- Lesson details
In this series, figure drawing instructor, Karl Gnass, will show you how to draw an entire figure through his five crucial stages: Gesture, Formulation, Anatomy, Light and Tone, and Aesthetics. In this fourth lesson of the series, Karl will share with you the next step: anatomy. Karl will give you his take on “active anatomy” and how you can use it to help describe the gesture in your figure drawings and as a result, tell a better “story.” Karl will begin with a thorough lecture on Anatomy, followed by a series of figure drawing demonstrations. Next, Karl will analyze Old Master works, and then give you a timed figure drawing assignment. The lesson will conclude with Karl’s approach to the same assignment, allowing you to compare your work with his.
- Faber-Castell Pitt Pastel Pencil – Dark Indigo
- Digital Tablet
- Seth Cole Heavy Ledger Paper
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Stage 3 really is anatomy or vocabulary, and vocabulary in this case means being articulate
about how you tell the story. Anatomy, in this case, we are going to try to find a way
to express it in the visual language and also to make sentences with anatomy.
Anatomy that makes sentences is dynamic anatomy. Okay, let’s get started.
view, from the point of view of sentencing. That’s relatively simple than just thinking
of the body parts, how they connect, and so on. We will starting with eight parts of the
body, very much like we would start a gesture, but we’ll be looking at it and thinking
about it slightly differently. So, let’s have a look at that.
Eight parts of the body. By the way, when I talk about eight parts, this is the first
part here of the skeleton, and the first part is the upper torso, then there is the lower
torso. You may remember that I’ve spoken about this before. The neck, right here, is
part of the spine, but this is where the spine basically has its own location, its own territory.
And the head. So that’s one, two, let’s call this three, and four. Alright, then,
if we add in the arms and legs we’re good. So we’ve got eight parts of the body. Obviously,
we’re going to develop those parts as we go along. Right now it’s just eight parts
of the body, and what we want to do is just simply see and observe when you’re working
with a model or a subject, or even from your mind’s eye, how those eight parts interact
with one another to describe and action.
Let’s just say that, for instance, we have a subject that’s leaning like so, and maybe
this way. Notice right away there is a new relationship between these two. That’s obviously
going to involve this infrastructure right here. This is the infrastructure of the body.
This will be the upper torso. We can then say that the subject may be doing something
like that, or this leg may be doing something as well. We’re basically trying to locate
those ideas. There is the axis and the axis. Maybe the head is still straight. There is
a relationship to them that always takes place that’s rather unique. We’ve got this to
this to this, and we will be breaking these parts down. As we break them down it becomes
clearly more and more anatomical.
First, they are the divisions that are important. You might notice that I didn’t do a measurement.
I’m kind of shooting from the hip on this like we said with gesture. But I am paying
attention to what these solid parts are doing. Now, this arm could be down. It could be any
number of things. It could be this way. This is foreshortened. This arm could come across.
It could be here. Any number of possibilities. This is what I want us to start to pay attention
to. We have an arm up, an arm here. Maybe this arm is draped along the side of the body
with this arm up. Right? Suddenly we realize that these actions can be analyzed. We’re
observing that there is a pinch here or a coming together of these two parts, whereas
on this side we have a stretch.
If I come around I can find the bones in front and find the pubic bone and so on. Suddenly
they are helping me tell this story. At first it’s simply a sentence, a gestural sentence
of what’s going on. So in a sense the action is leading us through the story, and then
we begin to find out how the forms which are more articulated by three-dimensional concepts
such as cylinders begin to enhance that and finally how the anatomy articulates that?
So, notice I’m pulling a line all the way up here from this point down to the attachment
below the knee. I’m pulling another over here this way. It’s coming off this way.
We’ll get into this discussion, but I want you to see the three levels of consideration.
First was kind of an assessment of what the subject is doing. The second thing is to build
the shapes and volume.
In a way there is this kind of from-the-gut proportion. The proportion comes from having,
to some degree, studied measurements of the body, and you bring that measurement into
your speech, your language. It’s coming from your experience, this sense of where
a thing is placed. Suddenly, you’re aware that—this would be too long.
Remember, we talked about a general model. The general model might say, well, this arm
might swing right about here, which would be the bottom of the rib cage. Build that,
you see. The trochanter out here in the wrist would fall a little below that, and so on.
We can actually see that a little bit here as this arm pulls down to where the great
trochanter is here. So anyway, you see that the action helps us determine to some degree
what we should be looking for with the anatomy. This is pulling around from behind. This is
pulling down, and so on. We’ve got the pecs, which will be pulling up and over like this.
I’m describing this as a simple cylinder like that. Rib cage like that. I’m kind
of pushing ahead at this point to describe the progression from a simple idea into a
more articulated idea.
Let’s take another. For instance, let’s take a figure here that’s this way. The
lower torso is this way. While that looks very similar, except this time we’re going
to bring this hip very low. We’re going to bring the knee straight down. This time
bring the foot over this way. We can even turn the top. Now we’re telling ourselves
that our subject is turning in this direction and then pulling down this way. It’s very
important for us to be clear about where the hip lineup is and also to navigate around
that. In other words, stage 2 says tell me this in volumes. So I’m navigating around.
We still have—ultimately, this bone will still come around from behind, and this is,
by the way, the iliac crest coming around what I have called before the beltline, to
this point, cutting away to the pubic bone.
You see, everything I develop here helps tell about the angle of the underlying form. By
the way, even though this might pull out like this, that doesn’t mean this line is not,
this line that I drew in the first place, it’s not the outside edge. It may not even
be the axis. It is simply a suggestion, a directional suggestion. Ultimately, the outside
edge might be here. The inside edge might even be nearly a straight line. So, I’m
saying that it remains a suggestion. Let’s bring this leg back. We can bring an arm up.
We can say the head is tipped back. Tipping the head way back. Notice that I’m giving
an angle to the head. Long neck, over, elbow out. We can get—I haven’t drawn everything,
but you can see that what I want to do is say something about, let’s bring this arm
straight forward or bring this back, and maybe this head like this. She’s got her hand
across her head. The shoulder is directly behind the elbow, so we have extreme foreshortening.
I could even tuck that in. It gives it a little bit more attitude. Maybe put this hand on
top of this one. Each one is adding to the story. Rib, hip, and so on.
The development of that idea, see.
Okay, let’s look at a few more like that. Let’s take a figure that’s leaning this
way. There is the first part, second part. Let’s do this. Bring it down, our subject
down. Again, we could call this a gesture, but I’m also looking really clearly at where
the eight parts will be and how they will ultimately affect the action that I’m going
to develop. I’m going to bring this hand back and this one up. So, in the beginning
you see, in the beginning it’s rather simple. But, I’m already seeing into the next stage.
For instance, I’m aware of this going back dimensionally. I’m aware of this pulling
back this way. I’m aware of this working this way. I’m probably going to see less
of this as we’re working along, but I just want you to know the thinking. This arm is
coming up and pulling aware. I’m aware of the development of the concepts as we go.
How are the concepts? They’re going to help me determine just what is happening with the
anatomy. If they are in the right places then I will know that the pecs will pull up and
over into the shoulder like that. This will be cylindrical, more or less, but see I’ve
got the pecs pulling up into the deltoid. If my center line then I can find the rib
cage. If my center line is correct I can come down and find the navel. I’m going around,
for instance, the beltline, and I can come up and find how the iliac crest comes down
and hits that beltline and down to the belly muscles here and into the pubic bone and so
on. Hip, keep it rounded, keep it rounded. Inner thigh muscle pulling off. The quadriceps
group. Around the corner, concept, corner, right. Pulling around, pulling around. Down.
See, so I can begin to develop my figure as it goes, but I’m always thinking how this
development helps keep me in touch with my main point. What’s my main point? Well,
it’s described in the gesture, which is what? Tell me a story. Tell me a story. What’s
my subject doing? What is the main action? Regardless of all the little things that are
happening, they will help describe the bigger picture. In other words, the little things
that are happening aren’t simply off having their own party. They’re part of a bigger
party. That bigger party is tell me the big story.
Let’s take and describe another one. Let’s take a figure, for instance, we would just
shift our guy a little bit here. Ever present because this is what we’re thinking about
at all times, that there is this infrastructure. As interesting as the drawing might become,
it’s in complete respect to the infrastructure, which in our terms is being described simply
with the eight parts of the body. Those eight parts are going to become much more complex
once we start developing. But, in the beginning it’s really important to keep it simple.
Eight parts and then eventually we’ll be talking about the development of those eight
parts into more and more complex ideas. In addition, we’ll be talking about the joints
and what happens there. That is anatomically. We’ve discussed this before. You remember,
these three stages are not exclusive from one another. They’re actually constantly
borrowing and dipping into one another, right? But they remain clear in terms of where I
need to have my thinking. If I’m thinking gesture I do not want to get lost in the anatomy.
If I’m thinking formulation I do want to do it in respect to the gesture, but I don’t
want the anatomy to take over yet. But I do want the anatomy to make suggestions because
the infrastructure is ever present. You see there is this delicate balance
between these three stages.
So, we’ll take another. Let’s say we have a figure that’s leaning this way. The upper
torso, let’s do this. Maybe the head is here and we’ll do this. I’m coming back.
Maybe the lower torso. Let’s say she’s sitting this way with this hip lower and maybe
this hip higher with the leg back. Let’s do this and bring the leg back this way. Alright,
so we’ve got that. Support for that is the leg, the closest leg is pulling over this
way. At this point, I might want to be, if I’m just drawing shapes I could get lost
in terms of what that structure actually is. I’m actually thinking and drawing around
the form. I’m keeping in mind what that rib cage might be. I’m keeping in mind what
that pelvis might be introduces basic structure. I also might say, oh well, I remember, I studied
a little bit of anatomy and I know the sacrum is here, so I might note that. I might observe
the sacrum, and I might see a little bit of the iliac crest or its effect right in there.
As this leg bends forward, it’s going off in the distance. We also have an arm. Let’s
just say that it’s supporting this movement. We’ve got a shoulder that’s pushing up
because the hand is helping to support that push back into this direction. The neck would
be in here. I’ll just keep that simple.
Okay, so that’s basically the idea. What are the eight parts doing? I don’t see this
hand. Perhaps this hand could be—well, let’s just say it’s pulling across and maybe it’s
wrapping around the leg over here. Again, simple idea. Alright, so there it is. I’ve
established the eight parts. I can come in now from a form point of view, the volume.
The axis is this way. The volume is this way. This is this way. I could cut in. I begin
to describe this figure in terms of not just the gesture with the storyline, but the development
of that into shape and volume with concepts of anatomy. Little ideas about anatomy. You’ll
notice that as a result there is a kind of movement that goes from one section to the
other section that is not lost by the bits and pieces.
Maybe the legs are even together. Again, I’ve got part 1, part 2. There is this relationship
between the two. Once again, you’ll notice that what allows the parts to constantly is
that those parts are not fused together. Let’s do this. I’ve got my direction. I’ve got
my shape. Now I’m coming in for the volume. It allows them to fuse together. Let’s turn
our subject toward us. There is the center line. We can say, alright, one arm is going
out this way, and let’s have the other arm doing something like that, and the head back
like that. The two legs are together. At every one of these intersections we have a kind of flexibility. I’m trying
to call your attention to that because we will be dealing with those sections later.
Also, notice that in this section, particularly here, we could talk about this, is that parts
5, 6, 7, and 8, which are basically the limbs, arms, and legs can be subdivided because we
have a break right here. We have a break right here. The legs might have three parts; the
thigh, the calf, the foot. The arms have four parts; the upper arm, the forearm, the hand,
and the shoulder girdle. Eventually we need to be talking about the importance of the
shoulder girdle as defined in a different manner than you might consider the shoulder
as part of the upper torso. I say different manner because—and I’ve discussed this
before—the shoulder girdle is not part of the main section of the upper torso. The rib
cage is independent of that shoulder. In other words, the shoulder is moving independently
of the rib cage. Now, they could move together, but they are not fused. They are not parts
of the same form. They are forms that work together. Let’s take a couple of more, and
then we’ll go into some more detail.
Let’s take a back view this time. Again, notice that it has a certain angle to it.
Actually, I want to swing the arm up, but I don’t want you to be confused by that.
I’m going to swing this arm up. First, we’re going to do this. I’m thinking center line.
Let’s say she supports a leg that’s doing this, and we’ll bring this across the heel.
This leg is supporting. Again, notice this angle. Don’t let that be lost. Let’s twist
her so that this arm comes back toward us. Let’s do it this way. Let’s raise this
and bring it around. If I’m going to have her twist then we need to bring her head into
play. If this arm is back that means the whole shoulder girdle, this area here.
By the way, that includes the scapula, the acromion process, the spine of the scapula.
We’ll talk about this more, but just so you know. Clavicle, the head of the humerus,
the glenoid process here, and it has a certain amount of flexibility. Unlike this poor guy
has because he’s basically riveted to the main frame here. You can suppose that if this
arm comes back this whole shoulder girdle will shift back towards the spine, and that
will create—and the fact that she’s tipped this way and tipped this way creates a kind
of ripple down here. We get a folding because we’re compressing. Notice this side is stretching.
If the rib cage is in here like this and we’re pushing this way with the shoulder girdle
now pressing back, and I’m just going to draw this cylindrically. It’s coming toward
us like that. This is reaching out so the shoulder girdle is up, and actually the deltoid
or shoulder is there as the arm swings out and across. So it’s coming this way. The
spine going all the way back up to the back of the head.
Alright, so you see we’re actually drawing what shows the action, and the rib cage is
in here like this. The rib cage is not as pronounced as what the shoulder would suggest
it is because the shoulder is actually the shoulder girdle. It’s pulling back and the
ribs are starting to show, and then down here you’re going to see this muscles that are
tight and in the trough next to the spine. Well, let me show you what I mean. You’ll
notice that right here we have the spine. The rib cage comes around and then it dips
in on both sides. There is a channel that runs all the way up and down the spine down
to the sacrum. I’m just briefly calling it the sacrospinalis group for convenience,
but it’s a series of muscles that kind of relay from the sacrum all the way up the occipital
ridge. They relay and they fill this area. They have different characters. In other words,
they have different visual qualities as they run up and down the spine. It’s a little
flatter in here. It’s a little rounder in this area. It narrows down to a couple of
rounds down here. For the moment I am just showing the broad quality of this side. It’s
not showing up so much on the other side because we’ve got all that compression, so something
there. We’re coming down into the sacrum down here. The sacrum is approximately there.
