- Lesson details
In this series, figure drawing instructor, Karl Gnass, will show you how to draw an entire figure through his five crucial stages: Gesture, Formulation, Anatomy, Light and Tone, and Aesthetics. In this fifth lesson of the series, Karl will share with you the next step: Light and Tone. Karl will begin with a lecture on the basics of Light and Tone, followed by several demonstrations of Old Master drawings. Following this, Karl will do several drawings from references of models. Next, you will get a chance to practice what you’ve learned in a timed figure drawing assignment. The lesson will conclude with Karl’s approach to the same assignment, allowing you to compare your work with his.
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We have just finished with the lessons of anatomy, and we’re now moving into the lessons
of light and tone.
One of the interesting things about light and tone is that it is a descriptive tool
that helps us give a presence to the visual images.
It helps us understand the surfaces.
We will start with a lecture, and I’ll give you some demonstrations on the different ways
to deal with light and tone.
When we’re finished with that I will give you some assignments.
Then you can look at how I’ve handled the very same assignments.
Okay, let’s get started.
Light and tone in my system is part of stage 2, which is formulation.
And the reason is because both forms of light and tone that we’ll be discussing are conceptual.
I’ll be referring to one form of light and tone and direct source light, and I’ll be
referring to the second form of light, the light source, as conceptual light.
They can work separately from one another or harmonically together.
Let me give you an overview of that before we take a look at examples of it.
The overview is let’s say we start with a single light source like the sun.
It seems the most obvious.
The sun will hit objects and create certain phenomena of light.
We could say that they are highlight, local tone, and this is a simplification.
Core shadow, reflected light, cast shadow.
In that mix are some half-tones, and we’ll review that too.
That’s a kind of series of things that takes place when we think of a single light source.
That provides us with lighting material for any object that we can conceive of as three-dimensional.
It’s very hard to conceive of that light source if you’re thinking of your design as flat.
When we think about a two-dimensional drawing it’s really hard to like that.
The way we can use this conceptual light is if we’ve already taken the shapes that we’re
looking at and we’ve given them volumetric values, if you don’t know what the volume
of something is then you really can’t light it using these concepts.
The concept of direct light source actually had to be thought about in these terms.
It wasn’t just copying light.
Think about a situation in a classroom or anywhere you might sit down and work with
an object, with light and the study of light.
If you think about that, you have to make sure that you’re setting up special conditions
for that light source.
And the reason is that there is lots of light in a room, and there might be several light
sources in a room.
For instance, in a classroom situation there is light that lights our model or subject,
and there is also a light that is also provided for students and artist’s drawing.
This light is available all across this room.
It isn’t just compartmentalized for special cases.
All these lights cross over one another and they do a mix.
It’s very hard to look at anything and see a perfect example unless you create special
conditions for that.
You’re not going to see a perfect example of it because you’re not going to see the
results on the subject of several different light sources.
So, when I say that a direct single light source is conceptual, we have to clarify that
or we will be confused by the lighting conditions that exist.
We clarify it, again, by creating a special condition where you can get rid of superficial
light so you can see an example on your subject of that special single-source light.
It gives you highlight, local tone, core, reflected light, and cast shadow.
In that order—again, I’ll give you an example of that in a minute.
That would be—and if we were going to use the two light sources together—the major
The other would be kind of a helping light.
The helping light is basically to provide us with the description of form that might
be possibly blown out or not identified clearly with the first light source.
That can happen if the light is too bright or too dim.
We would use the secondary light source much like a photographer might use fill light to
support the arrangement of light so you get exactly what you want.
So if the direct light source gives us certain things that correspond to what the eye needs
to see, but it still blows out certain areas of our subject, then we can use the secondary
light source to support.
You might have the relationship of the two, 80% of the direct light source and 20% of
the conceptual light source.
Let me describe for just a moment the conceptual light source.
It isn’t actually an existing light source.
It’s an imaginary light source.
This particular light source is imaginary, and we can say, we can start to understand
it by saying, well, the center of the form gets the light.
Everything that recedes away from that center—remember, we’re not thinking shape now.
We’re thinking volume now.
If our subject is a sphere, not a circle, but a sphere,
and the center of the form gets the light.
You can imagine that the lightest part of that sphere is going to be right in the center
directly from your position.
Notice I said directly from your position because suddenly I’ve designated your or
I as the light source.
You could say that the light is coming from the third eye.
Any volume that I’m looking at, the lightest portion of it will be the surface that faces me.
In other words, that surface that faces me is perpendicular to my line of sight.
It’s not an angle.
If it starts to angle, it starts to take on more and more tone until it hits an edge.
So here is the surface.
I’m looking at it.
This is the lightest surface as it turns away either this way or this way or this way or
It takes on tone.
That volume takes on more and more tone until it hits an edge.
We’re calling that conceptual light source.
That is a supporting light source for areas that might be blown out by the direct light source.
Let’s say 80% of the drawing is done with the direct light source, and everything is
fine, but we’ve got areas where we can’t really see the form.
It’s not defined in any way.
Then we come in with this secondary light source, which we’re calling conceptual light,
and we’re describing those volumes, which we’ve by the way conceptualized as volumes
and not just flat surfaces.
Remember, you can’t light this thing unless you can identify the surface itself.
When you’re looking at the surface you say it’s tubular or it is spherical or it has
some sort of volumetric form to it.
Then you can say what are the surfaces that are facing the direction that I would like
the light to be coming from.
In this case, we’ve chosen between my eyes, the center of your eyes becomes the light source.
That means any sources facing you, or you can say the center of the form gets the light.
Of course, we mean the surface that’s facing the observer.
