite a bit more of this. Okay?

Alright, so on to the next diagram.

AUTO SCROLL

Alright, we’re back. We’re going to do two more arches. This time we’re going to

forgo doing the flat work. We’re going to right into just doing what would be kind of

a Persian arch and then probably a little more of a Gothic arch. Just do more referencing

and talk more about how we work starting from the left and go over to the right. We could

just as easily go from the right to the left, either in this perspective if your main face

was going to the like vanishing point instead of the right.

We have our eye level obviously and our horizon line. We’ll go ahead, we already have the

basic shapes, but we’ll go ahead and put them in for dark for the camera. In this we’ll

just start with the bigger rectangle itself again. We don’t always have to do that.

In some cases with some standing planes we’ll be doing it a little while. We might just

start with one-half of a plane and double it over after we’ve fiddled around with

the design quite a bit of the first half on the left or the right side.

Alright, I’m going to go ahead and put it in half with my X.

Come back down and do that same thing.

Then we’ll put in our T, of course, for the center as well.

And halfway down vertically.

Then we can start talking about the logic of our arches. I can go ahead

and put in a little bit of cap space up there like we did before so I’m going to start

my arch right here. I’m going to go ahead and feel out the design.

I think I want it to kind of come like this

up to something here and come out so I’ll probably start

about there. What I’m going to do is do a little bit of an ogee and kind of end up here.

So what I’ll do is that. Okay.

Then what we’ll do is we’ll come in, and we’ll go to the perspective over to the

right vanishing point a little bit like that. Then I’m going to come down from here and

slowly bow in to about there. So there’s our shape. Let’s make it nice and dark,

horizontally over. Come on down. Alright, there’s the shape I want to double over,

make an arch out of or window out of. Let’s go ahead and go right to work on what we can

identify on the edge. Of course, it would be this. Obviously, we can identify the curve

up here crossing the X, which is helpful. And now, two things are going to be important

here: This corner here and also this one I’ll do in red right there. And we’re probably

going to need something around the middle of this. So that’s a convenient place right

where that hits the middle or our center horizontal. I’m going to need something right around

here as well as a little reference most likely. So there we go.

Those are the points we could say we’re going to use, and so we can come straight

over with our bottom blue one, obviously here to the other side immediately over there.

That’s easy enough. We get the line on this one so we know we’re here somewhere over

there on the center. Going to have to figure that one out. This line will have to come

across with to line these two up, so we’ll go ahead and shoot that over. I’ll go ahead

and shoot my one that falls on the X and immediately identify this counterpart over there.

And then we’re going to have to have our casting to the right with that one and figure out

how we’re going to double over and find that one. So there’s our major players there.

One thing we can do, let’s say to start out to find this point here is we could extend

our center, our vertical center to be helpful like we mentioned, did a little bit of in

the last diagram, so I’m going to extend this down and extend this up, and I’m going

to see if I can just do a little bit of quick referencing, hopefully accurately from this

very point right here through that corner piece right there. Make sure I’m accurate.

Go right through the middle of that up to the center to make a reference point. See

how that goes through there, through there, ends up there, makes a reference point. We’ll

call it an RP. Then if I come down through its counterpart accurately I should land on

this same line at the same place this counterpart should be. So, reference point carefully right

through the middle. It should land me right over there where I need to be.

So there’s that counterpoint.

We could also do the same thing with the blue in a different way and say, well, if I wanted

to go from the blue from where this crossing touches the X, I could mark a space here and

also say there’s another mark there. So if I go from here accurately through that

I should make a little reference point there coming back up through that same point should

land me about where I want to be if I’m really accurate. I want to make sure that

comes down to the right space there. So I can be accurate and see how that lines up.

That should basically land me where I want to be, right about there.

So, now we have this corner representing that. We automatically get this side because of

the landing on the diagonal here lands on the diagonal over there. So now we would like

to double over. Now we could also use this point here, go through here and come up for

another one, or we could just do a rectangle for these two smaller ones. So I guess if

I’m to decide that I’ll go ahead and just use the rectangular method here where I’ll

just take this whole length, double it over. So as a reference let’s do that.

I’ll drop down right here carefully to the blue line. Then I’ll go ahead and carefully

X off the center like that through the middle trying to be accurate as possible.

Put that center in. Drive that center to the middle seam there. Make sure my lines are going right

to the center. Make that reference point. Now if I can set that point accurately right

to that corner it should land me right about where I want to be over here and come down.

So that’s good. It’s actually a little further over like right there. Good, about

there. Alright, so just a hair under that. That looks right, good. Call it right there.

Next one, this dot here, I’ll go ahead and just, again, make a box just to be formal

and understand why we’re referencing like this. We can up or down so

I can make a box down here if I wish.

X that off and double it over. Just is the idea of it. So even if

you’re estimating it, you’re understanding that you’re trying to get a correctly diminished

duplicate flipped over of that idea to the other side.

Just constantly reminding ourselves that, oh that’s right, we get over there,

double it over. I can create a double plane like that.

It should be fine. Okay, so now we have our last reference point there, so

we should be able to close our arch. Let’s go ahead and make this little span here over

there and see how that goes. It would be just like that.

There’s that span, and we can take our arch down and say, alright, let’s try one at that angle so we better have

a nice firm angle like this. That one’s coming down a little steeper, so we should be able

to connect those. This goes straight for a little while there, so straight for a little

while. Let’s see how it goes. Plunge that through there. Turn it, make it rounder. Come

through there. Then we’re going to come and come quite a ways over there. Oops, excuse

me. Incorrect. What am I doing? It’s from the blue up. My brain did a twisty there.

It goes straight up about that far, and that should land right on it. See? Always double-checking

or triple-checking the work, making sure everything lands where it should. So that should be a

nice committed arch right there.

Now this comes down straight for a little while and starts turning a little. This turning

right about there and then lands. Curve right to there.

So we just doubled that idea over.

So again, it’s how much you need the formality or not is the question—is depending on the

shape. Some are easy to imagine to double over. What is not accurate a lot of the time

is our assumptions about how foreshortened space actually really does double over and

flip over. That’s when shapes start getting off more and more as they’re more complex,

or you have more repetitions of foreshortening to then consider for that object. It becomes

more and more off. So it’s important just to be able to think about this so you can

do correct objects if you wish, even just as a basic lay-in with very light lines, and

think like this fairly rapidly it’s going to make your whole lay-in, even with a brush

drawing on a painting much easier, especially if you’re really having trouble with a shape

that just, you’re not seeing the foreshortening properly because it’s easy to kind of mixed

up about foreshortened shapes when ellipses and curves get bent in perspective and get

affected by slight distortion of the cone, whatever. You really can solve those problems

very quickly with this type of referencing so it is helpful.

So there’s our shape essentially. It’s a little darker. Then I’ll go ahead and

darken in the sides. We’ll go ahead and make a thickness to it again. Then after this

diagram we’re probably going to stop that for a bit just to have some standing planes

that have arch-like shapes in them. But the real idea is to get more complex with these

art shapes. Then we’re not going to take the time to double them or I should say push

them back into thickness. We’ll actually just be doubling them over as an exercise

on how to reference, like we just did for this shape. But this one in particular we

will, once again, take it back one more time into some depth here to the left vanishing point.

I’ll go ahead and take my corners like before. Take these up now since we’re going in a

little bit above the horizon line. We’re not going to make it that deep. I’ll go

ahead and take my middle seam, middle seam at the edge of the box. Again, anything else

I can find, oh yeah, that’s right the middle dot here would be helpful. Okay, so now I

can use my color, take the red back to the left here.

This idea back there almost exactly on the horizon but not quite,

and the blue is a tiny bit off from that. I’ll go ahead

and be exact about it actually. Take the red again straight back

and even again with that right there.

Okay, take my blue here, the center seam. Go back. And not to forget our little friends

over here on the other side, just enough to get the thickness across where we plan on

making—and again this blue can be taken over carefully right there. It’s almost

right on the horizon line, not quite. It’s a little bit below. We’ll take this one

just in case. Okay, red again here; carry that over. And then once again blue.

So, I think that’s everything carried that we need to. Then we’ll just decide on a

random thickness with our pencil. Alright, there’s our back corner. Front corner right

there. Go ahead and get our verticals. That’s pretty accurate. I’ll do that lightly. Meet

with the back seam back here. There’s our back corner. Just remind myself I look to

put little beads on stuff as a mental reminder. Otherwise, you can get lost in all these lines.

Whatever helps you make little mental reminders when you’re doing your own referencing.

I like to use the beads on the end of important intersections. Just make like there’s a

tiny bit of a wax between two thin sticks, whatever it takes can be very helpful because

your mind can get lost in this, especially if you get tired. You’ve been doing it a

while, that kind of thing. Okay, so now we have our boxed shape lightly put in somewhat.

So let’s start referencing the obvious things. We could, again, put the X on the back as

well because that was something that’s always helpful. I’ll lighten that up and put that

in as a light idea as well. Take my back top corner to the back bottom left over, creating

that center right there where it meets the center.

So know we know where our real center is.

And now what would also be helpful would be to drive a center line pretty much right through

there would be helpful to there.

Okay, I’ll even drive a very light version of that center

line across the box as well. Okay, so what’s easy to pick out is then this point here.

We can find right on the back of center seam, we have it in the back we can find that. The

other blue points are very easy to find on the back corner as well right there, as well

as this coming back here. So there you go on that one. So that kind of closes off a

basic plane, which I’ll put in extremely lightly.

Again, we can reference these other parts by wrapping around. It’s most likely the

easiest thing to do. So if we will we’ll go up one more here and we’ll come to the

sides like we have before just to make sure it looks like it’s going to be right on

the center seam again. That’s what we intended it to do, but I’m just going to with you

walk back on the center seam like that. Make that point, and then come back to the right

vanishing point until we hit that seam. If you’re not careful you end up with kind

of weird shapes in the back that are hard to follow. So that point would be this point

in the back. We’ll also wrap the other one around the other side. This one should wrap,

hit the corner right there. Go back to the left vanishing point until we hit the corner

right here and slowly come back. It’s kind of hard to reference, but we’ll find it

right on that line. You should also be able to verify it should be right across on that

one, so let’s do so. Yep, so that should be about there, right there about.

I believe that’s pretty accurate.

So now we’ve got all these. These, of course, are a little harder to find in this way so

they’re so close to the horizon. What I’m going to is I’m going to go up with them,

so these two I’m going to go up, wrap around, and go down and meet up with these two lines.

We’ll see how that works. I’m going to go up with the blue right up to the top.

Oops it’s red. Hello. Blue. Then I’m going to slide over and do my red.

Okay, so that box is helping us out quite a bit. Make my blue reference right there to that back wall.

I’ll take my red and do the same thing.

Let’s try to be accurate.

The perspective changes by the back wall,

so not quite as foreshortened. Now I’ve got to very carefully

come down like a spider and meet that blue line. We’re going to come down and carefully

meet that red line. So there’s on the blue. There’s on the red right there.

We can the same over here if we wish.

There’s the blue going up.

Same with the red.

Blue, red.

Do the blue first right over to that top, over to the back wall, which is right there.

Same with the red. To the left vanishing point over to the back wall. It’s about there.

Those two dots would drop straight down. They’re not obvious enough. Let me make them clear.

There’s the red, blue just about there. Pretty close. They should meet up with our

counterparts, this and this casting toward the left, but now such a sharp angle to the

horizon line I went ahead and use them from the top. Let me just drop down like a spider

web there and officially drop down that.

Oops. There goes my pencil, of course. Never ends.

Alright, so that should give us those.

These can be on our X’s. These two. So that should be easy. We just go back to the X,

and that’s where that lands. Same with this one. Back to the X.

Now, we are left to get these last two red ones, which we can come around the side again

if we want real quick, so let’s do that. To the side of the box to the side of the

box. Side, side corner of the box. Go around to the back. Go around to the back on the

right side behind. Find the corner up right there, move it back and say, oh yeah, right

there, same with that one. From here over here to back there. We then come back to our

left vanishing point carefully so we know we’re on target. Where do we meet up with

that line? Oh back here. Carefully it’s a little too high. So let me, there.

That’s better. Right back to there. It meets right there basically. I believe. This can get a

little hairy. Then we’re going to take that one. We went from this one back and over to

the back corner. Now we’re coming back this way along the back side of the box. We’re

meeting up with this line here. Let’s see how we do that.

Right about there is that one.

So to be clear now, let me double check. This is now back there. This back here.

This is back here. This one is back here.

That, that, that, that.

These two here, here.

These two here, here.

These fall on the X here. This falls on the X in the back here. Then this

one has to come forward, go across whatever. So, this now here is back there, or should

be basically, and this one here should be meeting right there. So let’s see how hard

it is to actually draw in the shape with these new references now. Make sure I don’t make

a mistake with this part again. That’s hard to remember.

I reversed them a little last time.

I’ll take a new pencil, nice and sharp, and let’s try it on the backside now. This

comes down and around, comes down and around so I’ll be coming through in about that

direction, a little steeper. Falling down to here. Straight to about there. Again, to

get out of your way, straight up from about there. Then we walk over to these things just

to be official over to that so that I can come down a little bit and curve in. So down

a little bit and then curve in.

And I’m just doing it lightly. So now I’m starting

at the peak down and over. I want to be a little steeper angle than that on this one.

Actually, I want to be about there so I come down,

right through about here.

There we go.

Over, down, through. Got it. There’s the backside.

Hopefully, this proves to be reasonably easy here, so we’ll take this landing on the blue.

So the red comes up to here.

Goes doing this part now in the back. Going to

come through the point right to there. Then I come forward. That move, that move. It’s

a little wider back here cause we have a little less foreshortening being back here, flattens

out a little, steeper here, flatter in back. Careful. How it rises up straight about that

far. Let’s see if our referencing paid off here, if it makes it more trouble for us.

Let’s see. Come through, through. Good. So it has to be angled about like that. It

has to come right back down about here. Okay, not bad.

Alright, there it is. All those points. Then I’m going to see if I have to carve out

the top now where the blue is also the very top edge. We can darken in and we have these

lines here obviously right near the, coincidentally happen to be at the horizon line, but that’s

alright. That’s the way it went. There’s that shape, and then let’s darken in the

front again. So there’s the original front shape as we have it. Kicked it over, down.

Come down, come down, come down here. Kick back, gotcha there. Now the back shape is

this, over, comes down. Back shape comes down, over, comes down. There it is.

So there’s that Persian-type arch. There’s a little bit of a start of an ogee arch, and

then it cuts over and comes down. It’s not exactly Persian, but I think it looks that

way. That’s the rumor I’m spreading. I’ll go ahead and tone in the arch as usual

without getting in the way of the almighty camera with my head.

We’ve got a little bit of an overlap here so I’m going to make it a little darker just for the heck of it.

Then I’ll come down again on that side, trying to get all that shaded in here without making a mess.

Okay, then continuing down.

forgo doing the flat work. We’re going to right into just doing what would be kind of

a Persian arch and then probably a little more of a Gothic arch. Just do more referencing

and talk more about how we work starting from the left and go over to the right. We could

just as easily go from the right to the left, either in this perspective if your main face

was going to the like vanishing point instead of the right.

We have our eye level obviously and our horizon line. We’ll go ahead, we already have the

basic shapes, but we’ll go ahead and put them in for dark for the camera. In this we’ll

just start with the bigger rectangle itself again. We don’t always have to do that.

In some cases with some standing planes we’ll be doing it a little while. We might just

start with one-half of a plane and double it over after we’ve fiddled around with

the design quite a bit of the first half on the left or the right side.

Alright, I’m going to go ahead and put it in half with my X.

Come back down and do that same thing.

Then we’ll put in our T, of course, for the center as well.

And halfway down vertically.

Then we can start talking about the logic of our arches. I can go ahead

and put in a little bit of cap space up there like we did before so I’m going to start

my arch right here. I’m going to go ahead and feel out the design.

I think I want it to kind of come like this

up to something here and come out so I’ll probably start

about there. What I’m going to do is do a little bit of an ogee and kind of end up here.

So what I’ll do is that. Okay.

Then what we’ll do is we’ll come in, and we’ll go to the perspective over to the

right vanishing point a little bit like that. Then I’m going to come down from here and

slowly bow in to about there. So there’s our shape. Let’s make it nice and dark,

horizontally over. Come on down. Alright, there’s the shape I want to double over,

make an arch out of or window out of. Let’s go ahead and go right to work on what we can

identify on the edge. Of course, it would be this. Obviously, we can identify the curve

up here crossing the X, which is helpful. And now, two things are going to be important

here: This corner here and also this one I’ll do in red right there. And we’re probably

going to need something around the middle of this. So that’s a convenient place right

where that hits the middle or our center horizontal. I’m going to need something right around

here as well as a little reference most likely. So there we go.

Those are the points we could say we’re going to use, and so we can come straight

over with our bottom blue one, obviously here to the other side immediately over there.

That’s easy enough. We get the line on this one so we know we’re here somewhere over

there on the center. Going to have to figure that one out. This line will have to come

across with to line these two up, so we’ll go ahead and shoot that over. I’ll go ahead

and shoot my one that falls on the X and immediately identify this counterpart over there.

And then we’re going to have to have our casting to the right with that one and figure out

how we’re going to double over and find that one. So there’s our major players there.

One thing we can do, let’s say to start out to find this point here is we could extend

our center, our vertical center to be helpful like we mentioned, did a little bit of in

the last diagram, so I’m going to extend this down and extend this up, and I’m going

to see if I can just do a little bit of quick referencing, hopefully accurately from this

very point right here through that corner piece right there. Make sure I’m accurate.

Go right through the middle of that up to the center to make a reference point. See

how that goes through there, through there, ends up there, makes a reference point. We’ll

call it an RP. Then if I come down through its counterpart accurately I should land on

this same line at the same place this counterpart should be. So, reference point carefully right

through the middle. It should land me right over there where I need to be.

So there’s that counterpoint.

We could also do the same thing with the blue in a different way and say, well, if I wanted

to go from the blue from where this crossing touches the X, I could mark a space here and

also say there’s another mark there. So if I go from here accurately through that

I should make a little reference point there coming back up through that same point should

land me about where I want to be if I’m really accurate. I want to make sure that

comes down to the right space there. So I can be accurate and see how that lines up.

That should basically land me where I want to be, right about there.

So, now we have this corner representing that. We automatically get this side because of

the landing on the diagonal here lands on the diagonal over there. So now we would like

to double over. Now we could also use this point here, go through here and come up for

another one, or we could just do a rectangle for these two smaller ones. So I guess if

I’m to decide that I’ll go ahead and just use the rectangular method here where I’ll

just take this whole length, double it over. So as a reference let’s do that.

I’ll drop down right here carefully to the blue line. Then I’ll go ahead and carefully

X off the center like that through the middle trying to be accurate as possible.

Put that center in. Drive that center to the middle seam there. Make sure my lines are going right

to the center. Make that reference point. Now if I can set that point accurately right

to that corner it should land me right about where I want to be over here and come down.

So that’s good. It’s actually a little further over like right there. Good, about

there. Alright, so just a hair under that. That looks right, good. Call it right there.

Next one, this dot here, I’ll go ahead and just, again, make a box just to be formal

and understand why we’re referencing like this. We can up or down so

I can make a box down here if I wish.

X that off and double it over. Just is the idea of it. So even if

you’re estimating it, you’re understanding that you’re trying to get a correctly diminished

duplicate flipped over of that idea to the other side.

Just constantly reminding ourselves that, oh that’s right, we get over there,

double it over. I can create a double plane like that.

It should be fine. Okay, so now we have our last reference point there, so

we should be able to close our arch. Let’s go ahead and make this little span here over

there and see how that goes. It would be just like that.

There’s that span, and we can take our arch down and say, alright, let’s try one at that angle so we better have

a nice firm angle like this. That one’s coming down a little steeper, so we should be able

to connect those. This goes straight for a little while there, so straight for a little

while. Let’s see how it goes. Plunge that through there. Turn it, make it rounder. Come

through there. Then we’re going to come and come quite a ways over there. Oops, excuse

me. Incorrect. What am I doing? It’s from the blue up. My brain did a twisty there.

It goes straight up about that far, and that should land right on it. See? Always double-checking

or triple-checking the work, making sure everything lands where it should. So that should be a

nice committed arch right there.

Now this comes down straight for a little while and starts turning a little. This turning

right about there and then lands. Curve right to there.

So we just doubled that idea over.

So again, it’s how much you need the formality or not is the question—is depending on the

shape. Some are easy to imagine to double over. What is not accurate a lot of the time

is our assumptions about how foreshortened space actually really does double over and

flip over. That’s when shapes start getting off more and more as they’re more complex,

or you have more repetitions of foreshortening to then consider for that object. It becomes

more and more off. So it’s important just to be able to think about this so you can

do correct objects if you wish, even just as a basic lay-in with very light lines, and

think like this fairly rapidly it’s going to make your whole lay-in, even with a brush

drawing on a painting much easier, especially if you’re really having trouble with a shape

that just, you’re not seeing the foreshortening properly because it’s easy to kind of mixed

up about foreshortened shapes when ellipses and curves get bent in perspective and get

affected by slight distortion of the cone, whatever. You really can solve those problems

very quickly with this type of referencing so it is helpful.

So there’s our shape essentially. It’s a little darker. Then I’ll go ahead and

darken in the sides. We’ll go ahead and make a thickness to it again. Then after this

diagram we’re probably going to stop that for a bit just to have some standing planes

that have arch-like shapes in them. But the real idea is to get more complex with these

art shapes. Then we’re not going to take the time to double them or I should say push

them back into thickness. We’ll actually just be doubling them over as an exercise

on how to reference, like we just did for this shape. But this one in particular we

will, once again, take it back one more time into some depth here to the left vanishing point.

I’ll go ahead and take my corners like before. Take these up now since we’re going in a

little bit above the horizon line. We’re not going to make it that deep. I’ll go

ahead and take my middle seam, middle seam at the edge of the box. Again, anything else

I can find, oh yeah, that’s right the middle dot here would be helpful. Okay, so now I

can use my color, take the red back to the left here.

This idea back there almost exactly on the horizon but not quite,

and the blue is a tiny bit off from that. I’ll go ahead

and be exact about it actually. Take the red again straight back

and even again with that right there.

Okay, take my blue here, the center seam. Go back. And not to forget our little friends

over here on the other side, just enough to get the thickness across where we plan on

making—and again this blue can be taken over carefully right there. It’s almost

right on the horizon line, not quite. It’s a little bit below. We’ll take this one

just in case. Okay, red again here; carry that over. And then once again blue.

So, I think that’s everything carried that we need to. Then we’ll just decide on a

random thickness with our pencil. Alright, there’s our back corner. Front corner right

there. Go ahead and get our verticals. That’s pretty accurate. I’ll do that lightly. Meet

with the back seam back here. There’s our back corner. Just remind myself I look to

put little beads on stuff as a mental reminder. Otherwise, you can get lost in all these lines.

Whatever helps you make little mental reminders when you’re doing your own referencing.

I like to use the beads on the end of important intersections. Just make like there’s a

tiny bit of a wax between two thin sticks, whatever it takes can be very helpful because

your mind can get lost in this, especially if you get tired. You’ve been doing it a

while, that kind of thing. Okay, so now we have our boxed shape lightly put in somewhat.

So let’s start referencing the obvious things. We could, again, put the X on the back as

well because that was something that’s always helpful. I’ll lighten that up and put that

in as a light idea as well. Take my back top corner to the back bottom left over, creating

that center right there where it meets the center.

So know we know where our real center is.

And now what would also be helpful would be to drive a center line pretty much right through

there would be helpful to there.

Okay, I’ll even drive a very light version of that center

line across the box as well. Okay, so what’s easy to pick out is then this point here.

We can find right on the back of center seam, we have it in the back we can find that. The

other blue points are very easy to find on the back corner as well right there, as well

as this coming back here. So there you go on that one. So that kind of closes off a

basic plane, which I’ll put in extremely lightly.

Again, we can reference these other parts by wrapping around. It’s most likely the

easiest thing to do. So if we will we’ll go up one more here and we’ll come to the

sides like we have before just to make sure it looks like it’s going to be right on

the center seam again. That’s what we intended it to do, but I’m just going to with you

walk back on the center seam like that. Make that point, and then come back to the right

vanishing point until we hit that seam. If you’re not careful you end up with kind

of weird shapes in the back that are hard to follow. So that point would be this point

in the back. We’ll also wrap the other one around the other side. This one should wrap,

hit the corner right there. Go back to the left vanishing point until we hit the corner

right here and slowly come back. It’s kind of hard to reference, but we’ll find it

right on that line. You should also be able to verify it should be right across on that

one, so let’s do so. Yep, so that should be about there, right there about.

I believe that’s pretty accurate.

So now we’ve got all these. These, of course, are a little harder to find in this way so

they’re so close to the horizon. What I’m going to is I’m going to go up with them,

so these two I’m going to go up, wrap around, and go down and meet up with these two lines.

We’ll see how that works. I’m going to go up with the blue right up to the top.

Oops it’s red. Hello. Blue. Then I’m going to slide over and do my red.

Okay, so that box is helping us out quite a bit. Make my blue reference right there to that back wall.

I’ll take my red and do the same thing.

Let’s try to be accurate.

The perspective changes by the back wall,

so not quite as foreshortened. Now I’ve got to very carefully

come down like a spider and meet that blue line. We’re going to come down and carefully

meet that red line. So there’s on the blue. There’s on the red right there.

We can the same over here if we wish.

There’s the blue going up.

Same with the red.

Blue, red.

Do the blue first right over to that top, over to the back wall, which is right there.

Same with the red. To the left vanishing point over to the back wall. It’s about there.

Those two dots would drop straight down. They’re not obvious enough. Let me make them clear.

There’s the red, blue just about there. Pretty close. They should meet up with our

counterparts, this and this casting toward the left, but now such a sharp angle to the

horizon line I went ahead and use them from the top. Let me just drop down like a spider

web there and officially drop down that.

Oops. There goes my pencil, of course. Never ends.

Alright, so that should give us those.

These can be on our X’s. These two. So that should be easy. We just go back to the X,

and that’s where that lands. Same with this one. Back to the X.

Now, we are left to get these last two red ones, which we can come around the side again

if we want real quick, so let’s do that. To the side of the box to the side of the

box. Side, side corner of the box. Go around to the back. Go around to the back on the

right side behind. Find the corner up right there, move it back and say, oh yeah, right

there, same with that one. From here over here to back there. We then come back to our

left vanishing point carefully so we know we’re on target. Where do we meet up with

that line? Oh back here. Carefully it’s a little too high. So let me, there.

That’s better. Right back to there. It meets right there basically. I believe. This can get a

little hairy. Then we’re going to take that one. We went from this one back and over to

the back corner. Now we’re coming back this way along the back side of the box. We’re

meeting up with this line here. Let’s see how we do that.

Right about there is that one.

So to be clear now, let me double check. This is now back there. This back here.

This is back here. This one is back here.

That, that, that, that.

These two here, here.

These two here, here.

These fall on the X here. This falls on the X in the back here. Then this

one has to come forward, go across whatever. So, this now here is back there, or should

be basically, and this one here should be meeting right there. So let’s see how hard

it is to actually draw in the shape with these new references now. Make sure I don’t make

a mistake with this part again. That’s hard to remember.

I reversed them a little last time.

I’ll take a new pencil, nice and sharp, and let’s try it on the backside now. This

comes down and around, comes down and around so I’ll be coming through in about that

direction, a little steeper. Falling down to here. Straight to about there. Again, to

get out of your way, straight up from about there. Then we walk over to these things just

to be official over to that so that I can come down a little bit and curve in. So down

a little bit and then curve in.

And I’m just doing it lightly. So now I’m starting

at the peak down and over. I want to be a little steeper angle than that on this one.

Actually, I want to be about there so I come down,

right through about here.

There we go.

Over, down, through. Got it. There’s the backside.

Hopefully, this proves to be reasonably easy here, so we’ll take this landing on the blue.

So the red comes up to here.

Goes doing this part now in the back. Going to

come through the point right to there. Then I come forward. That move, that move. It’s

a little wider back here cause we have a little less foreshortening being back here, flattens

out a little, steeper here, flatter in back. Careful. How it rises up straight about that

far. Let’s see if our referencing paid off here, if it makes it more trouble for us.

Let’s see. Come through, through. Good. So it has to be angled about like that. It

has to come right back down about here. Okay, not bad.

Alright, there it is. All those points. Then I’m going to see if I have to carve out

the top now where the blue is also the very top edge. We can darken in and we have these

lines here obviously right near the, coincidentally happen to be at the horizon line, but that’s

alright. That’s the way it went. There’s that shape, and then let’s darken in the

front again. So there’s the original front shape as we have it. Kicked it over, down.

Come down, come down, come down here. Kick back, gotcha there. Now the back shape is

this, over, comes down. Back shape comes down, over, comes down. There it is.

So there’s that Persian-type arch. There’s a little bit of a start of an ogee arch, and

then it cuts over and comes down. It’s not exactly Persian, but I think it looks that

way. That’s the rumor I’m spreading. I’ll go ahead and tone in the arch as usual

without getting in the way of the almighty camera with my head.

We’ve got a little bit of an overlap here so I’m going to make it a little darker just for the heck of it.

Then I’ll come down again on that side, trying to get all that shaded in here without making a mess.

Okay, then continuing down.

AUTO SCROLL

We’re going to do a slightly Gothic looking thing now in the same manner, so I’ll go

ahead and darken in my rectangular idea here. And again, we’re doing the entire shape,

cutting it in half, and then designing on the left, doubling over. So left first, remember that.

Especially in the front. I can call it Arabic or Persian arch. I think it’s

more Persian from the old world.

Okay, going to make that slight lip there as we have so

we can start the peak there, not at the top. We’re going to put in half.

It’s a little off so let me correct that.

Okay, go up. Here we go.

Got the middle.

Go back to our right vanishing point to get our

middle seam there right through the middle. Boom. And we’ll do a true vertical with

our T-square and triangle. Get an accurate vertical there.

Okay, so now we’re ready to take a shot at this,

and as I recall what I want to do is about out there.

Okay, so also doing this but instead it will be from here.

Okay, let me get out of the way here.

Just trying to remember what I wanted to do there.

Okay, we’re going to do that shape,

just a little different from the other one, but same logic but why not.

Again, we’re just going to look for easy references or the most logical ones. Got one

here, obviously one here, through that again red, that one again blue.

Red where it changes is convenient, blue at the top.

We have one close enough here, I guess, if we want to

make another one there just as an idea, and then we could make one again halfway up if

we wanted to. There. And we’ll carry them over again. Real quickly this one. Now we’re

getting used to this idea at least. So all the way across. This red falls on the halfway

point so that’s easy. It’s already gone across. Bring this idea over in red as well

across. Bring that one on the T across. We already have it over here. We get that one

automatically just as we have gotten this one right there. Bring the other red over.

So now let’s see what one’s a little more challenging are going to be. So again, we

could use this middle plane again if we wanted to. If it’s convenient, so I’ll go ahead

and extend that idea longer. Let’s see what works out fairly easy there, get a sharpened pencil.

If I know this one falls on that, what I think I’ll do is—

yeah, to get that corner here I’m going to start with my red here.

And I am going to go through here right through

that corner right on the red. Make a reference right here by coming back.

Okay. Crossing the X there. So what I’m going to do is I’m going to take a reference on the X crossing

right there. Very carefully draw it right across. So now from this going through here

leads to that, which leads to that. Nice part I was going through the X now right there.

It should lead to those two points also landing on that line back down there. So I can be

careful. See, right through there properly. It should land me where I want. So that gives

us that red spot at the bottom. Another blue spot here, right there.

That falls across the X,

and we meet at a little reference point right there. So that worked out fairly nicely.

This one we automatically get cause it’s on the edge.

Now, the red we could say is just a hair up from being directly above that, so that’s

pretty easy. So if we actually go truly straight it’s a tiny bit in. If we go straight up

from here we’re talking about that red one being just the tiniest bit in from that literally

right here, so that’s fine. And now we need this one. We can just do that in the old box

way if we wanted to, or we could put a little X’ng game. We could say since this is the

same place over here now, we could take our reference point we got before by doing this

and say, well, that won’t help us. So what if I X through here right to here? Well, if

that goes directly through there at one point then the opposite going through that point

also should lead to the next. So here we could do this. This point right up to that point

here would cross our center seam right there. Logically then, I could maintain that center

seam accurately and then go exactly to this, we should be getting to right over to here

as well to get the counterpoint to this. Even Steven, even get the diminishment correct.

Alright, so we didn’t have to actually rectangularly box anything, X it off and get the center

seam to double it over. We did all by kind of doing center seam referencing. That works

pretty well, and we made a guesstimation for this thickness based on this one being just

a hair in from that one, so this is just a hair in from that one in foreshortened space.

So let’s give it a try with our pencil now.

We’re just going to draw out what we think we see here. We have a curve slamming down

there pretty steeply. Curve goes over, slams down, straightens out pretty quick to here.

Alright, so we have straight, curved, go straight over here.

We go straight down a bit. Start carving a little bit.

Then right after that it starts curving pretty radically. Alright.

There it is.

So there’s that one.

Now we’ll push some thickness through that one. We should get

this one done pretty quick. Here we go. Back corner, take all those references back again.

Get the halfway point back, top back to the left vanishing point.

Right side over. Middle point over. Back corner over.

Alright, let’s go ahead and take all our other references

back in the color. Blue, blue on the other side.

Red, red, red at the top here just to be anal about it.

Oh my God. Everybody’s like, why are you doing that? What a waste

of time. It’s like, well, it’s careful learning everybody to apply then later the

faster applied. So it’s the thinking, ladies and germs, that’s important.

Okay, back there. Back there. Two more of our friends that are in red there. Counterside

there and then the blue on top. That should be it, hopefully. Now, I’ll take another

sharp pencil and again randomly decide if we want the window to come like this, alright,

let’s try just on that side of that. Draw that forward. Okay, we can go up on the outside

for a true vertical. Good, up there. Alright, we’ve got our true vertical. Go back with

our corner carefully. Right there should be right. We’ll double check that with a bottom.

Take my corner up to see if that matches properly. Yep, it does. Pretty good.

So there’s that box in the back.

Okay. So now we’ll find our easy thicknesses. These two back here.

That one. Don’t want to get fooled. That’s the center line for the front face, but this

is the back scene. So that’s right there. This one goes there. This one goes there.

We’ve got to do our X in the back. Could be helpful if we want to find those easily,

which is no big deal to X the back. I always forget to do that.

I’m just not respecting the X today.

Of course, we’ve got our—of course, I just blew that one. Totally ignore the last

move I made. It’s ridiculous. There’s the X box. So don’t be confused. I just

had a brain freeze there. I’ll erase that. That is not the way to do it so ignore this

one. I’ll just kind of get rid of it. The center is there from this being the center

there. We can slam that center forward to the left vanishing point to properly locate it.