So you see, I’m basically showing the things that are helping to support the action that
I want to describe. I can push this leg back like this, or I could make it go forward like
this first before it comes back. You see, this is a choice. Once you understand these
concepts then you can make choices about what you draw. You are not stuck, therefore, to
copying. Once again, I’m thinking round volumetrically. Believe me, remember that
anatomy is vocabulary, so it’s not going to force you into anything. It should actually
help you describe what it is that you want to say. And so if I decide that this is the
way I want that leg to go as opposed to back this way, I’ll adjust my anatomy to help
speak to the point.
Okay, let’s take another figure. Let’s take a figure that say, for instance, doing
say something like that. Let’s do the hip here. Let’s do a leg there. Let’s do the
other leg here. Really, I guess the point is that she is dropping down so her head is
down here some place. Her leg, let’s make it pointy, the heel up, and let’s give her
wings. Bring her hands back. Right, so she—in other words, she’s expanding in the back
here. She’s expanding here. All the compression is in the front area between part 1 and part
2 of the eight parts. That means that if there is a rib cage or a solid body in there and
a solid body in here, and you have a spine that’s now curving this way instead of this
way, then the compression is going to be in the front. We’ll start to see that compression
express itself. Now, even as that compression expresses itself, this leg is pulling up.
It’s lifting. You’re going to have more. You’re going to have more muscle here from
that lift. Tendons are going to be working, you see. It comes out to the knee.
By the way, if the toe is really pointing than this group of muscles in here are going
to be under, they’re going to be involved in the press. So if I come down, let’s just
say to the ankle bone, and pull this down and press hard, you’re going to see it in
the calf muscles here as they pull down. So, in a sense, there we are. On the other hand,
the breast is going to fall. No bones there. It’s going to fall even as the arm lifts
back this way. What we have is something that falls, something that arcs, something that
lifts up and away. You see that we’re actually interested in the abstract story. Then we
could come down and find the chin. We could bring the head way down. The support for all
this is back here, right? Without this leg and, therefore, it’s important. Without
this leg here, the rest of this couldn’t happen. It’s really important to find the
balance between these different things. I might even drop the hair a little bit so that
it extends the whole idea. I might bring the hip down like this. So we get something like
that. Both arms up. Maybe some fingers are going back. Some are expanding out. What’s
the story? What’s the story? Maybe make that a little lower. I brought that out a little more.
Bring this back a little bit. You play with these things to find the best possible dynamic.
It’s the shape and form of the structure you want to tell. Anatomy helps you articulate
that story. Anatomy is made up of bones, flesh, and muscles. As I said, from the approach
that I take I’m starting with the simplest possible ideas. I want to develop a couple
of those ideas and articulate them in a way that would suggest a kind of direction for
the study of anatomy.
Okay, so I’ll start basically with the rib cage. The rib cage, by the way, the first
thing that I would note of significance is its basic form, it’s largest form. I might
say, well, in the beginning I might have been drawing the upper torso like this. It’s
a simple idea, right? Finally we say, yes, but it’s an egg-like, at least from the
front it’s egg-like. Maybe from the back it’s egg-like. Maybe from the side it’s
not. It’s more compressed. I don’t need this idea to work absolutely, empirically.
I just need it to work from the visual standpoint of the perspective that I’m looking at.
Therefore, concepts about things like the rib cage can change, depending on how you’re
looking at it. Like I say, it’s not empirical. For me the egg works, but for you maybe something
else. And maybe on a different occasion I might look at the upper torso from a different
perspective. I might need to know this about it so that I become aware, say for instance,
of its angle, and where its hidden corner might be. Maybe the center line of the front.
Or maybe I just simply need to know it this way, that its axis, so I get the sense of
its cross-axis development. These ideas help me, in this case, find the center and be clearer
about that center. This helps me find the three-dimensional direction.
When I think about maybe drawing the chest line across here, I won’t make this mistake
by saying, well, here’s the chest line. I know that it has to angle this way, so when
I start to build my rib cage into this, I’ve already got the suggestion that things go
around this way, up and over into the shoulder, maybe into the neck. You see me developing
this, so it’s kind of like that. The thinking. It’s the concepts and ideas that help me
clarify my thinking and articulate the forms on paper. Again, this is a little loud. This
would all be done much softer. But, at any rate, my first ideas might in the beginning
be extremely simple. I’m saying that about it. In the beginning I might start with the
rib cage. That’s as simple as that. It’s like an egg. I might note that it is a cage
and that it breathes. There are all kinds of important things about it. In the beginning,
the simplest possible notion is this one.
Now, the next thing is perhaps how the neck fits in. Notice I am repeating some of the
ideas from formulation, but formulation starts with really basic, simple ideas that we could
call the first level. You could say that this is the first level of development of an idea.
Well, actually not because this might be the first development, and these might be new
ideas on that idea. It might be new ideas on that idea. As we think more deeply into
it, I’m cutting away, for instance, where the neck will be. I’ve noted that it’s
lower in front and higher in the back. Notice that I’ve said that I’ve noted that. That
means that I’ve done little anatomical studies so I become aware that the sternum starts
lower than in back where the 7th cervical vertebrae and maybe T1. So, thoracic 1 and
the manubrium here are where the rib cage top surface is and where the neck fits in.
So the neck is going to fit in here.
Now, I could make the neck a simple cylinder. Maybe I’ll bring it down and maybe I’ll
flute the ends and that might work, but now my rib cage has an insertion point. I’ve
basically truncated that egg like you might do a soft boiled egg except lower in the front
and higher in the back like a T-shirt cut. The next thing is that I will note possibly
the sternum. The sternum gives me the center line of the front of the figure. This is not,
by the way, the axis of the form. For instance, if you say that you want the axis of the form—let
me move our guy just a little bit here—if you wanted to say, alright, here is a form
and let’s just put the head back. I’m just basically getting a concept or an idea
here. I’m saying that’s the sense in direction. It’s not actually an axis,
but it is a sense of direction.
It is the gesture that represents what it is that I’m trying to say about this form.
Once I start building the rib cage. This line becomes simply a suggestion of the spirit
of the form, but it may not have anything to say about where the actual center line
or where the sternum is, see? So, it could be that it’s not exactly there. When I come
down here and develop the lower torso—let’s bring that down. I’m continuing down a line
in the rectus abdominal muscle called the linea alba. You can use that to come down
to the navel and from there down to the pubic bone. I believe I’ve discussed that before,
but if I haven’t, you’ve got this point, this point, this point, and this point, at
least in my general model, are equal. Are they equal on everybody? Who cares? They’re
close enough. What I’m looking for is a kind of a yardstick by
which I can measure all other things.
So, I’m keeping these things in mind. Notice that they’re based on observation in a specific
case of drawing from a model, or in a general sense I might notice that people I draw are
more or less the same in that way with some variation. I might note that that might also
be true by looking at anatomical examples. At any rate, I like it because it’s all
equal, not because it’s absolutely right. It just makes the math easier. I’ve also
noticed that there is the thoracic arch. A lot of times the times the arch will be pitched
to that degree sort of like a Swiss roof, but on occasion you will have a rib cage which
is more barrel-like or barrel-chested, which will make this thoracic arch more like a Roman
arch rather than a Swiss roof. You want to observe which kind of rib cage you’re drawing.
Now, in my general model, I keep it actually more like this skeleton, which is you’ve
got a strong angled pitch, and we keep it broader like that, more like a Swiss roof.
And then I can make adjustments in this specific case. What I mean by that is that it acts
like yardstick. I can say, well, our subject today has more of a barrel chest and they
have more of a broader, wider arch, more like a Roman arch, than my general model. That
allows me to use my general model to take measure. Very valuable, that.
Okay, so the next thing I might note then is the clavicle comes up on an angle like
this, on either side like that. I might note that it also, not only does it go up on an
angle like that, but it has a slight turn in it. Do all clavicles have this? Not necessarily.
Not all clavicles have that. I might also—I have a lot I can say at this point. Some clavicles
will come straight out and some will drop. When they drop like this, then the neck comes
down and the shoulders are low like that. When that happens you have a rather emphasized
long neck, bird-like upper torso. Often that comes with a smaller torso and broader hips.
When it’s up like this, which is what I default to, I think it’s more of a standard
so that’s the one I use. Then I’m noting that the sternum has a certain width to it
like this, and if I come down here there is this little process called the xiphoid process.
The coracoid process will be out here, and it’s on the internal side. That’s this
right here. Coracoid process. Xiphoid process. Coracoid actually means beak-like, and if
you can see that up here it’s beak-like. You might say, why are we talking about that
little thing? Well, we’ll go into that. That’s actually a very important section
because it’s kind of a main station for a series of muscles.
We’ll come into that in a few minutes.
So, sticking with the rib cage, we’re coming back here. We’ve got the sternum which basically
means knife. We’re coming down here to the xiphoid process, which actually is spelled
with an X. Up here this piece of business right here is called the manubrium. Notice
that in the beginning that’s really not of much importance. But as we go along, I
start to notice that when I’m drawing that in many cases we see this much right in this
area, we see that much of the bony structure underneath the pecs. I might notice that the
pecs all line up around the 5th rib, or they start approximately there. I’m going to
re-draw this in a moment to go into this more deeply, but what we’ve got here is approximately
10 of the 12 vertebrae to this point, and when we look at this it’s already got a
certain amount of sophistication to it. Notice that again on this side that we’ve got a
slight turn. So, little by little I’m adding ideas to the egg. Instead of simply drawing
this thing and dealing with it from the smallest parts to the large, we’re actually starting
from the biggest possible concept and adding the other ideas to that large concept. It’s
almost like the large concept is a folder, a holding location for all of the details
about that location.
Alright, so I’ve noted this about the clavicle, and I’ve noticed that it goes up slightly,
and that there is a slight S-curve. On the outside we see just a little bit of a flat
bone on either side. Well, you can see that here. That turns out to be the acromion process,
which is this little turn at the end of the spine of the scapula. This is the medial edge.
This is the spine. The acromion process turns this way. You see it articulates right here.
That means that it’s connected with ligament. So the clavicle articulates right here at
the manubrium, which means, again, that it’s connected with ligament. Now, ligament unlike
tendon tissue or tendon does not stretch. It has a certain amount of movement. It allows
for a certain amount of movement, but you can’t do this with it. The tendon has—one
of its characteristics is this kind of plastic flexibility. What we’re talking about here
is something that’s being held into place, but it has to stay in place, and it has a
certain amount of movement in place.
Okay, so that’s what we’re talking about here, here, and here. Now when I come down
here—like I said, I’ve noted that I can see some of these ribs. Even before that I
perhaps might have noted that there is a flat area in front of the rib cage. It’s emphasized
even on the skeleton here by this change in the way they’re showing the bones. This
is cartilage. It’s more like cartilage than it is bone. It’s called the costocartilage
and it’s shaped somewhat like a bib. When you see, for instance, the starched bib on
a tuxedo, it’s approximately like that. So it comes down this way, you see. That’s
kind of important, you may note, because it shows us the flat part of the rib cage.
In addition to that, it separates and interesting thing that happens with the ribs; from what
happens to the ribs around the rest of it, so I want to just point this out. The 1st
rib goes around and underneath, you see. It goes around and underneath the clavicle to
the back, up here in the back. The 2nd one, well, it’s going to do the same thing. It’s
going to swing around and go around. It kind of does that. As we come down, they begin
to—that’s 3, 4, 5. Let’s say that’s 5, 6, 7 down here. You’ll notice that they
begin to fan out like my fingers here. The cartilage area, the costocartilage area, notice
that these ribs fan out, and that is a characteristic that is observable. Once they reach the edge
of the costocartilage area in front everything starts to go up. They continue to move in
an upward direction all the way around until they get to the spine. I guess you could say
equally that they’re all going down. One of the characteristics of that is, or the
way I like to look at it and I think is useful, is that if this is the spine and back, and
you have the rib cage here, that if you’ll regard the spine like a tree, the ribs are
like Christmas tree branches. They all go down in this direction, or they’re all coming
up in this direction, however you want to look at it. As opposed to a tree whose branches
reach up and do different things as they go. Right? They’ve got that.
When the arm reaches up and out and this clavicle and clavicle/scapula situation begins to move
out, it begins to stretch all the muscle in this area, and we begin to see these ribs.
I think it’s really important, because I think that often people get confused, that
you understand what the direction is. Notice that we’re just slowly developing some concepts
and ideas about the rib cage as we go. But they’re basically built on the large idea
first. So if I come out and I do the clavicle, I can drop the arm down. I can bring the clavicle
up. It’s going to bring up the head of the humerus, which comes up, and it can come over
and back. We’re doing that. This lifts. Notice that it does that without the need
for the rib cage to move at all. I also said that along the 5th rib that the pecs or basically
the sternum part of the ribs attach to the outside out here like this, you see. There
is another section to the pecs, and they are coming off the clavicle so the clavicular
pecs go down underneath like that. So they’re pulling that way. Then they’re coming off
the bottom rib. Down here we’ve got another section of the 7th rib pulling up this way.
So, notice that they’re kind of fanning out from one another, and they’re all going
to the outside of the humerus. And when the humerus is raised, therefore, they’re pulling
around to the outside, and they take the deltoid with them, deltoid pulling around. The scapula
is pulling out, like I said, like this. So now we’ve got that and that, and then perhaps
we feel the rib cage here, so there it is. Make that clearer.