Okay, so now we have two light sources: The direct light source with the helping light,
which is the conceptual light.
The conceptual light, the helping light might be toned down.
Let’s just think of it in terms of wattage.
The direct light source might be up to 80%, and the helping light,
not so bold, will come in at 20%.
So, it’s 80%/20%.
Now, here is the interesting thing.
These two light sources will not conflict with one another.
No one is going to look at this drawing that you’re doing and saying those are conflicting
For some reason, they seem to amalgamate and work beautifully together.
We see examples of that in almost all of the successful old master drawings, I think starting
One could even say that Michelangelo invented this concept.
One of the reasons he thought about this and invented it is because up until that point,
when he was actually forced to do drawing and painting rather than sculpture, he had
thought that drawing and painting was a false art, primarily because things were not described
very well spatially.
They were not described very well volumetrically.
In a sense, he invented a new way of drawing, which I will call sculptural drawing.
If you combine these two light sources, you begin to see what
Michelangelo finally gave to the world.
Consequently, all the artists that followed him were basically students of that idea.
You can see it in the work of Tiepolo, Raphael, and Caravaggio and all the rest.
I think maybe we can look at a couple of examples of that now.
I’m not looking for perfection here, but we’re really talking about the idea—let’s
say the light source is coming from here, and this is not a circle, but it’s spherical.
If the light source is coming from here, I think I’ll take care of the bigger quality
first, the biggest tone first, which is this form turning away from the light source.
It takes on tone.
So, if I haven’t said this already, I’ll say it now.
We’re actually using light and tone for the description of form.
Let’s be real clear about that.
The way we’re using light and form right now is for the description of form.
Not for design.
We will also be using it for design.
But, let’s keep in mind that what we’re discussing now is light and tone for the description
We will also be talking about it as a second idea for graphically describing the forms
of light and dark because they have their value too.
Alright, let’s go back to this.
We’re taking on some tone.
If we get going around like this, and if we at a certain
point now we hit some bounced light coming back from this direction.
By the way, this bounced light, as you can see, is directly across from the direct light
The bounced light is the reflected light.
It doesn’t have to be directly across.
It can be from any direction where you’ve got a surface that is light enough to carry
the light back.
In fact, interestingly enough, if it’s white it will reflect white.
If it is some color it will pick up some of that color and bring it back in.
If it’s hitting a blue surface or a red surface it will take that color and bring
it with it into the reflected area.
Since we’re working directly with value and not color,
we don’t have to be concerned about that.
I think that’s an interesting characteristic of light, is that it picks up color as it goes.
So, if we get this bounced light, what phenomenon occurs that only happens when you get bounced
light, called a core shadow.
And that core shadow comes in something like this.
What it is, is an area between the direct light source and the reflected light source
that’s darker than both of them.
It’s generally soft when the surface turns gently.
It will be harder if the surface turns fast.
So, like if our surface—if I could just jump down here for a second—if our surface
turns faster like that, for instance.
Her light source, once again, is coming from this direction, right.
Then we will hit, we will hit this area right here, you see, where you have core shadow,
but it’ll be harder.
I’m just going to kind of fill this in.
You get core shadow, but it’s a little more severe, a little more instense,
because the turn is faster.
Alright, let’s come back to this one for a moment.
What we have at this point, local tone, core, reflected light, and let’s put some cast
shadow down here, and we’ll talk about the characteristics of cast shadow.
I’m just going to do this.
Well, one of the characteristics of cast shadow is that it’s darkest closest to the object
that’s casting the shadow.
So, you get it darker here, and it gets lighter as it goes farther away from the object that’s
casting the shadow.
The other thing is that the edge might be much more articulated, in other words, when
it’s closest to the object that’s casting the shadow.
That starts—although it becomes light filled, those edges also begin to soften as we get
further and further away.
Therefore, the same thing would be true with this object.
So, if we do this and we cast a shadow in this direction, it will also be darkest here,
and it will start to soften as it goes further and further away like that.
It might also broaden.
It’s not going to stay necessarily lined up, so you kind of get that idea about it.
How you describe these edges is strictly up to you.
You can use line or not.
We have local tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
Now, we did talk about—we talked about highlight.
So, local tone like local color generally has a value to it.
Therefore, it is not the same value as highlight.
Now, when I draw on white paper, I generally combine highlight with local tone.
In other words, that’s what it might be.
I might come in with some half-tone in order to show a little bit.
I’ll start with that, a little bit of half-tone, to show how we can round this out.
The half-tone—remember that the half-tone helps us understand how the form is turning
away from the light source.
It’s just a natural way that half-tone gives us the local tone’s value slightly turned
away from the light source, and that’s what helps us turn form.
Returning form with these values.
Alright, so… so, a little half-tone helps us turn this form.
Actually, we could have a little half-tone here.
So, you’ll notice that one way was for us to leave that completely alone and let it
stay just local tone except for the core reflected light/cast shadow.
Another way is to bring a little half-tone in to help turn the form.
What that does is it suggests that the subject’s surface is not white, but it’s value is
down a notch or two from that.
So, we’re suggesting that.
Now, having said that, let’s look at this as if we’ve wanted to make the local tone
have a very definite value so that we can see the highlight.
We’re going to take this now a little bit further, and we’ll get the highlight right
in here somewhere.
Now, also notice that when we do this that this local tone is suggesting to us that this
whole surface of this object is darker than we presumed when we did this originally.
I’m going to bring the core down a little deeper, and the reflected light also a little
more tone like that because of the surface being darker than we first anticipated.
So anyway, we start to see how this works.
Now we have reflected light, local tone.
There is some half-tone in there, core shadow, reflected light, cast shadow.