Anyway, these fall on the X here and here. Therefore, if we lead them back they fall

on the X. And if we lead it back they fall on the X. That is properly to that corner

so that comes back right there. It’s hard to see, but there is that one. So there’s

that one, then we follow that corner to corner. Boom. Therefore, this going back to there

is right there. Okay. So now we can go ahead, and again, we’re going to have the same

issue here where we have to go up. We’ll go to the side with these first, these two

reds here. That’s the center seam. We can hit that. We can go around. We can hit that.

We can go around to the back wall, which would be there. Then we could come forward to this

right like that until it hits that same line there and there, right through there.

And we guess right where it contacts kind of there. Ooh, that’s going to be too far

off. Okay, so let’s surmise what went wrong. I want to redo this reference here real quick.

It should be correct there a little lower. That would be explaining why it was off. There.

That’s much more like it. This will be the one, the harder one. X that one off.

Okay, this one runs just about here. Alright, these two, these two we can run up there again.

And again, the sharper the better. And again, even if you’re just doing some of these

in your mind it does greatly help. Oops. That was supposed to be in red. Either way. Blue

and then up we go for this one. And the next one is in red over there. Remember, we are

putting those up there. We are taking those back to the left vanishing point. So then

I’ll do the next blue one right over here. That lines up with that one and this one to

the left vanishing point, just to get clarity on that. There’s that point, that point

representing this space, this space, this space. We drop them straight down. Just trying

to get mentally around it. See how that works. I’ll drop the blue. And I know I’m referencing

that down to here. I’ll drop the red right as it goes right there. Basically there. So

now I have blue. I have red. Same thing on the other side. Blue line and red line are

going to be identical in this case because they’re falling right on each other essentially.

It’s alright. Slightly above that is the red. Right there. We already have these two

points back there. All that we have left is these two points, which we’ll roll around

the sides again. Side, side. That goes to that to the left, over. We’ll also take

this one right there. Side, over to the back corner which is right there, so I have to

follow this carefully back to what I know is that back corner. It’s right there, back

corner up to meet this right there. Then I have to come back in, come back over until

I meet my line. My line is right here going straight back.

Right here straight back until it meets this.

So if I’m faithful to that I get about a mark about right there. Alright, then I take

this one coming around from here to the corner, back to the left vanishing point then back

to the right to meet up with this corresponding line there. I should be getting a crossing

just about there. So we’ll see how that is, and then of course my blue one is going

to meet the center line in the back, which I also didn’t put in, so I’m going to

put what this vertical center is on the front plane. I’m also going to put in the back.

That’s where my blue peak line is going to be here. Right there.

So all I have to do now is follow this peak back until it hits that center line there,

which hits the top here and then comes down one right there. So there is its blue counterpart.

So there’s the width of the arch right there at the top just like it is at the bottom here.

You can kind of do this if we want. Okay, alright. So let’s try to find their counterparts

now and try to draw in my left side rear here now. See how it goes. We know it goes straight

up and curves right before that. So take the blue from here straight up a ways to about

there. Then we start curving. Straight up, start curving in. Not bad. It’s pretty much

just a straight shot like that. Straight down. Kind of a relaxed way of doing that. Then

go straight over, back to the right vanishing point over there to this one. Then we go straight

down and curve a little bit as we go into here. Curve, come straight on down so it’s—

bingo, just like that.

Okay, there’s that. Then we have to go through here. There is a counterpart there, and then

come down kind of here and meet this straight, so this straight from the red. The blue is

right here, goes straight up about that far. I’m doing this part right here back here.

Then we have to go right around there. That’s going to be difficult. There. Alright. Then

we go back to that red in perspective. Straight down, so I’m a little off on that one. That’s

going to come right down to there. Good, so I was a little off on that red one there.

That had to come back a bit. Luckily I can look at the intregity of the shape and figure

that out. There’s a little cross in there. Okay. Good. Then I have to do the top of the

arch again in pencil even though it’s blue. I’ll go ahead and darken it in to the left

vanishing point right there. The idea of these crossing here. We get this plane here which

is important. That one is so foreshortened you can’t even really see it.

It’s a very tiny difference.

Okay, so I’ll go ahead and shade in that plane. So again, it’s just how are you representing

everything we had here? I know as a finished diagram people are going to look at this and

go what the hell is that? But you have to reverse the lecture back and carefully go

through it for your own version. Because I’m doing this in hi-def I can move faster and

be more natural of how I think and talk because you’re supposed to slow down, take notes,

use arrows, and do a cleaner version than I am, frankly, because you have the advantage

of going back, pausing, redoing, going in reverse until you get it perfectly. That’s

what I want you to do. The idea here is we built all these up. So if you’re confused

in the end you have to go back. That’s the advantage of the medium. Then when you’ve

built your own diagram that’s clean with arrows that has explanations under it, even

generally saying, yeah, then we go to the counterpart by going to the side over and

back. You’ll know what you mean. And then really it takes the drawing practice. I want

to make it clear here, and this is kind of the—I think the newer generation thinks

that you should be able to just look at something and absorb it for a minute and then totally

get it. If you don’t it’s shitty teaching or you don’t like that format. It’s not

for me. And frankly, that’s ridiculous. You have to practice drawing these shapes

on your own and eat it for a while until you start getting it right and making mistakes.

A lot of them at first, and then you’ll go, no, no, no; I was supposed to reference

back here. Now I get it. That’s why we’re starting so simple in moving forward. We’re

going to also do some curves on the floor that start very simply and then get more complex.

So if this is overwhelming, by the time you see it in the finished diagram even once they

shade this in I want to make it clear that you’re supposed to go backwards until you

really get it, and you get it because you’re doing it well in your diagram book and in

your practice. And then finishing a couple homework assignments where you do a finished

shape that might have a light source on it.

So the idea is you have to stay on these until you’ve reasonably practiced enough so your

brain understands the 3-D platform that we’re seeing and I am seeing as I do this referencing

cause I have experience. All the X’ng and doubling, all the referencing in the middle

spine, axis, whatever you want to call it, that’s your responsibility to get good at

that from these demonstrations. These are just the beginning, and there are very few.

You have to apply it to anything you think is relevant and it’s helpful for. Okay?

That’s your job.

Okay, so here we go. We’re going to tone these in.

There’s the arched part, kind of Gothic a little bit, peaks.

I don’t know. That’s what I’m saying.

People can call and say you’re insane.

How dare you say that? Okay, when the other part comes down

again its little intersecting part is a little darker we’ll say because it has two overlapping,

and will come down again like this.

So there’s just this tiny bit of negative space here,

which is kind of the way it happened to go. We can’t predict these all the time. This

has a nice open middle space. This one is just a tiny sliver where, you know, this one

comes in front and that one back so you can see a tiny, if you’re doing a painting,

a tiny sliver of the sky. I’d probably thing out this wall here then to make that a better

negative shape in a painting. But for this it’s fine. Just know that that very thin

appearance is because it just randomly showed up that way when we drew out the thickness.

It’s okay. And I’m talking about that gutter there is actually this coming up, coming

over, and coming back up, crossing, and then this shape crosses over it. So the negative

shape of the window would be that coming up there, up.

Then this crosses over, comes down like this.

So there is that back window. This part in here is the negative shape looking

out to the sky if we’re inside this arch. This was the thickness of the wall, or again,

the representation of it. The wall would keep expanding past our block shape. Then this

and that little thin part would be the negative shape of the sky outside.

Okay, alright. So there’s another arch. And we will move on now to some just standing

planes that are like arches but are almost more like playing cards. We’re actually

doing some spade-like and some heart-like shapes and things like that on these standing

planes, which will eventually represent the middle section or the width section

of longer vehicles and objects.

Okay. So we’re just getting used to this kind of referencing and how to connect it

together. We’re just doing it in block form going straight back to a thickness on an arch.

But eventually, as I mentioned before even the depths will start curving, and it will

become more complex. Okay, so on to the next.

ahead and darken in my rectangular idea here. And again, we’re doing the entire shape,

cutting it in half, and then designing on the left, doubling over. So left first, remember that.

Especially in the front. I can call it Arabic or Persian arch. I think it’s

more Persian from the old world.

Okay, going to make that slight lip there as we have so

we can start the peak there, not at the top. We’re going to put in half.

It’s a little off so let me correct that.

Okay, go up. Here we go.

Got the middle.

Go back to our right vanishing point to get our

middle seam there right through the middle. Boom. And we’ll do a true vertical with

our T-square and triangle. Get an accurate vertical there.

Okay, so now we’re ready to take a shot at this,

and as I recall what I want to do is about out there.

Okay, so also doing this but instead it will be from here.

Okay, let me get out of the way here.

Just trying to remember what I wanted to do there.

Okay, we’re going to do that shape,

just a little different from the other one, but same logic but why not.

Again, we’re just going to look for easy references or the most logical ones. Got one

here, obviously one here, through that again red, that one again blue.

Red where it changes is convenient, blue at the top.

We have one close enough here, I guess, if we want to

make another one there just as an idea, and then we could make one again halfway up if

we wanted to. There. And we’ll carry them over again. Real quickly this one. Now we’re

getting used to this idea at least. So all the way across. This red falls on the halfway

point so that’s easy. It’s already gone across. Bring this idea over in red as well

across. Bring that one on the T across. We already have it over here. We get that one

automatically just as we have gotten this one right there. Bring the other red over.

So now let’s see what one’s a little more challenging are going to be. So again, we

could use this middle plane again if we wanted to. If it’s convenient, so I’ll go ahead

and extend that idea longer. Let’s see what works out fairly easy there, get a sharpened pencil.

If I know this one falls on that, what I think I’ll do is—

yeah, to get that corner here I’m going to start with my red here.

And I am going to go through here right through

that corner right on the red. Make a reference right here by coming back.

Okay. Crossing the X there. So what I’m going to do is I’m going to take a reference on the X crossing

right there. Very carefully draw it right across. So now from this going through here

leads to that, which leads to that. Nice part I was going through the X now right there.

It should lead to those two points also landing on that line back down there. So I can be

careful. See, right through there properly. It should land me where I want. So that gives

us that red spot at the bottom. Another blue spot here, right there.

That falls across the X,

and we meet at a little reference point right there. So that worked out fairly nicely.

This one we automatically get cause it’s on the edge.

Now, the red we could say is just a hair up from being directly above that, so that’s

pretty easy. So if we actually go truly straight it’s a tiny bit in. If we go straight up

from here we’re talking about that red one being just the tiniest bit in from that literally

right here, so that’s fine. And now we need this one. We can just do that in the old box

way if we wanted to, or we could put a little X’ng game. We could say since this is the

same place over here now, we could take our reference point we got before by doing this

and say, well, that won’t help us. So what if I X through here right to here? Well, if

that goes directly through there at one point then the opposite going through that point

also should lead to the next. So here we could do this. This point right up to that point

here would cross our center seam right there. Logically then, I could maintain that center

seam accurately and then go exactly to this, we should be getting to right over to here

as well to get the counterpoint to this. Even Steven, even get the diminishment correct.

Alright, so we didn’t have to actually rectangularly box anything, X it off and get the center

seam to double it over. We did all by kind of doing center seam referencing. That works

pretty well, and we made a guesstimation for this thickness based on this one being just

a hair in from that one, so this is just a hair in from that one in foreshortened space.

So let’s give it a try with our pencil now.

We’re just going to draw out what we think we see here. We have a curve slamming down

there pretty steeply. Curve goes over, slams down, straightens out pretty quick to here.

Alright, so we have straight, curved, go straight over here.

We go straight down a bit. Start carving a little bit.

Then right after that it starts curving pretty radically. Alright.

There it is.

So there’s that one.

Now we’ll push some thickness through that one. We should get

this one done pretty quick. Here we go. Back corner, take all those references back again.

Get the halfway point back, top back to the left vanishing point.

Right side over. Middle point over. Back corner over.

Alright, let’s go ahead and take all our other references

back in the color. Blue, blue on the other side.

Red, red, red at the top here just to be anal about it.

Oh my God. Everybody’s like, why are you doing that? What a waste

of time. It’s like, well, it’s careful learning everybody to apply then later the

faster applied. So it’s the thinking, ladies and germs, that’s important.

Okay, back there. Back there. Two more of our friends that are in red there. Counterside

there and then the blue on top. That should be it, hopefully. Now, I’ll take another

sharp pencil and again randomly decide if we want the window to come like this, alright,

let’s try just on that side of that. Draw that forward. Okay, we can go up on the outside

for a true vertical. Good, up there. Alright, we’ve got our true vertical. Go back with

our corner carefully. Right there should be right. We’ll double check that with a bottom.

Take my corner up to see if that matches properly. Yep, it does. Pretty good.

So there’s that box in the back.

Okay. So now we’ll find our easy thicknesses. These two back here.

That one. Don’t want to get fooled. That’s the center line for the front face, but this

is the back scene. So that’s right there. This one goes there. This one goes there.

We’ve got to do our X in the back. Could be helpful if we want to find those easily,

which is no big deal to X the back. I always forget to do that.

I’m just not respecting the X today.

Of course, we’ve got our—of course, I just blew that one. Totally ignore the last

move I made. It’s ridiculous. There’s the X box. So don’t be confused. I just

had a brain freeze there. I’ll erase that. That is not the way to do it so ignore this

one. I’ll just kind of get rid of it. The center is there from this being the center

there. We can slam that center forward to the left vanishing point to properly locate it.

Anyway, these fall on the X here and here. Therefore, if we lead them back they fall

on the X. And if we lead it back they fall on the X. That is properly to that corner

so that comes back right there. It’s hard to see, but there is that one. So there’s

that one, then we follow that corner to corner. Boom. Therefore, this going back to there

is right there. Okay. So now we can go ahead, and again, we’re going to have the same

issue here where we have to go up. We’ll go to the side with these first, these two

reds here. That’s the center seam. We can hit that. We can go around. We can hit that.

We can go around to the back wall, which would be there. Then we could come forward to this

right like that until it hits that same line there and there, right through there.

And we guess right where it contacts kind of there. Ooh, that’s going to be too far

off. Okay, so let’s surmise what went wrong. I want to redo this reference here real quick.

It should be correct there a little lower. That would be explaining why it was off. There.

That’s much more like it. This will be the one, the harder one. X that one off.

Okay, this one runs just about here. Alright, these two, these two we can run up there again.

And again, the sharper the better. And again, even if you’re just doing some of these

in your mind it does greatly help. Oops. That was supposed to be in red. Either way. Blue

and then up we go for this one. And the next one is in red over there. Remember, we are

putting those up there. We are taking those back to the left vanishing point. So then

I’ll do the next blue one right over here. That lines up with that one and this one to

the left vanishing point, just to get clarity on that. There’s that point, that point

representing this space, this space, this space. We drop them straight down. Just trying

to get mentally around it. See how that works. I’ll drop the blue. And I know I’m referencing

that down to here. I’ll drop the red right as it goes right there. Basically there. So

now I have blue. I have red. Same thing on the other side. Blue line and red line are

going to be identical in this case because they’re falling right on each other essentially.

It’s alright. Slightly above that is the red. Right there. We already have these two

points back there. All that we have left is these two points, which we’ll roll around

the sides again. Side, side. That goes to that to the left, over. We’ll also take

this one right there. Side, over to the back corner which is right there, so I have to

follow this carefully back to what I know is that back corner. It’s right there, back

corner up to meet this right there. Then I have to come back in, come back over until

I meet my line. My line is right here going straight back.

Right here straight back until it meets this.

So if I’m faithful to that I get about a mark about right there. Alright, then I take

this one coming around from here to the corner, back to the left vanishing point then back

to the right to meet up with this corresponding line there. I should be getting a crossing

just about there. So we’ll see how that is, and then of course my blue one is going

to meet the center line in the back, which I also didn’t put in, so I’m going to

put what this vertical center is on the front plane. I’m also going to put in the back.

That’s where my blue peak line is going to be here. Right there.

So all I have to do now is follow this peak back until it hits that center line there,

which hits the top here and then comes down one right there. So there is its blue counterpart.

So there’s the width of the arch right there at the top just like it is at the bottom here.

You can kind of do this if we want. Okay, alright. So let’s try to find their counterparts

now and try to draw in my left side rear here now. See how it goes. We know it goes straight

up and curves right before that. So take the blue from here straight up a ways to about

there. Then we start curving. Straight up, start curving in. Not bad. It’s pretty much

just a straight shot like that. Straight down. Kind of a relaxed way of doing that. Then

go straight over, back to the right vanishing point over there to this one. Then we go straight

down and curve a little bit as we go into here. Curve, come straight on down so it’s—

bingo, just like that.

Okay, there’s that. Then we have to go through here. There is a counterpart there, and then

come down kind of here and meet this straight, so this straight from the red. The blue is

right here, goes straight up about that far. I’m doing this part right here back here.

Then we have to go right around there. That’s going to be difficult. There. Alright. Then

we go back to that red in perspective. Straight down, so I’m a little off on that one. That’s

going to come right down to there. Good, so I was a little off on that red one there.

That had to come back a bit. Luckily I can look at the intregity of the shape and figure

that out. There’s a little cross in there. Okay. Good. Then I have to do the top of the

arch again in pencil even though it’s blue. I’ll go ahead and darken it in to the left

vanishing point right there. The idea of these crossing here. We get this plane here which

is important. That one is so foreshortened you can’t even really see it.

It’s a very tiny difference.

Okay, so I’ll go ahead and shade in that plane. So again, it’s just how are you representing

everything we had here? I know as a finished diagram people are going to look at this and

go what the hell is that? But you have to reverse the lecture back and carefully go

through it for your own version. Because I’m doing this in hi-def I can move faster and

be more natural of how I think and talk because you’re supposed to slow down, take notes,

use arrows, and do a cleaner version than I am, frankly, because you have the advantage

of going back, pausing, redoing, going in reverse until you get it perfectly. That’s

what I want you to do. The idea here is we built all these up. So if you’re confused

in the end you have to go back. That’s the advantage of the medium. Then when you’ve

built your own diagram that’s clean with arrows that has explanations under it, even

generally saying, yeah, then we go to the counterpart by going to the side over and

back. You’ll know what you mean. And then really it takes the drawing practice. I want

to make it clear here, and this is kind of the—I think the newer generation thinks

that you should be able to just look at something and absorb it for a minute and then totally

get it. If you don’t it’s shitty teaching or you don’t like that format. It’s not

for me. And frankly, that’s ridiculous. You have to practice drawing these shapes

on your own and eat it for a while until you start getting it right and making mistakes.

A lot of them at first, and then you’ll go, no, no, no; I was supposed to reference

back here. Now I get it. That’s why we’re starting so simple in moving forward. We’re

going to also do some curves on the floor that start very simply and then get more complex.

So if this is overwhelming, by the time you see it in the finished diagram even once they

shade this in I want to make it clear that you’re supposed to go backwards until you

really get it, and you get it because you’re doing it well in your diagram book and in

your practice. And then finishing a couple homework assignments where you do a finished

shape that might have a light source on it.

So the idea is you have to stay on these until you’ve reasonably practiced enough so your

brain understands the 3-D platform that we’re seeing and I am seeing as I do this referencing

cause I have experience. All the X’ng and doubling, all the referencing in the middle

spine, axis, whatever you want to call it, that’s your responsibility to get good at

that from these demonstrations. These are just the beginning, and there are very few.

You have to apply it to anything you think is relevant and it’s helpful for. Okay?

That’s your job.

Okay, so here we go. We’re going to tone these in.

There’s the arched part, kind of Gothic a little bit, peaks.

I don’t know. That’s what I’m saying.

People can call and say you’re insane.

How dare you say that? Okay, when the other part comes down

again its little intersecting part is a little darker we’ll say because it has two overlapping,

and will come down again like this.

So there’s just this tiny bit of negative space here,

which is kind of the way it happened to go. We can’t predict these all the time. This

has a nice open middle space. This one is just a tiny sliver where, you know, this one

comes in front and that one back so you can see a tiny, if you’re doing a painting,

a tiny sliver of the sky. I’d probably thing out this wall here then to make that a better

negative shape in a painting. But for this it’s fine. Just know that that very thin

appearance is because it just randomly showed up that way when we drew out the thickness.

It’s okay. And I’m talking about that gutter there is actually this coming up, coming

over, and coming back up, crossing, and then this shape crosses over it. So the negative

shape of the window would be that coming up there, up.

Then this crosses over, comes down like this.

So there is that back window. This part in here is the negative shape looking

out to the sky if we’re inside this arch. This was the thickness of the wall, or again,

the representation of it. The wall would keep expanding past our block shape. Then this

and that little thin part would be the negative shape of the sky outside.

Okay, alright. So there’s another arch. And we will move on now to some just standing

planes that are like arches but are almost more like playing cards. We’re actually

doing some spade-like and some heart-like shapes and things like that on these standing

planes, which will eventually represent the middle section or the width section

of longer vehicles and objects.

Okay. So we’re just getting used to this kind of referencing and how to connect it

together. We’re just doing it in block form going straight back to a thickness on an arch.

But eventually, as I mentioned before even the depths will start curving, and it will

become more complex. Okay, so on to the next.

AUTO SCROLL

Here we are. We’re back and we’re going to do four basic standing shapes that have,

you know, patterns in them that we’re going to double over. We’ve got some going on

the top, we’re going to have some going to the left vanishing point, so we’ll draw

that in real quick. Again, the horizon line is right here. This particular one. Then I

have the vanishing points as far off to the edge of the camera space as possible right

at the border. There is a VP left. We’re going to have VP right. There’s our eye

level, of course. Horizon line. We’re going to do it in this kind of central shape here.

I have to figure out where the cone is for distortion just show these shapes won’t

get too distorted. No big deal. I’ll go ahead and darken in the first one.

I have general ideas in mind, but it will pretty much be as we call it as we’re in

motion here. I’ll go ahead and what I’m going to do is I’m going to, again, designate

what I want for the entire space first as far as what I believe I want the pattern to be.

This rectangular space that it takes up.

We’re going to go ahead and exit.

We get the halfway mark and all those lines become helpful, as you know, to reference different

ideas as we get along with the shape, doubling it over. I’ll start on the right side this

time on these and then go to the smaller side and see how it goes.

There’s that center line.

Okay, I’m going to do kind of spade shape much like on a card so I’m going to

go ahead and draw the idea of where I want the spade to take up. I’m just going to

make little ideas here kind of like this. Nice flat, curve. Come up. Kind of come down,

have it turn right here.

Alright, this is going to decide on it. Make sure I get my head out of the way here.

Alright, basic shape like that.

Then again, we’ll just try to replicate that random

shape we’ve made my logic. I’ll go ahead and extend my center plane if that’s going

to help us at all. It might a little bit to this one. Make it really light, just the idea of it.

Point out some simple stuff, obviously. We have this one touching here. We have this

touching right here where it turns on itself. We’ve got that right in the center. It’s

obvious. Another obvious idea is where these touch right here with the diagonal so those

aren’t so hard to find. That might be enough of what we need to double it over. We could

also take note of right here where this curve turns on itself. Why don’t we do that? Probably

that’s all we’ll need for a fairly simple shape.

What we’ll do is we’ll carry our other ones over.

Take my blue over here.

We know that goes over there and touches there.

We know the red also crosses the halfway point, which is convenient for us. We’ll go over

there with that one. We also know this touches the X as well.

Go over there, define that.

And now we have to come straight over with that, double that space over however we want

to do that. And then we also want to take note of how do we get across here for that

starting there. Do a rectangular shape for that. We might be able to reference that off

possibly the center plane. If we wanted to do that, define the idea,

this is very close to being straight below that.

So in a sense we could actually just say, well,

if we know that is straight down there it’s so close right there. If we come straight down here

we can just place this right here. That’s probably pretty fair to say, and so we’ll

just find that one that way. What we’ll do is we’ll create a rectangle here. I’ll

do a little more freehand this time, but we’ll just go right through there like that. If

we want we can X it off.

I want to make sure I’m accurate with that, and so if I start

up here and come down there

basically that plane over there is about right there.

Actually in red. That would be about there.

Real simple ideas. I mean obvious things but they’ll get more complex as we go. You can

make lots and lots of references, but again, as an artist we’re not designing exact shapes

that we’re actually going to be manufacturing. It’s just as long as they’re visually

sound and clearly look like and feel like they double over properly. As artists that’s

what we’re mostly concerned with. You can go further with the referencing here. But

as an exercise it’s not particularly necessary for artists. Simply try to come up with this

right up to there. Go through that. A nice angle. I want to curve around and meet that

right there. I want to make it feel like it comes right around there. Goes right through.

We want to make sure it turns here rather quickly. We could put one there. Let’s see

if we can handle it. Goes through about like that counter angle there.

Really turns right there.

Kicks back out, the foreshortened version there.

Not hard, but those references can

really help us, especially if you get a larger drawing going. But even so you’d be surprised.

You can really misjudge how the reference is going.

Now, if this is the only shape in your piece people could go, oh who knows unless you check

it to the actual diminishing perspective and X it off and double it and all that who’s

gonna know anyway. But if this is part of many things that have a logic of a diminishment

in perspective that you’ve set regardless if it’s measured or not then things do become

obvious and look odd later. You might think they look okay when you do them, but we all

know how our brains change overnight or the next day, and then we’re like, oops. That

doesn’t look right. Well, this more guarantees in the perspective that you’re doing it

in. You’re going to see the shapes. You can still see how it might be off. You can

correct it. At least you’re having a very close proximity here. You just slow down a

bit. So that’s how we do that. This probably turns a little more on itself here to clean

that shape up. I liked it a little better how it turns here so I’m actually going

to correct my original shape a little bit like that.

Alright, so there’s that idea. Now, for a second shape I might want to do something

else that has a little bit more of a wobble to it. Again, nothing too complex, but we’ll

get more complex as we go into actual shapes that have center planes and things for widths.

Okay, so we’ll go ahead and darken in our next rectangle all through the top and the

bottom, going to the left vanishing point here.

The next one.

Again, that’s the total area the shape takes in with

imaginary Plexiglas rectangle surrounding it or being on the face

plane. I’ll take that center, run it to the horizon line.

Now this is fairly steep perspective,

but things start behaving and diminishing in slightly surprising ways sometimes

when you double over a shape and flip it on the center fold there.

Okay, so now this one—so what we want to do, maybe we can extend this again and see

if we use that or not. Just for the heck of it I’ll extend it really lightly. We don’t

have that much room to use it. Might have to go slightly above camera space, but you’ll

get the idea. Okay, so what are we doing on this one? I guess we’re going to have a

rounded shape at the top meeting right there.

It’s going to round down like this. Turn sharply.

So I guess that’s what I want. I’ll come back, curve down, and curve over.

Come down, there we go. Nice and dark. First do my right side.

So, on these ones we did the right side first.

Alright, then we’ll look for those same references. We’ll get a start

here. But instead of just going blindly over we could say, oh okay, let’s really reference

them and just help ourselves a little bit here. Let’s pick our obvious marks, obviously.

This comes right here so I’ll say right around there is the middle of that one right

against the wall there. We have obviously this one at the top right there.

Again, here and here.

Is that enough? Well, maybe we want one right as we come to the center there.

That would be helpful maybe. Well, I don’t know if we really need those. Let’s see.

If we wanted on there that’s a pretty easy one. Put that turn right there. Maybe we’ll

put one more right there just for the heck of it.

So as we go over to our left side vanishing point we obviously can use the one that’s

on the diagonal. Remember the shapes are drawn completely regardless of where the diagonals

fall and all that. We’re just doing a natural shape. Then we’re just taking—so this

and this are a direct carryover. So obviously we have that there, have that there. Then

we have, this one is pretty close so that’s pretty easy to do. That goes all the way to

the other side so it’s very close to the center line there. Yeah, so right about there

we can say that’s easy to find, obviously. And then the other one is not quite as easy,

so we’ll go over and get some help from that one, maybe some help from that. Okay.

Now, what can we say about this? I’m going to use my T-square just to say, alright, if

we’re being absolutely strict. If we know it goes over to the left vanishing point right

below, okay, so it’s a little bit outside that one. So there’s the line. If I take

a straight line from this one which we’ve already identified, we’re saying that’s

just on the outside of that. So if I replicate that move on this side I could say right there

it’s just on the outside again, so I’ll just do it right there. Just out there. Alright.

So that kind of gets that one. The next one not quite so easy. What we could do is we

could say is this within camera space to do that? Probably not. What would be easy to

do is take this to that. Let’s see if there is anything else convenient to do. That goes

too far down. What we could do with these, actually this one here, what I could do is

take this one straight down right to the middle here and say alright, as an idea if I did

that and made that the reference point and I take note where that crosses, that is a

reference right there. I could take that straight over, and again, we’ll do it over and box

it as well. But if I’m accurate there is that little reference point there. Then I

come straight up from there back to here. Let’s see how close that becomes there.

That meets up with that, basically a referenced triangle that is going to help us. Good enough

for over there.

Now, we could have taken this, come down, made a box to the middle, X’d if off, doubled

it, made our reference then doubled over and found that same space, but we did it this

way. If you want just because I’m mentioning it you can try boxing it to see if you get

the same result. We should, but I don’t want to confuse people as to why we’re doing

it both ways. It’s just as a comparison. But I like using the middle seam a lot when

I already have other convenient references. So what I did is I said I took this, cast

it over there and uncertain amount this way. Then is said, okay, I’m going to take this

right to the middle seam meeting the bottom plane. That crosses this part of the X diagonal

right there. If I strike that back over to its counterpart, come back up through that

I should land right there at the same place in foreshortened perspective. So that gets

me where I want to go.

Now, the next one we have to kind of do here. One way we can do that, I guess we could just

box that off. I’m just going to do that, the box method. The blue one at the bottom

for the end of the stem there, and I’ll just make a little rectangular plane here.

I’m just going to go ahead and X off my plane carefully to this. Make it a little

box right there. X it over.

That’s right in the middle there. Bring that over to my left vanishing point.

Make a middle reference. Come from exact corner right through there.

Try to be accurate. That should be it. So hopefully if I’ve done this right, I’ve

X’d if off. Actually, I want to go lower so I want to make sure that’s a correction.

That makes that plane further in. That’s why, go further over there. That’s more

correct, right about there is what I want. Good. We have to be careful because I was

too high with my middle crossing, and sure enough that looked wrong. I just wanted to

just double check my reference. Again, not so hard at this size. Easy to just say why

don’t you just do it freehand and just estimate using your observational skills. Easy right?

Yes, it is for a hand drawing this size. But when you get larger objects going that you

need to do and reference it’s much easier to use this referencing because it really

does diminish properly with the foreshortening of the perspective if you do the right referencing

and you’re accurate. You actually can get that thing doubled over and flipped real fast,

and it will look correct.

Okay, so let’s now attempt our line. So we’ve kind of come over already to begin

with over here. So I’m going to take the nature of this angle through here. It’s

just a little bowed out so it’s still doing this. It connects back up then it turns on

itself and turns in. So we’re turning in here. So we’ll turn in here and replicate

that motion, curving in a little bit inside that line and then comes back out. So I want

to make sure I make the fast turn right here so it’s about equal there. Alright, then

I’m coming through here at that angle, so the counterangle would be something like this.

This comes down and smoothly turns. So do that. Just get used to during your curves.

Now, I haven’t mentioned yet that you could use tools like French curves and ship curves

and things like that and obviously a flexible curve. But we’re going to, you know, I’ll

mention those tools as we continue going and show them to you if you haven’t seen them

before. But we’re going to try, you know, try to do the idea here of just doing them

by hand. But of course, if you’ve got bigger shapes going and you wanted a real mechanically

correct drawing we’ll do a couple demos with ships curves and/or French curves, and

a flexible curve, which are also very helpful if you’re drafting.

But since the 3-D programs have come in for, they make really perfect curves and lines

and really clean, the idea here is because we’re talking about drawing and talking

about the power of drawing and having real good hand-eye coordination and all that, we’re

really going to make it more about estimating by hand even though

we’re using these reference points.

Okay, so that one pretty much centers on that so that’s going to turn like that. Go back

up to here. Then we’re turning at this angle through there so we can just kind of counter

that, feel it out. This tapers in slightly before it comes out, so I’m going to do

that too. Slightly come in before we turn out so we can get the feel of that.

Okay, then we’ll just splay way out here. I’ve got to come way in there like that. I want

to make sure I capture that correctly.

Alright, so we’ll come down. Curve in, be sensitive to what the other side did so that’s

why I kind of do first ghosting, lay it in lightly to get the feel that it feels right.

Okay, so there’s that shape.

We can make this one a little darker on this side now.

So you’re still most definitely using for these in-between spaces in between the referencing

dots and lines and reference points, you’re still using, you know, your best feel for

what you think it’s doing. If this one is bowing a little more down here should this

do a little more of that to feel better? Maybe. As a design I think I’d like it better so

I’m going to actually change that and go I think I like it better if it comes out a

little like this. Turn a little faster and comes in a little more natural curve like

this, see if I like that better. Yeah, probably a little better.

Okay, so there’s that shape with that type of referencing. Again, so we’ll just do

another shape here on the bottom and start doing that. That one’s gone off. The main

plane is now going off to the right vanishing point. The top obviously was going off to

the left vanishing point. I’ll go ahead and put in my verticals for this contained

rectangular area I want my design in. Take that off.

Go ahead and get back to my right

VP over here for the bottom plane. Top plane.

Then I’ll go ahead and X this off. Clean this off a bit.

Okay, then I’ll do my true vertical standing there for the middle plane.

Okay, middle line happens to

line up with the other one. Coincidentally, actually; that’s kind of weird. But it did,

so I’ll break that just to make it clear. It’s just coincidental. Getting a little

bit of crud on here.

Okay, so another shape. Let’s see. Just trying to think what we might do here. Okay,

do that. Okay. Let me kind of design what I think I want to do here.

I’m just trying to come up with a tapering design.

It throws itself out, comes back in.

Comes down.

Down around here, up, and right into the center. Okay, so that’s alright. Okay.

Again, so there’s that shape. Again, let’s find our common idea.

Obviously, that starts there.

That starts there. This crosses right here. This crosses right here at the half.

This crosses right here and ends up there. What else can we add to add a little help

maybe? We wanted to, right as this bows out here we could kind of say, alright, I need

a little helper there, maybe right as this comes in on itself about here.

It's just the same one there. Try that one.

Okay, so let’s take our reference lines or points, I should say, across there. That

kind of helps us understand how that curve goes. Come across there, across that little

span, estimate that. That’s right on our center line which we already have. This little

one here, and this one goes on our diagonal counterpoint.

Let’s see what we’re looking at there.

you know, patterns in them that we’re going to double over. We’ve got some going on

the top, we’re going to have some going to the left vanishing point, so we’ll draw

that in real quick. Again, the horizon line is right here. This particular one. Then I

have the vanishing points as far off to the edge of the camera space as possible right

at the border. There is a VP left. We’re going to have VP right. There’s our eye

level, of course. Horizon line. We’re going to do it in this kind of central shape here.

I have to figure out where the cone is for distortion just show these shapes won’t

get too distorted. No big deal. I’ll go ahead and darken in the first one.

I have general ideas in mind, but it will pretty much be as we call it as we’re in

motion here. I’ll go ahead and what I’m going to do is I’m going to, again, designate

what I want for the entire space first as far as what I believe I want the pattern to be.

This rectangular space that it takes up.

We’re going to go ahead and exit.