Again, I’m showing this as a cylinder, but with this pulling over now and suggesting
that the scapula is swinging out, and on it a little bit thicker is the latissimus. We’ll
talk about that later, but we’ll see a little bit of it here. So we’ve got that, the ribs,
the ribs. I could add in here now the abdominal muscles which attach right under the 5th rib
and pull all the way down, give it a little job with the linea alba separating it, right
down into the attachment point down here, which would be the pubic bone. Coming around
here, again, the iliac crest the inguinal ligament here and here. Okay, so you get how
we can build on that concept and that idea in this way.
we develop this complexity, it gives us a chance to see how form and anatomy ultimately
serve the story. That’s how we’re intending to use it. The anatomy is not for its own
sake. Again, I want to remind you that as artists we needed to help be more articulate.
We don’t, however, want the words to take over. The words are so smart that they become
more important than the story that both anatomy and form is trying to tell. So we have to
keep in mind we’re learning this, but how we use it in our storytelling is through modification.
I like to think of it as active anatomy. If an action is thus and such, the anatomy helps
to express that action.
Okay, so let’s look again at another angle of the rib cage. We were talking about the
rib cage being like this, cutting away, cutting down like that. We talked about a clavicle
that could be this way, but it also had a slight S-curve to it. We’re coming out here
for the head of the humerus. The neck is fitting in here. You see the simple idea that we start
with, right? Cutting away. The simple idea that we start with. We also know that the
clavicle can move in a variety of directions, both up and down and around in a circle.
Let's just do this. Up and down and around in a circle and actually forward and back. If we
look at the rib cage from the top, let’s do that. Notice that the rib cage from the
top I’m actually drawing it flatter. Let’s say this is the front and this is the back.
Let’s say there is the spine and this is that trough that I was talking about. Well,
in here is where the neck is.
Alright, so here is the rib cage. The clavicle here so that it goes up and it has a slight
S-curve. Slight. It also goes back in this direction. That has a slight S-curve to it.
It’s S-curving this way and up. If I look back here at the scapula, I was saying that
the main body is here, and the spine comes over into the acromion process. They articulate.
Again, articulation is done with ligament, and it articulates here and here. All of the
other things, all of the other movements that the shoulder girdle makes, are done with attachments
of various kinds of tendon tissue. Out here by the way around the spine of the scapula,
let me remind you, the spine of the scapula is right here, the acromion process. I was
about to say that the shoulder girdle, the shoulder muscle like this here, here, and
here attaches like this into the clavicle side, the acromion process right here, and
I’m using my thumb along here.
It’s attaching like this, or I should say it originates there and it comes down, and
attaches halfway down the humerus here. There are basically three portions. You have the
portion that comes down here a little further, this portion a little less so, and the front
portion, the anterior portion of the deltoid also a little shorter, so the longest portion
is there. We’ll observe those things in a little while.
Right now I’m just talking it out. It’s a cone-like shape, so it tapers down. It has
kind of a not seriously flat but slightly rounded like maybe the heel of your foot.
Slightly rounded but we can think of it also as kind of like an epaulet. We’ll draw it
that way, like this. Notice it’s attaching here, here, and here. You might say that the
muscle portion is about one-third into the spine of the scapula. The acromion process
here, the whole thing, and maybe one thing of the way along the clavicle as well. So
there we have it. It’s kind of like that. Again, scapula, acromion process and so on.
Alright, now you’ll notice that the clavicle like this, but the main body is out here.
It’s just a little broader. Right? It makes sense. There we are. We’ve talked about
raising the arm. I’ll just do that again here. See? Upper torso. Oh yeah, like this.
Oh yeah. We’ve got this. One arm goes up, brings the clavicle up. Raising the arm. If
this were a back view do the same thing. Here we go. Down to the sacrum and up to the occipital
ridge where these muscles attach, bringing this down and down. This is the trapezius.
I’ll talk more about that. Here is the scapula. Spine of the scapula coming out here where
the head of the humerus is. We’ve got the trapezius cutting across, over. We see some
of the deltoid. There is the spine of the scapula. If this arm raises up and does this,
that brings the medial edge of the scapula up into a new position. We’ve discussed
that before with some of the drawings earlier in this session. That brings this shoulder up.
There is the acromion process. You see how it hits? It brings that part of the deltoid
there, and this smaller portion that attaches to the back here under, and then the anterior
part, the part that is attaching to the clavicle around here. There are the three parts attaching
to this stem, which is the upper torso. This is swinging up. You’ve got, now the trapezius
is pulling over this way. Well, that’s the upper part of the trapezius. You will note
that when we talk about the full trapezius, which starts there and comes down, attaches
along here like this, there is an underpart that pulls down and attaches to T12, which
is the last vertebrae in the spine, and if this does this then it also wraps around and
pulls this way down in this direction. When the arm reaches up like this if I put the
iliac crest in here like this, you will note that involved in that is a muscle like this
that comes down and attaches along the iliac crest. It swings over this way. It’s called
the latissimus. That latissimus is wrapping around and tucking into the arm. If we look
at the arm from the front, that scapula, which we see swinging out this way here,
it actually appears out here.
So, here is the deltoid from behind. Here is the deltoid, and the clavicle is up. You’ll
notice that the trapezius is slightly compressed, so it’s slightly rounded there. Therefore,
it’s slightly rounded here. On this side it may be relaxed, so the arm is down. Pecs
pulling up. Pecs relaxed. Okay, sternum. Okay, arm is up. Deltoid going around. The scapula
is out. Thickening that whole thing and pulling around from behind like this is the latissimus
dorsi. It’s going around and tucking into the armpit like that. If I continue down I
can add this thoracic arch. If I come down again I’ve got the oblique coming off from
the iliac crest from behind. The iliac crest from behind is here. Coming around from behind.
Why do I say behind? Well, none of that is visible. This is all coming around. So the
oblique is here. The actual beltline, if I may, my beltline is lower than the iliac crest.
The iliac crest comes up like this. It comes down, and this is the anterior tubercle of
the iliac crest. So that’s right where the beltline is, right there, that point. Then
from that point down is the pubic arch.
Notice also that it’s scalloped. It scallops in. There is an attachment from this point
to this point called the inguinal ligament. If I put pencil there you’ll see that there
is a space, and in that space there are muscles. Those are the iliopsoas muscles. They start
up here along the lumbar spine, the psoas muscles. The iliacus muscles are in here.
They join forces and go underneath the inguinal ligament here and attach down here to the
lesser trochanter. So through and down. That’s a leg-lifter, so when we see this happen or
the leg lifts up, those iliopsoas muscles are involved in that lifting. You’ll notice
that it comes from the spine. A strike there would be to develop those muscles and experience
it. When you experience the whole upper portion of the torso in its lift it’s because of
So now we’re coming around this way, and when we hit this point that approximately
where I’m saying the beltline is. Notice it’s a little wider than what the iliac
crest is suggesting. So, coming back to the arms now, when it comes forward in this direction
is going to pull, and we’ve just demonstrated that, is going to pull this into the clavicle
out like this and the scapula into this new position. As the arm reaches forward like
this, it brings the scapula out and the scapula comes out this way with the clavicle with
it, and of course the whole thing comes forward. It opens the back up, and it brings the pecs
out and forward like this. We’ll be looking at examples of this later. But at any rate,
we now have the deltoid that’s moved from here to here as it reaches forward. Again,
that opens this up. You’re going to start seeing ribs in the back. Which direction are
they going? They’re going up, remember?
Do you see that one thing in action reveals another thing, but either thinning the muscle
out, which can be stretched, or it might simply be relaxed. For instance, everything is relaxed
now, but not now. Yet the position is the same, so this has force, and this is relaxed.
Being able to draw the difference between those comes from understanding how the muscles
work in any given action. So, those are a few thoughts and ideas about various parts
of the body and to develop our notions about them in direction reference or relationship
to the actions that they’re involved in.
Okay, let’s take now a little bit of thought for the pelvis area. I’m saying since we’re
right there, I’m saying that as we go around I usually think of the pelvis area as kind
of a teacup. That’s very simple. It’s a lot simpler than to try to think of drawing
the pelvis. The thinking about the pelvis is very complex. It’s got a lot of stuff
going on. I think that we can bring those things down bit by bit by understanding it
in the simplest possible way first. At least from a front point of view, I’m going with
this. That is the beltline first. Then I’m going to come around and find these two points
in the beltline. Coming around, finding these two points, dropping down and finding the
pubic bone, and everything down here is what happens from the pubic bone on down. That’s
the ischium. This point right here, let’s say it’s about as wide as my knuckles, and
it actually opens up and goes back into the sits bones behind. Let me just adjust this
a moment and show you. These are the sits bones, these two points right here. It’s
where the hamstrings come down and attach to the lower legs. This is a little bit lower
than the pubic bone in front, so it’s on a slight angle down.
Keeping that in mind, that’s what this means. There is the pubic bone. It begins to open
and go to the sits bones back here. Again, this is a simple demonstration and a symbol
that allows me to get a quick sense of the pelvis area. Eventually, I’m going to come
around from here and bring in the iliac crest. Now you might say, well, where does this width
come from? Out from here, and we can look at this guy, we have the femur that comes
over into the great trochanter. You’ll notice that it’s wider than this. It’s really
kind of coming from approximately there and over to here. I’m getting, at least in my
general model, I get the great trochanter in this area before it pulls back like this.
You’ll notice that it is a bit wider than this. Okay, so therefore it would be the same
on this side. It’s coming from here, and we could say something like that. Here we
have the iliac crest, and we’ve got the inguinal ligament that comes down here and
here. In this particular area, that is across this area in here, I’m going to be seeing
a little bit of the gluteus medius. And across here, coming strapping across this way to
the side, I’m going to be seeing the tensor fascia latae. Between the two of them they
create a kind of a width that is wider than the iliac crest.
Now, if I’m coming down this way, also we’ve got the—what also happens right here is
we get this piece of business known as this profile in here. We get this piece of business
here, which is the external oblique or the flank part of the oblique. It’s actually
coming from behind. It attaches into the ribs up here like so. The inguinal ligament. We
have some articulation in this area. That’s the internal oblique meeting along here. Here
is the linea alba meeting along here. The rectus abdominal muscle as it attaches down
here. Okay, so that gives us a sense. Below that the genitalia, male or female. It’s
going to be below this line. You’re going to see some articulation here, and then on
into the leg. Another view of this, which is very different, is a profile view. If I
do this, this would be the iliac crest. We’d come back into the pubic bone. The ischium
back this way. I’m likely to come in and draw, for instance, in this particular area
the oblique. Here is the navel up here. We’re seeing the character of the rectus abdominal
muscle from this point down, from the navel down, slightly pooching out a bit here, and
then back on a female form. It might be narrower here and a whole lot less quality to this
part of the external oblique.
On a male you’re going to see this more as a flank. One a female you’re going to
read this all more like this and then into the leg muscles. It’s going to come around
like so, if we could see through. Here is the gluteus medius. Here is the maximus coming
down this way and the fat pad. The tensor fascia latae. These join together to form
a strap that comes down this way. We will talk about some of this more later. But, what
I’m trying to do is give you how we start with the simple idea and work towards something
that’s more complex.
Okay, so we’ve dealt with that a little bit. I’m also thinking that we need to kind
of understand and study the joints a little bit. We could go more into the pelvis from
the back view. I’m going to save that. We could go a little more into the rib cage,
back view and so on. I’m going to save that as well. I want to speak now to some of the
other joints. This whole point is this kind of study. I would expect that you would make
on your own. It’s really important for you to look things over, to explore. I’m just
trying to give you a heads up on how you might approach that. For instance, here we said—the
arm is a very complex area, and we could sit and draw the arm from a number of different
positions, and the muscles are always going to be revealing different aspects and different
profiles to the eye. I think it’s really important to talk a little bit about the mechanism
of the arm so that we can see why those things keep changing on us.
First of all, we said up here at the shoulder girdle that there is an awful lot of movement.
We have some articulation here and here with ligament. But the scapula here is attached
with muscle. We have the rhomboid muscles. You have other kinds of attachments. You have
the serratus muscles that are going in from between the ribs here and attaching to the
underside of the medial edge, or I should say the subscapularis edge, the medial edge
of the scapula. They help pull the arm forward. The rhomboids help pull it back. You want
to be aware of which muscles are kind of working or operable. But it’s not so much that you
need to read about that, but to observe that.
Whenever you’re thinking about these muscles and you have a sense of them, you begin to
watch which ones are operational when you’re actually drawing from a model. So this structure
all moves around. Around, forward and back, up and down, a variety of things. That’s
already quite a variety. But now, in addition to that, this turns. I can be doing any one
of these things and also turning from the head of the humerus in the glenoid process.
So you’ve got all kinds of variables there. In addition to that, now I’ve got this hinge joint.
It will be doing this. That’s the hinge joint. Well, I will observe that there
is this hinge joint here. It’s called the ulna. It locks itself like this in this spread
down here, forking of the humerus bone, and those are the epicondyles. It locks itself
into there and it hinges. You’ll notice that the radius, which is the thumb side bone
goes along for the ride. It obviously is a good companion in that sense, and it can move.
So now that we’ve got that possibility, this possibility, and all kinds of possibilities
here. In addition to that, the radius has its own unique characteristic. It is sort
of like a shallow bowl or plate that fits in this epicondyle of the humerus, and you’ll
notice that it just kind of moves around like so, but it also can rotate as it goes. Notice
my arm is also rotating in the same way. It’s rotating. I can bring it up this way, but
I can also rotate as I go. Now you have a whole new series of things. And that’s just
that view. We have several other kinds of views.
If we go into the wrist and what the fingers do because fingers can have a two-dimensional
grip, and they can also have a three-dimensional grip. Very different. Here the fingers spread.
The palm opens up and forms a ball-like shape, whereas in this particular case it’s wrapping
two-dimensionally around the object that it may be holding, such as this. Alright? Or
around, such as this. So, we’ve got all these particular characteristics. You’ll
notice that if I hold my hand up like this, and I turn it like this or like this, that
it looks like these two bones are rotating around one another, when in fact it’s kind
of like a visual illusion. So if I put my finger right on this bone you’ll see that
it’s really not going anywhere. See that? It’s really the thumb side that’s wrapping
around the little finger side. Yes, it kind of turns over. It’s not really going anywhere.