They all have their characteristics.
Remember, we talked a little bit about reflected light and that it can carry color, and it
will be brighter or dimmer depending on the surface it’s bouncing from.
If it’s extremely light, that could make this extremely light.
The cast shadow has its own characteristics.
You remember that it could be very sharp edge nearest where the object is closest to the
surface it’s casting the shadow upon.
It gets light filled as it goes away.
It can also spread out.
Its edges are no longer defined clearly.
They soften and they fuzz out.
Core shadow will be darker if you get a hard reflected light and your direct light that’s
hitting the surface is also strong.
We said if our object has a certain value to it, say on a scale of one to ten, it’s
two or three or four, then that tone will be perceived against the highlight that might
be there, depending on how shiny the surface is.
If it’s very shiny it can be look like chrome.
If it’s soft then it might look something like this.
I’m suggesting that it’s possible if we’re working on white paper to take the highlight
and the local tone as one.
Therefore, we would have local tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
Four things instead of five, which would include highlights.
The other thing, once again, when the object turns quickly, you’re going to get a more
confined, restricted core, and it’s going to be denser.
It will also be denser if, as I said, if the light that hits this surface, the bounced
light that hits the surface is lighter.
The lighter that is the stronger that will be, the core shadow.
Okay, let me give you some possible examples, just real sketches over here.
Maybe early renaissance from the time of Giotto, the form might have been something more like
this, where somewhat the center of the form might have been the way from was described,
say something like this.
Then kind of a cast shadow nonetheless.
This is an interesting thing because this form of lighting an object is something we’re
going to come back to when we talk about the secondary light source.
It lends itself to that some degree.
Along comes Michelangelo and you get this.
I’ll do this more quickly now.
You’ll notice that this is strong.
We get local tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
We get to say Caravaggio, and you’re going to get something like this where we hardly
see the reflected light at all.
Cast shadow, strong, core shadow strong.
But, we’re not seeing a lot of light in the reflected light area.
It’s very strong, abstract relationship between lights and darks.
Let’s take Tiepolo here.
Tiepolo, on the other hand, was murals on ceilings and domed ceilings and so on.
A lot of those figures up in the clouds.
He was still using the same concepts of light and tone that Michelangelo used, but he had
his own way of doing it.
He wanted his figures to feel like they were very light.
When we think about the way a figure might be light up in the sky, you’ve got all kinds
of bounced light, so there really aren’t going to be any core shadows in the rest of it.
It’s probably going to neutralize an awful lot of the effective light unless someone
is in the middle of the air and directly getting a light source.
But, if they’re in the clouds it’s going to be bouncing around all over the place.
In Tiepolo’s case, he stuck to this system of core lights.
He would come along and do something like this and create kind of an accent here.
This would be practically as light, if not as light, as what you see in the direct light side.
The basic difference between the two would sometimes only be perceived with color.
For instance, this might be warmer or pinker, and this might be cooler or bluer, very subtly.
So, he’s working a lot on the expression of the way this ribbon of core shadow runs
through the figure and the accents where the flesh tucks or moves into another part of
the body or something.
You get these little accents along the way, which are actually little cast shadows, but
they’re not really long.
It doesn’t make long cast shadows, just enough to show that the form is still turning.
So, okay, so these are some ways that we can think about this.
Once again, what I started with here was a simple Michelangelo approach which is local
tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
Then we added, if you remember, we added some half-tone.
Then we went further and made the local tone darker, although it still has its half-tone effect.
In other words, it’s turning away from the light source.
And we have a highlight.
At this point, let’s look at a couple of other things that are possible here.
These things occur, so I’m going to bring them up.
Let’s take this same object now or this same surface and look at it this way, except
this time let’s make this edge the direction that the light is hitting.
That means that both surfaces moving away from that edge take on tone.
As we move away from that and we move away from this surface they take on more and more tone.
That means that the edge has the light instead of the dark.
Now, where might you find things that would so something like that?
Well, one place, for instance, let’s just do this.
One place—let’s just give a little tone, a little tone, a little tone, a little tone,
little tone—is right here across this cheek bone.
This might even have some tone in here.
A little tone, little tone.
There might be some here.
Let’s just say the jaw is coming down.
There could even be a little tone here and so on.
Let’s just kind of knock that in.
Okay, right here.
And then we’re getting some reflected light in this area.
Alright, right here.
That’s the concept.
That’s an example of it and where you might be able to use it.
I know that’s a little fuzzy, but I think we can keep working on that,
but I think my point is made.
Also, now I want to talk a little bit about half-tones.
Let’s see if we can do it down here in this quadrant.
A little bit about half-tones.
Let’s see how we’re going to do this.
Something like that.
This is going here.
Alright, something like that.
You’re going to see—now, if we have a light source, for instance, that’s coming
more or less directly overhead.
That’s overhead on every part of this.
Then obviously the surface that faces this is going to have the most light.
Therefore, as the surface turns away it takes on more and more tone.
This will take on more and more tone like this.
It’s a kind of steady movement away so it should say something like that.
I’m giving you this rather quickly.
Obviously, underneath here there is going to be some cast shadow.
This is not so much what I’m concerned about you understanding.
What I’m thinking about is this right here.
This is a possibility.
This is something you’ll run into over and over and over again when dealing with the forms.
The next might say something like this, where again light source—keep this in mind—is
hitting the top surface, and so this takes on more and more tone as it comes down here.
By the way, this is also directly facing the light source so it’s going to be just as
light as that.
It’s not so far back.
If this were a mile back it might have some atmosphere in front of it.
If these were mountains then maybe down in the valley it might have some tone, some fog,
whatever, some atmosphere.