We get the halfway mark and all those lines become helpful, as you know, to reference different

ideas as we get along with the shape, doubling it over. I’ll start on the right side this

time on these and then go to the smaller side and see how it goes.

There’s that center line.

Okay, I’m going to do kind of spade shape much like on a card so I’m going to

go ahead and draw the idea of where I want the spade to take up. I’m just going to

make little ideas here kind of like this. Nice flat, curve. Come up. Kind of come down,

have it turn right here.

Alright, this is going to decide on it. Make sure I get my head out of the way here.

Alright, basic shape like that.

Then again, we’ll just try to replicate that random

shape we’ve made my logic. I’ll go ahead and extend my center plane if that’s going

to help us at all. It might a little bit to this one. Make it really light, just the idea of it.

Point out some simple stuff, obviously. We have this one touching here. We have this

touching right here where it turns on itself. We’ve got that right in the center. It’s

obvious. Another obvious idea is where these touch right here with the diagonal so those

aren’t so hard to find. That might be enough of what we need to double it over. We could

also take note of right here where this curve turns on itself. Why don’t we do that? Probably

that’s all we’ll need for a fairly simple shape.

What we’ll do is we’ll carry our other ones over.

Take my blue over here.

We know that goes over there and touches there.

We know the red also crosses the halfway point, which is convenient for us. We’ll go over

there with that one. We also know this touches the X as well.

Go over there, define that.

And now we have to come straight over with that, double that space over however we want

to do that. And then we also want to take note of how do we get across here for that

starting there. Do a rectangular shape for that. We might be able to reference that off

possibly the center plane. If we wanted to do that, define the idea,

this is very close to being straight below that.

So in a sense we could actually just say, well,

if we know that is straight down there it’s so close right there. If we come straight down here

we can just place this right here. That’s probably pretty fair to say, and so we’ll

just find that one that way. What we’ll do is we’ll create a rectangle here. I’ll

do a little more freehand this time, but we’ll just go right through there like that. If

we want we can X it off.

I want to make sure I’m accurate with that, and so if I start

up here and come down there

basically that plane over there is about right there.

Actually in red. That would be about there.

Real simple ideas. I mean obvious things but they’ll get more complex as we go. You can

make lots and lots of references, but again, as an artist we’re not designing exact shapes

that we’re actually going to be manufacturing. It’s just as long as they’re visually

sound and clearly look like and feel like they double over properly. As artists that’s

what we’re mostly concerned with. You can go further with the referencing here. But

as an exercise it’s not particularly necessary for artists. Simply try to come up with this

right up to there. Go through that. A nice angle. I want to curve around and meet that

right there. I want to make it feel like it comes right around there. Goes right through.

We want to make sure it turns here rather quickly. We could put one there. Let’s see

if we can handle it. Goes through about like that counter angle there.

Really turns right there.

Kicks back out, the foreshortened version there.

Not hard, but those references can

really help us, especially if you get a larger drawing going. But even so you’d be surprised.

You can really misjudge how the reference is going.

Now, if this is the only shape in your piece people could go, oh who knows unless you check

it to the actual diminishing perspective and X it off and double it and all that who’s

gonna know anyway. But if this is part of many things that have a logic of a diminishment

in perspective that you’ve set regardless if it’s measured or not then things do become

obvious and look odd later. You might think they look okay when you do them, but we all

know how our brains change overnight or the next day, and then we’re like, oops. That

doesn’t look right. Well, this more guarantees in the perspective that you’re doing it

in. You’re going to see the shapes. You can still see how it might be off. You can

correct it. At least you’re having a very close proximity here. You just slow down a

bit. So that’s how we do that. This probably turns a little more on itself here to clean

that shape up. I liked it a little better how it turns here so I’m actually going

to correct my original shape a little bit like that.

Alright, so there’s that idea. Now, for a second shape I might want to do something

else that has a little bit more of a wobble to it. Again, nothing too complex, but we’ll

get more complex as we go into actual shapes that have center planes and things for widths.

Okay, so we’ll go ahead and darken in our next rectangle all through the top and the

bottom, going to the left vanishing point here.

The next one.

Again, that’s the total area the shape takes in with

imaginary Plexiglas rectangle surrounding it or being on the face

plane. I’ll take that center, run it to the horizon line.

Now this is fairly steep perspective,

but things start behaving and diminishing in slightly surprising ways sometimes

when you double over a shape and flip it on the center fold there.

Okay, so now this one—so what we want to do, maybe we can extend this again and see

if we use that or not. Just for the heck of it I’ll extend it really lightly. We don’t

have that much room to use it. Might have to go slightly above camera space, but you’ll

get the idea. Okay, so what are we doing on this one? I guess we’re going to have a

rounded shape at the top meeting right there.

It’s going to round down like this. Turn sharply.

So I guess that’s what I want. I’ll come back, curve down, and curve over.

Come down, there we go. Nice and dark. First do my right side.

So, on these ones we did the right side first.

Alright, then we’ll look for those same references. We’ll get a start

here. But instead of just going blindly over we could say, oh okay, let’s really reference

them and just help ourselves a little bit here. Let’s pick our obvious marks, obviously.

This comes right here so I’ll say right around there is the middle of that one right

against the wall there. We have obviously this one at the top right there.

Again, here and here.

Is that enough? Well, maybe we want one right as we come to the center there.

That would be helpful maybe. Well, I don’t know if we really need those. Let’s see.

If we wanted on there that’s a pretty easy one. Put that turn right there. Maybe we’ll

put one more right there just for the heck of it.

So as we go over to our left side vanishing point we obviously can use the one that’s

on the diagonal. Remember the shapes are drawn completely regardless of where the diagonals

fall and all that. We’re just doing a natural shape. Then we’re just taking—so this

and this are a direct carryover. So obviously we have that there, have that there. Then

we have, this one is pretty close so that’s pretty easy to do. That goes all the way to

the other side so it’s very close to the center line there. Yeah, so right about there

we can say that’s easy to find, obviously. And then the other one is not quite as easy,

so we’ll go over and get some help from that one, maybe some help from that. Okay.

Now, what can we say about this? I’m going to use my T-square just to say, alright, if

we’re being absolutely strict. If we know it goes over to the left vanishing point right

below, okay, so it’s a little bit outside that one. So there’s the line. If I take

a straight line from this one which we’ve already identified, we’re saying that’s

just on the outside of that. So if I replicate that move on this side I could say right there

it’s just on the outside again, so I’ll just do it right there. Just out there. Alright.

So that kind of gets that one. The next one not quite so easy. What we could do is we

could say is this within camera space to do that? Probably not. What would be easy to

do is take this to that. Let’s see if there is anything else convenient to do. That goes

too far down. What we could do with these, actually this one here, what I could do is

take this one straight down right to the middle here and say alright, as an idea if I did

that and made that the reference point and I take note where that crosses, that is a

reference right there. I could take that straight over, and again, we’ll do it over and box

it as well. But if I’m accurate there is that little reference point there. Then I

come straight up from there back to here. Let’s see how close that becomes there.

That meets up with that, basically a referenced triangle that is going to help us. Good enough

for over there.

Now, we could have taken this, come down, made a box to the middle, X’d if off, doubled

it, made our reference then doubled over and found that same space, but we did it this

way. If you want just because I’m mentioning it you can try boxing it to see if you get

the same result. We should, but I don’t want to confuse people as to why we’re doing

it both ways. It’s just as a comparison. But I like using the middle seam a lot when

I already have other convenient references. So what I did is I said I took this, cast

it over there and uncertain amount this way. Then is said, okay, I’m going to take this

right to the middle seam meeting the bottom plane. That crosses this part of the X diagonal

right there. If I strike that back over to its counterpart, come back up through that

I should land right there at the same place in foreshortened perspective. So that gets

me where I want to go.

Now, the next one we have to kind of do here. One way we can do that, I guess we could just

box that off. I’m just going to do that, the box method. The blue one at the bottom

for the end of the stem there, and I’ll just make a little rectangular plane here.

I’m just going to go ahead and X off my plane carefully to this. Make it a little

box right there. X it over.

That’s right in the middle there. Bring that over to my left vanishing point.

Make a middle reference. Come from exact corner right through there.

Try to be accurate. That should be it. So hopefully if I’ve done this right, I’ve

X’d if off. Actually, I want to go lower so I want to make sure that’s a correction.

That makes that plane further in. That’s why, go further over there. That’s more

correct, right about there is what I want. Good. We have to be careful because I was

too high with my middle crossing, and sure enough that looked wrong. I just wanted to

just double check my reference. Again, not so hard at this size. Easy to just say why

don’t you just do it freehand and just estimate using your observational skills. Easy right?

Yes, it is for a hand drawing this size. But when you get larger objects going that you

need to do and reference it’s much easier to use this referencing because it really

does diminish properly with the foreshortening of the perspective if you do the right referencing

and you’re accurate. You actually can get that thing doubled over and flipped real fast,

and it will look correct.

Okay, so let’s now attempt our line. So we’ve kind of come over already to begin

with over here. So I’m going to take the nature of this angle through here. It’s

just a little bowed out so it’s still doing this. It connects back up then it turns on

itself and turns in. So we’re turning in here. So we’ll turn in here and replicate

that motion, curving in a little bit inside that line and then comes back out. So I want

to make sure I make the fast turn right here so it’s about equal there. Alright, then

I’m coming through here at that angle, so the counterangle would be something like this.

This comes down and smoothly turns. So do that. Just get used to during your curves.

Now, I haven’t mentioned yet that you could use tools like French curves and ship curves

and things like that and obviously a flexible curve. But we’re going to, you know, I’ll

mention those tools as we continue going and show them to you if you haven’t seen them

before. But we’re going to try, you know, try to do the idea here of just doing them

by hand. But of course, if you’ve got bigger shapes going and you wanted a real mechanically

correct drawing we’ll do a couple demos with ships curves and/or French curves, and

a flexible curve, which are also very helpful if you’re drafting.

But since the 3-D programs have come in for, they make really perfect curves and lines

and really clean, the idea here is because we’re talking about drawing and talking

about the power of drawing and having real good hand-eye coordination and all that, we’re

really going to make it more about estimating by hand even though

we’re using these reference points.

Okay, so that one pretty much centers on that so that’s going to turn like that. Go back

up to here. Then we’re turning at this angle through there so we can just kind of counter

that, feel it out. This tapers in slightly before it comes out, so I’m going to do

that too. Slightly come in before we turn out so we can get the feel of that.

Okay, then we’ll just splay way out here. I’ve got to come way in there like that. I want

to make sure I capture that correctly.

Alright, so we’ll come down. Curve in, be sensitive to what the other side did so that’s

why I kind of do first ghosting, lay it in lightly to get the feel that it feels right.

Okay, so there’s that shape.

We can make this one a little darker on this side now.

So you’re still most definitely using for these in-between spaces in between the referencing

dots and lines and reference points, you’re still using, you know, your best feel for

what you think it’s doing. If this one is bowing a little more down here should this

do a little more of that to feel better? Maybe. As a design I think I’d like it better so

I’m going to actually change that and go I think I like it better if it comes out a

little like this. Turn a little faster and comes in a little more natural curve like

this, see if I like that better. Yeah, probably a little better.

Okay, so there’s that shape with that type of referencing. Again, so we’ll just do

another shape here on the bottom and start doing that. That one’s gone off. The main

plane is now going off to the right vanishing point. The top obviously was going off to

the left vanishing point. I’ll go ahead and put in my verticals for this contained

rectangular area I want my design in. Take that off.

Go ahead and get back to my right

VP over here for the bottom plane. Top plane.

Then I’ll go ahead and X this off. Clean this off a bit.

Okay, then I’ll do my true vertical standing there for the middle plane.

Okay, middle line happens to

line up with the other one. Coincidentally, actually; that’s kind of weird. But it did,

so I’ll break that just to make it clear. It’s just coincidental. Getting a little

bit of crud on here.

Okay, so another shape. Let’s see. Just trying to think what we might do here. Okay,

do that. Okay. Let me kind of design what I think I want to do here.

I’m just trying to come up with a tapering design.

It throws itself out, comes back in.

Comes down.

Down around here, up, and right into the center. Okay, so that’s alright. Okay.

Again, so there’s that shape. Again, let’s find our common idea.

Obviously, that starts there.

That starts there. This crosses right here. This crosses right here at the half.

This crosses right here and ends up there. What else can we add to add a little help

maybe? We wanted to, right as this bows out here we could kind of say, alright, I need

a little helper there, maybe right as this comes in on itself about here.

It's just the same one there. Try that one.

Okay, so let’s take our reference lines or points, I should say, across there. That

kind of helps us understand how that curve goes. Come across there, across that little

span, estimate that. That’s right on our center line which we already have. This little

one here, and this one goes on our diagonal counterpoint.

Let’s see what we’re looking at there.

AUTO SCROLL

Okay, so that one’s on the diagonal. We got that automatically. This one is also on

the diagonal. So we come across there. We’ve got that one automatically. This one is in

so that’s random. This one is in, that’s random, and that one’s random. So let’s

figure out if we can maybe use the center pole for one. We notice that these are very

close, so if I put a real vertical just to be anal about it, through it, let’s see

what we get. Are they pretty close? Yep, almost exact. So right in the center, right in the

center practically. It’s just a hair in. So if I go ahead and I drop this one as well

right from there, kind of get it and say it’s a hair in on that so I can say it’s right

there. This one I can just box off if I wanted to. But I could also use this like this if

I’m sure, well, I’m not sure about that one either. So what can I use that I already

have. I could go from this one through here because that’s a given. See where I end

up. So let’s do that. Oops, that’s a little off. I’m going to go through the true center

of that shape. I don’t want to muck it up. Alright, so right there is my reference point.

So if I go over to the counter side here from here lightly I should be able to arrive at

my proper thing here. So that would be there.

Move over there. And for this one we found

that one through there, so let’s check. Oh, we still need this one. So why don’t

we box that off? I’ll do that in blue actually. So what I’ll do is I’ll simply take right

in the middle there. Make a box from that line and all that containing, and then we’ll

X it off and double it over just to be careful.

There we go.

We’ll just estimate and say, okay, that comes up about right. Alright, so it’s about

right there. So we can call it right about there.

Okay, just to kind of show you what we're doing.

So now this is a pretty long one. We could say, yeah, maybe I need help

there too and just place that there just to say it. Okay, just in case you feel that way.

Let’s cast that to the right vanishing point as well. Add it on. Alright. What can we do

to maybe help that along? We could just say we’re going to take this through here, and

it almost goes right to the top. Just a hair above our blue line there. So we come back

down now. We should be able to get that by just going back just a hair above again like

that. Get it right over there. Alright.

So now let’s take our pencil, got our other

side here so let’s make this darker and make it clear what we’re doing here.

Again, now we have all this reference stuff on top of it. We will reassert our line, our

curved shape. Darken it in a bit right there.

This comes through like that on its way down

so it bows out and comes around, peaks at about there. Do the same and come down at

an angle through here. Angle about like that. Turns straight down almost like that through

there tapering in. It’s already coming out like that here.

Alright, comes in, comes in, turns.

Okay, tapers really like that. Turns pretty quick out and by this time we’re

almost flat there. So how do we reconcile that to meet up with that nicely?

This is a little tricky so I’m going to have to try to say how does that really behave on

the other side like that? It’s a little shallow.

Turn over to this.

Actually, nope.

That has got to actually come through here right like that.

That actually travels on for a bit then turns sharply down like that.

That’s proper. There. I like that better.

This has got to peak here right across there. That’s got to come out a little. So something

has to give over here. This probably has to come out a little more

robustly like that and turn back in.

Alright, so this shape still needs to be a little more curvaceous right here, in my opinion,

between the points. Turn out a little better. A more beautiful curve like that.

There’s that shape.

Plunging down. Okay.

Next we’ll do our last one here.

Going to kind of refer to the shape.

I want to do something a little different here.

Let’s try this next one standing up. We’ll still be going off to the right vanishing point.

Okay, to the top, bottom.

Alright, X her off.

Got our middle point here.

It's a little high, exact. Put it right about there.

Using a true vertical. I want to be accurate.

Again, said it over and over again. Whether you decide to do this freehand we still have to

be accurate and try to practice being accurate and take your time. Even people that draw

professionally freehand and are really fast at this, they still had a lot of studies practice

and focused correctness on their freehand diminishments and doubling and halving.

Alright, this shape—I’ll do the right side first. I’m trying to figure out what

I want. Okay, so long swooping thing like this. We’ll do this.

I’ll make sure my head is out of your way again.

I’ll try to do that.

Okay, then I’ll come down.

Now, we have to some kind of bowing shape here like this.

This is going to peak somewhere over here.

Alright, so that shape does something like that. Let me just make the curve a little nicer.

Then what these reference points do for us, they give us checkpoints so that when

we’re drawing space between the reference points we can make much better guesses because

of the angle that the original first half of the design is actually moving through the

reference points. We then reversed that and meet that with its counterpoint. Again, what

could we do here? This is an obvious one here in the crossing here. This is an obvious one

over here. I’ve got this one here, and we’ve got this one crossing here. We could certainly

put one here cause at the peak here, even here if we wanted to help just for the heck

of it to be annoying. I’d say right in the middle of that curve about there.

Let's see what that does for us.

Alright, we can just kind of go overboard with this and say, well, the long curve will

just do this. Again, this will be the idea of many curves we do because even in flat

space we could have a curved design that’s done with dots connecting a curve on a real

grid. And then, of course, that grid realized in perspective very easily we can assign those

same dots like we’ve been talking about to find those again. Okay, so now we’re

going to move straight over with the obvious ones, which are going to be this one here.

Straight across for that. The two that are laying on our diagonal X are also

very obvious and easy to find there.

Let’s go ahead and bring our others over horizontally just to

kind of claim their territory on the other side as far as their casting toward the vanishing

point. Then we’ll decide how to reference some of the easiest or play

with the idea a couple different ways.

So we have that one and then we’ll just come over with this one. Okay, so now we’ll

get a sharper pencil here. Trade in my pencils here. Okay, so which ones are pretty close

to each other that are obvious? This is a winner because it’s right here. So if I

can find anything close to that I will. I’m going to draw my marks close to that right

on the center of that one and bring it up. And I find if I do the same on it’s counterpart

over here on the diagonal I can get some healthful information because now I can say, oh, this

one is right inside that so just a tiny bit over, right there in foreshortening

That's helpful. Okay, so we have this as opposed to that.

Also, this is a sure bet. So could I just go and say, alright. If I go straight down

this is just inside that. If I go straight down from this, just inside is this one. So

again, if I can do this one straight down just inside that idea should be this one right

here. We’ve identified this one over here. We’ve taken this one down and identified

that one as well for being just outside of this, I should say this one taken up and this

one being just inside of that, just inside. That’s just inside of that. So which ones

do we still need to find? Here we need to find this. Obviously, it’s the center so

that’s just obviously not going anywhere. This is touching the edge as well. We have

our friend over here. We can’t forget about that one. We’ve got two more to figure out.

This one and this one. This could be just really simple X’ng and dividing so let’s

just do that freehand and say, okay, that’s easy enough to say if I do good foreshortened

space that should be about just about there. So we’ll just say that’s there.

This one, again, independently is right here so let’s see if we can find—let’s see

if we can extend the center either way, do something simple with the center idea so we’re

near the bottom on that. So let’s see if there is anything obvious we can get. We know

this is doubled over here. If I take this idea through here as we’re trying to find

this on the other side. Really precise and do that. Find a little reference point right

down there. Come through that on that side I should find it relatively easy to spot this.

Trying to be accurate here. Right on the money there and be able to find it on that.

Yep, just outside there so that would be just outside. Let me make sure I have this right. Take that

position. Shoot through the correct position to that. Get this a little lower than I had

it. Get that over there. Shoot through that. Get over here. So it would be about there.

Okay, let’s see how it goes.

Alright, so we’ve got this one. Obviously, we can tell

that this just kind of comes down. Nice curve all the way through so that’s not a big surprise.

Again, do we really need all this reference planning for this? If it’s really

big, maybe. Oops, I forgot one, forgot a little lonesome hombre there. I’ll come up here

and say, alright, how far away is it from that one there.

If we drop the line here that’s just in from that.

That’s just outside that line about there.

I’ll just kind of say alright.

We’ll see if that helps us at all. This curves in. I don’t want to be too stiff

about that. Curves in here, nice and curvy. Comes back out to that one.

So that one is not going to help us.

We need to come in more like that, turn.

Go in through that one at that angle.

Straighten it out.

By the time we get to this one and turning right as we get to that.

Comes out about the most right there. I’m just trying to figure out why

we missed that on a little. So I’m going to retrace my steps and go, alright, what

we need here is this coming around here.

Out a little more.

So that point over here didn’t help us much.

So let’s figure out how I did that one.

If we had that placed right, doubled over there,

came up. If it was too far out that’s probably the problem. So I had that one out

too far. Would’ve gotten that one easier. So this one the caution was by this method,

I had that point here a little too in, and it didn’t help us much. So if we wouldn’t

boxed it over we could try that. Simply drop the box here to the center point and double

it over. It probably would have been more accurate. We can try it real quick just to

see if it’s worth looking at.

Okay, little center right there just to be annoying.

Let's just see if it helps us at all or if it just makes it more confusing. Then if we want just

do it from that corner to that new corner right over there. Yep, it would have let out

a little better right there. Bingo. That would have led us right there so that was a better

method. So by boxing this properly it actually led us to there instead of being too in like that.

Again, I know I’m being annoyingly anal with this, but you have to understand it’s

the logic if you were doing a bigger idea. It’s just trying to get it right. That is

not to say you can’t make these moves and assumption once you get the shape going and

you use your artistic talent and guesstimations. But, I also have to get across this referencing

idea. So I’m trying to just get across that by, you use what you need and use what makes

things look alright. This should still come out just a little more like that and flesh it out.

Okay, let me darken that in. And that’s the logic again. How many reference points

you need is completely up to you obviously. I used more than you’d necessarily need,

but it’s just about how do we practice putting references on the first side we do so that

when we flip it over it’s as easy as we need it to be for the other side. If you don’t

need as many, the shape is simpler. But you’d be surprised. Foreshortened space does funny

things to shapes like this, and it’s not easy to figure out. Sometimes things start

looking very different on the other side as we will find out when we do some of our sectioning

shapes for our objects in a few diagrams.

Okay, so these were left side first. So left first—that’s right down by the bottom here.

Again, this was left first for that shape.

Alright, so again just some more practice

with referencing side to side with these planes to see if that starts making sense when we

start doing some planes that are going to act as middle sections of things that have

longer depth to them and when the verticals start changing. And you know, doing a lot

of curving. Alright, we will go on to the next diagram.

the diagonal. So we come across there. We’ve got that one automatically. This one is in

so that’s random. This one is in, that’s random, and that one’s random. So let’s

figure out if we can maybe use the center pole for one. We notice that these are very

close, so if I put a real vertical just to be anal about it, through it, let’s see

what we get. Are they pretty close? Yep, almost exact. So right in the center, right in the

center practically. It’s just a hair in. So if I go ahead and I drop this one as well

right from there, kind of get it and say it’s a hair in on that so I can say it’s right

there. This one I can just box off if I wanted to. But I could also use this like this if

I’m sure, well, I’m not sure about that one either. So what can I use that I already

have. I could go from this one through here because that’s a given. See where I end

up. So let’s do that. Oops, that’s a little off. I’m going to go through the true center

of that shape. I don’t want to muck it up. Alright, so right there is my reference point.

So if I go over to the counter side here from here lightly I should be able to arrive at

my proper thing here. So that would be there.

Move over there. And for this one we found

that one through there, so let’s check. Oh, we still need this one. So why don’t

we box that off? I’ll do that in blue actually. So what I’ll do is I’ll simply take right

in the middle there. Make a box from that line and all that containing, and then we’ll

X it off and double it over just to be careful.

There we go.

We’ll just estimate and say, okay, that comes up about right. Alright, so it’s about

right there. So we can call it right about there.

Okay, just to kind of show you what we're doing.

So now this is a pretty long one. We could say, yeah, maybe I need help

there too and just place that there just to say it. Okay, just in case you feel that way.

Let’s cast that to the right vanishing point as well. Add it on. Alright. What can we do

to maybe help that along? We could just say we’re going to take this through here, and

it almost goes right to the top. Just a hair above our blue line there. So we come back

down now. We should be able to get that by just going back just a hair above again like

that. Get it right over there. Alright.

So now let’s take our pencil, got our other

side here so let’s make this darker and make it clear what we’re doing here.

Again, now we have all this reference stuff on top of it. We will reassert our line, our

curved shape. Darken it in a bit right there.

This comes through like that on its way down

so it bows out and comes around, peaks at about there. Do the same and come down at

an angle through here. Angle about like that. Turns straight down almost like that through

there tapering in. It’s already coming out like that here.

Alright, comes in, comes in, turns.

Okay, tapers really like that. Turns pretty quick out and by this time we’re

almost flat there. So how do we reconcile that to meet up with that nicely?

This is a little tricky so I’m going to have to try to say how does that really behave on

the other side like that? It’s a little shallow.

Turn over to this.

Actually, nope.

That has got to actually come through here right like that.

That actually travels on for a bit then turns sharply down like that.

That’s proper. There. I like that better.

This has got to peak here right across there. That’s got to come out a little. So something

has to give over here. This probably has to come out a little more

robustly like that and turn back in.

Alright, so this shape still needs to be a little more curvaceous right here, in my opinion,

between the points. Turn out a little better. A more beautiful curve like that.

There’s that shape.

Plunging down. Okay.

Next we’ll do our last one here.

Going to kind of refer to the shape.

I want to do something a little different here.

Let’s try this next one standing up. We’ll still be going off to the right vanishing point.

Okay, to the top, bottom.

Alright, X her off.

Got our middle point here.

It's a little high, exact. Put it right about there.

Using a true vertical. I want to be accurate.

Again, said it over and over again. Whether you decide to do this freehand we still have to

be accurate and try to practice being accurate and take your time. Even people that draw

professionally freehand and are really fast at this, they still had a lot of studies practice

and focused correctness on their freehand diminishments and doubling and halving.

Alright, this shape—I’ll do the right side first. I’m trying to figure out what

I want. Okay, so long swooping thing like this. We’ll do this.

I’ll make sure my head is out of your way again.

I’ll try to do that.

Okay, then I’ll come down.

Now, we have to some kind of bowing shape here like this.

This is going to peak somewhere over here.

Alright, so that shape does something like that. Let me just make the curve a little nicer.

Then what these reference points do for us, they give us checkpoints so that when

we’re drawing space between the reference points we can make much better guesses because

of the angle that the original first half of the design is actually moving through the

reference points. We then reversed that and meet that with its counterpoint. Again, what

could we do here? This is an obvious one here in the crossing here. This is an obvious one

over here. I’ve got this one here, and we’ve got this one crossing here. We could certainly

put one here cause at the peak here, even here if we wanted to help just for the heck

of it to be annoying. I’d say right in the middle of that curve about there.

Let's see what that does for us.

Alright, we can just kind of go overboard with this and say, well, the long curve will

just do this. Again, this will be the idea of many curves we do because even in flat

space we could have a curved design that’s done with dots connecting a curve on a real

grid. And then, of course, that grid realized in perspective very easily we can assign those

same dots like we’ve been talking about to find those again. Okay, so now we’re

going to move straight over with the obvious ones, which are going to be this one here.

Straight across for that. The two that are laying on our diagonal X are also

very obvious and easy to find there.

Let’s go ahead and bring our others over horizontally just to

kind of claim their territory on the other side as far as their casting toward the vanishing

point. Then we’ll decide how to reference some of the easiest or play

with the idea a couple different ways.

So we have that one and then we’ll just come over with this one. Okay, so now we’ll

get a sharper pencil here. Trade in my pencils here. Okay, so which ones are pretty close

to each other that are obvious? This is a winner because it’s right here. So if I

can find anything close to that I will. I’m going to draw my marks close to that right

on the center of that one and bring it up. And I find if I do the same on it’s counterpart

over here on the diagonal I can get some healthful information because now I can say, oh, this

one is right inside that so just a tiny bit over, right there in foreshortening

That's helpful. Okay, so we have this as opposed to that.

Also, this is a sure bet. So could I just go and say, alright. If I go straight down

this is just inside that. If I go straight down from this, just inside is this one. So

again, if I can do this one straight down just inside that idea should be this one right

here. We’ve identified this one over here. We’ve taken this one down and identified

that one as well for being just outside of this, I should say this one taken up and this

one being just inside of that, just inside. That’s just inside of that. So which ones

do we still need to find? Here we need to find this. Obviously, it’s the center so

that’s just obviously not going anywhere. This is touching the edge as well. We have

our friend over here. We can’t forget about that one. We’ve got two more to figure out.

This one and this one. This could be just really simple X’ng and dividing so let’s

just do that freehand and say, okay, that’s easy enough to say if I do good foreshortened

space that should be about just about there. So we’ll just say that’s there.

This one, again, independently is right here so let’s see if we can find—let’s see

if we can extend the center either way, do something simple with the center idea so we’re

near the bottom on that. So let’s see if there is anything obvious we can get. We know

this is doubled over here. If I take this idea through here as we’re trying to find

this on the other side. Really precise and do that. Find a little reference point right

down there. Come through that on that side I should find it relatively easy to spot this.

Trying to be accurate here. Right on the money there and be able to find it on that.

Yep, just outside there so that would be just outside. Let me make sure I have this right. Take that

position. Shoot through the correct position to that. Get this a little lower than I had

it. Get that over there. Shoot through that. Get over here. So it would be about there.

Okay, let’s see how it goes.

Alright, so we’ve got this one. Obviously, we can tell

that this just kind of comes down. Nice curve all the way through so that’s not a big surprise.

Again, do we really need all this reference planning for this? If it’s really

big, maybe. Oops, I forgot one, forgot a little lonesome hombre there. I’ll come up here

and say, alright, how far away is it from that one there.

If we drop the line here that’s just in from that.

That’s just outside that line about there.

I’ll just kind of say alright.

We’ll see if that helps us at all. This curves in. I don’t want to be too stiff

about that. Curves in here, nice and curvy. Comes back out to that one.

So that one is not going to help us.

We need to come in more like that, turn.

Go in through that one at that angle.

Straighten it out.

By the time we get to this one and turning right as we get to that.

Comes out about the most right there. I’m just trying to figure out why

we missed that on a little. So I’m going to retrace my steps and go, alright, what

we need here is this coming around here.

Out a little more.

So that point over here didn’t help us much.

So let’s figure out how I did that one.

If we had that placed right, doubled over there,

came up. If it was too far out that’s probably the problem. So I had that one out

too far. Would’ve gotten that one easier. So this one the caution was by this method,

I had that point here a little too in, and it didn’t help us much. So if we wouldn’t

boxed it over we could try that. Simply drop the box here to the center point and double

it over. It probably would have been more accurate. We can try it real quick just to

see if it’s worth looking at.

Okay, little center right there just to be annoying.

Let's just see if it helps us at all or if it just makes it more confusing. Then if we want just

do it from that corner to that new corner right over there. Yep, it would have let out

a little better right there. Bingo. That would have led us right there so that was a better

method. So by boxing this properly it actually led us to there instead of being too in like that.

Again, I know I’m being annoyingly anal with this, but you have to understand it’s

the logic if you were doing a bigger idea. It’s just trying to get it right. That is

not to say you can’t make these moves and assumption once you get the shape going and

you use your artistic talent and guesstimations. But, I also have to get across this referencing

idea. So I’m trying to just get across that by, you use what you need and use what makes

things look alright. This should still come out just a little more like that and flesh it out.

Okay, let me darken that in. And that’s the logic again. How many reference points

you need is completely up to you obviously. I used more than you’d necessarily need,

but it’s just about how do we practice putting references on the first side we do so that

when we flip it over it’s as easy as we need it to be for the other side. If you don’t

need as many, the shape is simpler. But you’d be surprised. Foreshortened space does funny

things to shapes like this, and it’s not easy to figure out. Sometimes things start

looking very different on the other side as we will find out when we do some of our sectioning

shapes for our objects in a few diagrams.

Okay, so these were left side first. So left first—that’s right down by the bottom here.

Again, this was left first for that shape.

Alright, so again just some more practice

with referencing side to side with these planes to see if that starts making sense when we

start doing some planes that are going to act as middle sections of things that have

longer depth to them and when the verticals start changing. And you know, doing a lot

of curving. Alright, we will go on to the next diagram.

AUTO SCROLL

Okay, we’re going to do now some side-to-side shapes just as we did with standing planes,

but now we have planes that flush to the ground lying down on the ground. Obviously, some

were getting pretty foreshortened on here getting closer to the horizon. Then they come

forward as they will behave. We want to get used to drawing shapes side to side like this,

about guessing their shapes in deep perspective. We could just as easily put all the shapes

in front here, but what I want to do is actually gauge and talk about what the shapes are doing

and recognize their movement in perspective right away and not necessarily have the flat

versions looking at us, because now it’s almost like we’re going right to drawing

in perspective and trying to figure out basic shapes within the confines of our rectangular

spaces that we believe we want our object to take up. So this would be the most basic

footprint or transparent box surrounding our object, especially after this diagram we’re

going to start raising our floor patterns off the ground to reach them at a second level.

Just like we put the arch back into space and then gave it thickness, we’re going

to raise these off the ground in the next couple diagrams after this. But we want to

get used to side-to-side movement on the ground a little bit. It’s very similar or the same

movements as we made in standing planes, but now we have to consider a little sharper foreshortening,

of course, as we get nearer the eye level.

Okay, so let’s go ahead. I was just going to start a basic boat shape on this one. I’m

going to say, okay, right here would be the tip of the boat, and then I’m going to make

a curve come back and land maybe this far from the center here, and then just to try

to feel it out and say it’s going to reach the center somewhere around here and curve

pretty sharply. I’m going to just draw that in and say, okay, if the front of the boat

was coming up I’m literally just going to draw it like this, like it really came around

and curved like the edge of an ellipse here. Came around like that.

So we’re just going to try to imagine how this boat shape would come up front like that

as a curve, and this is pretty straightforward now. We’re going to move pretty straightforward

over like this, all the way over to meet that curve. So that’s pretty foreshortened, but

the idea is if you can imagine what that space is really doing in flat space.

I'll clean that up a bit. I don’t want the bow to be too—the stern to be there and the transom

about there for that shape. Alright, so again, it’s pretty foreshortened, but if we know

that this reaches over here we’ll just make some points now with our pencil and say, okay,

that reaches right there. So we’ll go straight across there. We know it crosses the diagonal

about here. We have shorter spaces to work in, so actually it will be a little easier

to reach some of these. We have another one crossing here. Of course, we have this one

here right there on the edge. We have to double that one over.

So if we want what we can do is—pretty easy to reach this so let’s go across and just

carefully consider that blue mark across to the other side using our left vanishing point.

It lands right over there. I know it starts looking like a circle, but actually remember

this is severely foreshortened so you have to kind of think, okay, within the confines

of this idea can I take a flat boat shape in my mind knowing how it work basically in

a rectangle and then understand that this great amount of, or good amount of foreshortening

would change it, but I still want to be able to visualize the shape generally. So the important

thing here is to just behave on the ground. Then it becomes easier as we get these that

face this more directly as they come forward.