You’ll see the radius is actually describing a semicircle around the ulna. Let’s take
a look at it from this perspective. We’re going around this way. See how that’s turning?
I’m going to get on this side. There we go. See this is going nowhere,
but the radius is wrapping around.
We have all these things that are worth notating and understanding before you start drawing,
for instance, something that may appear to you at first note to be kind of a fixed, static
state. We’re actually looking at a dynamic situation here. Understanding something about
those dynamics before we begin drawing can be extremely useful. That’s why I’m starting
with just basically the three stages of the body. In the first stage you have the eight
parts of the body. We’re dealing with how those parts are involved in every single action
that’s taken. I’m certainly not opposed to anybody drawing parts of the body or sections
or zooming in or zooming out or cropping, however you like to look at it, or just being
interested in certain aspects of the body.
But if you really want to understand the dynamics of the body, it’s worthwhile to study all
eight parts in their various relationships in any given action. I think that’s what’s
going to teach you the most. For instance, if you do a movement like this, I’m really
actually pushing off from my heel. So if you’re only drawing the upper part you’re not getting
the full sentence of how the whole thing comes. I could press down and push out. Those kinds
of things are not being explained as well as if you attend to the full figure, which
is what we attempt to try to do, what this study attempts to try to address once some
understanding comes into play here.
something like this. Again, I’m going to just kind of truncate, go in, cut away. Remember,
this is somewhat like an egg. It’s a concept. It’s an idea. I am truncating that egg.
Again, low in front and high in the back like a T-shirt cut. Low in front. Here is where
the sternum is right around in this area. Okay. Just in the simplest sense we have the
thoracic arch. Again, I said that we could, we have different kinds of arches depending
on the type of rib cage it is. We’ll just take this one for the moment. At the top we
have the manubrium. Keep that in mind. That’s the top part, and this is the main body of
the sternum. It comes down here like that. Out from here we have a clavicle. I’m just
going to do the clavicle on this side for the moment. Remember, there are different
directions for the clavicle. There could be any number of possibilities. But the one I
choose as my standard goes up slightly. It’s in the slight S-curve, the attitude of it.
If we basically start in here like this then we’ll come across and go up here.
Remember, we’re not seeing this broadside either. Remember, it goes back around. This
is not broadside, so therefore we’re not seeing its true length. Out here is the acromion
process off the spine of the scapula. It takes a little turn up this way. Right in that area
we have the coracoid process, which is on basically the top area of the subscapularis
portion of the scapula. Okay, so the scapula is back in here someplace. We’ll keep that light.
The first rib will be in here off the manubrium. We said it goes back like this to this portion
where we have T1. T stands for thorax or thoracic 1. We also talked about the flattened area
in front, the area that’s more or less flat, and that the ribs kind of, you know, we’ve
got one, two. I’m going to just draw this rather lightly. Three. This whole area here
is cartilage. We spoke about that, and then it becomes bone-like as it turns away from
this particular front area. In the meantime, this is kind of like spreading out and fanning
out. The first one is going up. As we begin to come down, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, we said that
there were 6 true. Well, sometimes referred to as 6 true ribs, and the 7th being the beginning
of the false ribs. Sometimes the 7th is also considered a true rib because it actually
does begin at the sternum, but then 8, 9, and 10 branch off. Eight, 9, and 10 branch
off from there, off from 7. Then as we hit the edge of the costocartilage, we were saying
that all of the ribs go up at that particular point. That was part of our earlier discussion.
This is the xiphoid process here or the manubrium here. The main body of the sternum there.
The clavicle, coracoid process on the subscapularis portion of the scapula, and so that represents
more or less the view that we had been discussing.
Now, if we come out here we have on the scapula the glenoid process, glenoid process and the
head of the humerus coming down this way, just giving a sense of direction and proportion.
Let me hit that. Hit that. I’ll hit this. These are the major players that we’re talking
about here. So we’ll do this. The neck I was saying the simplest way fits in this way,
and I think it’s important to keep a sense of this. I’m often asked how does the neck
attach to the main body, and if you just think of a cylinder that is placed into this cutaway
that we made at the top of the egg. There is the manubrium. That’s not a bad fit for
the front view. Then we were saying that we could pull off in this direction for the muscles
of the back of the neck and the shoulder. It’s the trapezius muscle. We could also
talk about the deltoid.
Before we do, I just want to discuss for a moment the pectoralis muscles, the pec minors.
They are essentially coming off from the ribs here. They are underneath the pec majors.
They’re coming off from the ribs here, here, here. Like this over to the coracoid process.
Now, you might not think that this is important, but it does have a visual effect, and that’s
what I will try to demonstrate. What we’ve got then is it going to rib 2, 3, and 4. Well,
let’s try rib 3, 4, and 5. Let’s do it that way. Ribs 3, 4, and 5 because here’s
1 and 2, 3, 4, and 5. So they’re doing that and that’s underneath the pec major. The
pec major has three portions to it. There is the clavicular part which attaches all
along the clavicle. Rather than breaking this down into smaller increments than that, I
want to give a sense of that direction. This is pulling across to the outside of the stem
of the humerus, pulling over here and low. The main body, the portion that we think of
as the main section of the pecs comes down. Now, look: one, 2, 3, 4, 5. Right around in
here the pec major’s second section. The top section is pulling low. The sternal part
of the pecs coming in higher like this. You’ve got this, this. You have what might be referred
to as the abdominal portion, which is pulling from 5. It’s down into 6, 7, and is pulling
up this way. Notice there is an overlap over here as they cross over and attach to the
outside of the stem of the humerus.
Alright, now we could put on the deltoid. The deltoid is attaching approximately a third
of the way along the stem of the clavicle or collarbone. The anterior portion of it
pulls down a little bit like this, and then you have the center portion and then a posterior
portion. The medial portion pulls a little lower. This comes in a little high, a little
lower. It might appear something like that. You get kind of a thickness here. That might
feel a little far away, but you remember we’ve got the arm muscles and we also have the latissimus
back here and so on pulling off.
Alright, so we have—I’ll just draw this in a little darker at that point something
like that. Okay. What we’ve discussed so far is a series of some of the major muscles.
Now the character of some of these, like I said, this cuts in a little higher, a little
lower, and you might not see that distinction so clearly on most people. Someone that works
that area out, you’re going to see it much more prominently, the division in these three
parts of the deltoid muscle. Probably the same thing here. The trapezius is coming along,
and it might have a slight rise here, or it could be just a straight line, or it could
also dip. It comes over. You’re going to see this bump perhaps, in the flattening as
we go into the deltoid. So the character of that might be something like that. Now, we’re
going to see a slight bulge along this area because the muscle that creates that is right
behind the ear on the skull, and that’s the sternocleidomastoid. It’s pulling around.
Its main body is in here, in this area. It’s pulling along and attaching here to the manubrium.
Okay. It has a slight flange in here like this. A portion that’s flatter, that pulls
down this way. I’ll just draw it that way.
In the meantime we’re seeing a muscle that’s pulling from the jaw down this way. It goes
over here and goes to the backside, the back portion of the coracoid process. It is the
omohyoid. Notice it takes a turn as it goes. The reason I’m describing this muscle is
because we see it as one of the muscles in the neck that kind of flutes like that. It
is actually going through it. It’s pulling down but it’s going through a loop that
comes all the way over here from the manubrium. We can’t see that from a front portion and
in some anatomy books because the sternocleidomastoid is in front of it. It goes through
a loop, pulls over, and goes to the back end of this hook-like portion in here called the coracoid
process. We’ve also described these internal pec muscles, the pec minors. We’ve also
mentioned that that’s attached to the coracoid process. Two other muscles attach there.
I think that’s what’s interesting. This is so instrumental in so many things that
we begin to see when the arm starts to move around.
Anyway, as we’re pulling down here we see a little bit of the latissimus and in here
the abdominal muscles are pulling down this way. Just to give you a little character to
this and in between and underneath coming out there are the serratus muscles. They’re
approximately in here, and they’re going back. The obliques down here into the flank
portion of the oblique. This is attaching more or less to the iliac crest that’s coming
around from behind. If the rib cage is here, let’s drop that iliac crest down a little
bit like that. Give a little distance between the rib and the iliac crest. We’re not seeing
this portion. We’re seeing this edge. Okay, so something like that.
Alright, now let’s say we’ll take this and this, let’s raise the arm up on this
side now. Let’s say the clavicle is actually raising up in this direction. When it goes
it takes the whole shoulder girdle with it, of course. The scapula is actually going to
pull up and out. It pulls up and out, and so it raises the coracoid process as well.
Now, for the moment I’m just going to simply draw a cylinder that indicates the arm just
to start. You’ve got the clavicle coming up and over and what is also supporting that
raise in here is the trapezius muscle like this. Notice that it might be slightly more
involved. You’ll see that it contracts a little bit and rounds out a little bit. The
pecs across here, as we said, attach to the outside of the humerus. So, therefore, if
they’re in the outside of the humerus and the humerus is up here, it’s got to attach
up here. The pecs have got to attach up here. That’s a pretty good stretch.
You’ll remember that we will see, as this pulls up, some of the deltoid. See this? We
see some of that deltoid pulling up and out, and the deltoid is actually wrapping around
behind. We perhaps could see some of it on some sort of an angle. It’s possible to
see that. This is pulling up. Now, the pecs are pulling up and over, but we actually see
when we look at the pecs, and again it might be pulling from down into this section like
we said, pulling here. It also does something like this. It’s pulling in this way. Why
does it do that? Well, this reflects what’s happening with pec minor muscles as we showed
over on this side. We’re showing that they attach to the coracoid process. That is, this
pull is that group of muscles pulling to inside the armpit. They’re pulling towards there,
but this eventually takes over as the pecs pull up and over like this. It pulls that
way but then continues on up and over. There is a sense that it wants to go in and wants
to pull in that direction. It gives a certain kind of character to the pec as it pulls up
and over. That’s what happens when you look at it in action.
Again, we’re seeing this pull this way, heading in this direction. We have a sense
of the flange. We also have a sense now of the omohyoid bone, which is pulling this way,
so we can see its pull. And it’s pulling where? It’s pulling over to the coracoid
process because it attaches to the back end of it. Notice that the curve is a little stronger
turn here as it pulls in that direction out of its loop. We have this loop underneath
here, and this is pulling stronger over this way. We see, okay, that that’s involved
in this movement. Also, I said that there were other things that attached to the coracoid
process. One of them is that the bicep, bicep is one of its origin points is at that point,
and it’s back slightly so there is another muscle that attaches underneath which actually
compliments the bicep. That muscle is called the coracobrachialis. Big name for a very
little muscle that’s pulling this way. We’ll just take this this way at this point. We
have the bicep pulling up and over. We have the rib cage here. The latissimus is pulling
up, and it also tucks in. It tucks in this way and attaches that way. We might see a
little bit above it. We might see a little bit of the teres major, which is the lowest
muscle on the scapula in the back.
of that bulk is the scapula itself is pulled out. This is wrapping around that. Again,
now all of these muscles down here may not be as round because they’re being stretched
and pulling up. They have an angular quality up to this point. So now we can begin to feel
the stretch in the serratus muscles in here. We’ll see some of those pulling up, pulling
up. Narrow this a little bit. Here we see maybe a little bit of a split like at the,
get a little tone in on this so we can see it. Here is the triceps muscle. It’s pulling
down this way, and it is also going to attach to the edge of the scapula which is behind this.
Notice we start to get a wedging off all these things. This is pulling in, behind, some things
in this way and so on. We get quite a bit of wedging in there. Look at the deltoid and
so on. This stretch, which could go up and maybe over. I mean we could—I’m not going
to continue this, but just to give an idea we could take it that way. Therefore, we’ll
be going all the way up, out. We feel the movement down. I get this distance. This would
be important to me, to the sternum, to the navel, to the pubic bone. All equal. Cut away.
Inguinal ligament to the pubic bone. Again, the distances—one, three portions, four
points. This distance here is about 3 inches, but the truth is that it varies from person to person.
Okay, so now we have, what we’re doing is we’re talking about how these muscles are
in involved in the development of an action. It’s not so much that they’re there, but
what they’re performing in any given situation. The other thing I might like to illustrate
on this sheet is just exactly what is happening in this particular area,
so let’s take a look at that.
Let’s review these four points right here. Again, I’m going to do the egg, cut away,
sternum. So, from this point to this point, it’s one section. From there down to the
navel that’s two section. Third section is to the pubic bone. If this is here and
we come down and we grab, say, this here, let’s do that. Get that a little higher.
This is the—I mentioned this before. This is kind of the beltline, the actual iliac
crest pulls around this way, but this forms a kind of a teacup like this. I come around
and find this at this point on the teacup. Once again I’m coming down and cutting away.
These are my sections. Here to here to here to here. Again, the clavicle is approximately
here, but if it lifts we’re coming out. The arm goes up and in this case over. So
those are the basic directions. Notice that when this happens everything gets repurposed
to tell this action. I’m just giving it to you quickly now, see. Pulling down, pulling
down. All of these things are, therefore, now involved. Neck here, here, here. It’s
kind of a quick version of what we just did. Pulling and pulling it up. Relaxed.
Let’s take a look now at just this section around the neck. I want to do this. I’ll
to the cutaway. Here’s the neck fitting in like this. Here is the pit of the neck
or the tracheal notch. People have different names for this notch. Take your pick, whatever
you like. Over. We’ve got this. We’ve got this coming over this way. We’ve got
this coming this way. As I said, the hyoid does this. The trapezius turns and attaches
to the top of the scapula. We have the bump right here from the top of the clavicle. We
have the outer edge cyst-like bump there. The sternum is here. The rib cage is here,
and the deltoid is here. We have a notch right here. We have the sternocleidomastoid coming
down and attaching here. It’s rope-like, but it has a stem, flange that ties like that.
Because the rib cage is pulling back this way and the pecs pull across from here to
here and a little bit to here, to the outside edge pulling this way, pecs underneath the
deltoid. We have a series of notches. One is here. The other one is just inside the
flange from the ropey main branch of the sternocleidomastoid right here. The other one is in here
between the trapezius and the neck here. That’s where that attaches. And then underneath right
here we also have a notch.