But, at this distance, the way we’re describing it, this surface and this surface will be
In the case of the face, you can see this is turning away.
It’s going to take on some tone.
Even this area might have more tone than this area.
But this is starting to turn away.
I haven’t gone into that much of a description here, but you can see what I’m talking about.
Alright, now as this turns away, it starts very light and then it gets darker and darker
until it hits an edge.
In addition, there might be a little bit of cast shadow because this is coming around
and going away and tucking away from the light source.
Again, we’ll have some tone under here like this.
Not too concerned about that again.
The major thing that I’m emphasizing is these two different ways.
We can say that’s B. Alright, the third thing that you’re likely to encounter
is a light surface being hit, but it turns away from the light source on both sides.
Again, here again you’re going to get a little cast shadow, maybe a little more, possibly
a little more.
And we’ll call that C. One, two, three; A, B, C. Those are three different scenarios
that you’re likely to encounter over and over again when you’re working with the figure.
One form turning into another form.
When we actually look at some of the old masters together and how they use these light sources,
which will come up in the demonstration.
You’ll see examples of all three of these again and again.
You’ll see examples of any one of these things, depending on which artist we look at.
You’ll see this.
You’ll see this.
This is all basically related to the first idea about light,
which is a single direct light source.
Incidentally, I said it was conceptual even though we were talking about the second one,
the center of the form gets the light, as being conceptual, I’m saying that the first
one is conceptual too.
This is why you have to imagine a different kind of world when you think about the Renaissance
when these ideas were first conceived.
Not in the earliest part of the Renaissance, but around Michelangelo’s time when these
ideas were conceived, they had to think about a direct light source and what it does.
That means they observed it, but it also wasn’t produced by the same kind of electricity that
we’re using today.
It was produced by something, an object that moved, or at least perceivably moved, and
that was the sun.
The sun was obviously going around the earth, right?
Well, as the sun moved and rose and went down, it would constantly be changing its relationship
to the objects it was casting its light upon.
So, one had to work at all times of the day, not just the moment which was the best possible
moment for their light source.
That meant that they had to understand what the light was doing.
They actually had to think about these same concepts and
come up with these concepts about light.
That’s what I mean that it becomes conceptual.
Once it’s understood and that you could use that light source on three-dimensional
objects—that’s why I’m saying volumes—that you can use it on there.
And to understand that if you can create volumes then you can light them is an idea that you
can actually take home.
You don’t need to wait for the sun to be in the right place.
You can create the conditions in your mind’s eye.
Therefore, using conceptual ideas to work with the figure and with light and so on is
basically what they become very masterful at.
And so I’m referring to it as a single-light, direct-light source because they could be
very specific about that.
Now, imagine that their studios, and I think that the whole concept about north light—we
all say, ooh, north light is the best light.
I think the reason that north light is considered to be the best light is because you had less
of this movement of the sun changing everything within the studio if it was in the north than
if it was in the south.
Because the south is essentially in the northern hemisphere, it is where the sun seems to be
crossing our path.
In the north, we’re getting basically an ambient light that comes in that is less intrusive
in the sense that it’s not making radical changes minute by minute.
Imagine that the Renaissance started in the Mediterranean in Italy and the light was very,
very distinctive and very strong and very passionate, purposeful, and all the rest of
it, you know.
It had these strong characteristics.
It also moved on.
So, how to corral that?
How to organize that?
How to structure it so that you could actually ride that horse and use it as a way of structuring
And so they thought about these things and they came up with these ideas that they began
to share with everyone else that was interested.
In a way it’s like a soft technology, technology that the mind created
and, therefore, was shared.
A light perspective which was created around that time too.
It just spread across the whole spectrum of thought for those that were interested in this.
to stick another concept right in the middle here that represents the idea
of our second light source.
Do you remember I said the center of the form gets the light?
So, what essentially we’re talking about here is if the center of the form gets the
light that really represents where we’ve decided to put the light.
Again, it’s a conceptual thing.
If I really understand that the center of the form gets the light, and I can make that
work for any form that I’m looking at.
In other words, I can deconstruct what I see.
Why would I want to deconstruct it?
Well, because sometimes the light that’s available might do one of two things.
It might blow out the surface description that’s described by tone and half-tones
and things by making it so bright, or on the other hand,
it might bounce light from every direction.
There might be more than one light source, in addition, that creates confusion to the
eye and obliterates what we think of as good descriptive form.
If either of those two happen then I’m going to deconstruct the light altogether and come
back to, well, what is that form and how can I light using center of the form gets the light.
In this case, directly from me.
If I can understand that clearly then at some point I can take this light source, which
is like the old Giotto approach to light, the center of the form gets the light.
I can actually shift that light source.
In other words, pluck this light from here and move it up or to my left, your right,
or to my right, your left.
If I can do that, now I’ve got a light source that I can actually play with and manipulate
so that it gives me and fills in the areas that the direct light source are not addressing.
They may not address this issue.
If I use this other concept it will.
Let’s just say the center of the form gets the light.
Again, we do something like this.
The center of the form gets the light so that means it’s darkest, therefore, at the edges.
You see, even when I do this much it really helps us to move away from this as a circle
or as a disc and start to accept it as something that has three-dimensional characteristics.
You’ll see that it is an awfully lot like the early Renaissance idea up there.
You can also add a cast shadow to this.
Where would that cast shadow actually be?
It’s hard to say.
We’re inventing it, aren’t we?
It could be in back shooting back in that direction?
I won’t demand that from me.
I could do something like this.
The eye is not going to demand that.
There is a certain amount of give that the viewer will permit.
So, center of the form gets the light.