Alright, so next I’ll take my red over here that crosses through the other diagonal.

There is that one. This one also.

So that has to come way over here, and then we’re

going to double this one over. So I guess one way to do it would be I think I’m going

to extend the center line here to the right vanishing point, and I’m going to carefully

extend that over there. And I’m going to take this through that one carefully.

Go through here until I hit the center right there and make a reference point. I’m going to then

go through to this point which represents that point over here to get the next one where

it touches the bottom edge. So by going this way where I touch the bottom edge with that

line, even though it’s severely foreshortened, I basically get this idea here, right there.

Okay, so now we can fill it in. I know it’s pretty steep and weird, but let’s give it

a shot. We’re going to say this comes through at that angle there, so it has to be traveling

over toward here. This is going over toward there. So when wrapping and curving toward

that. We have to know that it still wraps around and comes and lands right about here.

It just touches a little bit of a straight there. We’re going to kind of prepare ourselves

for that in that severe perspective. So we have to be able to turn it and gauge how it

would straighten out like that, come through that curve and meet there.

Now we’re literally going over here through this to that peak, so that’s quite a long

stretch there. Trying to get my head out of the way here as I bend my arm around. Then

I’m going to try to also draw through that properly on that side. So that’s very foreshortened.

You might wonder, well, why is it that important to be so careful at this, you know, severe

foreshortening? The idea is at least if you’re getting an idea that the ground is that foreshortened

we could still come up and raise this off the ground, which we would be if the shape

had height, and still land on the proper ideas if we raised them up and could still make

a shape reasonably and still control it. But really, it’s to show how flat a shape can

really be. This is more of really a boat shape that would look more like this.

So if we took this one, you know, and flattened it we really could say it was something more

like this. And if it had a center or something it could be literally considered more like

this and just coming out like that. It was like a flower petal type of idea, back being

like this. Maybe there are rafters going across. It doesn’t matter. The idea is, see it’s

coming out like a leaf shape. It’s probably a little narrower over here, but when it’s

exaggerated it gets quite wide. Alright, so it’s just like a typical boat shape there

with a center right there. So if we darken that in—I’m just trying to keep out of

the way of the camera. We’ll do that. Becoming a little easier as we go. So there’s the

flat back and that tip. It’s hard to see that actually comes to a point because it

curves around so severely in perspective, basically. It comes around like that.

Okay, so let’s do another shape here. Kind of more like a little bit of a goblet glass

or something like that. We could do this one over here again. So maybe we have something

flat here in the center, and then maybe this one starts out. Then we want it to curve down

flat about here. Let’s see if I can taper it, come around a curve right there. Slide

around. Again, this is flattened out pretty well by perspective. We’ll just try to feel

out how round that becomes there. Our common points are touching the wall here, touching

the wall there. Crosses here. Crosses there. Kind of peaks there in a sense. Touches here.

Again, if we want to draw across, let’s do that to the left vanishing point. Draw

across from our red point touching the diagonal from our blue point here all the way over.

Red point at the other end of the diagonal. And our blue point goes across some distance,

which we don’t quite know. Like that. We can identify, obviously, our point there and

our point right there, and our blue point all the way across would be right here.

Now, again, maybe if I extend my middle stem here, make a reference point if I need to.

So we shall see. Well, to me it looks like the easiest way to get this point down here

would be we could box it. What I’ll do is I’ll box it up to this point here, this

red point. I’m going to draw the red point around to here, across. I’m going to take

that blue shape, come up, the corner of the box here, X it off and double it over. Right

to that corner. We’ll see how that goes. The logic is you just box it off that way.

Come back down. That way you get your center point. Drive that center toward the left vanishing

point. Get your center. Take that corner. Drive it through there.

Yep, and you’re going to end up right over there.

So that amount of space turns into, going right through

the center. Oops, wrong center. Sorry, this is the center. Properly going right over there

so it comes to about there. It’s about right in foreshortened space so we’ll take that

little blue mark and put it right there.

Okay, the other red space we have this. Oh and this one too. So again, if we wanted to

we could take this one and elongate it. That might be too far up, but maybe not. I’m

going to take a red line through this one. Drive it through the blue and say, oh okay,

if that drives right to there, makes a reference point, I should be able to drive back to the

other side there carefully coming back. It crosses here. So we span that, not quite double

it here. There’s the other blue point. Because I came through there, went through that one,

made a reference point. Came back over to this point. Crossing that back wall gives me that.

Let’s try drawing in our shape again.

So we know this curves all the way in and out. That’s coming down there. We could

say that’s coming around here. It’s going to curve way in. We’re talking about really

curving fast here. That’s going in. It stops about there. Curves around about midpoint.

I guess we could take the midpoint here. We never got that. Let’s just give it a shot

here and say, alright, that doubled over would be about there.

I believe it should be something like this.

I’m just doubling this over visually and saying, alright, if we double it over,

come back, draw it out.

Then I’ll take that line. I’m just trying to get the best angle here.

This kind of comes straight and then turns more. So we’re going to come down

between these two. It turns out, starts coming toward the wall about there. So right up there.

It can’t touch the wall until about right past that line. It’s way down there. It

touches the wall really right around there and then departs slowly.

It comes around This is pretty foreshortened and difficult, but we’ll get it.

There it is. It touches that wall and then comes way over nice and long.

Okay, so that’s that basic idea. It comes and loops. Comes around. This does the same

thing. I’m trying to get my head out of there. Loops, comes around. Slowly. I want

to push it out a little more than that as it comes to the wall.

Foreshortened space.

There we go. So that’s a hard one to get, when it comes over and wants to hit, but since

we know it really hits the most straight line right across there we know it’s over here.

It has to be. So that’s something that is hard to figure out and get right if you’re

just freehanding something, to guess that that would push out and curve back around

on itself there in a foreshortened shape. But that’s actually what it does. This movement

here is very foreshortened and looks fairly odd, but that’s pretty much the way the

spacing works out. Then this one curves and comes back much more flat toward the top.

So there’s our shape doing the same thing in foreshortened space.

Okay, let me darken this shape in too here for the first one we drew. Coming back and

going over. Then the back end is this. Front end is right there. There’s that shape.

Alright, and again I just took the neck and just doubled it over basically. Yeah, it’s

pretty foreshortened. So next we can kind of do a heart shape of we want. I’ll do

one like this here. I think I’m going to have it double over here, curve in on itself,

go back over, and meet there. I’ll draw that again, coming around, bending, coming

around, meeting the wall and bending back on itself. About like that.

So again, let’s mark off where that goes.

Diagonal that hits here. Diagonal that hits here. Hits the middle line there.

That’s a clue. Really straightens out about right there.

Let’s see if that’s enough. We might want to take something here as well.

Hits the top seam right there. Comes back around right here. Obviously, it packs out

there. Alright, so let’s put those over to the left vanishing point.

Take my red reference like that.

My blue is all over here some distance. We’re not sure what. We’re going to have

to reference that. Same with the red over here, next to that thing. This goes all the

way over the edge so that’s easy to find over here. And the red also here we can recognize

as hitting the diagonal at that point over there on the reference. So there it is.

Okay, so what else do we need to bring over? That’s the blue one up here is in the center.

So what we can do is if we want we can double, oh, I can’t find this kind of peak here.

I guess I’ll do that too.

So I’m going to actually do that in the box. Let me do that peak there first.

What I’m going to do is make a box right here. Double that box over.

Say alright.

Put a center to it. Drive that over to here. Make the center. Come back.

Go right through there like that. So that should be right about there.

So that comes up. I have to draw it back up and meet at its equivalent spot, which would be right here.

There, there. Alright, so there’s that. There’s that peak there, which could

help me get back up to that.

Next, we can do the red spot. Again, what we could do cause the blue is so close to

it, what I’m going to do is I’m going to draw my red spot to square off here. I’m

going to X it off with the red just to make to that halfway seam. The whole key here is

that we’re this halfway seam to double over our box. Again, just to make sure we’re

getting foreshortened space. Okay. Got our center. Drive it over to the left vanishing

point. That happens to fit right there. So that’s a break here. Get that reference.

Come over. Go right through that center reference basically. Find that right over there. So

there’s that dot over there. We know if we bring it up toward the right vanishing

point a little just a hair outside that on the blue is our blue, which is about right

here. So that blue represents this as that. Now that is this. We’ve got those two. We

have one more here but that appears on the diagonal so that’s the easy one. That’s

on the diagonal. This one was also on the diagonal, which we brought over to here.

Let's just make sure that’s correct.

Alright, so let’s see if we can get this shape now. I think we have enough.

This one starts here and goes out and curves through here. So curve through to go out,

curve through to go out to there.

That curve does this and comes around here. So essentially I would

still like to find where that peak is out here. All I’m going to do here is I’m

going to take that angle, going to go through the center reference right there to a reference

point in the middle. And I’m going to come back to this.

I’m going to draw this all the way over.

Make another reference line. I’m going to take that reference point and

come back through this point here. That should point me toward that. So that now becomes

counterpoint over there. I’ve just doubled space. Why? I went from this one through this

to hit the center line to make a reference point and came back through the counterpoint

of that which is that to come back and find this on the same line going over to the left.

So now that should help me turn. And this turns right on that idea. I’m going to turn

that on that idea too. Come back like this so it turns, turns. And that comes back through

there back to there. So I should be able to come through here, go like this.

That really peaks there so we have to turn that right there. Nice and round.

I need to flush that edge out a little bit over here. So if this turns and comes out we have to

turn it and come out here. I want to flush that a little more there so I want to get

that a little fatter over here. Come back over there.

Right over there. And this now moves toward

the blue so that has to make a slow turn and come down. So this is actually

flatter here. It has to make a slow turn and then meet up to that. So that’s what that

needs to do. So it turns away by here. Turns away by here. Then that has to come by here

slowly so that comes by flat so it’s just coming around here to almost hit that to come

back into here. So I need to make that move. It almost like has to come way around like

this. There we go. Slams through here and comes up.

Alright, so I think I have this a little too flat here since this comes around here. I

didn’t quite get that the right way. Is still don’t like the way that comes around.

I want to flush that out a little and push that reference point out a little in red.

Let’s make it look a little better. But strangely that is that very odd shape there.

I’ve got to get that neck there. Got a little thick there. Little too fast on that turn,

so I’m just going to try to make this just a better shape.

Come back out. That’s pretty foreshortened there.

We just come and sign it off. Pretty weird little shape but it’s getting there.

Okay, so that one had to double over in a pretty complex way. What are we thinking of

doing next? Oh yeah, just a wobble line in general so I’ll do that now. So this one

I’m going to take this. What did I have in mind here? Let me look over here. Okay,

this is going to wobble. Again, one side come around, turn again, one of these wandering ones.

Then come back to the corner again.

Okay, on the outside. We’ll get this going one more time here.

That crosses there on the blue.

On the red, on the red. On the corner.

So we know that corner, that corner, that corner. And let’s just throw these across

to see how many extras we might need. I’ll throw away this. Throw over this to there,

to the diagonal. The blue I have to double over. The diagonal is easy to hit again.

Alright, so we’ve got those for sure.

So that curves right after that so I’ll double this one over. I can probably do that

pretty easily by, again, using the middle seam if I want to extend it a little bit.

Let’s see, if I want to find the blue I can go through the red pretty precisely here

like this. Find that reference point there and come back through the red. Find the blue

over here. That should work. So now we’ve got blue, blue. We’ve got the red and that’s

it. Let’s see if we can do it with that. Now, this does peak over here about this far

away. So if I wanted to I could actually draw a light line over there and make note of the

fact that after this one turns out this comes out. If I wanted to see where that edge comes

out fairly realistically I could say, alright, so we’re talking about this foreshortened

space here over on this side is what foreshortened space probably about like that. I’ll take

a guess that that one there is basically here.

but now we have planes that flush to the ground lying down on the ground. Obviously, some

were getting pretty foreshortened on here getting closer to the horizon. Then they come

forward as they will behave. We want to get used to drawing shapes side to side like this,

about guessing their shapes in deep perspective. We could just as easily put all the shapes

in front here, but what I want to do is actually gauge and talk about what the shapes are doing

and recognize their movement in perspective right away and not necessarily have the flat

versions looking at us, because now it’s almost like we’re going right to drawing

in perspective and trying to figure out basic shapes within the confines of our rectangular

spaces that we believe we want our object to take up. So this would be the most basic

footprint or transparent box surrounding our object, especially after this diagram we’re

going to start raising our floor patterns off the ground to reach them at a second level.

Just like we put the arch back into space and then gave it thickness, we’re going

to raise these off the ground in the next couple diagrams after this. But we want to

get used to side-to-side movement on the ground a little bit. It’s very similar or the same

movements as we made in standing planes, but now we have to consider a little sharper foreshortening,

of course, as we get nearer the eye level.

Okay, so let’s go ahead. I was just going to start a basic boat shape on this one. I’m

going to say, okay, right here would be the tip of the boat, and then I’m going to make

a curve come back and land maybe this far from the center here, and then just to try

to feel it out and say it’s going to reach the center somewhere around here and curve

pretty sharply. I’m going to just draw that in and say, okay, if the front of the boat

was coming up I’m literally just going to draw it like this, like it really came around

and curved like the edge of an ellipse here. Came around like that.

So we’re just going to try to imagine how this boat shape would come up front like that

as a curve, and this is pretty straightforward now. We’re going to move pretty straightforward

over like this, all the way over to meet that curve. So that’s pretty foreshortened, but

the idea is if you can imagine what that space is really doing in flat space.

I'll clean that up a bit. I don’t want the bow to be too—the stern to be there and the transom

about there for that shape. Alright, so again, it’s pretty foreshortened, but if we know

that this reaches over here we’ll just make some points now with our pencil and say, okay,

that reaches right there. So we’ll go straight across there. We know it crosses the diagonal

about here. We have shorter spaces to work in, so actually it will be a little easier

to reach some of these. We have another one crossing here. Of course, we have this one

here right there on the edge. We have to double that one over.

So if we want what we can do is—pretty easy to reach this so let’s go across and just

carefully consider that blue mark across to the other side using our left vanishing point.

It lands right over there. I know it starts looking like a circle, but actually remember

this is severely foreshortened so you have to kind of think, okay, within the confines

of this idea can I take a flat boat shape in my mind knowing how it work basically in

a rectangle and then understand that this great amount of, or good amount of foreshortening

would change it, but I still want to be able to visualize the shape generally. So the important

thing here is to just behave on the ground. Then it becomes easier as we get these that

face this more directly as they come forward.

Alright, so next I’ll take my red over here that crosses through the other diagonal.

There is that one. This one also.

So that has to come way over here, and then we’re

going to double this one over. So I guess one way to do it would be I think I’m going

to extend the center line here to the right vanishing point, and I’m going to carefully

extend that over there. And I’m going to take this through that one carefully.

Go through here until I hit the center right there and make a reference point. I’m going to then

go through to this point which represents that point over here to get the next one where

it touches the bottom edge. So by going this way where I touch the bottom edge with that

line, even though it’s severely foreshortened, I basically get this idea here, right there.

Okay, so now we can fill it in. I know it’s pretty steep and weird, but let’s give it

a shot. We’re going to say this comes through at that angle there, so it has to be traveling

over toward here. This is going over toward there. So when wrapping and curving toward

that. We have to know that it still wraps around and comes and lands right about here.

It just touches a little bit of a straight there. We’re going to kind of prepare ourselves

for that in that severe perspective. So we have to be able to turn it and gauge how it

would straighten out like that, come through that curve and meet there.

Now we’re literally going over here through this to that peak, so that’s quite a long

stretch there. Trying to get my head out of the way here as I bend my arm around. Then

I’m going to try to also draw through that properly on that side. So that’s very foreshortened.

You might wonder, well, why is it that important to be so careful at this, you know, severe

foreshortening? The idea is at least if you’re getting an idea that the ground is that foreshortened

we could still come up and raise this off the ground, which we would be if the shape

had height, and still land on the proper ideas if we raised them up and could still make

a shape reasonably and still control it. But really, it’s to show how flat a shape can

really be. This is more of really a boat shape that would look more like this.

So if we took this one, you know, and flattened it we really could say it was something more

like this. And if it had a center or something it could be literally considered more like

this and just coming out like that. It was like a flower petal type of idea, back being

like this. Maybe there are rafters going across. It doesn’t matter. The idea is, see it’s

coming out like a leaf shape. It’s probably a little narrower over here, but when it’s

exaggerated it gets quite wide. Alright, so it’s just like a typical boat shape there

with a center right there. So if we darken that in—I’m just trying to keep out of

the way of the camera. We’ll do that. Becoming a little easier as we go. So there’s the

flat back and that tip. It’s hard to see that actually comes to a point because it

curves around so severely in perspective, basically. It comes around like that.

Okay, so let’s do another shape here. Kind of more like a little bit of a goblet glass

or something like that. We could do this one over here again. So maybe we have something

flat here in the center, and then maybe this one starts out. Then we want it to curve down

flat about here. Let’s see if I can taper it, come around a curve right there. Slide

around. Again, this is flattened out pretty well by perspective. We’ll just try to feel

out how round that becomes there. Our common points are touching the wall here, touching

the wall there. Crosses here. Crosses there. Kind of peaks there in a sense. Touches here.

Again, if we want to draw across, let’s do that to the left vanishing point. Draw

across from our red point touching the diagonal from our blue point here all the way over.

Red point at the other end of the diagonal. And our blue point goes across some distance,

which we don’t quite know. Like that. We can identify, obviously, our point there and

our point right there, and our blue point all the way across would be right here.

Now, again, maybe if I extend my middle stem here, make a reference point if I need to.

So we shall see. Well, to me it looks like the easiest way to get this point down here

would be we could box it. What I’ll do is I’ll box it up to this point here, this

red point. I’m going to draw the red point around to here, across. I’m going to take

that blue shape, come up, the corner of the box here, X it off and double it over. Right

to that corner. We’ll see how that goes. The logic is you just box it off that way.

Come back down. That way you get your center point. Drive that center toward the left vanishing

point. Get your center. Take that corner. Drive it through there.

Yep, and you’re going to end up right over there.

So that amount of space turns into, going right through

the center. Oops, wrong center. Sorry, this is the center. Properly going right over there

so it comes to about there. It’s about right in foreshortened space so we’ll take that

little blue mark and put it right there.

Okay, the other red space we have this. Oh and this one too. So again, if we wanted to

we could take this one and elongate it. That might be too far up, but maybe not. I’m

going to take a red line through this one. Drive it through the blue and say, oh okay,

if that drives right to there, makes a reference point, I should be able to drive back to the

other side there carefully coming back. It crosses here. So we span that, not quite double

it here. There’s the other blue point. Because I came through there, went through that one,

made a reference point. Came back over to this point. Crossing that back wall gives me that.

Let’s try drawing in our shape again.

So we know this curves all the way in and out. That’s coming down there. We could

say that’s coming around here. It’s going to curve way in. We’re talking about really

curving fast here. That’s going in. It stops about there. Curves around about midpoint.

I guess we could take the midpoint here. We never got that. Let’s just give it a shot

here and say, alright, that doubled over would be about there.

I believe it should be something like this.

I’m just doubling this over visually and saying, alright, if we double it over,

come back, draw it out.

Then I’ll take that line. I’m just trying to get the best angle here.

This kind of comes straight and then turns more. So we’re going to come down

between these two. It turns out, starts coming toward the wall about there. So right up there.

It can’t touch the wall until about right past that line. It’s way down there. It

touches the wall really right around there and then departs slowly.

It comes around This is pretty foreshortened and difficult, but we’ll get it.

There it is. It touches that wall and then comes way over nice and long.

Okay, so that’s that basic idea. It comes and loops. Comes around. This does the same

thing. I’m trying to get my head out of there. Loops, comes around. Slowly. I want

to push it out a little more than that as it comes to the wall.

Foreshortened space.

There we go. So that’s a hard one to get, when it comes over and wants to hit, but since

we know it really hits the most straight line right across there we know it’s over here.

It has to be. So that’s something that is hard to figure out and get right if you’re

just freehanding something, to guess that that would push out and curve back around

on itself there in a foreshortened shape. But that’s actually what it does. This movement

here is very foreshortened and looks fairly odd, but that’s pretty much the way the

spacing works out. Then this one curves and comes back much more flat toward the top.

So there’s our shape doing the same thing in foreshortened space.

Okay, let me darken this shape in too here for the first one we drew. Coming back and

going over. Then the back end is this. Front end is right there. There’s that shape.

Alright, and again I just took the neck and just doubled it over basically. Yeah, it’s

pretty foreshortened. So next we can kind of do a heart shape of we want. I’ll do

one like this here. I think I’m going to have it double over here, curve in on itself,

go back over, and meet there. I’ll draw that again, coming around, bending, coming

around, meeting the wall and bending back on itself. About like that.

So again, let’s mark off where that goes.

Diagonal that hits here. Diagonal that hits here. Hits the middle line there.

That’s a clue. Really straightens out about right there.

Let’s see if that’s enough. We might want to take something here as well.

Hits the top seam right there. Comes back around right here. Obviously, it packs out

there. Alright, so let’s put those over to the left vanishing point.

Take my red reference like that.

My blue is all over here some distance. We’re not sure what. We’re going to have

to reference that. Same with the red over here, next to that thing. This goes all the

way over the edge so that’s easy to find over here. And the red also here we can recognize

as hitting the diagonal at that point over there on the reference. So there it is.

Okay, so what else do we need to bring over? That’s the blue one up here is in the center.

So what we can do is if we want we can double, oh, I can’t find this kind of peak here.

I guess I’ll do that too.

So I’m going to actually do that in the box. Let me do that peak there first.

What I’m going to do is make a box right here. Double that box over.

Say alright.

Put a center to it. Drive that over to here. Make the center. Come back.

Go right through there like that. So that should be right about there.

So that comes up. I have to draw it back up and meet at its equivalent spot, which would be right here.

There, there. Alright, so there’s that. There’s that peak there, which could

help me get back up to that.

Next, we can do the red spot. Again, what we could do cause the blue is so close to

it, what I’m going to do is I’m going to draw my red spot to square off here. I’m

going to X it off with the red just to make to that halfway seam. The whole key here is

that we’re this halfway seam to double over our box. Again, just to make sure we’re

getting foreshortened space. Okay. Got our center. Drive it over to the left vanishing

point. That happens to fit right there. So that’s a break here. Get that reference.

Come over. Go right through that center reference basically. Find that right over there. So

there’s that dot over there. We know if we bring it up toward the right vanishing

point a little just a hair outside that on the blue is our blue, which is about right

here. So that blue represents this as that. Now that is this. We’ve got those two. We

have one more here but that appears on the diagonal so that’s the easy one. That’s

on the diagonal. This one was also on the diagonal, which we brought over to here.

Let's just make sure that’s correct.

Alright, so let’s see if we can get this shape now. I think we have enough.

This one starts here and goes out and curves through here. So curve through to go out,

curve through to go out to there.

That curve does this and comes around here. So essentially I would

still like to find where that peak is out here. All I’m going to do here is I’m

going to take that angle, going to go through the center reference right there to a reference

point in the middle. And I’m going to come back to this.

I’m going to draw this all the way over.

Make another reference line. I’m going to take that reference point and

come back through this point here. That should point me toward that. So that now becomes

counterpoint over there. I’ve just doubled space. Why? I went from this one through this

to hit the center line to make a reference point and came back through the counterpoint

of that which is that to come back and find this on the same line going over to the left.

So now that should help me turn. And this turns right on that idea. I’m going to turn

that on that idea too. Come back like this so it turns, turns. And that comes back through

there back to there. So I should be able to come through here, go like this.

That really peaks there so we have to turn that right there. Nice and round.

I need to flush that edge out a little bit over here. So if this turns and comes out we have to

turn it and come out here. I want to flush that a little more there so I want to get

that a little fatter over here. Come back over there.

Right over there. And this now moves toward

the blue so that has to make a slow turn and come down. So this is actually

flatter here. It has to make a slow turn and then meet up to that. So that’s what that

needs to do. So it turns away by here. Turns away by here. Then that has to come by here

slowly so that comes by flat so it’s just coming around here to almost hit that to come

back into here. So I need to make that move. It almost like has to come way around like

this. There we go. Slams through here and comes up.

Alright, so I think I have this a little too flat here since this comes around here. I

didn’t quite get that the right way. Is still don’t like the way that comes around.

I want to flush that out a little and push that reference point out a little in red.

Let’s make it look a little better. But strangely that is that very odd shape there.

I’ve got to get that neck there. Got a little thick there. Little too fast on that turn,

so I’m just going to try to make this just a better shape.

Come back out. That’s pretty foreshortened there.

We just come and sign it off. Pretty weird little shape but it’s getting there.

Okay, so that one had to double over in a pretty complex way. What are we thinking of

doing next? Oh yeah, just a wobble line in general so I’ll do that now. So this one

I’m going to take this. What did I have in mind here? Let me look over here. Okay,

this is going to wobble. Again, one side come around, turn again, one of these wandering ones.

Then come back to the corner again.

Okay, on the outside. We’ll get this going one more time here.

That crosses there on the blue.

On the red, on the red. On the corner.

So we know that corner, that corner, that corner. And let’s just throw these across

to see how many extras we might need. I’ll throw away this. Throw over this to there,

to the diagonal. The blue I have to double over. The diagonal is easy to hit again.

Alright, so we’ve got those for sure.

So that curves right after that so I’ll double this one over. I can probably do that

pretty easily by, again, using the middle seam if I want to extend it a little bit.

Let’s see, if I want to find the blue I can go through the red pretty precisely here

like this. Find that reference point there and come back through the red. Find the blue

over here. That should work. So now we’ve got blue, blue. We’ve got the red and that’s

it. Let’s see if we can do it with that. Now, this does peak over here about this far

away. So if I wanted to I could actually draw a light line over there and make note of the

fact that after this one turns out this comes out. If I wanted to see where that edge comes

out fairly realistically I could say, alright, so we’re talking about this foreshortened

space here over on this side is what foreshortened space probably about like that. I’ll take

a guess that that one there is basically here.

AUTO SCROLL

So let’s see how that does. Okay. This one peaks about here. I’ll do that in blue just

to try and remind myself where it goes just inside of that. So just inside of this is

this, going to that vanishing point. So I could kind of say that’s over there. Alright,

so let’s see how that goes. Let me get a sharper pencil here. Again, a lot of these,

if you’re drawing them freehand are just going to be these little nicks anyway. We’re

drafting them just to try to make them clear. Again, I still think that could be flushed

out a little more. But, we’re really trying to map this stuff on here. So if this turns

here then this has to turn here and then turn itself again. It’s going to be a very fairly

foreshortened looking space. There. Those ideas here. That would turn over there.

Okay, so let’s give it a shot. This comes and wraps around, kind of straightens a little

bit here. So that’s wrapping around there. Wraps around and comes to here. So that wraps

around and comes to there. The neck is right there. Alright.

I’m going to turn my arm and then curve

it back there so it turns around and peaks here. It turns around and peaks there.

Just a little bit there. So just very short there.

Turns around.

Draw the long way over.

Comes around to the blue.

Blue curves up to here, swings back out right here.

Just going to push a little further out to be a little more voluptuous back in right there.

It’s a hard one and then right over.

Alright, so that’s something like that so it’s hard to get that one there.

It’s a fairly foreshortened peak right there.

So back on itself a little bit.

So if that comes down it kind of comes down around and whip it around.

It’s a fairly foreshortened corner over there.

Okay, that’s a tough one, but that’s the challenge is to basically keep correcting

it a little bit after your references to see how foreshortened that would be.

This one coming down. This one slides slowly over fairly close to the edge

Here we go.

One more shape if we’re going to do something, I guess, from my reverse peak we could,

what could we do here?

Let’s try it on the reverse side of this one and just say we’ll do a nice curve.

Again, that hits there.

Blue there. Blue there. Both of these areas on the red.

So is that enough? And then, of course, it touches right here on the blue coming around

right there. I’ll draw that blue over from the left vanishing point.

Notice the red is just a hair above that just the tiniest bit. We also can draw the blue so we’ll probably

do that. This needs to be doubled over again. This one can be brought straight across. Let’s

do that. Right there. This blue one is here. That blue one will be easy to find with our

center seam again, so I’ll do that.

I’ll go from red to the blue. Try to be precise here.

Make a little reference point right there. Then my red coming back to the other

red on the other side should give us our blue when we touch here. That’s the idea.

Then we have our other blue over here, and actually it would probably be pretty easy

to do this blue through the red right there. It gives me a reference point right there.

I’ve got to carry that red over cause remember this red touches the diagonal, so I have to

have that as an anchor over here. Bring it over. Now I should be able to take this point

through here, line it up; find that blue space just about there.

So now we’ve got this and this, that and that.

What else do we need here? This red one. Let’s figure out what

we can do with that. What I’m going to do is make a box shape from—there we go.

These two are almost exactly on the same line. If I make a little rectangle from that whole

shape I’ll literally just, heck of it, go over to the corner.

Right to the corner, find the center.

Drive the center over from the left vanishing point to the middle. Make a

reference. It should be able to come right from that corner through that. Bingo.

Also, that red can be found over here by coming straight up toward the right vanishing point

just as where this one goes up to that one. Should be able to walk out that space.

Let's do that. That one and that one are close. Now I should be able to double that one over

and then find it on the diagonal. Good. Alright.

Okay, so we’ve got now blue, blue;

red, red, red, red; blue, blue; red, red; blue, blue.

So let’s see if we can draw on that other

side and just kind of guess the rest. That’s a pretty easy curve going out.

So I’m going to go out something like that and curve in. It curves in about here

so actually if I wanted to make a little reference idea here I can kind of enlarge that little

bit on that side like that. Bring it straight over. Climax about there. That might help

me. Say okay, so this is coming through and straightens out. Coming through, straightens out.

Then goes right through here. So there you go.

Okay, comes around, peaks. Comes around to the blue. Comes through the blue to here.

Turns right inside there so it actually, that little negative space will help straight across

just inside that blue line on that side. I’m going to do the same thing here. Curve going

like this. Then it turns radically fast through this basic corner.

Go to here.

It turns up through here.

Goes up a little bit all the way straight across the peak of the blue.

So it goes up to here a little bit above the blue. I’ll do that. It’ll peak back down

so the blue is over here. It comes away. So I’m just going to take a guess at that shape

acting like that. It comes around, touches there

and then slowly turns back over.

I’ve got another clue here if I want that one.

Just to be precise I can come over. I realize it

has to go through there so let me draw it out. It kind of turns over like that.

Fattens out this way.

Turns up there. I have to turn it up there. Okay, so right like that.

Alright, let me try to get this fleshed out. Something like that. Okay, so that’s that

perspective piece there. And I’ve got to close off the front of the shape. That’s

the front of the box. That’s the bizarre shape here. I’m going to give myself an

aneurysm doing this, but pretty much how that’s how that one would go. Pretty much that’s

how that one would go. If you were starting to design pattern on the floor or going to

raise it later, we’ll give you a good idea where that should meet. I’m just kind of

inventing reference as I go, close off the backside like that. Darken it in. There’s

our shape basically. We darken this in.

Okay, these were not easy. Some of these curves are hard to get and they look a little odd.

I’ll have to check this one. It’s like, yeah, that tapers in so this needs to taper

out, and then it flushes and hits here, and it flushes out and hits way over here. So

basically that’s a really long curve. That comes pretty close to the wall there. Straight

across pretty close to the wall. So that one is particularly odd, but if you check the

references it’s basically straight across. Let me check this one while we’re still

on live to make it hard on myself. That’s a little bit in. Okay, so that one even would

come in more. My opinion, I could correct this one a little bit by saying that starts

leaving the wall right here. Literally, it comes through there at that angle. That’s

about right. And then it literally straightens out into that one. That’s bizarre but I

believe that’s how it’s working. Yep, so very foreshortened and odd over here. We

have this peak here, peak over there. Swing in, so it has to turn fast, swing over, and

then fly right back over there.

Alright, so I’ll stick by that. Alright, we’ve got a boat shape over here. Really

strangely it does this. You know, it gets so condensed that it’s hard to see the peak

at that point. So it has to be pretty foreshortened there. But that’s, in fact, the way a boat

shape would very well fit in to a very foreshortened rectangle idea if it was, you know, maybe

even wider. It might be a pedal that could go this wide.

Alright, so just get used to making these ground shapes because we’re now we’re

going to go on to making just a couple next to each other in the next diagram and then

grow them straight out of the ground and realize that same shape up in the air almost like

it’s a designer desk or a front desk of some art deco design firm. We’re going to

kind of assume some of these shapes start taking on some interesting wobbles and stuff,

just straight up. Then we’ll start kind of more organic shapes that have curves all around.

So again, more ground referencing extremely similar or the same as we were doing with

the standing shapes. We just have to figure out some tougher foreshortening on some of

these. The shapes got a little more curvaceous and difficult to do actually, but we’re

just trying to feel them out. The logic is just keep reviewing how I referenced, and

like, well, why’d you get that and get over there? I tried to make it pretty clear about

side-to-side and what side we started with. So if you have to review the lecture, please

do, about what side I started with. What were the simpler ones to find? Other ones we had

to do some of the rectangle X’ng. The other ones we used the middle plane in order to

make the little reference points we’ve been talking about.

Okay, alright. We’ll go onto the next.

to try and remind myself where it goes just inside of that. So just inside of this is

this, going to that vanishing point. So I could kind of say that’s over there. Alright,

so let’s see how that goes. Let me get a sharper pencil here. Again, a lot of these,

if you’re drawing them freehand are just going to be these little nicks anyway. We’re

drafting them just to try to make them clear. Again, I still think that could be flushed

out a little more. But, we’re really trying to map this stuff on here. So if this turns

here then this has to turn here and then turn itself again. It’s going to be a very fairly

foreshortened looking space. There. Those ideas here. That would turn over there.

Okay, so let’s give it a shot. This comes and wraps around, kind of straightens a little

bit here. So that’s wrapping around there. Wraps around and comes to here. So that wraps

around and comes to there. The neck is right there. Alright.

I’m going to turn my arm and then curve

it back there so it turns around and peaks here. It turns around and peaks there.

Just a little bit there. So just very short there.

Turns around.

Draw the long way over.

Comes around to the blue.

Blue curves up to here, swings back out right here.

Just going to push a little further out to be a little more voluptuous back in right there.

It’s a hard one and then right over.

Alright, so that’s something like that so it’s hard to get that one there.

It’s a fairly foreshortened peak right there.

So back on itself a little bit.

So if that comes down it kind of comes down around and whip it around.

It’s a fairly foreshortened corner over there.

Okay, that’s a tough one, but that’s the challenge is to basically keep correcting

it a little bit after your references to see how foreshortened that would be.

This one coming down. This one slides slowly over fairly close to the edge

Here we go.

One more shape if we’re going to do something, I guess, from my reverse peak we could,

what could we do here?

Let’s try it on the reverse side of this one and just say we’ll do a nice curve.

Again, that hits there.

Blue there. Blue there. Both of these areas on the red.