Notice that’s one, two, three, four, and then obviously we have five, six, seven. If
we look at that, that is something that basically you should be looking for and counting on.
This is pulling in. Trapezius is doing this. It’s pulling around. Alright. Something
like that. You’ve got these different notches. Again, one, two, three, four. Now this section
right here is where you’re going to see the clavicle at its most prominent. Right
here and right here. The reason I’m saying that is because when this attaches here, and
this is a diagram. The reason we see that is because when the trapezius attaches here
it kind of blends right across almost. I think on most we won’t see so much of the clavicle
right here. The same thing with the deltoid attaching underneath. It softens these edges.
Right here, as I said, there is a notch both on top and underneath. We also feel that notch
right here between the sternocleidomastoid insertion and its flange right here. Of course,
there is the tracheal notch. One, two, three, four—again, five, six, seven.
So there are seven in all.
So if we look up here, we can begin to see those seven right here, here, here, and here.
One, two, three, four. Let’s turn the rib cage around for a moment. Okay, so here’s
our spine in the back. That allows me to come over here and draw just a simplified version
of the scapula. This is kind of like a scoop. Do you see what I’m doing? This is all part
in a sense of the main body of the scapula, but now this arm swings out this way, and
then at this pencil tip here it turns back. It’s a short distance. It turns back in.
That’s the acromion process. There is the scapula. Here is the glenoid process. That’s
where the head of the humerus will be. Then we’re pulling down over here to the medial
edge of the scapula. If we come across we’ve got T1, C7 going up this way to the occipital
ridge of the base of the back of the head. Yeah, let’s do that. Base of the back of
the head. We’ll talk about this and the relationship with these things. Let’s come
down here to T12. Essentially, we’re—I just want you to see this in simple terms
so it isn’t so scary and it isn’t so complex. Simple terms. Those are the basic underpinnings
of everything that we see. This is the infrastructure. Again, this will rotate around this way and
this way. It can lift up and down and so on. The same thing with the scapula, the scapula
can swing over, swing around, swing up. Pull back. Every time it does that it affects the
muscles around it. Let’s talk a little bit about those muscles that are involved in any
of the actions that happen back here.
So, in this scoop which is shaped egg-like, we’ve got a muscle in here, which by the
way, when flexed is egg-like. It’s pulling through underneath the stem or the spine of
the scapula and attaching over here to the head of the humerus. We have that muscle in
here like this. That’s the supraspinatus muscle. Under that we have a larger muscle.
It’s flatter and it more or less pulls across like this and attaches to the head of the
humerus that way. There is a smaller muscle. It is starting at the edge and joining this
called the teres minor. You’ll notice here is the head of the humerus and so on. The
teres major goes to the inside or to the anterior side of the stem and head of the humerus here.
So notice, these are on this side. This is on the inside. It starts this wedging effect.
We’ve talked about four muscles. One here is supraspinatus. Infraspinatus. Teres minor,
teres major. Major is pulling over like this. It might be a little bulkier, but the main
thing I want you to see here is what the players are involved here.
pulls across this way. Again, I’m going to keep it relatively simple. That’s the
levator scapulae muscle. We just see bits and pieces of these muscles. The rhomboid
muscles are pulling up this way, attaching back this way. I think that within this group
it might be interesting to point out this muscle. It is the trapezius muscle. The long
head of the trapezius pulls across and in between the teres minor and the teres major
to attach to the edge of the scapula. Now it’s doing that. Therefore, there is another
wedge. We get these wedges. This way, this way, this way. If we come down here now, again,
I’m trying to keep this simple. It comes down and attaches to the olecranon. We know
that there is a trough here. We discussed that. There is a series of muscles which are
relatively flat in this area. We might see each one of these buttons here of the spines.
They’re sometimes called vertebrae, sometimes called spines. The 12th is down here. We’re
down here this way. We’ve got the floaters and so on. If we come down we’re going to
see the sacrum. The sacrum is in this area.
The iliac crest is here. The iliac crest, by the way, let me draw this this way. Let’s
think of it more like a plane that’s like a disc that is, let me do it this way, going
around in this way. Here is the closest part to us. Think of it that way. What’s really
important is area right here. Okay, so there we are. The obliques actually—well, first
of all we said the ribs are going this way. Notice I’m just doing the direction. The
obliques are fitting into the ribs this way and coming down and going around.
They're actually going around and continuing attaching between the ribs all the way around to the
front. We talked about that a little bit. So the obliques are coming across this way.
Just take a look at the diagram for a minute. Remember, I’m talking about concepts. In
some sense we’re turning the idea about anatomy into something that’s less serious
and in a way more mechanical, more interesting. You can kind of almost see them working the
way I’m drawing it here. Almost see them working.
Now, when we pull this group of sacrospinalis muscle—well, the sacrospinalis and group
down. Remember I said it attaches all the way up here like this and comes all the way
down to the sacrum like this? They kind of narrow up down in this area. Maybe separate.
Then there are some lateral ones that pull in this way so it gets thicker. Flattens out
and narrows up again up in this area.
At the back edge of the iliac crest which when you just look at the skeleton, this kind
of pops. Once the muscles are there this becomes like a quilted button. It tucks in. This will
start to tuck as well as we go into the coccyx. This will be filled out with muscle. I don’t
want to go into that too much. We’re pulling up to the ridge, the back of the head. Just
take a look at the way we’re thinking about this, the way things are overlapping and so
on. Now, if I add to that the latissimus, the latissimus originates here and comes up
into the armpit along with the teres major. Together they go into the armpit so you see
this, the stem of the triceps pulling this way. They are pulling back this way. So as
this pulls back, the bulk of the latissimus dorsi is in this area, and then it starts
to flatten or stretch out. We see this pull back and we see the oblique, and we see the
bone. What I have not drawn in this drawing yet, you see, is the trapezius muscle or the
deltoid. If I do that I could come over here and once again just kind of repeat the phrasing
here so we get the spine of the scapula. Again, the glenoid process down.
Now, if we come across this way, the trapezius is starting up here, starting in closer, and
it’s fairly narrow coming down this way. It attaches to the spine here like that. On
this side we have this flat plane coming around. Now, we’re coming down this way. What I’ve
drawn here, it’s not that it isn’t there, but it’s shaped more like this and this.
This is one of the capitis muscles right here. Semicapitis muscle, they’re all attaching.
Notice that the capitis muscles are like a capital on a column. So you have a capital.
We might see some of the scalenus muscles along the side, and then we’re cutting in
from here to get the trapezius. This is the upper portion of the trapezius. It will leave
when it’s finally done because it also attaches down here and pulls this way. It’s kind
of flat in the middle. The bulk of the muscle wraps around and attaches both to the top
of the spine of the scapula. It kind of leaves a diamond shape, so it’s pulling across this way.
Now, we do have, as I was saying, these other muscles pulling in here. And we’ve got the
infraspinatus and the teres minor and the lower part we’ve got the teres major and
the latissimus, which is pulling down, pulling down like this around the ribs. It’s actually
going around this way and into the armpit along with it. So here is the trapezius and
then we have the deltoid. Here is the posterior portion of it. We have the medial portion.
Remember, this is a little shorter. This is a little longer. Coming out from that, the
muscles in the back of the arm, which are the triceps. We’re coming down to the wrist.
Okay, so you’re looking at this, this is all of the interesting things that are happening
underneath what is more familiar to us, which is the trapezius, the latissimus, the deltoid,
and so on. You’ll notice when we go further and we start to work from the actual figure,
when these things come into play that they’re actually rather important for understanding
how to express the action in any given pose. Right, so we’re coming down. They look oddly
different from one another. Just remember that this is internal.
Alright, let me just hit this is a little heavier so we can have a sense of this. This
comes down, by the way, to T12. It’s narrow. If we were to look at it on both sides this
would come across the levator scapula muscle and hide it. We would see this. We would see
a little bit of these muscles here, the scalenus muscles and see a little bit of the levator
scapulae muscle. As this comes down it takes its place. Okay, so I’m giving you a little
bit of the trapezius on this side too. Alright, again the occipital ridge coming down to the
sacrum, the tucking of the sacrum and so on.
take this figure of Catherine here and we’ll talk a little bit about what interests me
in this in terms of motion and how the anatomy figures into that. Actually, I’m thinking
about the anatomy and how it actively participates into the pose or action. Let me see if I can
keep us on the paper, kind of coming down this way. Notice that in this particular case
I’m just basically drawing directions. Cross-axis directions. Right, like that. And so we’re
coming down. Something like that.
Okay, so notice that’s relatively simple. What it does is it tells me basically the
big movements and how they are supported right down to the heel and so on. Notice I’m kind
of navigating around here. That’s kind of like the beltline for me. That tells me basically
where the anterior edge of the iliac crest is along that line. It’s pulling in this
way and around this way. Notice that I’m pulling in like this. It’s really I’m
pulling from behind. When I’m thinking about this I’m thinking in a three-dimensional
way, coming around from behind to the front. You might remember that I was thinking of
this as somewhat like a teacup. Now that when I come around like this I can cut away to
the pubic bone. Cutting away to the pubic bone like that.
The upper portion of the rib cage is in here like so. You’ll remember that I cut the
neck into the rib cage, and the head basically is on the same axis. We can come up here approximately
to where—by the way, these indications that I made, they are not the edge of the form.
It’s not the axis of the form. It’s simply a way for me to reference what the figure
is doing. I’m at liberty to change those lines anytime along through the drawing. They
are at this point simply a suggestion. Notice I’ve found this and she’s actually leaning
in this way to some degree. You’ll notice that right. Pushing in. This shoulder is down,
and this shoulder is up. The rib cage is also like that, but not quite as radical. This
arm and the shoulder girdle are lifting up and away from the mass of the upper part of
the body. And that mass is essentially supported by the infrastructure of the rib cage. There
it is. Now you’ll notice that it’s pulling back and around in this direction. This interests
me because this is pulling up and away, you see, and I can just take this for the moment
as a cylinder. This is where concepts come in handy, you see. She’s got her head overlapping.
Then the shoulder is back here. The latissimus is pulling in this way. We’re seeing some
ribs across here, and then we’re pulling down this way. Notice this is very stretched,
and we’re stretching all the way up. Stretching here. The pecs going up into the deltoid.
We’re seeing a little bit of the deltoid back here. We’re arriving at these bones
up here. What we have is the elbow or the olecranon over here. We have the condyles
of the humerus. It’s kind of an ending point. We’re seeing this muscle right here pull
down this way, and it sort of disappears. Notice there is a lot of zigging and zagging.
This muscle we’re talking about here is the triceps muscle. We’re seeing a little
bit of the biceps here. You’ll notice—okay. So deltoid, latissimus coming in, and all
this is on this kind of an angle. The breast is being pulled up and down, and so the abdominal
muscles here are pulling off the rib cage and down and turning towards the navel, pulling
this way, pulling this way. We have some compression. All this is this way, pulling up and over, right?
On this side we have compression. Swinging across, up and over. You’ll notice that
this knee is pointing in this direction because the hips are in this position. This knee is
pulling down like so. I’m looking for the rhythmic relationship. These muscles one to
the other. Pulling up. This arm, shoulders over. Arm is back. Wrist around the neck.
Elbow is down here and so on. Tying in, this leg is relaxed. You see that the muscles are
more or less relaxed. Coming in. I want to play this so that it feels relaxed, right
into this leg, which is supporting. Notice that it’s pushing up here and here. Pushing,
pushing. It’s coming around. Even extend this out a little more. That’s more or less
the sense of it. You’re actually our anatomy to help tell the movement and the movement
as it moves up, as it shifts over, as it pulls down and supports. Basically, it is the story
of the action told in the muscles in the soft parts of the body as well as the skeletal
system. There we go. This might even have an angle to it, you see, pulling first this
way, then across and then up this way. Over to the pit of the neck. It might be a little softer.
Coming down. Okay.
Alright, let’s take another one here.
We’ve got upper, head, limb, pulling, pulling. Let’s
do this more like that. Leg across. It’s kind of relaxed. Again, I’m thinking three-dimensionally
like this. Coming across. Finding the other leg, which is behind this leg, which is more
observable. But it is an important leg. It supports the action. You want to try to remember
that because it should not be ignored or be considered secondary. You’ll notice as we
come in here and grab this rib cage that she is reaching up, so the rib cage is pulling
up. This is what’s going to be interesting to me about it. It’s pulling off this corner.
We have this muscle, the sacrospinalis group coming down this way. You can see it has some
prominence there into the sacrum, and then this way coming down. I’m pulling off from
the rib cage right now down into the hip, the iliac crest and along here the tensor fascia latae, gluteus
maximus, into the leg muscles.
Remember, the most important thing first of all is direction and the basic conceptual
volumes. We’re thinking this way and thinking this way here. Then we’re looking for—for
instance, I can think of this as a simple—and the way to conceive of that is as a cylinder,
simple cylinder. Simple coming down this way. We can bank off over to the heel and come
down. We have a hit point down here. This is swinging around this way. This is all lifting.
Because it’s lifting we’re beginning to stretch this whole area out in here, and we
can see ribs. I’m going to pick up some of those ribs as I go. And it’s deepening
in a little bit in here because it’s running up against this group. As I said before, the
sacrospinalis group. It’s deepening because it’s turning in. As it pulls up, we’re
running into the shoulder girdle, which is also participating in the lift. We feel here
and here over to the deltoid. This is really the scapula pulling up, lifting up. At first
it’s a direction, but also I am thinking it’s just a simple cylinder. It gives me
my direction that way. I’m feeling a pull this way with this muscle group like this.
Notice I’m pulling across and over. Lifting and pulling. As this lifts and pulls in this
way then I might go into, if that works for me then I might find the organic equivalent.
This is pulling up. Breast is pulling down. Ribs are bringing it a little lower.
Her head is turned. She’s facing this way. Hair dropping. Wrapping around, dropping.