But, like I say, if I can do this and make this convincing then I can be successful at
this with a number of drawings, then I might be able to take this new convention
and play with it.
So, for instance, I could come up and say what’s necessary?
What’s necessary for me here is to not have the center of the form be light, but I need
to have it in the upper left hand corner, so I’m going to move it this way conceptually
so that this remains darker.
Then I could also throw a cast shadow in there.
Now, I could just as easily have put that light in any
I can actually force it up, see?
Basically, I’m kind of overtoning on this so that you get the point.
It doesn’t need to be that much.
It doesn’t take much.
See, this is much more luminous here.
I could come back and bring more tone to the edges.
Any one of these things will bring the drama, the dramatic characteristics of this approach.
Alright, one, two.
This is an interesting thing.
This is the helping light.
Now, I might want something like this to be really strong and then for this description
of areas in here that might have surfaces changing to be 20%.
Right now this is really strong.
These are both at 100%.
If I made this that way, and I brought this down to a very, very light interpretation
without these edges but like this in this area, section A, then we could see changes
in that surface.
We will look at that when we start doing the demos from the old masters.
Alright, here’s the curious thing.
These two different ideas about light are so close to one another that one can become
the other in an instant.
For instance, all we would need to do is bounce some light right there in order to get this or that.
Bounce some light in there and it is that.
That’s how close it is.
Except the difference is, we’re accepting in this case that there is a direct light
source and objective light source someplace.
In this other case, we may change where the light is hitting from moment to moment depending
on how we need to describe that form.
I might shift it from here to here.
It doesn’t have to correspond to the way that light source is hitting.
It might instead come from up here, and we’ll look at that when we do the demos.
Okay, I think that’s kind of a reasonable overview of this relationship between the
two light sources.
I think probably the best thing for us to do at this particular point is to move on
into the demonstrations.
Anything that can be added onto it might best be done at that time while you watch it actually
while you watch it actually happening.
can cover some of the points we’ve been discussing.
I’m just going to lay this out rather simply.
Bring it back.
I’m drawing really very lightly.
If you can actually see this I would be surprised.
You can tell by my strokes even if you can’t see it yet that I’m covering a lot of ground.
I’m just going to go up to the back of the neck.
Out to the elbow, upper torso, lower torso, pelvis region, leg.
I’m keeping it pretty light at this point.
Really, this just really about placement at this point.
It’s also—when you start drawing you’re trying to get the feel of the pose, the gesture
of the action.
We’ve discussed that many times.
In a sense I’m concerned to some degree with that issue at this point.
Even though our talk is about light and tone.
Okay, so the first thing is gesture.
The second thing I might ask is—and it’s kind of interesting because I’m actually—in
this quadrant right here I can see the spine.
I’m seeing a little bit of the shoulder and a little bit of the spine right in here
as it comes down.
Then that shows me that with this shoulder leaning in this way that the subject is revealing
some of the back.
The latissimus is pulling around this way.
The rib cage is in here down to the naval area and lower abdomen cutting across.
Notice it’s getting a little bit darker as I am finding what I like.
Take your time on this.
I’m actually navigating around.
That helps me really stay in touch with the volumetric idea of what’s going on.
So, I’m coming down.
I’m actually navigating around where I would consider the belt line to be.
In other words, I would get this hit point right about where the anterior edge of the
iliac crest is coming around from behind.
There might be another one around the corner, but I’m not quite seeing it yet.
But, I do see what appears to be the front and the naval area here.
In Michelangelo’s drawing this is a very obscured area.
It looks like it’s been rubbed down.
There is some dark tone on it.
To some degree I’m going to have to invent a little bit.
So, keep in mind that’s what’s happening.
Now I’m finding the abdomen coming down and attaching to the pubic bone.
This arch underneath, we’re seeing a little bit of this.
I’ll hit that a little harder, and the oblique over here someplace.
I’m not completely committing to this.
I’m taking my time.
I suggest you do that if you’re doing to study from these guys.
Don’t rush into the drawing.
Remember, this is a study.
I’m coming around now approximating the gluteus maximus in here.
There is more to it, but we’ll get to that.
I’m coming down and coming down this far before I’m finding where the leg starts.
I’m navigating not from right to left, but around the form.
It’s around the form.
And I’m coming down to approximately where I want that knee to be.
I may bring this out a little more.
The leg in here again thinking this way.
The knee is going to be here and back up to where the heel would be somewhere up in here.
When I think about this direction here, the arrow axis would be coming toward me whereas
this one would be going back away from me.
And so that tells me that navigating around these forms, cross-axis, it would be this
way, whereas this one would be this way.
That’s going to be the thinking on this when I get into the development of it.
Also, I noticed that it’s going to show us it’s not right to the edge of the side
of the knee, but because the leg is coming toward us we’re actually seeing a little
bit of the front, maybe this much.
And the bone is pulling back this way.
I’m taking it actually very lightly.
Again, now I’m coming up to the spine and reevaluating and checking into that.
I’m looking into also the shoulder girdle, pulling out to where the shoulder is or to
the bicep out to the elbow.
This is a really, rather long extended arm, and that it’s direction.
We’re coming from here, and as the spine comes up he takes it right into the back of
I’m drawing a line showing that.
There is no line in his.
What he has is the muscle groups.
For instance, this muscle group is this side of the back of the neck.
We’re seeing a little bit of the bone here, that is, the spine,
and this little section here is C7 and T1.
That particular area there is kind of a shelf pulling over, and this is navigating this way.
This is the trapezius.
It is pulling up into the back of the neck.
He shows us some creases here.
I’m not going to get into this too much only to show where we are.
Now, if I go here I want to come over here and find out what that counterpart is.