So is that enough? And then, of course, it touches right here on the blue coming around

right there. I’ll draw that blue over from the left vanishing point.

Notice the red is just a hair above that just the tiniest bit. We also can draw the blue so we’ll probably

do that. This needs to be doubled over again. This one can be brought straight across. Let’s

do that. Right there. This blue one is here. That blue one will be easy to find with our

center seam again, so I’ll do that.

I’ll go from red to the blue. Try to be precise here.

Make a little reference point right there. Then my red coming back to the other

red on the other side should give us our blue when we touch here. That’s the idea.

Then we have our other blue over here, and actually it would probably be pretty easy

to do this blue through the red right there. It gives me a reference point right there.

I’ve got to carry that red over cause remember this red touches the diagonal, so I have to

have that as an anchor over here. Bring it over. Now I should be able to take this point

through here, line it up; find that blue space just about there.

So now we’ve got this and this, that and that.

What else do we need here? This red one. Let’s figure out what

we can do with that. What I’m going to do is make a box shape from—there we go.

These two are almost exactly on the same line. If I make a little rectangle from that whole

shape I’ll literally just, heck of it, go over to the corner.

Right to the corner, find the center.

Drive the center over from the left vanishing point to the middle. Make a

reference. It should be able to come right from that corner through that. Bingo.

Also, that red can be found over here by coming straight up toward the right vanishing point

just as where this one goes up to that one. Should be able to walk out that space.

Let's do that. That one and that one are close. Now I should be able to double that one over

and then find it on the diagonal. Good. Alright.

Okay, so we’ve got now blue, blue;

red, red, red, red; blue, blue; red, red; blue, blue.

So let’s see if we can draw on that other

side and just kind of guess the rest. That’s a pretty easy curve going out.

So I’m going to go out something like that and curve in. It curves in about here

so actually if I wanted to make a little reference idea here I can kind of enlarge that little

bit on that side like that. Bring it straight over. Climax about there. That might help

me. Say okay, so this is coming through and straightens out. Coming through, straightens out.

Then goes right through here. So there you go.

Okay, comes around, peaks. Comes around to the blue. Comes through the blue to here.

Turns right inside there so it actually, that little negative space will help straight across

just inside that blue line on that side. I’m going to do the same thing here. Curve going

like this. Then it turns radically fast through this basic corner.

Go to here.

It turns up through here.

Goes up a little bit all the way straight across the peak of the blue.

So it goes up to here a little bit above the blue. I’ll do that. It’ll peak back down

so the blue is over here. It comes away. So I’m just going to take a guess at that shape

acting like that. It comes around, touches there

and then slowly turns back over.

I’ve got another clue here if I want that one.

Just to be precise I can come over. I realize it

has to go through there so let me draw it out. It kind of turns over like that.

Fattens out this way.

Turns up there. I have to turn it up there. Okay, so right like that.

Alright, let me try to get this fleshed out. Something like that. Okay, so that’s that

perspective piece there. And I’ve got to close off the front of the shape. That’s

the front of the box. That’s the bizarre shape here. I’m going to give myself an

aneurysm doing this, but pretty much how that’s how that one would go. Pretty much that’s

how that one would go. If you were starting to design pattern on the floor or going to

raise it later, we’ll give you a good idea where that should meet. I’m just kind of

inventing reference as I go, close off the backside like that. Darken it in. There’s

our shape basically. We darken this in.

Okay, these were not easy. Some of these curves are hard to get and they look a little odd.

I’ll have to check this one. It’s like, yeah, that tapers in so this needs to taper

out, and then it flushes and hits here, and it flushes out and hits way over here. So

basically that’s a really long curve. That comes pretty close to the wall there. Straight

across pretty close to the wall. So that one is particularly odd, but if you check the

references it’s basically straight across. Let me check this one while we’re still

on live to make it hard on myself. That’s a little bit in. Okay, so that one even would

come in more. My opinion, I could correct this one a little bit by saying that starts

leaving the wall right here. Literally, it comes through there at that angle. That’s

about right. And then it literally straightens out into that one. That’s bizarre but I

believe that’s how it’s working. Yep, so very foreshortened and odd over here. We

have this peak here, peak over there. Swing in, so it has to turn fast, swing over, and

then fly right back over there.

Alright, so I’ll stick by that. Alright, we’ve got a boat shape over here. Really

strangely it does this. You know, it gets so condensed that it’s hard to see the peak

at that point. So it has to be pretty foreshortened there. But that’s, in fact, the way a boat

shape would very well fit in to a very foreshortened rectangle idea if it was, you know, maybe

even wider. It might be a pedal that could go this wide.

Alright, so just get used to making these ground shapes because we’re now we’re

going to go on to making just a couple next to each other in the next diagram and then

grow them straight out of the ground and realize that same shape up in the air almost like

it’s a designer desk or a front desk of some art deco design firm. We’re going to

kind of assume some of these shapes start taking on some interesting wobbles and stuff,

just straight up. Then we’ll start kind of more organic shapes that have curves all around.

So again, more ground referencing extremely similar or the same as we were doing with

the standing shapes. We just have to figure out some tougher foreshortening on some of

these. The shapes got a little more curvaceous and difficult to do actually, but we’re

just trying to feel them out. The logic is just keep reviewing how I referenced, and

like, well, why’d you get that and get over there? I tried to make it pretty clear about

side-to-side and what side we started with. So if you have to review the lecture, please

do, about what side I started with. What were the simpler ones to find? Other ones we had

to do some of the rectangle X’ng. The other ones we used the middle plane in order to

make the little reference points we’ve been talking about.

Okay, alright. We’ll go onto the next.

AUTO SCROLL

Alright, we’re back—again, as I always say. What we’re doing here is we’re going

to simply take five squares in a row, and we’re going to make a curved pattern kind

of meander through that. What we’re assuming is that for some reason as we build shapes

in the next diagram we’re going to assume we’re going to have a given space for the

complete length of the shape. Then we might decide to use real squares as a grid pattern

to see where those curves fit on a particular grid. In this case, we’re just using a sampling

of the grid. In that case we’re going—or in this case we’re just going to do simple

referencing from what we have just from the squares and just make some good estimate,

you know, hand-eye estimates and just get used to doing that because that’s what we’re

doing a lot of. We won’t always be using the real intimate referencing. You can use

the real exact referencing, especially if you have a more complex object. If it’s

very large it’s important, but more often you’re going to probably find if your grid

squares are getting small and your estimations for what a curve and a curved objects do on

a grid is, you’re probably going to just be really where is it touching the borders

of each square. Then we can make all sorts of references based on what is half of that.

What is a quarter of that? What is a third of that?

So again, we don’t want to make it overly complicated. The last few diagrams have really

been a lot about what designers might do to get more complex referencing going on standing

and sitting planes. But, we can kind of go in and out of using that much depending on

what we’re building here. And some we will. You know, we’ll build a couple fairly complicated

beginnings of shapes in real objects in a few diagrams down the road here and have some

intersecting planes and such as well.

Alright, so I’m going to pick just a simple curve now that I’ve already kind of lain

out lightly here. Hopefully, I can hit it fairly accurately again. I’m just going

to king of make a meandering curve that goes like this, around, kind of comes down here.

Up, around, curves down like that. So there’s the idea again. Very random. Now, we could

just make it one-sided curve and very long we could do the same thing. But we’ll be

doing that with a couple objects we build next and make some very simple curves and

then build them out of the ground. I just wanted to spend one more quick diagram here.

Kind of rehearsing the idea of how to contain a curve within a space and then draw what

it would like in perspective laying down at different things. We’re going to do a one-point,

you can see the ghost here. Another two-point here and another big two-point.

So we’ll start with a top two-point situation. What I’m doing is basically within what

I know is my cone compared to these vanishing points. My vanishing points are just outside

camera now. My left and right. SP would be down here somewhere. I’m still estimating

the general cone of vision to work in, which is about here. And so I’m not going to get

a lot of distortion, and I’ve estimated fairly good squares within that space. So

here we go. We’ll just do this. And so I’m going to do my long shot here back to the

right vanishing point. We’re just going to construct the two sides of all those squares in order.

Two long sides here. Long sides there. I estimated they’d take about that

much space. We’re going to cross over and double over. My first estimation too for the

square was here just based on, alright, the 45. My middle one-point vanishing point is

about there. I have kind of even splay of 45 degrees, 45 degrees for my two-point vanishing

points. You know, the estimation of the 45-degree vanishing point for two-point is about around

the one-point vanishing point cause they’re even. So halfway between 90 would be 45. They’re

basically traveling toward this area here just roughly. But this, again, just guesstimating.

We’re not really measuring as much as just being aware of what our cone would be doing.

Of course, if we have that as the initial one let’s go ahead and make our estimations

for half by just having it out real quick. Then we’ll take that area there, go to our

right vanishing point and get our middle going all the way down. Then, of course, we can

just very quickly estimate and double over as we’re going to do here to get those.

Get that over there. And you do this until you’re pretty much ready to go. So we’ll

do this real quick, obviously, because you can do this on your own. Just stop the lecture

and do your setup time here. Got a dot there. Set that up. Go from the corner over here.

Find that one. Just doing my X’ng and doubling. One more after that. I can take that as the

middle part and go through there. Find the corner right there. Left vanishing point.

Okay, so we have one, two, three, four, five squares I perspective. We know this because

we declared this to be the first square properly dissected or bisected by roughly having the

45 here because our vanishing points pretty much go like this down to our SP, which is

below camera space. So it’s just roughly estimated with the cone of vision. So now

one, two, three, four, five squares. One, two, three, four, five again. We’ll start

this point here. We’re just going to estimate purely by where these cross different points.

If we need to we could X off these squares to get even more information to match them

to this, but we can probably just do a pretty good job having this meandering curve estimated

by where it crosses these different sections of the square. So let’s go ahead and do

that. We know our first one starts here so we’ll just do our same routine of identifying a blue.

Then I’ll alternate and say, alright, there’s a red,

blue, red, blue,

and down here we kind of turn it red.

Now we have the halfway point as we do here so we can use that also if we need to. Where

it crosses that could be helpful if we want to make little ticks. What I’ll do in red

is say, alright, it crosses the halfway meeting there and there and also here. So those are

three other points we could make of interest. So let’s just start out and kind of estimate

where our thing is right about the halfway point here. The halfway point is a little

light so I’ll go ahead and put it in a little darker for you on camera.

So there’s my first dot or idea where the curve begins. The other one falls almost right

in the middle between the half. That’s making one-quarter, but it’s a hair below that.

If I estimate that in perspective as half about there, be a little bit below the half

would be just about there. I’m going to commit that one to right there. This one comes

down and again is a little bit below the quarter of that one. If I go to halfway here that

would be one, two, three, four, about halfway in perspective plus a little less there. So

about there. Then again up here would be, again, somewhat above the quarter. If I go

back to estimate, I want to make sure I got my count right. From here to here, here to

there, there to there, there to there. Then we’re taking this one. So, we’ve got there

to there, there to there; there down here, a good deal below. Actually it’s a little

more so what I’ll do is that blue spot. It’s actually a good deal past half so what

I’ll do is estimate that a little lower. I’d say it actually goes about here. So

pardon me. There’s that one. This one falls a little bit there. I don’t want to get

off track. There’s the half, and it’s a little bit below, so it’s a little above

that one. That one is to that one. This one goes way up there. Again, a little bit above

that half. So if that half is perspective wise back here that’s a little above that

as well. So again, it’s going to be foreshortened space probably about here.

And then this curves around and touches there but really ends up pretty far past that. So

it’s really going to be quite, definitely right about there. So there’s those ideas

of the dots crossing, and we could say, okay sure, these might help me here. These points

here. I’ll just try to find that. Let’s just draw out. I can’t turn my paper like

a lot of people do, you know when they’re drawing just on free paper. You can turn your

paper to accommodate the way you make the best curves with your arm. I’m going to

have this fixed and kind of twist around and not get in the way of the camera, which isn’t

always fun. So mine are a little more clumsy that way, but that’s okay.

The point here is not to be—obviously, if you have ship curves or French curves, which

again are just instruments that allow perfect different angles of curves, or if you’re

really, really handy with freehand curves, that’s different. I don’t mind just saying

I could be doing this on a big mural and just doing it really lightly until I know what’s

right. Then you can carve it in with a brush. However, your finished line is, even on a

digital program that automatically, even a 2-D digital program that automatically makes

your swings and curves and your arcs for you when you plot them between different points.

What I’ll do is that will be running through about there at that angle. This goes off here,

comes around and crosses right about there I’d say. So it kind of comes up and slowly

comes down. So I’ll do that. I’m going to draw it in really carefully first. This

comes down fairly rapidly to about that point. It swings all the way down there.

Say it does that.

It doesn’t really straighten out until about here. It straightens out about there.

It goes straight with the perspective for that little bit there. Maybe down a little

more and then comes up again. It then comes up and breaks through, not quite halfway through

here. I’m going to really swing it up fast. It comes up like this, traveling here at this

angle. That has to turn fairly dramatically here.

There we go.

Then that sparks up even more here.

Comes down and crosses, not quite there, about there.

That’s pretty light. I’ll have to carve it in. I’ll start from this side again.

Come over the top. Just kind of slide down there until it hits its mark there.

This comes down a little bit further this way until it travels down here, picks it up. It’s not

actually that flat so it comes down a little more like that until it comes back up again.

This one comes down through here. I’m just trying to estimate it because I’m more concerned

we’re getting the nature of the curve right. That one peaks about there.

I’m not happy with that still, so I’ll come back up until it swings up properly. There we go.

Then we’ll start back up here.

There’s our basic curve. As you’ll see it goes fairly

flat here and then turns up, so really this probably again turns up a little more here.

There’s a little more curve to it like this. There we go. Again, a real hands-on approach.

Not the most eloquent, and I don’t care if it’s a little scratchy, because what

I’m doing here is I’m feeling out the perspective. You might be doing this much

lighter than me and then turning your paper with a ballpoint pen and doing a really beautiful

line. Fantastic. That’s great. I encourage you to do that. I’m saying for me with pencil

bending my arm around here trying to move around not getting in the way of the camera,

my concern is to feel out a light version of the line and just feel like it should be

correct in perspective moving like this. Of course, mechanically this can be done cleaner

with tools, and that’s fine. I’m not that concerned about that because it’s the idea

of being sensitive to what this curve is doing in perspective in making those translations.

It’s also not being afraid to build it out in a lighter version rather than saying I’m

going to show some perfect way of doing it mechanically and go you should be perfect

too right off. That’s the important thing, be perfect. It’s like, no. You want to learn

to feel it out and make constant comparisons and change and correct where you assumed you

were wrong because that’s the whole point of using your ability to see those ideas.

Some ideas you will notice that we’ve gone a little too far there, a little too close

there. That’s fine. Okay, so there’s that curve there coming back down. It’s just

in front of there roughly. We’ll also do it down here. Let’s do a quick one now.

We’ve got kind of a one-point situation so I’ll draw across here. I’ve already

kind of pre-drawn them. Again, this one is going to the one-point vanishing point.

I'll go ahead and use my T-square, but what I’ve done is X’d them off here. I’m taking

that first X and assuming that my 45 degree measuring point for one point if the SP is

down here somewhere and all this set up, you know, even considering the cone and the idea

of that. Yeah, the 45 is over here by this other vanishing point that’s a little off

your camera. So I’m just shooting that over there and calling that my first square, which

is fine. So let’s do that.

Then we’ll just double the rest of them over.

We can X them off. Make the X. We got our middle, shoot down the middle toward the one point.

Just do that and then just play the doubling game. Here’s the reference point. Go through

there. Double it. Go through there. Double it. Go through there, come back. I’m just

trying to shoot across. Shoot across. Then again, come through here. Double it. Shoot

across. Double it. And shoot across. So you go ahead and do that move. Stop the video

if you need to, and just get another one going to one point there. So there’s our first

square; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, that idea.

So let’s say that’s the starting end of this end. Again, we’ll just play the same

game now. It’s a little easier because it’s not such severe perspective so we can be pretty

clear about that. There’s the first one is my estimate. This one is slightly below

half. If that’s about half there it would be maybe there. This one is a little below

half here so we could kind of feel it out to be there. This next one is a little bit

up from that. Just about at halfway point. This next one is up here.

The last one is down there again.

This comes up so it’s kind of coming up at that angle. I’ll kind of put that idea

in, have it roll up here, come back. That rolls down. It’s kind of rolling through

a little bit steeper than flat there. So that I think is my roll there. Okay, next one comes

up a little. Going through about that direction. I always try to check these points and say

what angle is the actual curved line coming through that little point as an intersection?

And I try to get that same spirit in perspective of what I think it is there. This one is kind

of coming up still a little bit. Not flat, but a little bit up. So I’ll do that. That

has to curve around. This comes right up after that to meet it, so I’m just trying to get

that little S-curve right like here coming from there. Then coming down and meeting probably

about there. Let me get out of the camera’s way.

That gets a little too rigid obviously here. So I’ll try to make that a little rounder.

Better shape, rounding out better here. Coming around, rounding out deeper here. That’s

what we mean. That’s more true to it. That kind of idea. Typically what I do is I just

commit to about this much very, very lightly. What I’m doing with you I’m doing darker

on camera obviously. But if you’re doing it, do it very lightly until you like all

your curves and they seem like they roll. They roll. They don’t flatten out, and they

think it’s correct. Very lightly. Then dedicate the hard line. What I’m doing is I’m just

pretty much doing it so that you can see me feeling it out and correcting, which is normal.

Correcting is how you learn how to flush things out more accurately.

That curve does something like that there.

Again, I made a little one here for yet another perspective on it. Just, you know, and then

we can put the colors on them if you want. No big deal. I know this is extremely simple,

but I wanted to make sure that everybody is in line as we jump into some shapes after

this because then we’ll depend on following the idea of understanding why we’re following

this pattern and raising it out of the ground. Matching it at this height, making references

down to all the points on the ground and then carving out that same shape at another level

like a table or, you know, ground tabletop, that type of thing.

That would be red. There we go.

And one more simple one. What I did is I, again, started the idea of the smaller shape

now so it will fit into the area. That’s one side. Another side, and then I decided

to make the one square here based on the vanishing point is out here to the right. I basically

say, okay, shooting through that way would make a square because that VP area is basically

right in that area is basically my square. I might do something like that. It’s my

first square because I’m treating that diagonal I just put in as going to the 45-degree split

between the two, two-point vanishing point. So if my SP is down here again, coming up

at 90 like this then halfway in between is roughly here at 45. These aren’t exactly

even away, but I don’t want to worry about it. I’m just visually estimating it all.

That is the one-point vanishing point so that makes it consistent for that grid.

Okay, and so I’ll just double this down. I’ll get my halfway line here. Here’s

that little halfway mark to go to the left vanishing point. Blast down there. Now I can

double over. Use my middle reference there. Go from the corner. So they come over here.

Get my second section here. Look at that. Take that corner there. Go through to that.

Do this section here. Oops. That was lame. Okay, just forget that one. That’s a messy,

mess, mess. Okay, right about there. Here’s that. Come to the corner again.

Across. Use that.

Okay, so that’s five. One, two, three, four, five. I’ve got my middle line. Again, we’ll

just decide, okay, if I want the back to be here and come forward with that that’s fine.

Let me get a sharper pencil. Again, so if we’re starting with this end being back

here we’d start just above the line here for the one dot. This one rises up and is

a little under halfway, so if that’s halfway it’d be right about there. Then the next

one down is about down here. Next one is a little bit up from there. Next one is all

the way up here basically. Another one ends back down here again. It kind of goes through

about here or something. We can take note of this little marks we made here and here

and here as well as on the halfway point. But again, just an idea of this kind of peaks,

comes through this area at that direction. It kind of comes up here and peaks. I’m

rolling around there. Come down through here like that. I want to connect those nice and

rolly. Then come up again, come through here. We’ve really got to come up fast through

here. Connect up to there, which is basically rolling up at that angle.

Clean that line up a bit. Rolls around to there.

Just kind of feel it out as you go. Say, alright, and again these curves really represent the

bottom of a shape that’s going to grow out of the floor and have arcs to it or go straight

up like a table wood, whichever we’re doing. You just want to get used to these kind of

exercises and referencing and making all these notes. If you need more information and it

does more complicated things you might X off things and then say, okay, it hits there and

there. The X’s and crosses are a real easy way to make more referencing then if you have

to, like we did previously, you box stuff out with rectangles and double them over for

a mirror image. Sometimes you’re not doing a mirror image. This might be the front of

a curve only like on a table or an art deco type of front desk at an office. Then it might

have a flat back or vice versa. So that depends on its shape.

So it’s not always that we’re doubling over and equal. This might just be an independent

curve on some type of wall or, you know, Frank Geary installation of some type. Who knows.

In that case it might be singular. So it could be doubled over. Either side doubled or not.

So in this case we’re not doing that. We’re looking at it as a singular curve, that kind

of thing. So it flattens out a little bit in that perspective. So there are three basic

perspectives on that same idea, and it changes it quite a bit. You have to feel it out. I

still feel, okay, this is a little flat here so on these really foreshortened that get

closer to the horizon when they’re laying on the ground these angles get pretty flat.

It’s hard to see how you should make them round. If this feels curvaceous and this flattens

out you have to work on it a bit until you feel it represents the subtleties of how this

curve would flatten and foreshorten but still has to feel like that curve. It can be challenging

but that’s, you know, that’s what you’re working on and practicing.

Okay, so that was a quick one, but we’re really just trying to get that idea down.

Next we’ll do a couple objects, two or three objects that actually have basic curves to

them and growing out of the ground in a basic manner. Okay, on to the next.

to simply take five squares in a row, and we’re going to make a curved pattern kind

of meander through that. What we’re assuming is that for some reason as we build shapes

in the next diagram we’re going to assume we’re going to have a given space for the

complete length of the shape. Then we might decide to use real squares as a grid pattern

to see where those curves fit on a particular grid. In this case, we’re just using a sampling

of the grid. In that case we’re going—or in this case we’re just going to do simple

referencing from what we have just from the squares and just make some good estimate,

you know, hand-eye estimates and just get used to doing that because that’s what we’re

doing a lot of. We won’t always be using the real intimate referencing. You can use

the real exact referencing, especially if you have a more complex object. If it’s

very large it’s important, but more often you’re going to probably find if your grid

squares are getting small and your estimations for what a curve and a curved objects do on

a grid is, you’re probably going to just be really where is it touching the borders

of each square. Then we can make all sorts of references based on what is half of that.

What is a quarter of that? What is a third of that?

So again, we don’t want to make it overly complicated. The last few diagrams have really

been a lot about what designers might do to get more complex referencing going on standing

and sitting planes. But, we can kind of go in and out of using that much depending on

what we’re building here. And some we will. You know, we’ll build a couple fairly complicated

beginnings of shapes in real objects in a few diagrams down the road here and have some

intersecting planes and such as well.

Alright, so I’m going to pick just a simple curve now that I’ve already kind of lain

out lightly here. Hopefully, I can hit it fairly accurately again. I’m just going

to king of make a meandering curve that goes like this, around, kind of comes down here.

Up, around, curves down like that. So there’s the idea again. Very random. Now, we could

just make it one-sided curve and very long we could do the same thing. But we’ll be

doing that with a couple objects we build next and make some very simple curves and

then build them out of the ground. I just wanted to spend one more quick diagram here.

Kind of rehearsing the idea of how to contain a curve within a space and then draw what

it would like in perspective laying down at different things. We’re going to do a one-point,

you can see the ghost here. Another two-point here and another big two-point.

So we’ll start with a top two-point situation. What I’m doing is basically within what

I know is my cone compared to these vanishing points. My vanishing points are just outside

camera now. My left and right. SP would be down here somewhere. I’m still estimating

the general cone of vision to work in, which is about here. And so I’m not going to get

a lot of distortion, and I’ve estimated fairly good squares within that space. So

here we go. We’ll just do this. And so I’m going to do my long shot here back to the

right vanishing point. We’re just going to construct the two sides of all those squares in order.

Two long sides here. Long sides there. I estimated they’d take about that

much space. We’re going to cross over and double over. My first estimation too for the

square was here just based on, alright, the 45. My middle one-point vanishing point is

about there. I have kind of even splay of 45 degrees, 45 degrees for my two-point vanishing

points. You know, the estimation of the 45-degree vanishing point for two-point is about around

the one-point vanishing point cause they’re even. So halfway between 90 would be 45. They’re

basically traveling toward this area here just roughly. But this, again, just guesstimating.

We’re not really measuring as much as just being aware of what our cone would be doing.

Of course, if we have that as the initial one let’s go ahead and make our estimations

for half by just having it out real quick. Then we’ll take that area there, go to our

right vanishing point and get our middle going all the way down. Then, of course, we can

just very quickly estimate and double over as we’re going to do here to get those.

Get that over there. And you do this until you’re pretty much ready to go. So we’ll

do this real quick, obviously, because you can do this on your own. Just stop the lecture

and do your setup time here. Got a dot there. Set that up. Go from the corner over here.

Find that one. Just doing my X’ng and doubling. One more after that. I can take that as the

middle part and go through there. Find the corner right there. Left vanishing point.

Okay, so we have one, two, three, four, five squares I perspective. We know this because

we declared this to be the first square properly dissected or bisected by roughly having the

45 here because our vanishing points pretty much go like this down to our SP, which is

below camera space. So it’s just roughly estimated with the cone of vision. So now

one, two, three, four, five squares. One, two, three, four, five again. We’ll start

this point here. We’re just going to estimate purely by where these cross different points.

If we need to we could X off these squares to get even more information to match them

to this, but we can probably just do a pretty good job having this meandering curve estimated

by where it crosses these different sections of the square. So let’s go ahead and do

that. We know our first one starts here so we’ll just do our same routine of identifying a blue.

Then I’ll alternate and say, alright, there’s a red,

blue, red, blue,

and down here we kind of turn it red.

Now we have the halfway point as we do here so we can use that also if we need to. Where

it crosses that could be helpful if we want to make little ticks. What I’ll do in red

is say, alright, it crosses the halfway meeting there and there and also here. So those are

three other points we could make of interest. So let’s just start out and kind of estimate

where our thing is right about the halfway point here. The halfway point is a little

light so I’ll go ahead and put it in a little darker for you on camera.

So there’s my first dot or idea where the curve begins. The other one falls almost right

in the middle between the half. That’s making one-quarter, but it’s a hair below that.

If I estimate that in perspective as half about there, be a little bit below the half

would be just about there. I’m going to commit that one to right there. This one comes

down and again is a little bit below the quarter of that one. If I go to halfway here that

would be one, two, three, four, about halfway in perspective plus a little less there. So

about there. Then again up here would be, again, somewhat above the quarter. If I go

back to estimate, I want to make sure I got my count right. From here to here, here to

there, there to there, there to there. Then we’re taking this one. So, we’ve got there

to there, there to there; there down here, a good deal below. Actually it’s a little

more so what I’ll do is that blue spot. It’s actually a good deal past half so what

I’ll do is estimate that a little lower. I’d say it actually goes about here. So

pardon me. There’s that one. This one falls a little bit there. I don’t want to get

off track. There’s the half, and it’s a little bit below, so it’s a little above

that one. That one is to that one. This one goes way up there. Again, a little bit above

that half. So if that half is perspective wise back here that’s a little above that

as well. So again, it’s going to be foreshortened space probably about here.

And then this curves around and touches there but really ends up pretty far past that. So

it’s really going to be quite, definitely right about there. So there’s those ideas

of the dots crossing, and we could say, okay sure, these might help me here. These points

here. I’ll just try to find that. Let’s just draw out. I can’t turn my paper like

a lot of people do, you know when they’re drawing just on free paper. You can turn your

paper to accommodate the way you make the best curves with your arm. I’m going to

have this fixed and kind of twist around and not get in the way of the camera, which isn’t

always fun. So mine are a little more clumsy that way, but that’s okay.

The point here is not to be—obviously, if you have ship curves or French curves, which

again are just instruments that allow perfect different angles of curves, or if you’re

really, really handy with freehand curves, that’s different. I don’t mind just saying

I could be doing this on a big mural and just doing it really lightly until I know what’s

right. Then you can carve it in with a brush. However, your finished line is, even on a

digital program that automatically, even a 2-D digital program that automatically makes

your swings and curves and your arcs for you when you plot them between different points.

What I’ll do is that will be running through about there at that angle. This goes off here,

comes around and crosses right about there I’d say. So it kind of comes up and slowly

comes down. So I’ll do that. I’m going to draw it in really carefully first. This

comes down fairly rapidly to about that point. It swings all the way down there.

Say it does that.

It doesn’t really straighten out until about here. It straightens out about there.

It goes straight with the perspective for that little bit there. Maybe down a little

more and then comes up again. It then comes up and breaks through, not quite halfway through

here. I’m going to really swing it up fast. It comes up like this, traveling here at this

angle. That has to turn fairly dramatically here.

There we go.

Then that sparks up even more here.

Comes down and crosses, not quite there, about there.

That’s pretty light. I’ll have to carve it in. I’ll start from this side again.

Come over the top. Just kind of slide down there until it hits its mark there.

This comes down a little bit further this way until it travels down here, picks it up. It’s not

actually that flat so it comes down a little more like that until it comes back up again.

This one comes down through here. I’m just trying to estimate it because I’m more concerned

we’re getting the nature of the curve right. That one peaks about there.

I’m not happy with that still, so I’ll come back up until it swings up properly. There we go.

Then we’ll start back up here.

There’s our basic curve. As you’ll see it goes fairly

flat here and then turns up, so really this probably again turns up a little more here.

There’s a little more curve to it like this. There we go. Again, a real hands-on approach.

Not the most eloquent, and I don’t care if it’s a little scratchy, because what

I’m doing here is I’m feeling out the perspective. You might be doing this much

lighter than me and then turning your paper with a ballpoint pen and doing a really beautiful

line. Fantastic. That’s great. I encourage you to do that. I’m saying for me with pencil

bending my arm around here trying to move around not getting in the way of the camera,

my concern is to feel out a light version of the line and just feel like it should be

correct in perspective moving like this. Of course, mechanically this can be done cleaner

with tools, and that’s fine. I’m not that concerned about that because it’s the idea

of being sensitive to what this curve is doing in perspective in making those translations.

It’s also not being afraid to build it out in a lighter version rather than saying I’m

going to show some perfect way of doing it mechanically and go you should be perfect

too right off. That’s the important thing, be perfect. It’s like, no. You want to learn

to feel it out and make constant comparisons and change and correct where you assumed you

were wrong because that’s the whole point of using your ability to see those ideas.

Some ideas you will notice that we’ve gone a little too far there, a little too close

there. That’s fine. Okay, so there’s that curve there coming back down. It’s just

in front of there roughly. We’ll also do it down here. Let’s do a quick one now.

We’ve got kind of a one-point situation so I’ll draw across here. I’ve already

kind of pre-drawn them. Again, this one is going to the one-point vanishing point.

I'll go ahead and use my T-square, but what I’ve done is X’d them off here. I’m taking

that first X and assuming that my 45 degree measuring point for one point if the SP is

down here somewhere and all this set up, you know, even considering the cone and the idea

of that. Yeah, the 45 is over here by this other vanishing point that’s a little off

your camera. So I’m just shooting that over there and calling that my first square, which

is fine. So let’s do that.

Then we’ll just double the rest of them over.

We can X them off. Make the X. We got our middle, shoot down the middle toward the one point.

Just do that and then just play the doubling game. Here’s the reference point. Go through

there. Double it. Go through there. Double it. Go through there, come back. I’m just

trying to shoot across. Shoot across. Then again, come through here. Double it. Shoot

across. Double it. And shoot across. So you go ahead and do that move. Stop the video

if you need to, and just get another one going to one point there. So there’s our first

square; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, that idea.

So let’s say that’s the starting end of this end. Again, we’ll just play the same

game now. It’s a little easier because it’s not such severe perspective so we can be pretty

clear about that. There’s the first one is my estimate. This one is slightly below

half. If that’s about half there it would be maybe there. This one is a little below

half here so we could kind of feel it out to be there. This next one is a little bit

up from that. Just about at halfway point. This next one is up here.

The last one is down there again.

This comes up so it’s kind of coming up at that angle. I’ll kind of put that idea

in, have it roll up here, come back. That rolls down. It’s kind of rolling through

a little bit steeper than flat there. So that I think is my roll there. Okay, next one comes

up a little. Going through about that direction. I always try to check these points and say

what angle is the actual curved line coming through that little point as an intersection?

And I try to get that same spirit in perspective of what I think it is there. This one is kind

of coming up still a little bit. Not flat, but a little bit up. So I’ll do that. That

has to curve around. This comes right up after that to meet it, so I’m just trying to get

that little S-curve right like here coming from there. Then coming down and meeting probably

about there. Let me get out of the camera’s way.

That gets a little too rigid obviously here. So I’ll try to make that a little rounder.

Better shape, rounding out better here. Coming around, rounding out deeper here. That’s

what we mean. That’s more true to it. That kind of idea. Typically what I do is I just

commit to about this much very, very lightly. What I’m doing with you I’m doing darker

on camera obviously. But if you’re doing it, do it very lightly until you like all

your curves and they seem like they roll. They roll. They don’t flatten out, and they

think it’s correct. Very lightly. Then dedicate the hard line. What I’m doing is I’m just

pretty much doing it so that you can see me feeling it out and correcting, which is normal.

Correcting is how you learn how to flush things out more accurately.

That curve does something like that there.

Again, I made a little one here for yet another perspective on it. Just, you know, and then

we can put the colors on them if you want. No big deal. I know this is extremely simple,

but I wanted to make sure that everybody is in line as we jump into some shapes after

this because then we’ll depend on following the idea of understanding why we’re following

this pattern and raising it out of the ground. Matching it at this height, making references

down to all the points on the ground and then carving out that same shape at another level

like a table or, you know, ground tabletop, that type of thing.

That would be red. There we go.

And one more simple one. What I did is I, again, started the idea of the smaller shape

now so it will fit into the area. That’s one side. Another side, and then I decided

to make the one square here based on the vanishing point is out here to the right. I basically

say, okay, shooting through that way would make a square because that VP area is basically

right in that area is basically my square. I might do something like that. It’s my

first square because I’m treating that diagonal I just put in as going to the 45-degree split

between the two, two-point vanishing point. So if my SP is down here again, coming up

at 90 like this then halfway in between is roughly here at 45. These aren’t exactly

even away, but I don’t want to worry about it. I’m just visually estimating it all.

That is the one-point vanishing point so that makes it consistent for that grid.

Okay, and so I’ll just double this down. I’ll get my halfway line here. Here’s

that little halfway mark to go to the left vanishing point. Blast down there. Now I can

double over. Use my middle reference there. Go from the corner. So they come over here.

Get my second section here. Look at that. Take that corner there. Go through to that.

Do this section here. Oops. That was lame. Okay, just forget that one. That’s a messy,

mess, mess. Okay, right about there. Here’s that. Come to the corner again.

Across. Use that.

Okay, so that’s five. One, two, three, four, five. I’ve got my middle line. Again, we’ll

just decide, okay, if I want the back to be here and come forward with that that’s fine.