Just to give a sense of direction. Here. All these muscles are participating in this action,
and we may see every bit of every one. That’s not what’s important here. We’ve got the
triceps pulling in up to the elbow and condyles of the humerus. The neck is pulling up and
over so I’m looking for the transitions between the shoulder and the neck, and you
see there kind of are some. We’ll get into that in a little more detail with something
else. This neck in doing this we’re seeing a little bit of the head going off. We’re
going to make me change my mind about how exactly the head is. This arm is back and
down. I’m just going to give this direction.
Alright, so in a sense you see that I’m basically working on what’s participating
in the action along the direction of the action. What are the players that are involved? I’m
really essentially trying to use only what they have to say or contribute to the action,
so I could just drop all that in tone. This is really not a tonal study, but essentially
by doing this we can focus a little more on the things that are important for this attitude
and direction of the direction. Okay.
of this. Notice how he’s pushing out, pushing his shoulder out in this direction. So I’m
looking at that. That’s one of the things that interests me about this pose. This arm
is pushing out laterally to the side, and this arm is pulling back slightly. I’m also
trying to not lose the sense of the underlying form here with that kind of interesting activity.
Neck, head. Notice how much I’m doing before—but you see, even though I’m doing a lot of
this preliminary stuff, and this is gestural, you might note that I’m working both with
the gesture but some conceptual stuff with the sense of proportion, just basically shooting
from the hip proportion and pulling along. It’s not without some
reference to anatomical consideration.
For instance, I know where that proportion is. I know what I want from it too. I want
to get these points. When I come off from the rib cage, which I’ll impose in there
like this, I can come down into the oblique. Come around and grab the iliac crest so I
know approximately where that is. I’m hitting this straight and starting the leg low because
we were saying that the center muscle of the quadriceps group starts down about an inch
and a half from the anterior edge. The foremost part of the iliac crest here. And it’s pulling
back in this direction.
Again, my general model says from here to here equals about from there to the bottom
of the foot. It’s approximately right. His knee is facing off slightly to this direction.
Not straightforward, which brings the leg off into this kind of a direction. Notice
that there is a—let’s just come down and grab the shinbone. Shinbone is the ankle on
the inside of the leg. I’m going to want to make this just a little bit longer, just
a little bit longer. Coming over here, it’s the same. I’m coming down and finding the
iliac crest and the anterior edge. And down here where the inguinal ligament is separating
the abdominals from all the rest of the hip area. We’ve got this and then we start in
here with the abductor muscles here. I can also think about this cylindrically at first.
Essentially, what am I looking for how everything is helping to describe this action. I want
to make sure that I understand the action first with the gesture, first with this gesture.
It’s pushing off and over.
Then how each part is actually participating with that gesture. Right now I’m drawing
where the pecs are, and they’re pulling up and over. Notice that this portion of the
pecs along here pulls—you can’t really see this so much on the photo, but you’ll
notice that this pulls up. It’s actually pulling under this group, and then the deltoid
pulls across. We’ve got the clavicle here and the trapezius pulling along this direction
like this over to, well, that little bump is the clavicle here. Deltoid. Then from there
to there we’ll see a little bit of the triceps. This is pulling in front and this is pulling
like that. The arm is going around kind of in that way. It’s pulling up.
Notice I drew it originally just as a tapered cylinder. Then I’m hitting the bone coming
down into the wrist where the thumb is, allowing the fingers to spread. Enough of that. Over
here the deltoid is taking over from the pecs, which are pulling up. Notice the pecs are
pulling in this direction. This is rather flatter at this point. This is the abdominal
portion of the pecs, and then we get the sternal portion pulling up this way. We feel the clavicle
as the clavicle reaches over to help make this whole action happen. Head is in there
like that. You have the trapezius portions of the deltoid. Anterior, the lateral portion.
Remember, I said it comes down a little bit further than the anterior portion. In here
we’ve got the bicep. Notice it has its own feeling to it. This is starting to expand
a little bit as he swings his arm up in this direction because he’s applying some sort
of thrust to this. There is a sense of thrust as he’s coming over into the wrist, into
the flat of the back of the hand into the fingers.
I’m just implying a few things here. This is stretching. That is the latissimus and
under it, because the arm is pulling out and away from the main portion of the body like
that, the latissimus is covering the scapula, which is also coming out. This is pulling
down, pulling down. You’ll notice that some of these abdominal muscles on Clay begin to
participate in this movement too. Deltoids are tying in. Scapula, we’re seeing a little
bit of that notch. Over here we’re also seeing a bit of that notch underneath the
clavicle here. So, latissimus coming down. This is tightening up a bit as it’s pulling
over. The navel is pulling this way and then back down into the genitalia down here. Inner
thigh, quadriceps, and coming around here. The long muscle in the body, the longest muscle
there is, the sartorius coming down and tying in underneath the knee, which is facing slightly
in this direction as we said. A little bit of the straight from the hamstring and behind.
A little bit of the peroneus longus. The calf muscle and so on.
Okay, a simple cylinder. This is supporting. Over. So we see this is a stretch. This is
what I want. This is pulling, pulling. I’m feeling that as this pulls this way that this
pulls this way. Emphasize this. Elbow. Extensors. Back of the hand down this way. Alright, up.
Back of the ear. Not going to go into too much, but basically I want to give you a sense
of the directions and how I’m using the muscles to help express the directions. They’re
not just I do the whole action and then I paste on the muscles afterward. The muscles
are really active participants in the expression of the action. We’re calling it dynamic
anatomy. It’s not just a list of the various things that one should be attending to, but
actually we’re using them in sentences. Swinging around, swinging down, down.
Again, direction, direction, direction, down, simple, support. Okay.
Okay, so here we go with a new model. Let’s take a look at her pose. There is quite a
bit of action in this. I’m going stretch, really going with the gesture here. Okay,
I want to bring her up a little bit. Just bring her up. She’s got a lot of stretch
to her. Do I dare take her that far? Let’s see. Now, notice. You’ll notice that I didn’t
take her quite far enough, so I’m going to actually swing her over. This is the point
of working with the gesture is that if you’re going to adjust anything this is the time
to do it. I’m going to actually swing this over, maybe over a little bit like this. For
me it’s kind of like what you might consider to be an exaggeration. I simply didn’t take
it far enough. Not really an exaggeration. She’s doing this and this.
Again, I’m just attempting to arrive at the attitude of the pose. So, where are we
going? Coming out. Foot is back here. Gracefully this, this. Her head is back. Notice the axis
of the head is way like this. Alright, we’ve got the hand almost going out of the picture
here. We’re going to just try to back off. Make things a little smaller so we can stay
in the picture gesturally. Again, here is my rib cage. For instance, if I’m working
like this and things get too dark, there are several solutions for that. I’ll show you
in a moment. So, okay. I’m working on it. Again, I’m finding where those hips are
going to be, where the rib cage is going to be. I see the rib cage is going to be out
here and center line stretching. Finding that center line is very important.
Down to the navel.
Following the muscle division line, which is the linea alba down into the pubic bone.
See a little bit of the hip around the corner. Here we are. Something like that. Pulling
across here. Pulling up to the joint. Pit of the neck. Notice I want to establish the
pit of the neck way down here. Up, up. Not drawing anything that is part of the detail
at this point. Staying away from the face, breasts, and anything that would be maybe
a secondary consideration. There is a tendency for people to want to go into the detail way
to soon, but we’re looking for the overall attitude, and when you go into the detail
too soon, often enough you lose a sense of the whole. Now everything needs to be connected
to that hole.
Back here we’re looking at the shoulder girdle from the back. It’s pulling across
this way. We’re headed in this direction. That direction and let me get that here. The
obliques. The iliac crest coming around. The obliques coming around into the abdominals.
Now we’re into the pelvis region. So we have her reaching up maybe even more vertically
than I have it. I’m going to move her hand over. Let’s say I’m just going to shift
it a little bit. One of the reasons I’m doing that is because I’m coming to the
edge of my paper and I want a full expression, so I’m changing the attitude. This is permissible.
We do not have to absolutely copy, but what we do have to do is try to make sure that
what we choose to do have it make sense.
Abdominals are pulling down. We see a little bit of the sartorius pulling around here.
Notice I drew that before I even drew the leg. But I’m thinking of the leg. Even though
I drew that I am aware of where that leg should be. You probably should draw the leg first
until you begin to understand what I’m talking about. Sometimes you can internalize certain
parts of the forms and then jump ahead. You might not have to draw all the forms as cylinders,
but you have a sense of this cylindrical value for instance. I might do this or I might—and
then maybe turn the corner. I might go out this way and I might think this but maybe
not draw that. I could go directly into the development of the organic forms. So there
are two ways I want you to think about this. We’re dealing not just with the anatomy
but the relationship of all the organic forms. I think it’s useful to think about it that
way and also to think about it in terms of how anatomy is active. We’re dealing with
active anatomy. Muscle pull from the adductors, quadriceps, or to the knee. I’ll just give
a general sense of where the knee is. Tying things down.
Okay, I’ve actually brought the leg on a little bit of an angle instead of straight
down. I don’t know if that’s aesthetically correct for what this dancer needs, but I’m
seeing it as slightly more active. And down. Okay, so that’s down. This is back. Jaw
is up. You see the general sense. Once that stuff is established and these lengths are
paid attention to then I might start coming into the secondary forms, like where that
breast might be or where this one might be,
up and over. Bones, and so on.
Okay, I think that gives you a general sense of at least how I’m breaking these forms
down. Let me just remind you that regardless of everything, the infrastructure must always
be attended to. So, I’m always aware of where the rib cage is even as I’m building
the forms that are represented by that as an understructure. We’ve got the abdominals.
We’ve got the obliques. We’ve got the pecs. We’ve got the deltoid. All of these
things are in direct response to the underlying structure.
little bit. Thumb, hands. Notice this arc. I brought it down a little bit like that.
Belly. Notice the play between the upper torso and the lower torso. It helps create that
arc. Notice that the head is in alignment with that. The head is back here. The chest
and belly is out here down into the iliac crest. We’re seeing the back and then we’re
seeing—these muscles are pushing up because he’s actually—if we continue this step
back and down he’s actually pushing off into this. The head goes back and the arms
are basically a new movement that extend up and out. I’m just going to take it this way. Thumb.
If that goes off for you, I apologize, but you can see that it’s an extension down to here.
This is high.
Notice I’m going to make a point back. By the way, this is the feel of the whole thing.
But the support for that, the lifter is here. That’s really important. We cannot give
this a short shrift so to speak. We can’t say this is not something that’s very interesting.
I don’t need to attend to it. One actually does need to acknowledge how this is all possible.
It happens because you have this supporting, supporting, and this is now supporting, lifting.
One actually allows for the next thing. Bring that back. Again, this is still just a gesture.
I’m kind of fussing around with this. But really, it’s an attempt to find the most
dynamic relationship between these things. Up, lift. We’re coming back again. You can
think first the gesture and then the volumes, but the volumes really do need to be listening
to what the action is asking of it. That’s when the organic forms begin to help turn
and bend everything. You find this rhythm, but it’s working, but it has to be around
this push off. The push off has to work. I’m even pressing in more, pushing even more forward.
Bringing this back even more. I think it’s useful to make these adjustments so you can
see that one can even be clearer. I can come down and be clearer. That stretch—I can
bring this back even a little bit more, see, and press down where the toes will be.
So, if you don’t get these things right, then when you start adding anatomy without
having addressed this issue, the anatomy just basically sits there like a bodysuit, like
some superhero’s bodysuit. It is not really active. It doesn’t really feel authentic.
It looks like a shield. Basically, it’s a body shield. Muscles become somewhat like
that instead of that they actually show sentence by sentence what’s happening with the activity.
Anyway, we’ve got something like that going. We feel the full extent of these things going
in these different directions.
Okay, we’re taking another one. This model is Barry. We’ve got this going forward.
This is the thrusting back. And there is a slight twist you’ll notice, twist between
the upper torso and the lower torso. Again, I’m just simply going about it this way.
Again, simple. It’s an ovoid volume. This is back, so I’m thinking when I get to these
forms they have to navigate back that way. In other words, we’re thinking of the axis.
Two-dimensionally it’s this way. There-dimensionally it tips in like so, so the cross-axis will
be like this. So he’s swinging and this leg basically is supporting..
Notice that all this swinging down, but as we come up it begins to spread, fan out. The
action is this way, this way. The rib cage is actually in here like this, swinging, but
he’s bringing his whole shoulder girdle up into this new position. That includes the
deltoid and the scapula and the clavicle, which we can’t see back there. This is pulling
up. Because he’s turning it also in this direction a bit, I should say turning this
way, we see this stretch also in here. Then it comes down into the oblique here. The oblique
ties off at the iliac crest.
We come down. We’re seeing a little bit of the tensor fascia latae, and then down
into the quadriceps seeing the lateral rectus femoris medialis kind of joining together.
Along here, this is all in tone now. Along here would be the sartorius. This is the corner
of the patella. All this in our drawing is in tone. I’ll just put this in tones. We’re
seeing this. Over. And then in here the adductors. Pressing into it, up and over. This is the
attachment moving in here for triceps. We’re seeing this flattens out here, and we’ve
got the teres major from the back of the scapula, the lower part of the scapula along with the
latissimus. With Barry we see just a little bit of the...
muscles here from here. We’re seeing a little bit of this one here.
These are the rectus abdominals.
We’re seeing a little bit of the serratus there. The serratus are actually operational
here. That’s one of the reasons—they’re not just decorative. They’re actually helping
to pull this shoulder girdle around towards the front. They are active here. This is pulling
in this direction. Everything is kind of pulling over in this way.
Alright. This is up this way.
If I continue the arm across and we do this thing, I get the head in its place. We’re
coming to a corner right here. We’ve discussed this corner before from different angles,
but what we are actually seeing is the olecranon, which is the elbow. This is kind of flattening
and we’re seeing a little biceps under here. I’m going to draw the forearm just in terms
of concepts. This is slightly rounded and then it flattens out. I’ll just put that
in the tone for the moment. We’re seeing a little tone in here, so this tone helps
us to describe form and turn the form a bit so we can drop all that down too. That gives
us a sense of simplicity. But we are pulling over. Seeing a little bit, I’m keeping it
in tone. Into the upper arm, wrist. This is going around in this direction. This is pulling
here. The biceps in here. Let’s make that a little smaller. The latissimus here into
the armpit. A little bit of the scapula showing. Deltoid, I should say pecs. A little tone.