I want to do this without finding the counterpart over here.
It’s dangerous business to work one side of the figure and come back later to do the other.
What you want to do is—well, down here I was saying you want to navigate around the form.
Up here you want to make sure that when you go across the form that things do correspond
one another, have this kind of symmetry.
So, if I do this, this, and the deltoid of the shoulder that there is a kind of correspondence
with that and the other sign, what’s happening over here.
Okay, so we’re seeing a bit of the shoulder here and the shoulder girdle here and the
arch of the back of the rib cage.
As that’s pulling in this way we’ll do that.
Then the shoulder girdle, the right shoulder girdle of our subject here pulling across
like that, a little bit of the back.
Notice I’m pulling a little bit in front of this.
It’s very subtle in the Michelangelo drawing, but it is definitely there.
Okay, so we’re getting this, pulling down into this area, the rib area, and again, this
section where we’re coming back and dealing with the shoulder girdle again.
So, notice I’m moving around and I’m not actually working on or stuck on any one spot.
Really what I’m doing is looking for the correlation from one thing to another.
So, coming down and finding the ribs.
This is very obscure in his work.
I shouldn’t say very obscure in his work, but it is blocked out by the dark smudge that’s
going across the drawing.
We can surmise by looking at everything else just where things are at.
Now, you’ll notice right now that I’m actually doing to some degree light in the
center of the forms.
Although I’m not really lighting yet, I’m still laying out the forms.
I’m trying to keep the forms clear in that respect.
Now, let’s go to this leg.
Right now I’ve done this much.
The knee area is in here.
I’m going to go around to find the underside of the leg and the top.
I’m paying attention to the large volumes and large forms, but at the same time there
is some anatomical literacy here.
Remember, we spoke about anatomy being a vocabulary that articulates
what we’re trying to say visually.
As I’m doing this, I might square this up.
We kind of talked about the knee area.
The condyles of the knee here, here, here, and here.
So, we’ve got this muscle pulling across.
This is one of the quadriceps pulling across this way.
This is actually pulling up this way.
He’s not making a big deal of it here because he brings in some tone from here.
What he is doing is giving the center of the form.
You might be asking me, well, I thought that was the secondary light source.
In this case, he’s using that as his major.
A little tricky, huh?
Therefore, it’s not to say that they can’t be exchanged for one another.
In this particular case, he’s using the conceptual light source
over the direct light source.
In other words, there is not direct light source.
It’s all center of the form gets the light.
He’ll use a little bit of it, and I’ll show you that in a second.
But in the meantime, we see that he’s articulating the form with this particular method, coming
across over to the patella.
He’s got a lot of light in there.
I’m going to just drop it though.
I’m going to drop the light out of it for a minute and bring this over.
He’s going to actually come down.
I’ll leave that for the moment.
Now I’m going to show a direct light source.
The direct light source for this picture is coming from here.
Light source is coming from there.
I’ll show it first on this leg.
We’ve got this part of the body here catching light.
As this hip turns in toward the belly it’s taking on some tone.
Right along this muscle group here and down this way we’re catching some core shadow,
and we’re also catching some core shadow here even though the muscle—let’s get
some of this, a little bit of the genitalia in here.
He’s not making a big deal out of that.
I won’t either.
I want to make sure we’ve placed it.
Then down we see the adductors, the inner thigh muscles here and the quadriceps group
picks it up over to here.
Then we’ve got this core shadow coming across one of the quadriceps here, another one here,
aspect of it.
The center of the form gets the light.
So, let’s do this.
Ultimately, I’ll bring these tones up.
Let me just bring this down and around.
This is intercepting.
Again, part of the leg.
Something like that.
This is pulling up.
And you remember what I said about two bones connected at one point and then collapsing
toward one another?
This is their connecting, this is where they’re articulated together.
You notice the kind of tension it puts right here.
This muscle is being compressed and pushed.
We can see how he handles that in this way of pulling across.
All of this is center of the form gets the light, but over here…in this area everything
is in tone.
Now, he’s using a lot of cross-hatching, so I’m really not using that technique for
the description of form.
Maybe a little bit, but basically I’m using a broad tone, the side of the pencil.
The description of bones, maybe a little harder, we hit a little harder.
Something that’s tucked under pressure might also have a little more tension in it.
Give you the idea.
So, let’s cut back up here.
Across this way.
Also, when we think about direct light, here is another place where we’re getting a little
core shadow right in here and here on the deltoid coming down into this area.
We’re getting, like I say, a little core, and we’re dropping down into just a little
bit of reflected light in there.
A little reflected light in this area.
Dropping some tone down in here.
Of course, this is the obstructed area obstructed by that tone.
Again, though, what’s nice is the feeling of the pull around, the twist in the figure.
So, I’m feeling that regardless of the fact that things are obscured.
I’m looking for that in the choices.
This pulls around.
The ankle, heel.
Over to the bone.
Okay, let’s come back and hit this a little harder.
So we keep coming back and try to clarify what we want to say about
the development of the form.
In this case, we’re taking it rather easy, exploring as we go.
Here you’ll see the deltoid attaching into the back of the spine of the scapula and the
other muscles tying in underneath, pulling over.
They’re being defined by center of the form gets the light.
I’m not hitting it as hard as it is in our example.
You can nonetheless start to get the point.
You could actually in here start to do a little core shadow.
That’s what I wanted to do.
I wanted to take some liberty in this particular area since it was so obscure and, you know,
kind of bring it up.
Get a little bit of the serratus, just a little tiny bit.
The edge is hit hard.
I want to bring out a little bit of the tonal quality,
maybe a little bit of the cast shadow off from here.