Let me get a sharper pencil. Again, so if we’re starting with this end being back

here we’d start just above the line here for the one dot. This one rises up and is

a little under halfway, so if that’s halfway it’d be right about there. Then the next

one down is about down here. Next one is a little bit up from there. Next one is all

the way up here basically. Another one ends back down here again. It kind of goes through

about here or something. We can take note of this little marks we made here and here

and here as well as on the halfway point. But again, just an idea of this kind of peaks,

comes through this area at that direction. It kind of comes up here and peaks. I’m

rolling around there. Come down through here like that. I want to connect those nice and

rolly. Then come up again, come through here. We’ve really got to come up fast through

here. Connect up to there, which is basically rolling up at that angle.

Clean that line up a bit. Rolls around to there.

Just kind of feel it out as you go. Say, alright, and again these curves really represent the

bottom of a shape that’s going to grow out of the floor and have arcs to it or go straight

up like a table wood, whichever we’re doing. You just want to get used to these kind of

exercises and referencing and making all these notes. If you need more information and it

does more complicated things you might X off things and then say, okay, it hits there and

there. The X’s and crosses are a real easy way to make more referencing then if you have

to, like we did previously, you box stuff out with rectangles and double them over for

a mirror image. Sometimes you’re not doing a mirror image. This might be the front of

a curve only like on a table or an art deco type of front desk at an office. Then it might

have a flat back or vice versa. So that depends on its shape.

So it’s not always that we’re doubling over and equal. This might just be an independent

curve on some type of wall or, you know, Frank Geary installation of some type. Who knows.

In that case it might be singular. So it could be doubled over. Either side doubled or not.

So in this case we’re not doing that. We’re looking at it as a singular curve, that kind

of thing. So it flattens out a little bit in that perspective. So there are three basic

perspectives on that same idea, and it changes it quite a bit. You have to feel it out. I

still feel, okay, this is a little flat here so on these really foreshortened that get

closer to the horizon when they’re laying on the ground these angles get pretty flat.

It’s hard to see how you should make them round. If this feels curvaceous and this flattens

out you have to work on it a bit until you feel it represents the subtleties of how this

curve would flatten and foreshorten but still has to feel like that curve. It can be challenging

but that’s, you know, that’s what you’re working on and practicing.

Okay, so that was a quick one, but we’re really just trying to get that idea down.

Next we’ll do a couple objects, two or three objects that actually have basic curves to

them and growing out of the ground in a basic manner. Okay, on to the next.

AUTO SCROLL

Hello. We’re going to take some basic shapes now off the ground as patterns and curved

patterns, and then raise them off the ground. Much like we did with the width of the standing

arches. We’re going to raise these off the ground for that same shape to be at a different

level and possibly even a second level above that. We’ll see how that goes, but that’s

the general idea. So I’ll go ahead and we’ll start right off and we’re going to do kind

of just a simple curved shape here. This would be the general space it took up if it’s

some type of structure. I’ll go ahead and draw that rectangle out, and we’ll just

do the same type of things. Now we’re going to start thinking like we’re making things

a little more tangible. I’ll still have my vanishing points slightly off camera now

just to get more bigger space.

And we’ll start that shape. We’re just going to do a simple curve like it’s a standing

wall. What we’ll do is we’ll go ahead and just put this in half. That’s the total

amount of space you want the curved wall to take up is the footprint there, of course.

Then we’ve got a center and we’ll make our T.

The idea here is go back to the left as well.

Okay, so now the idea is we want a curve to just come right here and go to

the corner. No big surprise.

We want to match that curve on the other side, mirror it.

So again, if you haven’t kind of felt it already with all these things, the arches we’ve

been doing with doubling over when standing planes, you’re pretending there is a mirror

set it perpendicular to that first half, and then it reflects directly in reverse. In this

case the idea would be that the mirror would come down right in the halfway point coming

straight across with this middle line as we could see the reflection through a perfectly

straight standing mirror of the second half. That’s what we’ve been doing also. We’re

doubling over those standing and seated planes or planes on the ground before. Just imagine

there is a perfectly straight, thin mirror that comes down and reflects the other half

of that shape reversed. That’s really what reflections are doing exactly and straight

standing mirrors as well. So there’s that half.

Again, we’ll be a little more official about this and say, okay, the clues I get of this

arch are where it crosses the middle here, and that should be enough to kind of get me

on my way if I want to. I’ll just cast those into space. The obvious thing is the red one

can be taken over pretty easily right here. We should be able to go right across space

here carefully to the other diagonal side right there. So that should be right there,

that spot. Then if we want we should be able to cast this one like that. We’ll go ahead

and rectangle it. We could actually just make the middle plane, which I like to do a lot.

If I extend that middle plane like that I can actually make a little reference, and

how I do that would be I could take this front or back corner here, go through the blue spot

right there. All the way until I make a reference plane. If I reverse it go to the opposite

corner right there. Again, like we’ve done many times we should find the other side like

that. So now we’ve got our points. We’ll just draw in our arch.

Again, I’ll try to get to a comfortable angle without blocking the camera. I’d prefer

to turn my paper, but in this case it’s much easier for me to do this and kind of

feel it out for the camera. This will be on its way down there. Essentially what we’re

doing is we’re turning this right over here, going through the red, through the blue right

on our way to there. Let me get out of your way. There’s that idea of that going all

the way across. Let me get in the way for a second here, just round out a little more.

So now we want to raise it. So we’re going to take all corners involved just like we

did with our arches when we were having standing planes. We shot back toward the left vanishing

point with it, so now we’re going to go straight up there vertically with some of

those points of interest just like we did. I’m not sure how high we go, actually I’ll

go way up here. I’m not saying we’re going to go up there, but maybe we will. Here are

four corners of the box, and then we’ll take our references up that help us with our

curve. I’m exaggerating, but why not? We have the space. We’ll just go way up there.

I’ll also take the halfway space here. The middle space, which is right there. These

are just like, again, little straight standing planes or little tiny rods or spider webs

that are perfectly straight. However you want to think of them.

I’ll also go ahead and take the idea of my red and blue dots or references up. That

will be helpful. Blue. And red is very close in this case to that other one so I’ll go

like that. Just to be right on, real accurate. The other red is over here. So there we have

a lot of those planes to meet up with, and we can decide how high we want our, we’ll

call it a tabletop if that’s basically a curve for the tabletop. So yeah, we don’t

want to make it too high because it would get so foreshortened. So we’ll just raise

it a little bit. We’ll say, okay, we want it this much higher, let’s say. Right there.

So we’ll go ahead and draw the box out first to our vanishing points right and left still

to get the, this is the new height. Go corner to corner. Close that off. Come over. Come

back and then close that shape off on top as the plane representing the height. Now,

I’m going to hold off on making that real dark because the real shape is actually the

standing thin wall, let’s say, we’ve created. Maybe it’s just like 1/8 inch plywood or

something.

So next we can drive our center across, which can help us. We know we need that. And our

other reference we can simply take straight over, which is pretty convenient. Let me get

a sharp one here. It’s pretty easy. We can just take the blue. Go over to the vanishing

point over here. Take the red and strike forward and go over here. Probably the fastest way.

Go toward that back wall, and once again with the blue also. We make that strike there with

the blue and there. Make our red there against that back wall. We’re going to go straight

up, no surprise, to find our new height and then just refer back to that coming back to

the shape. There’s our blue going up the wall to the back. I’ll do it on the other

side to the wall. Then we’ll switch to our red. Go up to the edge of that back wall.

This is the kind of thinking, and again, you could do this on the computer. You could do

this freehand. You could do this any way you want, but the logic is I prefer to use the

drafting tools just to get the verticals and the diminishments accurate, and we’re just

going to hand do our curves. You can do the curves with a two-dimensional digital tool

very, very accurately and perfectly or with French curves, which I will show you in a

couple diagrams. The reason I’m holding off showing them to you, I’m more concerned

with you just drawing freehand and just kind of feeling out these curves just like we felt

out ellipses. Sure, we used ellipse guides after a bit, but frankly I’m not that interested

in that. I’m interested in you kind of understanding the concept of how to draw an ellipse fast

or slow just as long as they work. This gets a hair flat here, but I’ll feel it out.

Anyway, so there’s points coming up. So now we have those points meeting the back

wall at the top of the surface there and there. There and there. Now, we have to come in to

meet our standing planes off our direct points there, and that will give us those points

in our new level.

So I’ll take the blue first back to the vanishing point and come back and meet that.

So now we have a reference plane. From here back, up, and over. That’s one plane. We

could shade it in if we want, but you can see it right there. That plane gives us that

point. This at the proper elevation within the new height. Also, we can do our red now

and come back from that dot. Be accurate to the vanishing point out there. Again, you

can’t see the vanishing points. They’re a little out of camera. But you know the deal.

Then there’s that red plane. So that represents this dot here in foreshortened space because

it’s becoming more foreshortened as we go toward the eye level, obviously, until it

eventually would become flat. Our next reference is there, and then our blue friend comes right

back here from the lip again right back there to there. And we know, of course, the lead

is right here also. That’s the wall there. I’m going to put that blue dot down there

to represent that. Okay. We know the corners, of course, are starting and finishing there

as well. I’ll just fill that in with my little pencil. Get some longer pencils going

here. These are getting pretty short. Again, I’ll feel out the middle of my curve first

up here the way I want it, and I’ll just have to ghost this in real quick, try to keep

my head out of your way and just try to make it feel right there.

A lot of this seems pretty obvious, but you know there’s a whole bunch of different

types of drawings all the way from freehand to extactomundo with tools and stuff. It’s

more the logic. So here I am. I’m going to bend myself around here because of the

camera angle. Here it comes like that. Again, we’re just, you know, pretending this is

like a standing plywood piece or something like that. It comes right back to there. We’ll

draw it in darker on the edges, obviously. Draw it on the edges here. We already have

our back edge which has gotten dark. I’ll draw that again kind of like that. Then we

could say if it’s a standing plane we could also say it’s a half shape. So if it’s

more like a desk or something that’s rounded, we could also include these planes if we have

a standing tabletop surface. And so that curve there. And there you go. So there’s that

curve there. We could basically, if we want to shade it in say we’ll just do the top

and bottom as a blue plane tint. There’s that. And then we have the standing plane

itself. I’ll just do in red. Okay, that whole thing there. Since it’s transparent

I’ll go ahead and draw a little red in on the top blue plane as well. There we go. Alright.

There we have it. A mixture of a two.

The important thing is to remember those reference planes that helped us before. Remember? So

that’s where we got those original points from, crossing those different points of our

original lay in doubled over shape, which really helped us see. So you’re halfway

points, your middle line, and that original footprint, and then we were able to raise

it up and stuff. So that’s constructing basically that half-curve for a desk or something

like that. It could be anything. Okay, so there’s that.

Now, we could go ahead and put a further height in that if we wanted to. So how would we do

that? Well, let’s choose another one. Another height that’s tall enough that won’t go

too far off. Let’s try this. It’d be about the same there. Let’s see if we can not

go off camera space with this by coming over there. So I’ll gauge it to not go off camera

space. Actually, we could have it steeper. Let me run this, we’re running to this line.

Camera space is about there so that’s about as high as I can go there. I think it’s

pretty close to the edge. I’ll say the height will be this just to get crazy there. Then

I’ll do my boxing. We’ll go ahead and do another level with that object if we want

for the heck of it. We can still carry up all those references. Same idea. We’re going

to still do the same routine, just carry it up again another level. So there’s the top

of that next height I chose. We’ve already got all our references extended past that shape.

So again, all we have to do is identify a few things. There’s the middle plane of

the box shape like right here. So let me get that in. There we go. It’s more correct.

I’ll make a stake on that one. There’s that. So that would be the head of the curve.

Again, we could just take our blue shape and our red shape and what we can do is we just

keep extending those planes now straight up from where they were carefully to the back wall there.

I’ll use my red for the back wall there again.

And again, this just shows you why it works. Back wall there. That blue plane goes right

up to there, matches that. So pretty much right there.

Now we know when these come out and meet their counterparts in blue,

there’s the blue. We’ve got one there. Got blue

coming out and meeting its counterpart there. Red.

Now the problem is these days, I think, is that since a lot of the people that are really

good at perspective and hand-drawing and doing all these ideations that are in their late

20’s, 30’s, 40’s, they had all this technical training and had to do these fairly

laborious diagrams that clearly pointed out why these planes worked and why we can go

up and over an reference and reference and reference and reference. And reference people,

reference angles. Know all the auxiliary vanishing points. All the stuff we’ve covered. A lot

of them had that, and a lot of people like to downplay the fact that they had it, and

it’s not that important. It was really just, all their great drawing just burst out of

them. The idea is they understand perspective because of this kind of activity. They understand

good drawing, line weight, observational drawing, toning from a lot of other types of practice

all combining to make great drawing. But the dishonest factor about it all is to say basically

that you’re supposed to understand all this stuff just by some magic pill in your mind

where some people got hours and hours of education in it. They’re expecting you to kind of

pick it up with maybe a tenth of the time of practice or maybe 25% of the time of practice

that they had. I’m here to tell you I had a lot of practice at this and took careful

notes, and that’s why I haven’t forgotten it, or I can always work something out on

top of painting and drawing and toning, good composition, tasteful subject matter. Whatever

you want to talk about, this is the raw material of why and how things work.

So, of course, if you were making some half-turned shape like this would you really have to do

all this plotting. How ridiculous, but no. This is not about why, like a professional

practice of how you’d have to construct this. This is because it needs to show you

why and how the referencing works to get to the levels. That’s all. So if you understand

this and practice it you can use as much of it as you need to or none of it. But the idea

is you understand why these planes behave to these vanishing points, the verticals,

and we can get different levels of these same curves basically. That’s all we’re doing.

I just wanted to clarify. Again, as always it’s why and how the perspective works with

referencing and other elements that’s important. Not exactly how you’ll do it for the rest

of your life. This is not claiming to be a process which you do the rest of your life.

These are diagrams so you’ll permanently understand and remember these concepts. Get

back to them quickly and use them as you need to. I just wanted to make that clear.

Okay, so let’s continue. We made that red reference there. We’ve obviously got our

corners here, here, and then at the middle one again. So let’s draw those in again

real quick. That multi-leveled idea. This again comes over here. So oops, forgot that

little reference just to make it clear. There’s the other red reference. So this represents

these here. The blue here is now here. The blue here is now here coming in. So here the

blue, blue, blue, red, red right there. That’s that one and then the middle, middle, middle.

Again, we’ll draw these in. Just kind of come around naturally. It’s pretty easy

there once you get the references. You know what? You probably, hey, I don’t need those.

I can just feel it out. Correct, you could. But the idea is when shapes become more curvaceous

they jut out and come way back in. It becomes harder and harder to just wing it unless you’re

going back and forth to the diminishing vanishing points. Even in hand sketching and, of course,

trying to relate correct foreshortening as we go further and further back in space or

come forward in space. Things get larger. So that’s really what we’re trying to

do there. So now I’m trying to wing it here. Come through and continue on to that corner.

Alright, so there we go. There’s the top plane, which I’ll tone in with blue.

I'll leave the red part out and just say, okay, maybe it’s actually a little roof that’s

being hung up by the others like that. There’s that other part up there. Okay, simple shape.

So now we’re going to do a simple boat shape down here, a very simple one, but not really

having the taper of a boat but just the idea of what a block would look like before we

started more complex boat. I didn’t want to kind of just get the idea of it. So what

I’m going to do is still cut this area in half. I’m going to build out the shapes

to tell you why I’m doing that. Here are the edges. Let’s get our rectangle of the

boat’s outer dimensions. Here we go. Alright, got our halfway point, so we’ll nail that

in. Maybe I’ll use a reference for it. I’ll extend that a little bit, get the long axis

halfway point in there. Alright, and then the idea is maybe I want a boat shape again.

I’ll come from here. Maybe it comes flat right against here. I’ll start with this

back edge cause that’s where I feel I want to play out the shape. Then it comes around.

patterns, and then raise them off the ground. Much like we did with the width of the standing

arches. We’re going to raise these off the ground for that same shape to be at a different

level and possibly even a second level above that. We’ll see how that goes, but that’s

the general idea. So I’ll go ahead and we’ll start right off and we’re going to do kind

of just a simple curved shape here. This would be the general space it took up if it’s

some type of structure. I’ll go ahead and draw that rectangle out, and we’ll just

do the same type of things. Now we’re going to start thinking like we’re making things

a little more tangible. I’ll still have my vanishing points slightly off camera now

just to get more bigger space.

And we’ll start that shape. We’re just going to do a simple curve like it’s a standing

wall. What we’ll do is we’ll go ahead and just put this in half. That’s the total

amount of space you want the curved wall to take up is the footprint there, of course.

Then we’ve got a center and we’ll make our T.

The idea here is go back to the left as well.

Okay, so now the idea is we want a curve to just come right here and go to

the corner. No big surprise.

We want to match that curve on the other side, mirror it.

So again, if you haven’t kind of felt it already with all these things, the arches we’ve

been doing with doubling over when standing planes, you’re pretending there is a mirror

set it perpendicular to that first half, and then it reflects directly in reverse. In this

case the idea would be that the mirror would come down right in the halfway point coming

straight across with this middle line as we could see the reflection through a perfectly

straight standing mirror of the second half. That’s what we’ve been doing also. We’re

doubling over those standing and seated planes or planes on the ground before. Just imagine

there is a perfectly straight, thin mirror that comes down and reflects the other half

of that shape reversed. That’s really what reflections are doing exactly and straight

standing mirrors as well. So there’s that half.

Again, we’ll be a little more official about this and say, okay, the clues I get of this

arch are where it crosses the middle here, and that should be enough to kind of get me

on my way if I want to. I’ll just cast those into space. The obvious thing is the red one

can be taken over pretty easily right here. We should be able to go right across space

here carefully to the other diagonal side right there. So that should be right there,

that spot. Then if we want we should be able to cast this one like that. We’ll go ahead

and rectangle it. We could actually just make the middle plane, which I like to do a lot.

If I extend that middle plane like that I can actually make a little reference, and

how I do that would be I could take this front or back corner here, go through the blue spot

right there. All the way until I make a reference plane. If I reverse it go to the opposite

corner right there. Again, like we’ve done many times we should find the other side like

that. So now we’ve got our points. We’ll just draw in our arch.

Again, I’ll try to get to a comfortable angle without blocking the camera. I’d prefer

to turn my paper, but in this case it’s much easier for me to do this and kind of

feel it out for the camera. This will be on its way down there. Essentially what we’re

doing is we’re turning this right over here, going through the red, through the blue right

on our way to there. Let me get out of your way. There’s that idea of that going all

the way across. Let me get in the way for a second here, just round out a little more.

So now we want to raise it. So we’re going to take all corners involved just like we

did with our arches when we were having standing planes. We shot back toward the left vanishing

point with it, so now we’re going to go straight up there vertically with some of

those points of interest just like we did. I’m not sure how high we go, actually I’ll

go way up here. I’m not saying we’re going to go up there, but maybe we will. Here are

four corners of the box, and then we’ll take our references up that help us with our

curve. I’m exaggerating, but why not? We have the space. We’ll just go way up there.

I’ll also take the halfway space here. The middle space, which is right there. These

are just like, again, little straight standing planes or little tiny rods or spider webs

that are perfectly straight. However you want to think of them.

I’ll also go ahead and take the idea of my red and blue dots or references up. That

will be helpful. Blue. And red is very close in this case to that other one so I’ll go

like that. Just to be right on, real accurate. The other red is over here. So there we have

a lot of those planes to meet up with, and we can decide how high we want our, we’ll

call it a tabletop if that’s basically a curve for the tabletop. So yeah, we don’t

want to make it too high because it would get so foreshortened. So we’ll just raise

it a little bit. We’ll say, okay, we want it this much higher, let’s say. Right there.

So we’ll go ahead and draw the box out first to our vanishing points right and left still

to get the, this is the new height. Go corner to corner. Close that off. Come over. Come

back and then close that shape off on top as the plane representing the height. Now,

I’m going to hold off on making that real dark because the real shape is actually the

standing thin wall, let’s say, we’ve created. Maybe it’s just like 1/8 inch plywood or

something.

So next we can drive our center across, which can help us. We know we need that. And our

other reference we can simply take straight over, which is pretty convenient. Let me get

a sharp one here. It’s pretty easy. We can just take the blue. Go over to the vanishing

point over here. Take the red and strike forward and go over here. Probably the fastest way.

Go toward that back wall, and once again with the blue also. We make that strike there with

the blue and there. Make our red there against that back wall. We’re going to go straight

up, no surprise, to find our new height and then just refer back to that coming back to

the shape. There’s our blue going up the wall to the back. I’ll do it on the other

side to the wall. Then we’ll switch to our red. Go up to the edge of that back wall.

This is the kind of thinking, and again, you could do this on the computer. You could do

this freehand. You could do this any way you want, but the logic is I prefer to use the

drafting tools just to get the verticals and the diminishments accurate, and we’re just

going to hand do our curves. You can do the curves with a two-dimensional digital tool

very, very accurately and perfectly or with French curves, which I will show you in a

couple diagrams. The reason I’m holding off showing them to you, I’m more concerned

with you just drawing freehand and just kind of feeling out these curves just like we felt

out ellipses. Sure, we used ellipse guides after a bit, but frankly I’m not that interested

in that. I’m interested in you kind of understanding the concept of how to draw an ellipse fast

or slow just as long as they work. This gets a hair flat here, but I’ll feel it out.

Anyway, so there’s points coming up. So now we have those points meeting the back

wall at the top of the surface there and there. There and there. Now, we have to come in to

meet our standing planes off our direct points there, and that will give us those points

in our new level.

So I’ll take the blue first back to the vanishing point and come back and meet that.

So now we have a reference plane. From here back, up, and over. That’s one plane. We

could shade it in if we want, but you can see it right there. That plane gives us that

point. This at the proper elevation within the new height. Also, we can do our red now

and come back from that dot. Be accurate to the vanishing point out there. Again, you

can’t see the vanishing points. They’re a little out of camera. But you know the deal.

Then there’s that red plane. So that represents this dot here in foreshortened space because

it’s becoming more foreshortened as we go toward the eye level, obviously, until it

eventually would become flat. Our next reference is there, and then our blue friend comes right

back here from the lip again right back there to there. And we know, of course, the lead

is right here also. That’s the wall there. I’m going to put that blue dot down there

to represent that. Okay. We know the corners, of course, are starting and finishing there

as well. I’ll just fill that in with my little pencil. Get some longer pencils going

here. These are getting pretty short. Again, I’ll feel out the middle of my curve first

up here the way I want it, and I’ll just have to ghost this in real quick, try to keep

my head out of your way and just try to make it feel right there.

A lot of this seems pretty obvious, but you know there’s a whole bunch of different

types of drawings all the way from freehand to extactomundo with tools and stuff. It’s

more the logic. So here I am. I’m going to bend myself around here because of the

camera angle. Here it comes like that. Again, we’re just, you know, pretending this is

like a standing plywood piece or something like that. It comes right back to there. We’ll

draw it in darker on the edges, obviously. Draw it on the edges here. We already have

our back edge which has gotten dark. I’ll draw that again kind of like that. Then we

could say if it’s a standing plane we could also say it’s a half shape. So if it’s

more like a desk or something that’s rounded, we could also include these planes if we have

a standing tabletop surface. And so that curve there. And there you go. So there’s that

curve there. We could basically, if we want to shade it in say we’ll just do the top

and bottom as a blue plane tint. There’s that. And then we have the standing plane

itself. I’ll just do in red. Okay, that whole thing there. Since it’s transparent

I’ll go ahead and draw a little red in on the top blue plane as well. There we go. Alright.

There we have it. A mixture of a two.

The important thing is to remember those reference planes that helped us before. Remember? So

that’s where we got those original points from, crossing those different points of our

original lay in doubled over shape, which really helped us see. So you’re halfway

points, your middle line, and that original footprint, and then we were able to raise

it up and stuff. So that’s constructing basically that half-curve for a desk or something

like that. It could be anything. Okay, so there’s that.

Now, we could go ahead and put a further height in that if we wanted to. So how would we do

that? Well, let’s choose another one. Another height that’s tall enough that won’t go

too far off. Let’s try this. It’d be about the same there. Let’s see if we can not

go off camera space with this by coming over there. So I’ll gauge it to not go off camera

space. Actually, we could have it steeper. Let me run this, we’re running to this line.

Camera space is about there so that’s about as high as I can go there. I think it’s

pretty close to the edge. I’ll say the height will be this just to get crazy there. Then

I’ll do my boxing. We’ll go ahead and do another level with that object if we want

for the heck of it. We can still carry up all those references. Same idea. We’re going

to still do the same routine, just carry it up again another level. So there’s the top

of that next height I chose. We’ve already got all our references extended past that shape.

So again, all we have to do is identify a few things. There’s the middle plane of

the box shape like right here. So let me get that in. There we go. It’s more correct.

I’ll make a stake on that one. There’s that. So that would be the head of the curve.

Again, we could just take our blue shape and our red shape and what we can do is we just

keep extending those planes now straight up from where they were carefully to the back wall there.

I’ll use my red for the back wall there again.

And again, this just shows you why it works. Back wall there. That blue plane goes right

up to there, matches that. So pretty much right there.

Now we know when these come out and meet their counterparts in blue,

there’s the blue. We’ve got one there. Got blue

coming out and meeting its counterpart there. Red.

Now the problem is these days, I think, is that since a lot of the people that are really

good at perspective and hand-drawing and doing all these ideations that are in their late

20’s, 30’s, 40’s, they had all this technical training and had to do these fairly

laborious diagrams that clearly pointed out why these planes worked and why we can go

up and over an reference and reference and reference and reference. And reference people,

reference angles. Know all the auxiliary vanishing points. All the stuff we’ve covered. A lot

of them had that, and a lot of people like to downplay the fact that they had it, and

it’s not that important. It was really just, all their great drawing just burst out of

them. The idea is they understand perspective because of this kind of activity. They understand

good drawing, line weight, observational drawing, toning from a lot of other types of practice

all combining to make great drawing. But the dishonest factor about it all is to say basically

that you’re supposed to understand all this stuff just by some magic pill in your mind

where some people got hours and hours of education in it. They’re expecting you to kind of

pick it up with maybe a tenth of the time of practice or maybe 25% of the time of practice

that they had. I’m here to tell you I had a lot of practice at this and took careful

notes, and that’s why I haven’t forgotten it, or I can always work something out on

top of painting and drawing and toning, good composition, tasteful subject matter. Whatever

you want to talk about, this is the raw material of why and how things work.

So, of course, if you were making some half-turned shape like this would you really have to do

all this plotting. How ridiculous, but no. This is not about why, like a professional

practice of how you’d have to construct this. This is because it needs to show you

why and how the referencing works to get to the levels. That’s all. So if you understand

this and practice it you can use as much of it as you need to or none of it. But the idea

is you understand why these planes behave to these vanishing points, the verticals,

and we can get different levels of these same curves basically. That’s all we’re doing.

I just wanted to clarify. Again, as always it’s why and how the perspective works with

referencing and other elements that’s important. Not exactly how you’ll do it for the rest

of your life. This is not claiming to be a process which you do the rest of your life.

These are diagrams so you’ll permanently understand and remember these concepts. Get

back to them quickly and use them as you need to. I just wanted to make that clear.

Okay, so let’s continue. We made that red reference there. We’ve obviously got our

corners here, here, and then at the middle one again. So let’s draw those in again

real quick. That multi-leveled idea. This again comes over here. So oops, forgot that

little reference just to make it clear. There’s the other red reference. So this represents

these here. The blue here is now here. The blue here is now here coming in. So here the

blue, blue, blue, red, red right there. That’s that one and then the middle, middle, middle.

Again, we’ll draw these in. Just kind of come around naturally. It’s pretty easy

there once you get the references. You know what? You probably, hey, I don’t need those.

I can just feel it out. Correct, you could. But the idea is when shapes become more curvaceous

they jut out and come way back in. It becomes harder and harder to just wing it unless you’re

going back and forth to the diminishing vanishing points. Even in hand sketching and, of course,

trying to relate correct foreshortening as we go further and further back in space or

come forward in space. Things get larger. So that’s really what we’re trying to

do there. So now I’m trying to wing it here. Come through and continue on to that corner.

Alright, so there we go. There’s the top plane, which I’ll tone in with blue.

I'll leave the red part out and just say, okay, maybe it’s actually a little roof that’s

being hung up by the others like that. There’s that other part up there. Okay, simple shape.

So now we’re going to do a simple boat shape down here, a very simple one, but not really

having the taper of a boat but just the idea of what a block would look like before we

started more complex boat. I didn’t want to kind of just get the idea of it. So what

I’m going to do is still cut this area in half. I’m going to build out the shapes

to tell you why I’m doing that. Here are the edges. Let’s get our rectangle of the

boat’s outer dimensions. Here we go. Alright, got our halfway point, so we’ll nail that

in. Maybe I’ll use a reference for it. I’ll extend that a little bit, get the long axis

halfway point in there. Alright, and then the idea is maybe I want a boat shape again.

I’ll come from here. Maybe it comes flat right against here. I’ll start with this

back edge cause that’s where I feel I want to play out the shape. Then it comes around.

AUTO SCROLL

If that’s what I’m starting there. Edge is here so we’ll take our colors again real

quick. We know it’s starts—oops, it broke. That’s nice. We know the blue is here again.

We’ve done it before. That’s there. That touches right there pretty flush right there.

We can also mark in this. Mark in that. It should be plenty, and it touches half right

there, obviously. Again, all we need to do is double a couple over, bring them over to

space. We use our left vanishing point. We’ll draw over our blue right here all the way

to other edge on the other side so it’s obvious. Draw over the red to its counterpart

diagonal. Draw this red all the way over because it’s just almost over there. That’s a

no brainer. Also there, so we get this point here. That point over there. This point is

just almost touching right there. So we might as well put that in. So now we’re basically

just left to find our backside.

Again, if we want to just estimate it and say, sure, that doubles over, it will just

become a little larger than another one in perspective. The good guess would be right

about here. If we wanted to we could just keep going as a reference back here.

Prove it to ourselves like that. Then take the same idea and come back to the line like this.

There you go. We get that right there. Okay, we’ll draw it in. We’re just going to

raise this shape a little. I’ll go ahead and it really peaks right there. Comes through

the red. Has to come around like this. Let me get out of your way. So we know that it

flushes right against the edge there over there, and then we have to come back slowly

down to here. I’ll make it up there again. Slow that curve down. We have to come back

literally and just meet it there.

There we go.

Alright. Let’s go ahead and raise all those reference points up. We can raise our box

up a little bit. I’ll do these verticals a little higher than they need to be, but

not too high because I don’t want to interfere with my other shape will be behind it. I’ll

just kind of raise them up as I need them a little bit. And again, this might be overdoing it.

You don’t have to necessarily do all of them. But I want to show the thinking behind

it so you have a selection in your mind later of what do I need for this particular shape?

What do I not really need to do? Is this too much. I’ll bring my center up as well.

There we go. I’ll bring my different colors up, dots and references. Then we’ll decide on

the height of that second level of this shape. There’s the blue right in front there. Blue

there. Blue over here. Red. Just, you know, watch what I’m doing. Pause the lecture.

I just want to keep moving here. I don’t want to get so long on these simple ones that

I’m burning away too much time even though they’re important. You can always pause,

review, catch up, that kind of thing.

Okay, so I want it to be about that high, let’s say. So I’ll say about there since

that’s on the edge. I’ll bring that idea back to, let’s see, yeah, right about there.

I’ll bring that box about that far. I’m just going to take the idea of the raised

box back to my vanishing point. It comes just under there. It goes back to the corner.

We come back right up to there. Perfect. There’s the box. Let me make that a little darker.

Just dark enough to see. I’m hoping that you see them on the camera. If this is overexposed

should be right on the money. And then we do the halfway mark, which would be there

crossing over and hitting on the other side to there. And the middle seam is right there.

If we’re interested here are the corners. There, there, there, there. Alright, so let’s

get our references going. Well, the easy part is that these touch right at the edge so they’re

right there. These nearly touch right at the edge. We have this touching right here.

We have that touching right there. We have that touching right there. Oops, not there. There—it’s

the first one. And then the red is just inside of it. So if you take the red up just inside

you can almost say, okay, that’s right there. So it’s right there, there, and also over

here it’s just inside that plane. Just inside that one so it’s right about there.

So this one, get about there.

Okay, and the red one, we’re going to come up. So now all the blues are pretty much automatic

because even the front one is there. Now the reds we’re going to carry over. Again, we

could do in the front or the back plane. It doesn’t matter. Cross and cross. I’ll

just come up the front plane this time if I want instead of the back plane. I’ll use

my true verticals here. And I’m going to come up this way right to the edge. I’m

coming up the actual box where they hit. So I come back out to the box shape. Come up

and then I have to come back in to meet that counterpoint line in both cases. Over here,

over here, over here, over here. So let’s do that by going back to our left vanishing

point where it crosses or sweeps over where our verticals came up from our actual red

dots. That’s where we want them to take note. Here and here, coming across. Those

would be those places. Right to here, across to our left vanishing point. That would be

here and here crossing those. Then going all the way across the span of the box. It touches

the edge of the box here, but we notice that’s where we strike our previous verticals from

our original points on the ground. That’s where we got them. Now we have them all. All

the reds and the blues and everything we need.

Let’s go ahead and draw that shape out with our pencil. Flush, flush. There it is flush

against the wall. Taper in, come around. Draw out shape as nicely as we can. There’s that

curve. I’ll do the other side flush to the box. That starts curving in much faster and

faster. Let me bend my arm. Come around. I’m coming around. That’s what I’m doing here.

So this flattens out the curve a bit because we’re getting some of the foreshortening.

There’s that. Then we come around a little bit to our reds here. Little bit to our red.

Then we also come back from these. So what we’re doing is we’re coming back here.

Straight like an arrow and then curving in. So this one is just like this. Also, here

we’re shooting over from here through here, lining right up with that. I’m just trying

to bend my way out of your way here so I can get my little bit of hand coordination going

here at this weird angle. Alright, it’s a little bit of a sloppy one, but anyway.

Then the closed tail closes off. We come to the front. Then we’ll just make sure this

is a little darker. There’s that back curve again if we can clarify. There it is. Little

bit of a boat outlying, kind of a pedal, kind of a little body of a fish idea but just raised it.

Okay, that’s pretty obvious. We can tone it in if we want to be all happy about it.

Alright, I’ll do it lightly. Not to be annoying but just to say okay. A little bit there.

I don’t want to obscure too much. Then it would be just that, the back. Then the overlapping

bits would be a bit darker. It’s called inner penetration, but they’re not different

colors. Inner penetration often would be different colors overlapping in generally equal bits

making a third by their combination, much like transparent light on the computer.

So the idea is these planes, around here for that shape.

Okay, so that was a good example of that simple shape.

Now we’re going to do a third one back here, kind of a curved standing table of some kind.