Bring some tone in here to keep it simple.
You will notice that this is the stretch side, and this is the compression side. Stretch
and compression between the pelvis and the rib cage. Now, we have this forward and this
down and it supports, and it’s kind of thrusting forward down into the ankle.
We need to. Then this leg back.
So, when I say this is about organic forms, I’m really actually kind of referring to
paying attention to the rhythm. Not the rhythm so much of the big form like this, but the
small rhythms that go along. You have the big rhythm, the rhythm of the pose, but then
there is the rhythm of all the small forms, the small muscles as they interlock around
the trellis of the big rhythm. Drop that whole thing down and just bring
it into tone as it goes back.
Move this up a bit.
Okay, relatively simple gesture here. What’s
interesting in this pose for me is how all these parts come together to make the statement
of the action. I’ve started with the gesture. A simple gesture that gives also a sense of
placement, proportion, rhythm between the eight parts of the body.
Let’s see what we’ve got just to make sure we’re complete here. That’s all of it now. More or less
all of it. I’m going to start to break that down, and I’m breaking it down in terms
first of just simple volumes. These volumes do include a sense of where they’ve come
from. In other words, they’re not just simple geometric volumes. They already have a suggestion
of a certain kind of understanding, suggestion of the understanding that might have come
from a little bit of experience with anatomy. For one thing, this idea of volume and the
volume also gives us a sense of direction and access, direction three-dimensionally
Here, thinking around the form this way. When I think this way I’m also thinking this
way because our subject is in fact going into the background from the foreground. This continues
to be so here, and it continues to be so in the upper leg area and also even as we extend
out this way. I’m thinking where might the spine be? In other words I’m thinking through
the form. I see a little bit of it. Neck is down. Head is down even further, rounding out.
Brings the ear way over it like that. Back to the spine. Sense of the rib cage.
As this arm lifts up, we see that the latissimus dorsi is involved. It comes around and it
actually attaches to the iliac crest. We’re not seeing much of it here, but we know it’s
there. We’ve studied it. The pecs around the corner. We’re seeing some of the serratus
muscles in here. They are on the rib cage. I’m also looking at a slight crease here in the abdominals
This is the thickest part of the latissimus, and it’s joining the teres major and going
into the armpit. You’ll see here that the attachment that the triceps makes into the
edge of the scapula pulls across in front. So we have one thing pulling in front of another
thing. I think this is kind of important to try to see if it’s possible to address those
things. What is in front of what? Once you start to discover a little bit about the muscles
then you’ll see clearly that they are made much more articulate by paying attention to
that characteristic. What goes in front of what? So this is pulling around.
Now, it doesn’t just pull in front. Remember, we’re also saying that it goes around the
form like this. I’m pulling it off this way. Even if this does this, there is a sense
that we are going around now. Also, because of this stretch in this direction, by the
way, this if I just take that simply also has a direction. Thumb going in this direction.
We have kind of the direction set all the way. Then as this all stretches up
here it stretches the skin thin here, and so therefore we’re going to see some ribs.
As we said they go up towards the spine in the back. We see this wrap around and then
also slightly wrap around the latissimus as it pulls back, slightly around like that.
This over to the shoulder. There is a little pressure here.
In other words, pushing up this way because the arm is pressing back like that.
Alright. A little stronger there.
Down into the lower forms. Again, these forms are also helping to describe the three-dimensional axis.
Doing this with a tone. It describes the quadriceps group and the strap coming across.
Again, I’m trying to keep in mind that it is a three-dimensional
—let’s do this—a three-dimensional concept that I’m trying to get across here. I’m constantly
looking for ways to use the cross axis as a way of expressing that, staying aware of
what the three-dimensional cross-axis is. If it’s this, we’re doing this. Even as
this presses back and pulls in this way it expresses this dimensional quality, cross-axis quality.
When it gets up here, these bones fold and they take all the skin and all the muscle
and contracting around creates this pressure on the joints.
Here a corner. Much freer here.
Notice that we can get around this corner much freer. I’m just going to draw that
as a turn. Yes, I want to get its anatomical significance. But I don’t want its anatomy
to override what it is actually is doing from a visual point of view. In other words, I
want this to continue to tell me that the leg is going around in this direction. I have
to be careful not to choose something that contradicts that. How would I contradict that?
Well, if I wanted to say this and I saw a form in there that did this, that would basically
kill what I’m trying to say in terms of direction. I’m always looking at how to
use what I see to help express what I want to say about the action, the story, about
the attitude and about the volume and so on. I can continue that out, but I think you more
or less get the point there.
Okay, let’s take another one of Clay here. Okay, so he’s supporting. Got this arm stretched out.
Okay. Compression, stretching. Just in the simplest way. Okay, so that brings the
hips up a little bit. We’re going to feel that compression contracting right there.
Swinging up, around. Bring this down.
This one foreshortened.
Okay, I want to keep this simple because I just want to go into just a few things without
doing everything. That would be important for me. Just kind of the basic direction.
I’ll notice that head is kind of doing this up over the top. Back this way.
Prominent in this action is the way the shoulder girdle is working. This one is pulling out and over.
This is jammed up and in as he supports this action by using this arm. Swing down, out.
Notice that even in this early stage I’m attending a bit to the intersections.
Hip tucking, tucking. This lower leg is actually coming out toward us. The whole leg is coming
toward us. This is a bit like that. A bit like that, but it’s pressing here.
Then it continues on out into the calf portion into the foot. Again, cross-axis. Do the Achilles heel.
Let's do that.
As toes go. So, now as I come down here I want to adjust this.
There is more pressure. Then there is a little bit of the latissimus in here that’s interacting.
The trapezius is pulling this way, notice, and this way here. We can see it. It’s relatively
clear. Deltoid here. We’re seeing a little bit of the spine of the scapula here.
This is coming over.
What is it we really want to use? This? This? Rounding it a little bit and pulling it off
towards the spine. This is kind of coming around, you’ll notice. It’s a bit of a
feeling of the rib cage into the sacrospinalis group here. Softer here.
This deltoid wrapping around.
Triceps angling in the olecranon over to the radial brachialis.
This is also pressing up.
Over. So, I’m kind of working my way along the
line here up through the back. Up and over and down this way to find the basic movement.
I can get inside with some tone. I start describing the muscles on the inside as well. I’m not
going to do much of that at this point, but instead just try to show the directions a
little bit here, a little bit of the direction, a little bit of the mass coming around. Alright.
So, the sense is how these muscles are related to the action that’s taken and how they
participate. Now, I think that you can read about how each muscle works, but I think even
more intuitively is to observe how each muscle participates. Basically, a muscle is active
if it’s contracted. If a muscle is relaxed it’s probably basically getting out of the
way so that the muscles need to be active have the space they need. If all muscles are
working at the same time, that’s sort of like isometrics. They work against one another.
That’s great as an exercise, but it doesn’t necessarily produce
what’s necessary for an action.
You see, even in this stretching back we’re looking for what helps say that,
what helps express that.
We have the long line of action and then the smaller things that are coming
in to support that. So, you’ve got the melody, the chords, the notes.
Okay, I think we kind of get how that works.
Okay, let’s just briefly look at a few things on this other figure. We’ve got him leaning
in like this. What’s important? Here, here. Pulling off. Here. He’s reaching across,
reaching across so I’m looking to pull this against this, against this. If I established
my alignment right here—like I said, muscles along the line they will attach.
You come back like a relay. This one starts before this one ends and it picks the motion up.
Then another one comes. That’s what we’re looking at here. This to this to this to this.
Then this is pulling. Bones are underneath. This is pulling back and now in a new direction
this way. The other shoulder is pulling in underneath. That’s on top of the rib cage.
We’re starting to see some of the ribs in this area, so we’re seeing here—I mean
if we come up this way we see the neck.
I’m just trying to give you a sense of this in a very abstract way. Over like this, down,
tying off down here where the belly is. So you’ll notice that one thing works, another
thing relaxes. There we go. Then the leg is heading off in this direction. We’ve got
this going in this direction and this going in this direction and this going in this direction.
So I’m looking at those directions. This leg is going to come down and then pull back
and then stop. You’ve got these different components involved in helping to direct what
it is I want to say about this action.
of how to think about anatomy, or that is, how I think about it, which is I’m basically
connecting the anatomy to the actions. We can kind of proceed from there to see how,
say, Michelangelo handled these kinds of situations. We’ll take this first drawing here of his.
We’ll break it down the way I might break down working with the figure. You’ll notice
that I’m working with the largest considerations first. He’s bringing the arm up. I’m coming
down and finding the spine. Just a basic sense of what this action is on up through the head.
Let’s do this here. I’ll bring this arm down, maybe even bring this arm over just
to give it some sense of completion. Notice I’ve brought the shoulder up and so on.
I’m thinking what? I’m thinking the largest consideration first, so I’m finding that
in the gesture. Believe me, this is the first consideration that Michelangelo had as well.
Certainly not muscle by muscle. We need to understand that there is a kind of procedure
here. First it’s the big consideration, the story, and then next how to break that
down into concepts and ideas. You may know that Michelangelo was first a sculptor. He’s
really responsible for helping us to think sculpturally while we draw. He considered
drawing to be a false art in his time. When he was forced into doing that by the pope,
he basically had to reinvent drawing in his own image, so to speak, which is sculptural.
So, when he thinks about something like this, he’s thinking around the corner. He’s
thinking volumetrically like this so that this leg is actually coming back in this direction.
Now, you might not think that this has a lot to do with anatomy, but really it sets the
situation up. He also has an aesthetic sense of where this is compared to this and so on,
and in the scale of things he is very aware of how the rhythms work and how one thing
feeds into another. So, I’m giving you a hint of that now. Notice that I hit the bone
right up here. The bone is coming off the scapula. So you see that, and this is coming
down and hooking into the sacrum here, and this ties in down here, and we have a muscle
that pulls in here over to the great trochanter and so on. I’m just giving you this as kind
of a heads up about how I might move into this drawing. You’ll notice that there is
a lot of relay, like a relay race. Before this finishes this picks it up and carries
it into the next section. That’s essentially how rhythm is working along a line. It’s
that as this finishes this is picking it up, and then the next thing picks it up and so on.
So, now that we’ve established that, I can go up here and find this point and this point.
Do you see there is a nice stretch between them. Believe me, this was not lost on Michelangelo.
So, when we break the sections down, and I’m breaking the sections down into the secondary
consideration. For instance, this is the big first consideration, what we’ve just done
here. It’s basically what happens between here and here and so on, and the biggest possible
thought. The second thought is breaking it down into these sections like this. There
is one. There is another one here. We’ve done this. I’m just kind of reviewing into it.
This might be the secondary thought right here. Section one, section two, section three.
They are secondary, the second level of consideration. The third level of consideration will be breaking
those secondary things down into tertiary sections. Each one of these sections is handled
separately in a way and not to be interfered with the previous one.
Notice that the first one is the real long line of consideration. We broke it down into
the secondary level, and then the third level right here we can say those are A’s, and
maybe this section here in the rear end, the buttock area. That’s…so we have a one,
two, three, and an ABC. But the big first level, the first level is the gesture that
expresses the big overall direction of all the parts together. The second part, breaking
it down. We’re going to go into that section. You’ll notice we’ll take section one here,
and we’ll go in and we’ll see that it breaks down into a series of complex considerations.
I’ll just add this little bit of the arm coming back this way just for continuity.
I know it’s a little bit presumptuous to add into a Michelangelo, but it’s totally
in accord with his thinking. Alright, elbow and so on. You’ll notice I went into this,
and it’s got a certain series of complexes. I can go into this area, and it’s got a
series of complexes, which is in a way simpler than A, and there is actually a transitional
area; I’ll call that T right here. That’s where—it’s the section between one and
two, and you’ll see that it has its own kind of little motif. This side is stretching
and this side is compressing a little more. The leg is probably going forward. Notice
I’m giving a direction, the three-dimensional direction like that. The leg that’s reaching
back, its direction is this way. I’m fully aware of that, so I’m actually going to
be looking at the things that help express that.
Notice I’ve done first the big thing then I’ve handled the secondary things, and then
I will come in and describe the tertiary things with tone and so on. We’ll come back to
that in another drawing in a moment and describe that with light and tone.
Alright, let’s look at this drawing now and these ideas with a little tone. Again,
we establish the big idea. I’ll just take a portion. Maybe this is even too much for
what I’d like to express, but here we go anyway. I was going to say something like this.
Establishing what the story is—here I’ve already said that we have this angle,
this angle just by the attitude of the way the form is. I’ve already noted that this
arm is reaching up, stretching this, that the spine is coming back. I’m already aware
of that. This leg is coming back toward us. Let’s just take a portion, something like
that. This arm, for my mind, seems to be cranking back because of the way it’s forcing the
scapula back up towards the spine. This one is reaching out, so the scapula is pulling
up in this direction. You might see the difference. Notice that I’m thinking these things. As we come up
the spine this way we see there is a little curve in it as we come down towards the sacrum.
Okay, so we see that the spine is coming down from the occipital ridge up here all the way
down to the sacrum. It’s tying the three major parts together. The scapula, which is
separate from the upper torso is pulling up, and the spine of the scapula is up in here.
The deltoid wraps all the way around, attaching to the clavicle in front and to the spine
of the scapula and back. He is giving us some tone to indicate that. He’s also giving
us some tone to indicate the medial and the lateral parts of the deltoid as they’re
coming around, in addition, some of the muscles on the scapula as they’re pulling around
in this direction and pulling down.
So, I’m actually going to start up here and cut across with this muscle here, a trapezius.
It’s doing some flexing because it is involved to some degree in the lifting of the arm.
We’re working a little bit with tone here. Essentially, what I’m showing is how to
translate those diagrammatic ideas of the muscles into an organic visual representation.
Pulling across. This pull across this way is a little bit of the rhomboid muscle underneath.