A little bit of faster drop from one surface to the other right here.
Hit that a little harder.
We start to bring up the drama on the tones.
Again, here is some—it’s kind of knocking this down over here.
Bring some tone in.
What he does by doing that is to emphasize certain things.
I think it is, in this particular drawing, it’s a little confusing right around in
this area, around the knee here.
The eye seems to bounce around a little bit, doesn’t know quite where the direction is.
Sometimes it becomes so literally sculptural that there is less attention given to the
light source and its failure.
In this particular case, I think that’s so.
Nonetheless, this is the master and he resolves all his issues.
So when you look at these things, by the time they reach the paint stage in the murals,
these things are all resolved beautifully.
Again, we have some with the direct light
in here, such areas as this and this one over here with the shoulder and a little bit around
the neck up in here.
We could just see an indication, and we also see what we’ve been calling the second light
source, the supplementary light source, the conceptual light source.
The center of the form gets the light.
It’s actually, as I said, taking lead in this particular drawing, which means you are
coming back to doing whatever is necessary to tell the story you need to tell.
The ideas about light and tone, therefore, are there to help communicate an experience.
They have no authority of their own.
There are simply understandings that can be used to help express the ideas.
I can keep working on this and keep bringing it up, which I will do in the
I will bring it up even further and quicker in the subsequent drawings.
But, we’re working at a pace here, one that we can follow
in this particular one.
See that nice twist pulling in, pulling around, and the upper part going this way.
The head will go up in that direction like it’s pulling down, pulling back.
Alright, so let’s see if we need to emphasize anything else.
So, that’s kind of an example of bringing these two together.
They can be refined, so each portion can be refined now.
One of the interesting things about Michelangelo—before I leave this drawing—is he is able to give
us the big picture, the big gesture, which we started with by the way, a big sense of
And then within that—let’s see if you remember me talking about this from a previous
Within that are the secondary forms, say a section like this or a section like this,
and within that the tertiary.
Each one should have its own contribution to the drawing without distracting from the
For instance, if any area becomes too important and it distracts from the other areas then
there is still work to be done.
I’m going to review that one more time.
I’m saying that there is the big sensibility, the big story that we want to tell.
Within that we see the biggest forms.
Maybe a combination of all the forms.
Within that we see the breakdown.
One, two section, third section, fourth section.
Would have been a fifth and so on.
Within that, the third level the detail, the breakdown of the detail.
All of the detail is broken down and contained within a framework that’s slightly larger.
That framework is slightly larger than that.
One thing continues to be fit into another.
I think that’s something that we’re going to see prevail in every example that we do
in the following demonstrations.
I think that might be good enough for now.
Let’s let it go with that.
There is a couple of things that we can consider when we’re looking at this.
We’re going to just lay out generally the kind of direction, gesture and attitude of the pose.
I’m getting this turn coming down to the knee and the hip navigating around the hip area,
We’re going to work with this leg.
Notice how it’s a foreshortened leg.
That’s one of the things that interests me about this that I want to include in our
discussion today, working with light and tone.
Light is coming down like that.
I’m not going to work so much on accuracy and copying.
What I want to do is get the basic principles, basic ideas.
I’ve got this angle and the foot is going this way.
If you will the arm is down here, pressed in toward the body because she’s supporting
herself here and swinging around.
Rather a masculine body, but nonetheless.
We’re swinging around.
You see the characteristic that he’s interested in here.
So, what we have now, what I’m going to concentrate on is this one leg.
Also, I’m thinking I’m doing this volume, which demonstrates that the leg is going back in.
Notice that this is more or less just a tapered volume.
We hit the knee area, and then we’re coming down and we’re doing the lower leg down
to the foot.
Notice it’s direction is this way and that the foot is back toward us and that there
is a way of indicating that and how we were.
The upper leg is coming toward us like this, rather foreshortened.
We’re actually going to be talking a little bit now about how to use light and tone to
help us understand the surfaces of form, to wrap around form, to turn form and so on.
Then maybe we’ll talk a little bit about the design of form as it hits this other leg.
Again, we have one low hip, it’s kind of hitting at this point right along this portion
right here which is the iliac crest, and then it’s pulling over into the abdominal muscles
which are going to turn and wrap down into this area.
We’ve got this, this.
We’ll be going into the leg here.
Okay, this is a little higher so that this hip is off the ground.
Notice that they relate.
If I’m thinking this side I also need to be thinking this side.
In other words, I’m not just considering this edge all by itself.
I’m considering that it is not just a line but one side of a larger form.
So, to think about this without thinking about this it starts to become impossible.
You’re thinking across the form and around the form at the same time.
Okay, one way that somebody might treat this, and I’ve seen it done over and over and
over again is to treat this leg that we’re going to be discussing as a shape.
If it’s drawn as a shape there is a tendency to think of it more like this.
Then, of course, it simply lays flat.
And so we could come back and talk about using the ideas of foreshortening in order to make
Granted, this is not a beautiful shape.
Somebody’s shapes might be more interesting than this.
Nonetheless, it may still lie flat.
What we’re going to try to do is, again, to use the ideas that we were talking about
Do you remember?
One thing in front of another.
The other thing that we were talking about is really no large thing goes into another
Generally, there is a transitional form.
So, let’s just say we’ve got something like this and then a transitional form that
goes into another larger form.
If this is the A form and this is B form, this is the transitional form here.
Alright, so it’s a way of thinking.
Now, one way—and this is just characteristic of me.
Not every artist does this.
One thing I always do because we’re constantly using our pencils and we’re asking it to
give us certain kinds of marks, like either tone or line or so on.
That the tip that we’ve developed, which is something like this gets compromised.