Let’s do that. I’m going to lay in the rectangle. It’s to here, try to fit them

in all together here. Let’s just say this is like some type of reception. Oops, it’s

off. Hold on. Some kind of reception desk. Maybe that has a curve to instead. Kind of

postmodern. A little bit deco, a little bit postmodern in a funky design studio. I’m

going to go ahead and lightly X it off. Put that center right there. Go to my left

vanishing point. Alright, got the idea there. So now with my arsenal of unsharpened pencils

now—they’ve been all dulled down—I’m going to put in a curve idea, but I’m just

trying to figure out what most planning there. I guess what I’ll do is I’ll say it starts

back there. Yeah. I want to start a curve like this. Okay, so about here.

I want to start one like this.

I’m just trying to think of what design I want to do here. Curve it there. A little

more like that. This is my front curve to my design. It comes around. The other part

starts from back here. It’s going to taper a bit. It’ll look thinner. I’m going to

have it turn like that. Let me just design this real quick so it looks halfway even.

There we go. I want a thickness to some type of desktop that can be kind of a standing

postmodern curved, standing desk within this rectangular shape. It’s footprint. That

will help us reference it. Okay, so there we go. Okay, so real quick let’s see how

these two are touching here, here. We’re touching the halfway point there, there. Outer

edge obviously here. We have our touching there and touching there. We also touched

the middle plane there. I’m just trying to think of the common points. If we want

to get that up in there some amount let’s carry all our points of interest including

our box shape up in the air now. It’s going to be this shape in here that will be the

curve that’s carried up. I’ll go ahead and shade that in as an idea in blue. That

will just be a thin part of a standing desk even though the entire rectangle it’s designed

in is what we’ve already laid down.

We’ll go ahead and raise up our four corners of our reference rectangle. I don’t know

we might go all the way up. Who knows if we’re feeling crazy. Let’s do it. Alright. Get

my halfway points up. Get these out of here. There’s my halfway point right there. Box

corner and back box corner right there. Okay, so we’ve got those up. Then we’ll go ahead

and take our basic major points up. In this case I guess those would be the blues first.

Then those are touching so that will be rather convenient. Then we have to figure out these

other middle curves. We’ll go ahead and put that up. The other blue is right here

in the half, so I’ll go ahead and make that one blue. Then these other two, that corner

again, and we’ll touch this right there just to be obvious. Then we’ll take our

little red spots and also just—oops, right. Why did I not get that one in? That was foolish

of me. There. That’s the other diagonal. And right there if we want to use them. Let’s

just say we do. What the hey. Thinly going up. There we go.

We have to be careful where and why they’re touching the original footprint. The original

footprint, because we don’t have a flat version, is our original design. We have to

pay attention to the integrity of the curve down there and what we want to do with it

when we raise it up. Alright, so there’s a whole bunch of references taken up for us

if we want. Again do I have to do all these? Not necessarily, but it’s just showing you

why these interesting crossings of these different references within the rectangle where the

curve strikes everything can be used consistently for the other versions, which will also have

these same elements in them if we’re using a reference rectangle surrounding the totality

of the flat shape. Let’s figure out how high we want it. We could make it again a

desktop. Let’s not make it so high that it’s so flat and becomes difficult, but

a little bit up high. Let’s go ahead and say, well, about here would be okay. Let’s

try that. That’ll be pretty flat, but maybe we’ll still see some perspective out of

it. I’ll go ahead and take that height across to my reference rectangle. There’s a corner.

Come back. Others way down here. Come back to that corner to the other corner, which

is there. Then come back to the right vanishing point right about there. There’s the rectangle.

So to get a feeling that would be, let’s identify all our easy parts. We know blue

goes there. We know that goes directly there. We know that goes directly there. We also

know that back corner and, of course, right there at the edge. So let’s figure out what

is easy to reference first. Very carefully with a sharper pencil I’m going to go ahead

and put my halfway point in also for my box. I’m going to take this straight up. That

just might be helpful here. We have our halfway point for the other way, but not this way.

I’m going to put it right there and say, alright, I’m going to bring that up. Also,

I’ll bring the other one right over on the side, which is extremely close to that line.

We have both of those. So now since this red dot here falls right there, I can just make

a convenient idea of this halfway point here coming in, and it travels and bumps into that

red dot. That red dot falls on the halfway line. If I come down the counterpart just

as an idea, I can bump into it and say, okay, there’s that dot up there just to be anal

about it. What else is easy? Oh, that’s also on the halfway line. So if go down this

halfway line we have another strike there, which is on the halfway line there. I’d

better take that halfway line carefully all the way through here to my left vanishing

point. Go all the way through the shape. Now I can identify if I want to this dot on the

halfway point. I can also use the diagonal. There’s another one halfway on that point

as well. This is going to be really, really foreshortened and look kind of weird. Then

we’re going to bring it way up there. It’s not going to be quite so foreshortened.

We'll do that as well.

So that’s all the easy references I can look at here. This one is also easy because

it’s on this half crossing here. I’m going to bring over to the right vanishing point.

I’m going to also bring this across. That will give us the center and this reference

right here. We’ll see if I can even draw this out. It’s so foreshortened. I’ll

just have to be very careful with a sharper pencil. Then we can always reference if we

want—there’s a couple ones, oops there’s a diagonal. So if I take this one, this one

is on the diagonal. That’s easy to take this one right to the back corner correctly.

Nice and soft. There. I can run into that one right there. So again, this is just referencing

the idea of raising the height and seeing all the common things I can make from just

diagonally X’ng and putting a T through the original rectangle shape. We have all

these fairly convenient references for drawing. Now the only one we don’t have is on that

diagonal. We can just go up and do it there, which is going to be pretty easy. This is

very foreshortened so I know I’m like being a little dramatic here. But frankly, let’s

just see if we can do it. So we’ve got that little diagonal. I can raise this red dot

up now and hit that. Let’s see if I can even articulate this shape. I’m going to

have to get a sharper pencil.

So there’s the original line back there. We can identify it back here. Alright, this

line here, we’ll darken that in. There that is right there. Alright. Then this one comes

around, that angle. It curves in from here and goes back, and you can say, okay, we could

use another reference there. I’m just going to say, no, I get it. It kind of wings in

very flat so just a tiny bit, wings in and comes around. That other side is up there

so I’m going to follow that. Comes around there. Here’s that. I’m straight out that,

so I’ve got to come all the way and swing back over there so it straightens out there,

comes all the way, swings over and meets there. I’m going to bend my arm in a weird way.

Hopefully not get in your way. Then the other side goes through that. So we can see that.

It goes at that angle also. It has to meet up with that one. I’m going to come through

here like this. There’s that. It’s a little fat so what I should’ve done is taper that

in a bit. Meaning, this back edge needs to taper in a little. I’ll take it away with

my little kneaded eraser and just taper it in more just a hair. There.

I was being fanatical about it.

Okay, and then this one starts and curves in a bit. So it starts, curves in, comes round.

It comes right around pretty sharply and meets up with that one.

So I have to kind of make that seem natural.

Okay. Of course, this one meets at the blue. It’s pretty flush and

straight for a bit here. Then it comes around and meets that one. So that’s going to be,

again, very sharp coming around here and bending toward the wall. That’s going to be—in

fact it doesn’t bend that fast even. It’s very foreshortened. Let’s bend it around

like this. Then it finally comes in and straightens out, but that’s very hard to see at that

angle. I’ve just got to keep thinning out my line using my clumsy pencil here until

I get kind of a shape I like. There we go, better. Alright, so let’s tone that in with

blue, see if we can recognize it as the counterpart above the original shape.

Again, not that you couldn’t meet the ends with hand drawing, but some of these foreshortenings

are awfully hard to gauge if you’re just freehanding it. I mean you get better at it

and you certainly can take very good guesses at it from observation, but when inventing

sometimes, even just some of these little reference points and raising them just thinking

about them, making little ticks and tacks. I’m not saying in any way that when you’re

hand drawing you’re going to do all these lines. But the invisible idea of the line

and feeling it out with your hand and then making little taps and little dots as these

representative referencing points is very helpful, and then you’re filling in the

lines. But it’s invisible work. Here it’s not invisible because we’re doing a lecture

and we’re doing a diagram, and you’re making a diagram. You want to make it dead

clear to yourself for a few months from now, a year from now, five years from now with

all your notes, again taking your notes in the order of why things are with arrows and

stuff. You can be doing a neater job than I am really,

I’m doing this so you can do the neater job.

I want to get as far as I can in the lecture material and go on and on for—you know we’re

up to, by the time we’re doing these now we’re up to something like 87, 88, 89 hours

worth of pure lecture material. And you know I want to keep moving and get to as much material

as possible so I’m not going to slow way down with any one. I mean the spiral staircase

we did way back, that took some time. Again, I’m not really going to do anything any

more complex than that because it’s pointless. It’s really about how and why the perspective

works in a basic and intermediate way than a few more complex examples. It’s really

about the composition, you know, using the cone and all that. I know we haven’t done

much of that in a while. But remember, this is just exaggerated and clear so that we can

see the process in your drawings. I’ve said it over and over. This kind of work would

be extremely light and just almost like a hand movement and a tick and stuff, and a

very, very thin cobweb line if you need it.

So again, just keep thinking that. Obviously, you can see that from numerous examples on

the internet of an entertainment design drawings, all these great, cool things or whatever.

It’s just this is the thinking behind that kind of stuff. That’s the point. I wanted

to show you plenty of that thinking and basics. A lot of people that are beginners and intermediate

people are completely lost when they see someone whip in a beautiful drawing using this method.

Like, okay, how did you reference that? How’d you get that? I don’t it; it’s not working

for me. It’s like suddenly that person is frustrated and gives up because there is no

building process, which I had in an educational delivery and which I think everybody in the

visual arts programs deserves as well as if you come to a site like this or are this site

then you deserve in a lecture series in hi-def. So that’s the point. So we’re overdoing

it a bit so that we can really see the process. That’s why.

quick. We know it’s starts—oops, it broke. That’s nice. We know the blue is here again.

We’ve done it before. That’s there. That touches right there pretty flush right there.

We can also mark in this. Mark in that. It should be plenty, and it touches half right

there, obviously. Again, all we need to do is double a couple over, bring them over to

space. We use our left vanishing point. We’ll draw over our blue right here all the way

to other edge on the other side so it’s obvious. Draw over the red to its counterpart

diagonal. Draw this red all the way over because it’s just almost over there. That’s a

no brainer. Also there, so we get this point here. That point over there. This point is

just almost touching right there. So we might as well put that in. So now we’re basically

just left to find our backside.

Again, if we want to just estimate it and say, sure, that doubles over, it will just

become a little larger than another one in perspective. The good guess would be right

about here. If we wanted to we could just keep going as a reference back here.

Prove it to ourselves like that. Then take the same idea and come back to the line like this.

There you go. We get that right there. Okay, we’ll draw it in. We’re just going to

raise this shape a little. I’ll go ahead and it really peaks right there. Comes through

the red. Has to come around like this. Let me get out of your way. So we know that it

flushes right against the edge there over there, and then we have to come back slowly

down to here. I’ll make it up there again. Slow that curve down. We have to come back

literally and just meet it there.

There we go.

Alright. Let’s go ahead and raise all those reference points up. We can raise our box

up a little bit. I’ll do these verticals a little higher than they need to be, but

not too high because I don’t want to interfere with my other shape will be behind it. I’ll

just kind of raise them up as I need them a little bit. And again, this might be overdoing it.

You don’t have to necessarily do all of them. But I want to show the thinking behind

it so you have a selection in your mind later of what do I need for this particular shape?

What do I not really need to do? Is this too much. I’ll bring my center up as well.

There we go. I’ll bring my different colors up, dots and references. Then we’ll decide on

the height of that second level of this shape. There’s the blue right in front there. Blue

there. Blue over here. Red. Just, you know, watch what I’m doing. Pause the lecture.

I just want to keep moving here. I don’t want to get so long on these simple ones that

I’m burning away too much time even though they’re important. You can always pause,

review, catch up, that kind of thing.

Okay, so I want it to be about that high, let’s say. So I’ll say about there since

that’s on the edge. I’ll bring that idea back to, let’s see, yeah, right about there.

I’ll bring that box about that far. I’m just going to take the idea of the raised

box back to my vanishing point. It comes just under there. It goes back to the corner.

We come back right up to there. Perfect. There’s the box. Let me make that a little darker.

Just dark enough to see. I’m hoping that you see them on the camera. If this is overexposed

should be right on the money. And then we do the halfway mark, which would be there

crossing over and hitting on the other side to there. And the middle seam is right there.

If we’re interested here are the corners. There, there, there, there. Alright, so let’s

get our references going. Well, the easy part is that these touch right at the edge so they’re

right there. These nearly touch right at the edge. We have this touching right here.

We have that touching right there. We have that touching right there. Oops, not there. There—it’s

the first one. And then the red is just inside of it. So if you take the red up just inside

you can almost say, okay, that’s right there. So it’s right there, there, and also over

here it’s just inside that plane. Just inside that one so it’s right about there.

So this one, get about there.

Okay, and the red one, we’re going to come up. So now all the blues are pretty much automatic

because even the front one is there. Now the reds we’re going to carry over. Again, we

could do in the front or the back plane. It doesn’t matter. Cross and cross. I’ll

just come up the front plane this time if I want instead of the back plane. I’ll use

my true verticals here. And I’m going to come up this way right to the edge. I’m

coming up the actual box where they hit. So I come back out to the box shape. Come up

and then I have to come back in to meet that counterpoint line in both cases. Over here,

over here, over here, over here. So let’s do that by going back to our left vanishing

point where it crosses or sweeps over where our verticals came up from our actual red

dots. That’s where we want them to take note. Here and here, coming across. Those

would be those places. Right to here, across to our left vanishing point. That would be

here and here crossing those. Then going all the way across the span of the box. It touches

the edge of the box here, but we notice that’s where we strike our previous verticals from

our original points on the ground. That’s where we got them. Now we have them all. All

the reds and the blues and everything we need.

Let’s go ahead and draw that shape out with our pencil. Flush, flush. There it is flush

against the wall. Taper in, come around. Draw out shape as nicely as we can. There’s that

curve. I’ll do the other side flush to the box. That starts curving in much faster and

faster. Let me bend my arm. Come around. I’m coming around. That’s what I’m doing here.

So this flattens out the curve a bit because we’re getting some of the foreshortening.

There’s that. Then we come around a little bit to our reds here. Little bit to our red.

Then we also come back from these. So what we’re doing is we’re coming back here.

Straight like an arrow and then curving in. So this one is just like this. Also, here

we’re shooting over from here through here, lining right up with that. I’m just trying

to bend my way out of your way here so I can get my little bit of hand coordination going

here at this weird angle. Alright, it’s a little bit of a sloppy one, but anyway.

Then the closed tail closes off. We come to the front. Then we’ll just make sure this

is a little darker. There’s that back curve again if we can clarify. There it is. Little

bit of a boat outlying, kind of a pedal, kind of a little body of a fish idea but just raised it.

Okay, that’s pretty obvious. We can tone it in if we want to be all happy about it.

Alright, I’ll do it lightly. Not to be annoying but just to say okay. A little bit there.

I don’t want to obscure too much. Then it would be just that, the back. Then the overlapping

bits would be a bit darker. It’s called inner penetration, but they’re not different

colors. Inner penetration often would be different colors overlapping in generally equal bits

making a third by their combination, much like transparent light on the computer.

So the idea is these planes, around here for that shape.

Okay, so that was a good example of that simple shape.

Now we’re going to do a third one back here, kind of a curved standing table of some kind.

Let’s do that. I’m going to lay in the rectangle. It’s to here, try to fit them

in all together here. Let’s just say this is like some type of reception. Oops, it’s

off. Hold on. Some kind of reception desk. Maybe that has a curve to instead. Kind of

postmodern. A little bit deco, a little bit postmodern in a funky design studio. I’m

going to go ahead and lightly X it off. Put that center right there. Go to my left

vanishing point. Alright, got the idea there. So now with my arsenal of unsharpened pencils

now—they’ve been all dulled down—I’m going to put in a curve idea, but I’m just

trying to figure out what most planning there. I guess what I’ll do is I’ll say it starts

back there. Yeah. I want to start a curve like this. Okay, so about here.

I want to start one like this.

I’m just trying to think of what design I want to do here. Curve it there. A little

more like that. This is my front curve to my design. It comes around. The other part

starts from back here. It’s going to taper a bit. It’ll look thinner. I’m going to

have it turn like that. Let me just design this real quick so it looks halfway even.

There we go. I want a thickness to some type of desktop that can be kind of a standing

postmodern curved, standing desk within this rectangular shape. It’s footprint. That

will help us reference it. Okay, so there we go. Okay, so real quick let’s see how

these two are touching here, here. We’re touching the halfway point there, there. Outer

edge obviously here. We have our touching there and touching there. We also touched

the middle plane there. I’m just trying to think of the common points. If we want

to get that up in there some amount let’s carry all our points of interest including

our box shape up in the air now. It’s going to be this shape in here that will be the

curve that’s carried up. I’ll go ahead and shade that in as an idea in blue. That

will just be a thin part of a standing desk even though the entire rectangle it’s designed

in is what we’ve already laid down.

We’ll go ahead and raise up our four corners of our reference rectangle. I don’t know

we might go all the way up. Who knows if we’re feeling crazy. Let’s do it. Alright. Get

my halfway points up. Get these out of here. There’s my halfway point right there. Box

corner and back box corner right there. Okay, so we’ve got those up. Then we’ll go ahead

and take our basic major points up. In this case I guess those would be the blues first.

Then those are touching so that will be rather convenient. Then we have to figure out these

other middle curves. We’ll go ahead and put that up. The other blue is right here

in the half, so I’ll go ahead and make that one blue. Then these other two, that corner

again, and we’ll touch this right there just to be obvious. Then we’ll take our

little red spots and also just—oops, right. Why did I not get that one in? That was foolish

of me. There. That’s the other diagonal. And right there if we want to use them. Let’s

just say we do. What the hey. Thinly going up. There we go.

We have to be careful where and why they’re touching the original footprint. The original

footprint, because we don’t have a flat version, is our original design. We have to

pay attention to the integrity of the curve down there and what we want to do with it

when we raise it up. Alright, so there’s a whole bunch of references taken up for us

if we want. Again do I have to do all these? Not necessarily, but it’s just showing you

why these interesting crossings of these different references within the rectangle where the

curve strikes everything can be used consistently for the other versions, which will also have

these same elements in them if we’re using a reference rectangle surrounding the totality

of the flat shape. Let’s figure out how high we want it. We could make it again a

desktop. Let’s not make it so high that it’s so flat and becomes difficult, but

a little bit up high. Let’s go ahead and say, well, about here would be okay. Let’s

try that. That’ll be pretty flat, but maybe we’ll still see some perspective out of

it. I’ll go ahead and take that height across to my reference rectangle. There’s a corner.

Come back. Others way down here. Come back to that corner to the other corner, which

is there. Then come back to the right vanishing point right about there. There’s the rectangle.

So to get a feeling that would be, let’s identify all our easy parts. We know blue

goes there. We know that goes directly there. We know that goes directly there. We also

know that back corner and, of course, right there at the edge. So let’s figure out what

is easy to reference first. Very carefully with a sharper pencil I’m going to go ahead

and put my halfway point in also for my box. I’m going to take this straight up. That

just might be helpful here. We have our halfway point for the other way, but not this way.

I’m going to put it right there and say, alright, I’m going to bring that up. Also,

I’ll bring the other one right over on the side, which is extremely close to that line.

We have both of those. So now since this red dot here falls right there, I can just make

a convenient idea of this halfway point here coming in, and it travels and bumps into that

red dot. That red dot falls on the halfway line. If I come down the counterpart just

as an idea, I can bump into it and say, okay, there’s that dot up there just to be anal

about it. What else is easy? Oh, that’s also on the halfway line. So if go down this

halfway line we have another strike there, which is on the halfway line there. I’d

better take that halfway line carefully all the way through here to my left vanishing

point. Go all the way through the shape. Now I can identify if I want to this dot on the

halfway point. I can also use the diagonal. There’s another one halfway on that point

as well. This is going to be really, really foreshortened and look kind of weird. Then

we’re going to bring it way up there. It’s not going to be quite so foreshortened.

We'll do that as well.

So that’s all the easy references I can look at here. This one is also easy because

it’s on this half crossing here. I’m going to bring over to the right vanishing point.

I’m going to also bring this across. That will give us the center and this reference

right here. We’ll see if I can even draw this out. It’s so foreshortened. I’ll

just have to be very careful with a sharper pencil. Then we can always reference if we

want—there’s a couple ones, oops there’s a diagonal. So if I take this one, this one

is on the diagonal. That’s easy to take this one right to the back corner correctly.

Nice and soft. There. I can run into that one right there. So again, this is just referencing

the idea of raising the height and seeing all the common things I can make from just

diagonally X’ng and putting a T through the original rectangle shape. We have all

these fairly convenient references for drawing. Now the only one we don’t have is on that

diagonal. We can just go up and do it there, which is going to be pretty easy. This is

very foreshortened so I know I’m like being a little dramatic here. But frankly, let’s

just see if we can do it. So we’ve got that little diagonal. I can raise this red dot

up now and hit that. Let’s see if I can even articulate this shape. I’m going to

have to get a sharper pencil.

So there’s the original line back there. We can identify it back here. Alright, this

line here, we’ll darken that in. There that is right there. Alright. Then this one comes

around, that angle. It curves in from here and goes back, and you can say, okay, we could

use another reference there. I’m just going to say, no, I get it. It kind of wings in

very flat so just a tiny bit, wings in and comes around. That other side is up there

so I’m going to follow that. Comes around there. Here’s that. I’m straight out that,

so I’ve got to come all the way and swing back over there so it straightens out there,

comes all the way, swings over and meets there. I’m going to bend my arm in a weird way.

Hopefully not get in your way. Then the other side goes through that. So we can see that.

It goes at that angle also. It has to meet up with that one. I’m going to come through

here like this. There’s that. It’s a little fat so what I should’ve done is taper that

in a bit. Meaning, this back edge needs to taper in a little. I’ll take it away with

my little kneaded eraser and just taper it in more just a hair. There.

I was being fanatical about it.

Okay, and then this one starts and curves in a bit. So it starts, curves in, comes round.

It comes right around pretty sharply and meets up with that one.

So I have to kind of make that seem natural.

Okay. Of course, this one meets at the blue. It’s pretty flush and

straight for a bit here. Then it comes around and meets that one. So that’s going to be,

again, very sharp coming around here and bending toward the wall. That’s going to be—in

fact it doesn’t bend that fast even. It’s very foreshortened. Let’s bend it around

like this. Then it finally comes in and straightens out, but that’s very hard to see at that

angle. I’ve just got to keep thinning out my line using my clumsy pencil here until

I get kind of a shape I like. There we go, better. Alright, so let’s tone that in with

blue, see if we can recognize it as the counterpart above the original shape.

Again, not that you couldn’t meet the ends with hand drawing, but some of these foreshortenings

are awfully hard to gauge if you’re just freehanding it. I mean you get better at it

and you certainly can take very good guesses at it from observation, but when inventing

sometimes, even just some of these little reference points and raising them just thinking

about them, making little ticks and tacks. I’m not saying in any way that when you’re

hand drawing you’re going to do all these lines. But the invisible idea of the line

and feeling it out with your hand and then making little taps and little dots as these

representative referencing points is very helpful, and then you’re filling in the

lines. But it’s invisible work. Here it’s not invisible because we’re doing a lecture

and we’re doing a diagram, and you’re making a diagram. You want to make it dead

clear to yourself for a few months from now, a year from now, five years from now with

all your notes, again taking your notes in the order of why things are with arrows and

stuff. You can be doing a neater job than I am really,

I’m doing this so you can do the neater job.

I want to get as far as I can in the lecture material and go on and on for—you know we’re

up to, by the time we’re doing these now we’re up to something like 87, 88, 89 hours

worth of pure lecture material. And you know I want to keep moving and get to as much material

as possible so I’m not going to slow way down with any one. I mean the spiral staircase

we did way back, that took some time. Again, I’m not really going to do anything any

more complex than that because it’s pointless. It’s really about how and why the perspective

works in a basic and intermediate way than a few more complex examples. It’s really

about the composition, you know, using the cone and all that. I know we haven’t done

much of that in a while. But remember, this is just exaggerated and clear so that we can

see the process in your drawings. I’ve said it over and over. This kind of work would

be extremely light and just almost like a hand movement and a tick and stuff, and a

very, very thin cobweb line if you need it.

So again, just keep thinking that. Obviously, you can see that from numerous examples on

the internet of an entertainment design drawings, all these great, cool things or whatever.

It’s just this is the thinking behind that kind of stuff. That’s the point. I wanted

to show you plenty of that thinking and basics. A lot of people that are beginners and intermediate

people are completely lost when they see someone whip in a beautiful drawing using this method.

Like, okay, how did you reference that? How’d you get that? I don’t it; it’s not working

for me. It’s like suddenly that person is frustrated and gives up because there is no

building process, which I had in an educational delivery and which I think everybody in the

visual arts programs deserves as well as if you come to a site like this or are this site

then you deserve in a lecture series in hi-def. So that’s the point. So we’re overdoing

it a bit so that we can really see the process. That’s why.

AUTO SCROLL

Let’s do one more level of that and then parachute out of this diagram, shall we? Let

me take the basic rectangular box again, and let’s see from this back corner where it

might lead out of the picture. We don’t want that. I have to say, okay, the basic

barrier is about here so we have to keep it down about there. So probably for the back

corner. We’ll do that right up to about there.

Let me just see where is the highest that we want this to come out?

Up to there. Alright, so right to there. Okay, that should

be right about at the top of the camera.

So we’ll do that back plane like that. I’m sorry, that would be the front plane actually, yeah.

So let me get the front corner going. Sorry. Okay, there we go.

Back corner, front corner. Ignore that other line. Going back, going back, back corner right there.

There we go. That should be visible on the tape here. Okay, so there’s that top canopy of

the rectangular reference shape. Come up from the ground way up there. And we’ll do the

same thing real quick and just make all the same logical conclusions we did. Let me get

a sharper. Well, that’s broken too. Nice. Okay, so blue travels all the way up to there.

We got it. Blue is here, travel all the way up. Make sure I’ve got the blue line. Correct.

Blue is all the way in the corner. Got that. Blue is all the way up in the corner. Go that.

Is there any reds. We’ve got to do the halfway, and the diagonal would be very helpful as

well on the top. So why don’t we just get that out of the way by putting in our X and

our T. That way we’re going to get all the references we have coming to us that we’ve

earned. So let’s use them if we choose to. So there’s that.

And we come up with the center T right there.

I’ll shoot through this way right through there. Get on the money

right there. Yep, it’s fine. Then that middle T is right there according to that. That should

give us a good enough reference basically. So good. It came out pretty close.

Okay, now we got all that. Let’s go ahead and keep nailing those references for ourselves.

We know this red dot. Let’s do this one first. That falls halfway straight up so that’s

right here. Second, that one is on the diagonal so we go up and we identify it by going up,

not confusing it with the other right next to it. That’s on the diagonal. That is on

the halfway point again. The halfway point is there on the upper version. This is on

the crossing this way on the halfway point, going to the right vanishing point. So that

equivalent space is up there. Blue, blue we have. Red is on the halfway point. We didn’t

take it up because it’s right lined up with that. We go right up to that halfway point

so this red reference here is right there. This one is right on the diagonal again.

Remember, I want to make the point that the reason we’ve hit a lot of these originally,

don’t forget, is because they fell right on the diagonals, the T, or the outside border

of our reference rectangle. That’s the whole reason we’re using it. It not only demarcates

the outside dimensions of what we intend on the shape in general like almost a Plexiglas

box, but by X’ng and T’ng it we really gain more references. By extending the middle

planes either way, we also can get great reference point lines when we want to double over an

object. In this case we’re not doubling over. We’re simply drawing a single object

like we did here. Okay, so let’s continue, red on the halfway point. Halfway point. That

on the crossing diagonal. So same thing. That counterpart lives up there. I think I have

everything now. Yup, so let’s try to do the curve again. Let me sharpen that pencil

again so it’s not terribly dull.

Okay, so let’s mark this out again. Here’s that straight span against the edge. It’s

counterpart is down there then that part too is up here obviously. How do we start swinging over?

We swing through here so we start that movement there just like we just swing through

here. We’re doing the opposite now so you have to kind of put the thinking cap on.

Okay, so we’re on the front wall, front wall. Then we curve around and come through this.

If that’s doing that up there it’s kind of going back like that. If we’re going

back here in this one we should be going back there on that one. So that should curve around

and then swing around to that. So basically curve around, swing around to that.

Okay, so that comes right out and swings around. Hopefully, I can do this right. It’s difficult.

Alright, comes around, swings around and meets this flush part out here, so this is flush here.

I’m just going to carry this whole line all the way back so it stays flush for

about that far then swings around toward here. Then we meet that. So that has to come out

like this. It’s pretty simple. Nice flush. Come around, turn the corner and meet this

flush out right out there. Not too far out. There. It should be something like that.

Then we’ll do the backside. So we come up through here. We come through here and we

come out immediately. We come through here and out immediately. We have to turn quickly

to meet that. There’s the most extreme curvatures right there. That’s going back there.

Then I also have to aim back to that back corner as a mirror space or the opposite. Jam that

corner back in like that. Okay. We come back to the other ones so we’re coming back around here.

That’s a little clumsy. I don’t like that so I’m going to take both of those

back and turn this, taper this a little more gracefully, same with this one there.

Okay, that one comes back and then swings around here. The apex is about there. So if I go

straight up in my mind it’s about there. It comes out about like that right about there.

I can just make my own reference here. Swing back. I want a little more of an S-curve.

There. Come through. There we go. There.

Alright, it’s a little hairy of a line, but that’s the gist of it there. I’ll

tone it in with blue. That should be that space up there. Same idea. So we originally

did this part here. Let’s see. Alright. In red. I’ll just tone this kind of whole

thing in red here. There we go. If we want to imagine that as kind of a desk or some

standing shape I’ll put more blue in here to be more evenly standing like that. We’ll

put the outside in heavy with pencil. So here’s the outside shape. There’s that corner,

which is important. Here’s that outside corner there. We got the back and the back

goes up there. Then the outside edge we’d actually see at the very edge would be there.

There’s that shape. Again, we’ll leave this like it’s almost standing on rods or

whatever, floating as associated shape. It’s gotten a little thick here. But he hadn’t

had to push and pull. Again, I can’t stress to you enough, you know, be lighter handed

than I am and then take your kneaded eraser, whatever you’re using, whatever tool. Do

it in lightly until you really like the shape. Then commit. I just got a little heavy handed

there and a little too fast. But that’s pretty much what you’d be looking at.

Okay, so we have three shapes referenced from the ground up. This shape and this shape are

multi-leveled, this kind of leafy/fish/boat shape we just kind of doubled over, as you

remember, and then brought it out of the ground as well. This is the kind of thinking we want

to do a lot of. Again, eventually instead of keeping this shape straight above we’re

going to actually be changing and tapering the shape so it might get more beveled. It

will have curving, vertical planes that are no longer vertical but tipping in and tapering,

all sorts of stuff, of course, when we start our more organic shapes. We want to keep it

simple like the archways. We have an initial shape, and then we carry it up with some depth,

in this case height. With the archways, as you remember, it was depth.

But, we’re still doing some side to side here, and we’re doing a lot of referencing

from the original shape to a new level to yet a new level again. Okay, so that’s the

logic of that stuff. Do a lot of reviewing on this one. Again, if you get lost just pause

it. Go back and keep going. Just make your own logic about why these outlying reference

rectangles really help to lift them up and compare edges and come back in and reference

using the diagonals and the T shapes. All that kind of stuff for your little reference

dots. Okay, so those really become a great reason to be able to carry those references.

It’s easy to take any rectangular outside shape and X it off and T it as a shape in

itself, so it makes the referencing very convenient, in my opinion.

Okay, that’s that one. We’ll see you on the next diagram.

me take the basic rectangular box again, and let’s see from this back corner where it

might lead out of the picture. We don’t want that. I have to say, okay, the basic

barrier is about here so we have to keep it down about there. So probably for the back

corner. We’ll do that right up to about there.

Let me just see where is the highest that we want this to come out?

Up to there. Alright, so right to there. Okay, that should

be right about at the top of the camera.

So we’ll do that back plane like that. I’m sorry, that would be the front plane actually, yeah.

So let me get the front corner going. Sorry. Okay, there we go.

Back corner, front corner. Ignore that other line. Going back, going back, back corner right there.

There we go. That should be visible on the tape here. Okay, so there’s that top canopy of

the rectangular reference shape. Come up from the ground way up there. And we’ll do the

same thing real quick and just make all the same logical conclusions we did. Let me get

a sharper. Well, that’s broken too. Nice. Okay, so blue travels all the way up to there.

We got it. Blue is here, travel all the way up. Make sure I’ve got the blue line. Correct.

Blue is all the way in the corner. Got that. Blue is all the way up in the corner. Go that.

Is there any reds. We’ve got to do the halfway, and the diagonal would be very helpful as

well on the top. So why don’t we just get that out of the way by putting in our X and

our T. That way we’re going to get all the references we have coming to us that we’ve

earned. So let’s use them if we choose to. So there’s that.

And we come up with the center T right there.

I’ll shoot through this way right through there. Get on the money

right there. Yep, it’s fine. Then that middle T is right there according to that. That should

give us a good enough reference basically. So good. It came out pretty close.

Okay, now we got all that. Let’s go ahead and keep nailing those references for ourselves.

We know this red dot. Let’s do this one first. That falls halfway straight up so that’s

right here. Second, that one is on the diagonal so we go up and we identify it by going up,

not confusing it with the other right next to it. That’s on the diagonal. That is on

the halfway point again. The halfway point is there on the upper version. This is on

the crossing this way on the halfway point, going to the right vanishing point. So that

equivalent space is up there. Blue, blue we have. Red is on the halfway point. We didn’t

take it up because it’s right lined up with that. We go right up to that halfway point

so this red reference here is right there. This one is right on the diagonal again.

Remember, I want to make the point that the reason we’ve hit a lot of these originally,

don’t forget, is because they fell right on the diagonals, the T, or the outside border

of our reference rectangle. That’s the whole reason we’re using it. It not only demarcates

the outside dimensions of what we intend on the shape in general like almost a Plexiglas

box, but by X’ng and T’ng it we really gain more references. By extending the middle

planes either way, we also can get great reference point lines when we want to double over an

object. In this case we’re not doubling over. We’re simply drawing a single object

like we did here. Okay, so let’s continue, red on the halfway point. Halfway point. That

on the crossing diagonal. So same thing. That counterpart lives up there. I think I have

everything now. Yup, so let’s try to do the curve again. Let me sharpen that pencil

again so it’s not terribly dull.

Okay, so let’s mark this out again. Here’s that straight span against the edge. It’s

counterpart is down there then that part too is up here obviously. How do we start swinging over?

We swing through here so we start that movement there just like we just swing through

here. We’re doing the opposite now so you have to kind of put the thinking cap on.

Okay, so we’re on the front wall, front wall. Then we curve around and come through this.