We get this pulling across, like I said, this way he’s basically made this even more extravagant.
Then it pulls down this way. He’s got the latissimus dorsi pulling up this way strong,
and it’s also connected a bit to the muscles of the sacrum. That group we said is pulling
from here as I said in the sacrum here. Up all along the spine. It has different characteristics
as it goes along, as it makes its travel. This is pulling up and over. There is a muscle
underneath, some lateral muscles that are pulling and joining this group. And again,
the latissimus is pulling around this way. We’ve got that. As it pulls up, pulling
up, you see in essence how it contributes to the whole movement that we’re looking
at. Down here what he wants to show us is the light hitting the upper portion of the
gluteus maximus, the gluteus medius, and he’s throwing this portion here into relief. That
portion is the tensor fascia latae and so on.
So, as we cut around here like this, turning under with some tone, he’s using hatching.
I’m just making it a little simpler by using just straight tone off the edge of the pencil.
We’re pulling down. Notice I’m still thinking around the form. Down this way, and we’re
headed down towards the knee. This side is pulling up. If we look at this, as I said,
this is pushing in. The things that are most prominent to me are this long pull. Let’s
just do this too. Getting that up. We feel the direction with these things. Notice I’m
emphasizing this. He’s got basically creating forms by—oh I want to do this here by making
the center of the form light. That gives us a sense of volume. This is a kind of indirectly
lit figure. It doesn’t have a direct light. This is conceptual light. We will talk a whole
lot more about that when we start talking about using light and tone to describe the form.
Right now, suffice it be that we are using conceptual light, not a real light source,
but a conceptual light source that says the center of the form gets the light. So, with
this way, this way, and then you’ll notice that we’re swinging up, so he’s got this
happening. In other words, this hip is higher and so we’re coming over this way and pulling
off like that. We’ll also begin to see that in order to show this work and to show what
happens in this flat area here, he uses that same method. Center of the form gets the light.
This is pushing up. Take some tone in here. We’ll do this.
You kind of get the idea of how we’re using the organic forms and light and tone to turn
the form. We turn the form. But, we’re turning it using the anatomical considerations. I’m
just taking just the spirit. I’m not trying to copy every aspect of what Michelangelo
is doing, but basically the spirit and the attitude of what he’s telling us in terms
of his approach to visual storytelling.
part is the back, the head, the arms, and it is an exploration in designing these forms.
Yes, there is a lot of anatomy here, but the essential thing is how to express these things.
I’m seeing the spine coming down this way. We’re seeing kind of a back view. You could
even that it kinds of turns the corner this way, and then by the time it gets down here
into the lower torso, we basically have a profile view of that leg. If it were to come
off it would be going something like that.
So we have this into the hip, into the hip and this into the back of the head. The head—we’ll
just kind of describe it this way—is going off in this direction. I’m drawing the brow
line. I’m circumnavigating this sphere. I’m kind of putting the head in here like
this. The brow line is down like that. It’s an ellipse. That means that the top of the
head, if we were to draw its axis might look something like that from the top of the head.
Anyway, the neck is coming in and the shoulder is—this arm is moving off and this one is
reaching out this way and foreshortening up this way. We’ve got in a way a whole—let’s
get this—we’ve got the whole shoulder girdle pulling out in this direction off from
the main fame. I think I would like to make this a little bigger. Forgive me. I’ll do
that. That’s what this is all about. I’ll do this, this, this.
Okay, she is reaching this way. I know she is very massive. Well, she is a Sybil. So,
look it up. She is a Seer. You’ll notice that he thinks very conceptually. I’ve talked
about this. That’s a lot like a box, and this is a lot like sort of a bead coming around
this way and into here which squares up. I’ve talked to you about this before. This rounds
out. It’s got its direction and the hand goes off. The same thing, you see. We’ve
got the thumb going out. It squares off. Finger going off this way. It’s turned into a volume
which continues. We see the hand this way, coming around a bit foreshortened. By the
way, in the previous drawing I was talking about sections. Well, the arm is sectioned
too. This may be A. This may be B in the tertiary sense. Then we were talking about transitional.
Right there that’s a transitional. Right here at the elbow, those are transitionals.
Right in here, transitional. Where these meets, transitional forms.
Okay, so now we have our biggest consideration here of the leg coming over this way. Again,
I’ll make it a little more massive. And the arm going back this way, going up and
out. I will not complete that, but I will give you a sense of this mass is one. This
is mass is two. This mass is three. So, we’ve got the big idea, but then we’re breaking
them down because each area will be considered in its own way. It’s got its own series
of complexes. Notice that the back in the Michelangelo is very complex. It has sections
to it. This section here and we’re dividing this so the rib cage is in this section here.
The latissimus is pulling across and disappears into the ribs and then under that is the flank
pad. We’re seeing a bit of the spine pull around. It would attach to the sacrum that
we can’t quite see. We’re seeing the small of the back here or the loins and we’re
seeing the masses here that come up to the back of the neck. This mass of muscles goes
all along the spine. I call it the sacrospinalis group for simplicity. We’re seeing around
the corner here—notice I’m just cornering it. This is a transitional form where we see
the shoulder muscle, the deltoid come into the upper arm muscles. Biceps in front, triceps
behind, over to the olecranon or the elbow. We’re seeing this go around. We’re also
seeing him square this up. Again, he’s thinking of masses that give a three-dimensional volume
to the forms that he creates. They are not simply—as in a site/size method might give
you—simply drawing from left to right and top to bottom. He’s thinking around the
axis of the form. Around the axis of the form. So, neck, trapezius over and so on. You’ll
notice now that I’ve broken it down first into the big thought then the secondary thought
was to break the large thing down into a series of masses, and the third is to break it down
into these tertiary considerations, which I would be describing with light and tone.
Right now I’m using a little hatching to do that, but we can come back and look at
that with a little light and tone.
Notice that even though there is a certain consideration on the secondary level, that
even though we go into the tertiary consideration, that in spite of the complexity of it, it
never destroys the mass of the second consideration. In other words, it never becomes so busy that
it becomes more important than the second level. The second level never becomes so important
that it takes away from the big consideration. We have, therefore, the eye is able to experience
the three levels both independently and collectively as they express the major action of the pose.
So, let’s take another look at this back view. I’m drawing very light. If you can
hardly see this there is a reason for that. I want to keep it light because I want to
work some tone into this, and I don’t want to overkill by making my preliminary drawing
so dark that I endgame before I get to what it is I’d like to work on. I’ll just keep
it fairly simple. For me that’s good enough to start. It kind of gives the gesture. Here
is the spine. As we said, this is going around the corner. Things are coming around. You’ll
notice I drew this, but the truth is I’m thinking around like this. I’m thinking
around that he is too. Kind of pulling in. See that? The thinking is around. The whole
scapula region which has a lot of lumps and bumps on it is up in this area, and this arm
is going to go out this way. Notice how I’m keeping it still relatively light. This arm,
well, let’s go to the neck first. Neck comes up. Back. We’re going to take this whole
section right here. Pull it up. Actually the shoulder girdle, in all fairness one can say
that it includes the shoulder even though the shoulder is really part of the arm. In
this case it’s moving in, and it’s also foreshortened, so I’m shortening it. Then
it continues to go in. It continues to be foreshortened, and as we said before it kind
of squares up. I’m notating that here. In this case it’s indicated by the tones he
uses. Sometimes he uses tone to describe the corner. I’ll show you that in a moment.
Anyway, this is pulling around this way and even down into here. Okay, so we’re basically
attending to the big picture. I guess I’d better do a little bit once again on this
section. We said going into the distance even that is foreshortened. As he wraps around
and comes around the pad of the finger, the finger also is thought of as a—not just
a shape—but a volume. This is pulling around. We even see the knuckle on one of the other
fingers there. This pulls around, up to the squaring. You see, he does bring a tone in
there. I’ll just indicate it a little bit darker, right. That tone actually comes around
the heel of the thumb there, and if we square off here at the wrist, choosing a couple of
forms to wrap around, coming off from the wrist. In a way it represents the pad on the
little finger side. Notice this cuts in front. We talked about foreshortening. So in foreshortening
you want to make sure that your forms are indicated by clearly saying which is in front
of which. For instance, this is in front of that, but it is also worth the consideration.
You follow what I’m saying about that? Then he’s got some fingers going off this way.
I’m not going to go into that too much, but I will come down the arm and show how
he helps us to feel its roundness. So he’s coming this way and then this you see slightly
in front, and this much more boldly in front. And he comes inside with some tone because
of the way the muscle attaches into the bony part of the condyle. There is this condyle
and there is this condyle of the humerus. Then there is the elbow, right, coming into
that triceps. Okay, deltoid coming down. Remember this? Coming around the form. Biceps.
Remember this? Transitional form.
Alright, okay, so…oh yeah, coming back to the tone, he’s bringing a little tone in
here and a little around this way. So, all that to give us a corner. And in here a little
stronger. He gives us a corner. Remember the idea of the center of the form gets the light.
Let me get a little bit of that in here. As he is pulling around this way towards the
bone, we feel the bone cutting across. This muscle pulling. Notice that it pulls. Notice
what is in front of what here. Just a little tension. This drops down. It’s under. And
we can almost feel that this muscle here is in front of that one.
Alright, we’ve done a lot of little things right around the arm. Primary consideration
here, I think, what I’d like to demonstrate is how he designs this form. So, let’s take
a look at that. We have the secondary portion. I’ll just outline it here like this. This
is secondary. And this is secondary. Of course, we said the head was secondary and the arm
is also secondary. They’re all secondary portions, but when we start to come into this,
this is the—within the secondary portion we have other smaller sections. Here is one
of them, dealing with the scapula.
He’s coming back out from under there into this form.
Okay, also off the trapezius of the back of the neck here coming down. Let me make that
a little sharper, a little lighter. He is dividing the deltoid into these different
parts. See this? Kind of like that. Alright. He’s giving us a little more tone on the underside.
We don’t have time to do all of this. I’m just basically attempting to give you a sense
of what’s interesting, obviously interesting for him. Notice it’s all at the service
of describing the form using tone. Is that completely right? Well, yes. It’s describing
form with tone, but he’s also describing form that helps express story. Okay, so all
of this is working to express this direction and this movement. I mean I think that’s obvious.
There is another section right in here. Notice how he is designing this section. It’s the
rib section. Notice it’s a whole section onto itself. Behind that is another section
over here. Behind that he’s got a little piece of business going in here, where he’s
designing bits and pieces—I’m just going to do very little on that, just a little bit.
Bits and pieces of the spine. This is pulling down, straightens out. At the bottom of the
ribs, and I’ll come back to the ribs. Why am not doing—I don’t want to do the ribs
now because I don’t want them to be over the top. One has to be careful about that,
I think, in choosing what to do when. I want to get this sense of how he’s getting the
tone along the hip and making sure that that’s attended to. It’s this, by the way, over
here with a strong vertical. This is all relaxed and everything. This is also relaxed, the
way this comes around. Notice he’s kind of got it rolling over. Notice how it also
suggests and sets the ribs up on the next level. We’re doing this. All of this has
some tone. Then he comes in here. This might be back a little more. Even though he’s
hitting this hard, he doesn’t want that to be the primary last thought.
He brings some focus over here.
And then, of course, there is this. He’s working his way up to a group of muscles that
help describe how the leg fits into the hip. To be really careful here not to use lines
to do this. If you use lines it will have a tendency of focusing the eye and drawing
too much attention to the area and possibly even cutting through that, possibly even cutting
into the middle of the body.
Okay, over here he’s got a couple of ribs. The question is, are those ribs? Not really.
These are the serratus muscles. Notice I’m not trying to copy him. What I’m really
doing is to try to see what his thinking was. I’m going to come into this area in a second,
but I’m basically going to throw all of this, throw all of this into relief. No I
can start coming around and start talking about this. Once this is in relief, and I’ll
just do a little bit of business here without giving too much detail to it. Pulls this straight.
Hits that intersection stronger. Notice how all of this really helps set up what’s going
to happen in the rib area. It’s all set up. It all just has to go that way so he comes
in, and the ribs are actually very complex. This is a repetition of small forms in a tertiary part.
So we’ve got this. We’ve got this. He wants us to feel that this is starting to
tuck now, which it does. It starts to tuck into the spine trench all along the back here.
We’ve got this. He gives it to us very gently, very lightly.
In fact, actually he does put a bit of tone here and a bit of tone here, which helps knock it down into some relief,
so it isn’t dominant. Even though it has a strong repetition to it…
it doesn’t jump out. Here is another way he handles that. Over here he brings in some focus by bringing
in some of these darks along these muscle groups.
By bringing in some focus here, it de-focuses our attention on this area. We start to feel
the big picture once again. So you see, we’ve got the big picture. We’ve got the secondary
level, and within that we have all of these groups. Now I went and did this drawing and
made this arm too long. Forgive me on that. It’s just basically something that one needs
to really be careful about when one is dealing with foreshortened forms. The idea, though,
is that it goes in and reaches out and we’re turning the form around. If I do this, really
the truth is that I need to be thinking what’s happening over here to the same forms.
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17m 40s2. Eight Parts of the Body (Models: Zika, Catherine, Lilias)
11m 48s3. Eight Parts of the Body, continued (Models: Zika, Lilias)
20m 55s4. Articulating the Story
25m 51s5. Active Anatomy
19m 14s6. A Closer Look at the Ribcage/Shoulder Region
13m 39s7. The Torso and Upper Arm
12m 1s8. The Back and Shoulders
16m 55s9. Demonstration 1 (Model: Catherine)
19m 21s10. Demonstration 2 (Models: Bridget, Clay)
15m 37s11. Demonstration 3 (Models: Jee, Barry)
23m 29s12. Demonstration 4 (Model: Clay)
16m 12s13. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 1
24m 42s14. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 2
19m 22s15. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 3
16m 56s16. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 4
17m 57s17. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 5
14m 9s18. Michelangelo Analysis and Demonstration 6
1h 2m 13s19. Timed Figure Drawing Assignment
40m 28s20. Karl's Approach to the Assignment