If that’s doing that up there it’s kind of going back like that. If we’re going

back here in this one we should be going back there on that one. So that should curve around

and then swing around to that. So basically curve around, swing around to that.

Okay, so that comes right out and swings around. Hopefully, I can do this right. It’s difficult.

Alright, comes around, swings around and meets this flush part out here, so this is flush here.

I’m just going to carry this whole line all the way back so it stays flush for

about that far then swings around toward here. Then we meet that. So that has to come out

like this. It’s pretty simple. Nice flush. Come around, turn the corner and meet this

flush out right out there. Not too far out. There. It should be something like that.

Then we’ll do the backside. So we come up through here. We come through here and we

come out immediately. We come through here and out immediately. We have to turn quickly

to meet that. There’s the most extreme curvatures right there. That’s going back there.

Then I also have to aim back to that back corner as a mirror space or the opposite. Jam that

corner back in like that. Okay. We come back to the other ones so we’re coming back around here.

That’s a little clumsy. I don’t like that so I’m going to take both of those

back and turn this, taper this a little more gracefully, same with this one there.

Okay, that one comes back and then swings around here. The apex is about there. So if I go

straight up in my mind it’s about there. It comes out about like that right about there.

I can just make my own reference here. Swing back. I want a little more of an S-curve.

There. Come through. There we go. There.

Alright, it’s a little hairy of a line, but that’s the gist of it there. I’ll

tone it in with blue. That should be that space up there. Same idea. So we originally

did this part here. Let’s see. Alright. In red. I’ll just tone this kind of whole

thing in red here. There we go. If we want to imagine that as kind of a desk or some

standing shape I’ll put more blue in here to be more evenly standing like that. We’ll

put the outside in heavy with pencil. So here’s the outside shape. There’s that corner,

which is important. Here’s that outside corner there. We got the back and the back

goes up there. Then the outside edge we’d actually see at the very edge would be there.

There’s that shape. Again, we’ll leave this like it’s almost standing on rods or

whatever, floating as associated shape. It’s gotten a little thick here. But he hadn’t

had to push and pull. Again, I can’t stress to you enough, you know, be lighter handed

than I am and then take your kneaded eraser, whatever you’re using, whatever tool. Do

it in lightly until you really like the shape. Then commit. I just got a little heavy handed

there and a little too fast. But that’s pretty much what you’d be looking at.

Okay, so we have three shapes referenced from the ground up. This shape and this shape are

multi-leveled, this kind of leafy/fish/boat shape we just kind of doubled over, as you

remember, and then brought it out of the ground as well. This is the kind of thinking we want

to do a lot of. Again, eventually instead of keeping this shape straight above we’re

going to actually be changing and tapering the shape so it might get more beveled. It

will have curving, vertical planes that are no longer vertical but tipping in and tapering,

all sorts of stuff, of course, when we start our more organic shapes. We want to keep it

simple like the archways. We have an initial shape, and then we carry it up with some depth,

in this case height. With the archways, as you remember, it was depth.

But, we’re still doing some side to side here, and we’re doing a lot of referencing

from the original shape to a new level to yet a new level again. Okay, so that’s the

logic of that stuff. Do a lot of reviewing on this one. Again, if you get lost just pause

it. Go back and keep going. Just make your own logic about why these outlying reference

rectangles really help to lift them up and compare edges and come back in and reference

using the diagonals and the T shapes. All that kind of stuff for your little reference

dots. Okay, so those really become a great reason to be able to carry those references.

It’s easy to take any rectangular outside shape and X it off and T it as a shape in

itself, so it makes the referencing very convenient, in my opinion.

Okay, that’s that one. We’ll see you on the next diagram.

AUTO SCROLL

Here we are again. This time I’ve already laid in, we’re going to do three fairly

simple bridge shapes, like bridges going over water. At the same time they’re going to

get a little more complex as we get to the last one. We’re going to start with a little

one-point one up here by the horizon line. Again, the vanishing points are a little bit

off camera. We can get a bigger working surface here. The SP is down about right here. I’m

still estimating where my cone is so I want distortion, that kind of thing. I always find

that handy. We’ll go ahead and start the one-point one up here. Grab a pencil.

What we’re going to do is draw in a real simple idea of a front plane, back plane. So we’re

still going to use a rectangle, basically, for the bridge shape. And I’m going to do

the back side, decide the shape. Real simple. Take our time. And I’m going to stop right

about here. Go back to the one-point vanishing point. So that is the one point vanishing point.

I’ll put that up there because our bridge is actually going to go over it. So

we don’t want to get that in the way. There we go. And then we’ll make the other side.

That’s my limitation for my rectangle. And I’m going to go ahead and X that. That will

help me a little bit. When I go back it’s fairly foreshortened, but we’re going to

go ahead. We’re not going to make that super dark. Go to the other corner and also do that.

Find the center about right there. And then we’ll also T that this way across to the

one-point VP. Make it a little longer sometimes. It’s helpful again. Take my T-square out

just to be official so it’s nice and accurate. We’ll get that middle divider there. Go

a little longer like that. So that’s the platform of the bridge, but we’re going

to make a curved arc over it, obviously, as a bridge would clear it. I’ve gone ahead

and decided to make it a particular height so I’ve indicated that a little bit in very

light pencil, but we’ll go ahead and darken it in.

I’ve going to have a standing invisible plane that is going to represent the height

of the climax or the peak of the bridge, and the top of that plane goes to the one-point

vanishing point, of course, like that. So there’s that standing plane. These are going

to represent like rods standing in the air that are going to be the top where the bridge

gets to the highest point and curves back on itself over here. Then I’m going to decide,

well, I’m going to quarter these ideas off again here. So I’m going to go ahead to

the corner like this and say, okay, where it hits the halfway point is the halfway mark.

Then come back out again. I’m going to put some more struts here or little poles here.

And I’m going to do the same over here. I’m going to go to that back corner where

it crosses the middle plane again. I get my quarter or middle of that square being a quarter

of the total span of the bridge horizontally. Alright, that goes also over like that.

Just these kind of light ideas. These could be very light, barely seeable, obviously,

if you’re doing a drawing, but I have to make them a little more visible. They’re

not super dark here because I think you’re getting used to what I’m doing. I first

cut the plane in half diagonally as a whole, got the middle T in the X obviously, but then

I’m quartering it too. So now that’s quartered. And again, in your version just make it clear

to yourself. You don’t have to be super dark with it. But I do have the standing plane,

and I randomly decided that height. There is nothing measured here. There is no plan

or elevation or anything. We’re just going to do it. Now I’ve got to decide how is

this going to come down? It’s this high in the middle, and then it’s going to come

down like this. So to have a fairly natural arc I’d say we could do that. I’ll just

kind of swing my arm like that. I’m going to go ahead and darken that in. It looks like

a good, even—it’s a very steep bridge. But it’s the idea of maybe it’s some really

weird stylized Japanese garden where you really do have some fairly steep little bridges going

over little babbling brooks. Just for our purposes, I want to make it nice and clear.

I’m going to take that quarter now and run it up to there and say, oh, right below the

eye level, that next pole reaches up there. And on the other side, in depth, I’m also

going to run it up to the idea, I’m going to run that up in the air as a reference.

I’m also going to run poles from the quarter over here very lightly and over here when

I come back on the other side. Now, how do I get the height from the other? I can go

across from this because we’ve decided this one is this high, remember? The arc touches

here. The next one is this high. I want to go back in space to hit my backside quarter.

I want to go over here to hit this one too. So let’s go ahead and go back in space to

the one-point vanishing point, and where it crosses that back pole, that’s the height

of my curve on that side. Of course, it lands in the back corner just like this one landed

in the front corner. This one, of course, touches here. I’ll go ahead and get the

rest of my poles in there. I have to carry this pole’s height at the quarter over to

these counterparts over here straight across. Use my T-square. I’ll go ahead and just

make it nice and clean. So there’s that one. I’m going to carry it straight over here.

Make a mark. Get that little pole idea. That little rod and pole.

Then I go back to the other quarter again back here and just a little bit above from

where that is. I go from here following the one-point vanishing point. Right under that

pole just a little bit above. But it is a tiny bit above right below the horizon line.

Now we’re getting the width of all three standing planes. The original taller, middle

plane, and then the planes at the quarter of the entire rectangular shape are a little

lower, little lower, but they’re even now. So now I’m going to finish my bridge shape.

I’ve got to kind of get in an awkward position here. I apologize because, again, I would

otherwise spin the paper. I’m just going to draw it through all the way down like that.

It’s a little low.

Okay, so we have to bring that up a little higher, little higher.

Push it down like that. There we go. Clean it up. I just don’t want to get in the front of

the camera too much in the way here.

Anyway, now I’m going to do the backside. I’m also going to carry it through straight

here. Pay attention to that. Build it out. Bring it down here. So we’re just estimating

here, going through these points together.

So, coming through here back to that side there.

Alright, so it looks weird right now, but we’ll put some seams in it like there

are some cross struts or something. That will make more sense. Let me darken in the outside shape.

Okay, so let’s make it clear that’s where the bridge starts. This is the front

plane. Not to be confusing, we’ll put some struts in and then we’ll draw some water

in below. But I’m just going to make random like they’re planks of wood or something.

They’re just going to go across, and they’d keep going across like this. I’m not going

to make them that even. We’ll just kind of throw them in. We’re helping here the

idea of wood planks going across or something. That will make more sense of the object’s

surface. Kind of like that.

Not really that even, but it’s the idea that they cross like that at that bridge shape. So there it is.

Okay, now we can make fence poles as well. Then we just have to then reference adding

on top of these shapes and counting down. So we just take that same height now because

we’re in one-point. We’re not diminishing as we go back except for the backside. But

we do is we can draw our front railings there. I’ll go ahead and draw the bottom of the

bridge in blue because that’s what we’re actually seeing is the inside and the

bottom of the bridge essentially.

Okay, there we go.

Then if we take a random pole in the middle

again and say, well, I want it that high. That’s my bridge pole. I wish that to have

that high. I’m going to go ahead and take that reference now. Just take a piece of paper

and say, alright, I’ll just tag that size right there. Since we’re moving straight

across the picture plane in one-point, I’ll make note it’s these longer poles here.

I’ll make one stand out here. Make one stand out at the bottom. There’s a pole.

There's a pole, also one at the quarter point here. Add on and just do this.

You want to be official about it.

Then you just repeat that curve. Of course, you could take those other poles

back which would stand up here, here on the other side, the back side. I’ll go ahead

and put those in. We’d have some there. I don’t even know if those will be visible.

Probably not. This one might be.

Then we have to go back to the one-point perspective. So we’ll just have those standing poles.

First my middle pole back to the one vanishing point. Let’s see if it’s visible. Yep,

it should be. Make that plane go back. There’s that one sticking up there. One to the one

point for the top of that pole until it hits its counterpart back here. There’s that pole.

This one going back to here—let’s see, that one just barely seeable right there

sticking out where it goes behind the bridge. This one over here going back to the one-point

vanishing point. Again, this one actually is not seeable. It’s behind there. This

one, again going back to this corner plane back here. Not really visible there because

our view gets more angled here because our center of vision is actually right here. We

see much more of this bridge, and it becomes, there’s basically more depth to it.

This has more foreshortening.

So first I’ll do the front pole. Well, I’ll do the front pole first or the railing. I’ll

just follow the curve, basically. Not a big deal, but I wanted to show you why it can

be constructed this way. So let’s see if I can get a natural angle here.

There's the railing. Okay, the railing comes up here. Comes through there basically like that. Not

quite rounded enough, so we could round it off better and connect the back poles also.

Here’s that railing coming up. Then it would go down like this rather quickly and be invisible

in the back. I’ll draw it in lightly It would really come down like that on the other

side. Then we could have all these fences. I’ll leave these really light so they don’t

get in the way of what we did. I won’t bother drawing these in for the ones in back. Those

are the little things over there. Here’s the curve on the front of the bridge again.

Curve back into space, meets the back plane there. So the idea of that bridge, and then,

of course, we could have little poles. The other one will be irritating and get in the

way of these other ones. Little smaller, they disappear.

Of course, you know, you could say a river now. If we know this is the edge, the edge

of the river probably does this. I’ll just kind of do it organically going away forever,

coming from the one point. It also probably streams by here like there. So this is planted

right on the other side of the river. Maybe there’s an embankment, and it kind of goes

like that. Embankment like that. Water sneaks in and out like it would on a river. There

it is. There’s the span of the bridge. So that’s in one-point.

If it gets a little confusing go back. Obviously, reverse, just do it a step at a time. We’re

just trying to create the idea of the bridge in one point. Now we’re going to do a simple

one pretty similar to that in two-point and construct it that way.

Let’s get a new sharper pencil. Let me get this sharper. Excuse my sharpener there. Alright,

so I’ve already kind of pre-drawn this idea. We’ll do it again here. Okay. Alright. Back

to the other vanishing point so we get a rectangle. Oops. We go ahead and X off that shape. Hit

our center if we want. If that’s the way you want to construct it, it can be any amount

of divisions, but we’re just doing simple ones. We’re just going to use our convenient

halves and quarters as excuses to get some supports or references.

Okay, so once again same idea. If I want to quarter it as well then I simply go through

the first half. Where that crosses here is our center again. I’ll go ahead and put

in that. We need that to get those struts on there. You can do the same thing back here.

Come back from the back corner. Right about there. Get our center strut out to our vanishing

point. Alright, so let’s see how high we want our middle struts. Let me get some of

this stuff out of my way here. Use the old T-square. So there are middle, that has to

go up a certain degree depending on how high we want it. I’ll just over draw it a bit.

Same with that middle seam. Overdraw that a bit. We’ll bring up our corner. Another

corner. Our other corner. Another corner. We don’t do the front corners because the

bridge actually comes back down flush again.

Obviously, a real bridge would have thickness, but we’re still sticking with pretty simple

shapes here. Of course, you can consider thickness and then, you know, you just have to use your

instincts and your drawing ability and what you know about perspective. Say, oh, how would

I match that thickness. But for the logic of why we’re referencing the initial bigger

or simpler shapes I want to make very clear. So rather than going into everything having

thickness and being an elaborate bridge, I want to start with these very simple ideas.

If you can practice these first you’ll go into the more elaborate stuff very naturally.

You should be able to answer most of your own questions about why the thicknesses are

drawn out or in deeper space or go down or how to reference. That stuff comes pretty

naturally in my experience once you understand the logic of the main referencing or the basic

referencing for the bigger curves and widths and heights and stuff.

Let’s say we want the bridge this high, basically. So we’ll say right here just

as a guess. We can draw across and then say, okay, I’ll make that middle seam this way.

Now what we’re doing is we’re drawing this middle seam. I’ll make it a little

darker here on the bottom. We’re also reaching the top of it and saying, okay, we’ve decided

randomly that’s the peak height of our bridge in the middle here, right. So this is our

plane right here. Then we want to decide on how this curve works. So am I going to do

it in the back or the front or here to here? Let me go ahead and draw it. Just kind of

think how I want it to come by like this. Maybe again we’ll say that’s about straight

with perspective for just a little bit right there. Then it’s going to come down fairly

sharply. We could say just about like that. That’s fine. It hits our quarter part there.

Again, we can reference now to the other one. Right here. You can also reference back to

our other space there. That’s where it hits the other one. Then we can come back this

way or cross from the front one. It’s getting logic here, and that should line up with our

other one right there. Bingo. Right like that. So there’s another standing plane there.

Again, if it’s gets confusing we’ll do those in blue.

So I’ve got my main plane in red. Let’s just make it easy and say, alright, remember,

we’ve done all this to get this main standing plane in red like this. Okay, let me just

match that real quick. Get out of your way here if my head is in your way. I’ve got

to keep remembering to get the head out of the way. There is in red and then the standing

planes for the shorter span will go ahead and line up in blue on either side.

Okay, just the idea of them. Again, when you’re drawing you can make these ideas incredibly

light or not even draw in the entire planes at all and simply make little nicks and knacks.

As long as you know they’re lining up in space to where you think they’re accurate

standing in their heights and their widths in foreshortening and perspective. Then it’s

pretty much all you need. There we have it.

So a simple bridge shape peaks here. Then I have to kind of come down toward this, obviously.

This straightens out there and falls a little bit.

This probably comes a little rounder and comes down.

Let me shave that out a little with my kneaded.

Flush that out just a hair.

Again, we’re going from back corner, back corner through here. I’ll make this one.

I know this goes straight for a little bit following the perspective just for a hair.

Then I have to turn and peak it down pretty fast. Oops, right like that.

Again, I’m going to draw this one out more lightly as it turns quickly. Okay.

Again, we can get some poles but the main thing is we’ll get the shape drawn in darker.

Let’s do that. We got that. We definitely have our curve.

Oops. Alright. Push that out a little bit.

Got our peak here. So the last part we can see right as it turns is here

to here. So that’s the actual edge itself on the top. Okay, so that’s the idea. Again,

if we want to put a railing on it we just randomly decide the height. Let’s say we

say it is this. So what I’ll do is I can take this height here to here,

or else I can do it in red.

I can just reference it back to the others by just sinking it to that height

as I need to. So what I can do is make a little reference line to here and say, okay, these

cross here like I had before. Kind of erased it, I guess.

Of course, these are on the ground, right?

If I take that reference with a piece of paper, just that one—I’ll just do this side,

I guess. Red, red. I’ll make those long so I don’t get confused. Then that on, alright,

when we sink it to here it will come up from that mark there in perspective. It will come

up and back and meet these poles. I have to extend those poles to be clear here for the

demo. I have to extend these poles up from down here. Clearly, this one already is, just

as an idea. But now I have to bring these ideas back in reference to the vanishing point

left. That’s the base. And so now I hit that height that’s been brought down. That

becomes the pole there and the pole there. So that’s the pole sticking out of that

part of the bridge.

It could be little people walking across on the edge too, and then you could thrust them

into the middle wherever you wanted them, just like we made those in doing auxiliary

perspective and some of the other perspective in the earlier one and two-point. On the side

of a plane we’d make almost like a whole plane just representing the height of a person

and then can carry it in to the depth of the object. In this case, all we need to do now—we

can bring that same height of the referenced pole we got originally from here. We can bring

it all the way to the ground. Again, that second height right there becomes the height

brought back in perspective and forward in perspective of the poles that are on the ground

at the front of the back of the bridge. So we can hit those there and there. I haven’t

drawn the poles in yet. Now, I have to go straight up. I’ll use my T-square just to

be accurate and anal up and back corner. Up.

So now that read line hits us right there. So there’s our pole. Let’s draw them in

thick. There’s our pole.

Draw it in thick. Pole. Pole. Pole. Pole. Right there. We can

tie in our railing. We could do it right now if we want. So let’s just draw it in nice.

This will be just a little bit round right here and come back down. Come back down right there.

Okay. It peaks a little bit. We can probably come out, go down a little easier like this.

Oops, that’s too much.

Alright, and then over on the other side real quick. We’ll just transfer those red lines

over to the awaiting poles, which are already over there which I believe were already high

enough from our previous referencing. But we do need to put back poles on the back two

corners at the edge. I’ll do that real quick.

Then back corner as well.

simple bridge shapes, like bridges going over water. At the same time they’re going to

get a little more complex as we get to the last one. We’re going to start with a little

one-point one up here by the horizon line. Again, the vanishing points are a little bit

off camera. We can get a bigger working surface here. The SP is down about right here. I’m

still estimating where my cone is so I want distortion, that kind of thing. I always find

that handy. We’ll go ahead and start the one-point one up here. Grab a pencil.

What we’re going to do is draw in a real simple idea of a front plane, back plane. So we’re

still going to use a rectangle, basically, for the bridge shape. And I’m going to do

the back side, decide the shape. Real simple. Take our time. And I’m going to stop right

about here. Go back to the one-point vanishing point. So that is the one point vanishing point.

I’ll put that up there because our bridge is actually going to go over it. So

we don’t want to get that in the way. There we go. And then we’ll make the other side.

That’s my limitation for my rectangle. And I’m going to go ahead and X that. That will

help me a little bit. When I go back it’s fairly foreshortened, but we’re going to

go ahead. We’re not going to make that super dark. Go to the other corner and also do that.

Find the center about right there. And then we’ll also T that this way across to the

one-point VP. Make it a little longer sometimes. It’s helpful again. Take my T-square out

just to be official so it’s nice and accurate. We’ll get that middle divider there. Go

a little longer like that. So that’s the platform of the bridge, but we’re going

to make a curved arc over it, obviously, as a bridge would clear it. I’ve gone ahead

and decided to make it a particular height so I’ve indicated that a little bit in very

light pencil, but we’ll go ahead and darken it in.

I’ve going to have a standing invisible plane that is going to represent the height

of the climax or the peak of the bridge, and the top of that plane goes to the one-point

vanishing point, of course, like that. So there’s that standing plane. These are going

to represent like rods standing in the air that are going to be the top where the bridge

gets to the highest point and curves back on itself over here. Then I’m going to decide,

well, I’m going to quarter these ideas off again here. So I’m going to go ahead to

the corner like this and say, okay, where it hits the halfway point is the halfway mark.

Then come back out again. I’m going to put some more struts here or little poles here.

And I’m going to do the same over here. I’m going to go to that back corner where

it crosses the middle plane again. I get my quarter or middle of that square being a quarter

of the total span of the bridge horizontally. Alright, that goes also over like that.

Just these kind of light ideas. These could be very light, barely seeable, obviously,

if you’re doing a drawing, but I have to make them a little more visible. They’re

not super dark here because I think you’re getting used to what I’m doing. I first

cut the plane in half diagonally as a whole, got the middle T in the X obviously, but then

I’m quartering it too. So now that’s quartered. And again, in your version just make it clear

to yourself. You don’t have to be super dark with it. But I do have the standing plane,

and I randomly decided that height. There is nothing measured here. There is no plan

or elevation or anything. We’re just going to do it. Now I’ve got to decide how is

this going to come down? It’s this high in the middle, and then it’s going to come

down like this. So to have a fairly natural arc I’d say we could do that. I’ll just

kind of swing my arm like that. I’m going to go ahead and darken that in. It looks like

a good, even—it’s a very steep bridge. But it’s the idea of maybe it’s some really

weird stylized Japanese garden where you really do have some fairly steep little bridges going

over little babbling brooks. Just for our purposes, I want to make it nice and clear.

I’m going to take that quarter now and run it up to there and say, oh, right below the

eye level, that next pole reaches up there. And on the other side, in depth, I’m also

going to run it up to the idea, I’m going to run that up in the air as a reference.

I’m also going to run poles from the quarter over here very lightly and over here when

I come back on the other side. Now, how do I get the height from the other? I can go

across from this because we’ve decided this one is this high, remember? The arc touches

here. The next one is this high. I want to go back in space to hit my backside quarter.

I want to go over here to hit this one too. So let’s go ahead and go back in space to

the one-point vanishing point, and where it crosses that back pole, that’s the height

of my curve on that side. Of course, it lands in the back corner just like this one landed

in the front corner. This one, of course, touches here. I’ll go ahead and get the

rest of my poles in there. I have to carry this pole’s height at the quarter over to

these counterparts over here straight across. Use my T-square. I’ll go ahead and just

make it nice and clean. So there’s that one. I’m going to carry it straight over here.

Make a mark. Get that little pole idea. That little rod and pole.

Then I go back to the other quarter again back here and just a little bit above from

where that is. I go from here following the one-point vanishing point. Right under that

pole just a little bit above. But it is a tiny bit above right below the horizon line.

Now we’re getting the width of all three standing planes. The original taller, middle

plane, and then the planes at the quarter of the entire rectangular shape are a little

lower, little lower, but they’re even now. So now I’m going to finish my bridge shape.

I’ve got to kind of get in an awkward position here. I apologize because, again, I would

otherwise spin the paper. I’m just going to draw it through all the way down like that.

It’s a little low.

Okay, so we have to bring that up a little higher, little higher.

Push it down like that. There we go. Clean it up. I just don’t want to get in the front of

the camera too much in the way here.

Anyway, now I’m going to do the backside. I’m also going to carry it through straight

here. Pay attention to that. Build it out. Bring it down here. So we’re just estimating

here, going through these points together.

So, coming through here back to that side there.

Alright, so it looks weird right now, but we’ll put some seams in it like there

are some cross struts or something. That will make more sense. Let me darken in the outside shape.

Okay, so let’s make it clear that’s where the bridge starts. This is the front

plane. Not to be confusing, we’ll put some struts in and then we’ll draw some water

in below. But I’m just going to make random like they’re planks of wood or something.

They’re just going to go across, and they’d keep going across like this. I’m not going

to make them that even. We’ll just kind of throw them in. We’re helping here the

idea of wood planks going across or something. That will make more sense of the object’s

surface. Kind of like that.

Not really that even, but it’s the idea that they cross like that at that bridge shape. So there it is.

Okay, now we can make fence poles as well. Then we just have to then reference adding

on top of these shapes and counting down. So we just take that same height now because

we’re in one-point. We’re not diminishing as we go back except for the backside. But

we do is we can draw our front railings there. I’ll go ahead and draw the bottom of the

bridge in blue because that’s what we’re actually seeing is the inside and the

bottom of the bridge essentially.

Okay, there we go.

Then if we take a random pole in the middle

again and say, well, I want it that high. That’s my bridge pole. I wish that to have

that high. I’m going to go ahead and take that reference now. Just take a piece of paper

and say, alright, I’ll just tag that size right there. Since we’re moving straight

across the picture plane in one-point, I’ll make note it’s these longer poles here.

I’ll make one stand out here. Make one stand out at the bottom. There’s a pole.

There's a pole, also one at the quarter point here. Add on and just do this.

You want to be official about it.

Then you just repeat that curve. Of course, you could take those other poles

back which would stand up here, here on the other side, the back side. I’ll go ahead

and put those in. We’d have some there. I don’t even know if those will be visible.

Probably not. This one might be.

Then we have to go back to the one-point perspective. So we’ll just have those standing poles.

First my middle pole back to the one vanishing point. Let’s see if it’s visible. Yep,

it should be. Make that plane go back. There’s that one sticking up there. One to the one

point for the top of that pole until it hits its counterpart back here. There’s that pole.

This one going back to here—let’s see, that one just barely seeable right there

sticking out where it goes behind the bridge. This one over here going back to the one-point

vanishing point. Again, this one actually is not seeable. It’s behind there. This

one, again going back to this corner plane back here. Not really visible there because

our view gets more angled here because our center of vision is actually right here. We

see much more of this bridge, and it becomes, there’s basically more depth to it.

This has more foreshortening.

So first I’ll do the front pole. Well, I’ll do the front pole first or the railing. I’ll

just follow the curve, basically. Not a big deal, but I wanted to show you why it can

be constructed this way. So let’s see if I can get a natural angle here.

There's the railing. Okay, the railing comes up here. Comes through there basically like that. Not

quite rounded enough, so we could round it off better and connect the back poles also.

Here’s that railing coming up. Then it would go down like this rather quickly and be invisible

in the back. I’ll draw it in lightly It would really come down like that on the other

side. Then we could have all these fences. I’ll leave these really light so they don’t

get in the way of what we did. I won’t bother drawing these in for the ones in back. Those

are the little things over there. Here’s the curve on the front of the bridge again.

Curve back into space, meets the back plane there. So the idea of that bridge, and then,

of course, we could have little poles. The other one will be irritating and get in the

way of these other ones. Little smaller, they disappear.

Of course, you know, you could say a river now. If we know this is the edge, the edge

of the river probably does this. I’ll just kind of do it organically going away forever,

coming from the one point. It also probably streams by here like there. So this is planted

right on the other side of the river. Maybe there’s an embankment, and it kind of goes

like that. Embankment like that. Water sneaks in and out like it would on a river. There

it is. There’s the span of the bridge. So that’s in one-point.

If it gets a little confusing go back. Obviously, reverse, just do it a step at a time. We’re

just trying to create the idea of the bridge in one point. Now we’re going to do a simple

one pretty similar to that in two-point and construct it that way.

Let’s get a new sharper pencil. Let me get this sharper. Excuse my sharpener there. Alright,

so I’ve already kind of pre-drawn this idea. We’ll do it again here. Okay. Alright. Back

to the other vanishing point so we get a rectangle. Oops. We go ahead and X off that shape. Hit

our center if we want. If that’s the way you want to construct it, it can be any amount

of divisions, but we’re just doing simple ones. We’re just going to use our convenient

halves and quarters as excuses to get some supports or references.

Okay, so once again same idea. If I want to quarter it as well then I simply go through

the first half. Where that crosses here is our center again. I’ll go ahead and put

in that. We need that to get those struts on there. You can do the same thing back here.

Come back from the back corner. Right about there. Get our center strut out to our vanishing

point. Alright, so let’s see how high we want our middle struts. Let me get some of

this stuff out of my way here. Use the old T-square. So there are middle, that has to

go up a certain degree depending on how high we want it. I’ll just over draw it a bit.

Same with that middle seam. Overdraw that a bit. We’ll bring up our corner. Another

corner. Our other corner. Another corner. We don’t do the front corners because the

bridge actually comes back down flush again.

Obviously, a real bridge would have thickness, but we’re still sticking with pretty simple

shapes here. Of course, you can consider thickness and then, you know, you just have to use your

instincts and your drawing ability and what you know about perspective. Say, oh, how would

I match that thickness. But for the logic of why we’re referencing the initial bigger

or simpler shapes I want to make very clear. So rather than going into everything having

thickness and being an elaborate bridge, I want to start with these very simple ideas.

If you can practice these first you’ll go into the more elaborate stuff very naturally.

You should be able to answer most of your own questions about why the thicknesses are

drawn out or in deeper space or go down or how to reference. That stuff comes pretty

naturally in my experience once you understand the logic of the main referencing or the basic

referencing for the bigger curves and widths and heights and stuff.

Let’s say we want the bridge this high, basically. So we’ll say right here just

as a guess. We can draw across and then say, okay, I’ll make that middle seam this way.

Now what we’re doing is we’re drawing this middle seam. I’ll make it a little

darker here on the bottom. We’re also reaching the top of it and saying, okay, we’ve decided

randomly that’s the peak height of our bridge in the middle here, right. So this is our

plane right here. Then we want to decide on how this curve works. So am I going to do

it in the back or the front or here to here? Let me go ahead and draw it. Just kind of

think how I want it to come by like this. Maybe again we’ll say that’s about straight

with perspective for just a little bit right there. Then it’s going to come down fairly

sharply. We could say just about like that. That’s fine. It hits our quarter part there.

Again, we can reference now to the other one. Right here. You can also reference back to

our other space there. That’s where it hits the other one. Then we can come back this

way or cross from the front one. It’s getting logic here, and that should line up with our

other one right there. Bingo. Right like that. So there’s another standing plane there.

Again, if it’s gets confusing we’ll do those in blue.

So I’ve got my main plane in red. Let’s just make it easy and say, alright, remember,

we’ve done all this to get this main standing plane in red like this. Okay, let me just

match that real quick. Get out of your way here if my head is in your way. I’ve got

to keep remembering to get the head out of the way. There is in red and then the standing

planes for the shorter span will go ahead and line up in blue on either side.

Okay, just the idea of them. Again, when you’re drawing you can make these ideas incredibly

light or not even draw in the entire planes at all and simply make little nicks and knacks.

As long as you know they’re lining up in space to where you think they’re accurate

standing in their heights and their widths in foreshortening and perspective. Then it’s

pretty much all you need. There we have it.

So a simple bridge shape peaks here. Then I have to kind of come down toward this, obviously.

This straightens out there and falls a little bit.

This probably comes a little rounder and comes down.

Let me shave that out a little with my kneaded.

Flush that out just a hair.

Again, we’re going from back corner, back corner through here. I’ll make this one.

I know this goes straight for a little bit following the perspective just for a hair.

Then I have to turn and peak it down pretty fast. Oops, right like that.

Again, I’m going to draw this one out more lightly as it turns quickly. Okay.

Again, we can get some poles but the main thing is we’ll get the shape drawn in darker.

Let’s do that. We got that. We definitely have our curve.

Oops. Alright. Push that out a little bit.

Got our peak here. So the last part we can see right as it turns is here

to here. So that’s the actual edge itself on the top. Okay, so that’s the idea. Again,

if we want to put a railing on it we just randomly decide the height. Let’s say we

say it is this. So what I’ll do is I can take this height here to here,

or else I can do it in red.

I can just reference it back to the others by just sinking it to that height

as I need to. So what I can do is make a little reference line to here and say, okay, these

cross here like I had before. Kind of erased it, I guess.

Of course, these are on the ground, right?

If I take that reference with a piece of paper, just that one—I’ll just do this side,

I guess. Red, red. I’ll make those long so I don’t get confused. Then that on, alright,

when we sink it to here it will come up from that mark there in perspective. It will come

up and back and meet these poles. I have to extend those poles to be clear here for the

demo. I have to extend these poles up from down here. Clearly, this one already is, just

as an idea. But now I have to bring these ideas back in reference to the vanishing point

left. That’s the base. And so now I hit that height that’s been brought down. That

becomes the pole there and the pole there. So that’s the pole sticking out of that

part of the bridge.

It could be little people walking across on the edge too, and then you could thrust them

into the middle wherever you wanted them, just like we made those in doing auxiliary

perspective and some of the other perspective in the earlier one and two-point. On the side

of a plane we’d make almost like a whole plane just representing the height of a person

and then can carry it in to the depth of the object. In this case, all we need to do now—we

can bring that same height of the referenced pole we got originally from here. We can bring

it all the way to the ground. Again, that second height right there becomes the height

brought back in perspective and forward in perspective of the poles that are on the ground

at the front of the back of the bridge. So we can hit those there and there. I haven’t

drawn the poles in yet. Now, I have to go straight up. I’ll use my T-square just to

be accurate and anal up and back corner. Up.

So now that read line hits us right there. So there’s our pole. Let’s draw them in

thick. There’s our pole.

Draw it in thick. Pole. Pole. Pole. Pole. Right there. We can

tie in our railing. We could do it right now if we want. So let’s just draw it in nice.

This will be just a little bit round right here and come back down. Come back down right there.

Okay. It peaks a little bit. We can probably come out, go down a little easier like this.

Oops, that’s too much.

Alright, and then over on the other side real quick. We’ll just transfer those red lines

over to the awaiting poles, which are already over there which I believe were already high

enough from our previous referencing. But we do need to put back poles on the back two

corners at the edge. I’ll do that real quick.

Then back corner as well.

AUTO SCROLL

Okay, we’ll transfer on our little red line. We’ll transfer those poles all the way across

to reference them there for that one.

Middle one, right across there.

Going back here for the quarter back to that pole.

Then the one on the back corner that would be across from

this one here. We’d go right to there. Okay.

The pole goes down. The pole goes down. Pole, pole, and a little bit of pole hidden by the

bridge here. Al little bit by the bridge, and we’ll go ahead and draw that in. I’ll

to reference them there for that one.

Middle one, right across there.

Going back here for the quarter back to that pole.

Then the one on the back corner that would be across from

this one here. We’d go right to there. Okay.

The pole goes down. The pole goes down. Pole, pole, and a little bit of pole hidden by the

bridge here. Al little bit by the bridge, and we’ll go ahead and draw that in. I’ll