We need to constantly make sure and maintain that tip, or we will not get the performance
from the tool that we might expect.
I expect to see a broad tone.
Notice that I’m not really getting a broad tone.
What I do and I say it’s characteristic of me is that I often will say something like
this on the edge of my paper.
You might have noticed that in a lot of my drawings.
It’s basically—I’m just sanding the edge of my pencil.
Now I get a broader tone.
I still get my line.
I’m looking for tone and line, and I’ll maintain it by doing something like that in
Other artists will do it in different ways.
They’ll use sandpaper and so on.
And I will too.
But, right now I’m just trying to give you a sense of how I might be working if you’re
kind of looking over my shoulder.
So here we go.
Here, notice that we’re working from the bath and coming forward in this case.
This then is in front.
I’m starting with a slight tone, and then I’m coming around and hitting.
This tucks under.
It’s going to tuck under another form.
That other form might start on the inside.
So this form starts on the inside, and if I follow it you’ll see that Rubens is actually
giving us the quadriceps group coming around more or less like this.
The inner thigh, the adductors are in here.
He could hit this.
Well, if you’ve got—if he’s got some material that’s coming across this way and
wrapping around and tucking like that.
It’s covering the inner thigh muscles.
In a certain sense it’s describing what it’s doing in this particular area.
This is coming around and it gives it a little atmosphere with some tone in here.
This tonal description of the quadriceps starts here and maybe even a little bit like this.
You’ll notice that when I work this this way it’s cross-axis.
I’m getting some tone going cross axis.
So, we’re coming forward.
As it comes out to the edge this tone then becomes a line.
That line then describes the quadriceps group.
We’ll take it that far.
In this case, it kind of tucked it’s actually going to be kind of intercepted by—because
it’s pulling in—by the bone right about in here.
Alright, so, over here, the buttocks here, the gluteus maximus, middle tone out this
way suggesting that there is a surface.
A little bit.
Maybe it hits a little bit harder.
Then we’re pulling up with these muscles here.
They’re wrapping and pulling down and under.
See how I’m following that?
Hitting heavier here, and then he’s giving a little tone.
And then coming in front with the tendons pulling over and taking in around the knee.
Notice that it’s going around the knee like this.
We’re kind of finding the center of the knee without doing what often people will
do; they’ll come down this way and draw a circle and then cut down to a new area.
This is pretty dangerous because what it does is it creates a bullseye.
The eye can never really get out of that bullseye.
It just keeps navigating around in surface.
It’s like an eddy.
If you ever watch an eddy in water, it captures the movement and keeps it going in circles
That’s what a bullseye will do in drawing, so we want to watch out for that.
Notice that we’re using by crossing over the form like this, a little tone this way.
What a little tone this way does is it brings the eye more towards this as the center.
Notice that it’s not radical.
It’s just a little bit of tone as we approach the muscle that comes around to the knee.
Here is an interesting thing at this particular point in using tone.
Notice we’re using tone to turn the form by going around and making basically the center
of the form, making the center of the form the closest thing to us.
The center of the form gets the light, and the tone goes more toward the edges.
We were saying at one point that this was the helping form.
This is the secondary light situation.
It’s also true in this case because
I haven’tactually added the first lighting consideration yet.
But, it happens and it occurs right here.
What we want to do is show a top surface that’s catching light and then the corner where it’s
not catching so much light.
So, we’re going around the corner like this except that they are organic forms and they’re
If they’re rounded forms they’re going to catch the light, not quite like that, but
maybe more like this.
Then, of course, they might have features or characteristics.
That’s what’s going to happen because as this light, which is coming from above
like this, comes down and hits this top surface, as these surfaces begin to turn into forms
that turn under like the patella here.
We’re seeing the top of the patella right in here, and it’s pulling down this way.
As soon as it turns away from the light, it’s going to take on some tone.
And you’ll notice that it’s a little stronger right around the edge.
Well, you may remember that we have referred to that as core shadow.
You see it here.
You’re seeing a core shadow here, and we’re also seeing reflected light and, again, maybe
a little cast shadow.
So, that’s one way we can look at that.
In a way you could say that there might be a little tone here.
It’s not radical but just a little bit that allows that to fall back so that the prominence
of the leg comes forward.
Anyway, we’ve got this turning away, and we’ve also got the condyles of the femur
and the tibia here, which are pulling this way towards a triangulation right in here.
I’m not going to draw that.
I might have drawn that in a diagram by saying there is this triangulation.
If I were diagramming I would draw that.
What we want is the organic equivalent of those understandings.
We’re pulling down this way.
The light is kind of pulling across and creeping around the side.
It’s not coming from directly overhead.
It’s coming a little bit more from this angle.
It’s coming in and hitting the head of the fibula here.
We’ve got this coming down into this.
More or less.
Okay, so the underside of that is catching a little tone too.
As the form turns around this way, this way, around this way it takes on more and more
tone, but then we’re getting this reflected light.
This reflected light is not quite as dark as it would be if there were not reflected light.
If there were no reflected light you get no luminous quality in here.
This luminous quality is caused by the reflection of light.
We’re coming down.
You’ll notice that we can use that to create kind of an interesting pattern of light and dark.
In this particular case, therefore, it not only describes the forms that it’s playing
with, but it also designs them.
So anyway, now we’ve got this.
Rhythmically it’s not just conceptual.
It’s not just a cylinder even though we might have thought about it
that way in the beginning.
It’s not just a cylinder.
What we’re seeing is the addition of the understanding of anatomy, which as I said
earlier is stage 3, and it allows us to be more articulate about the forms.
Notice that all of the anatomy is attending to the description of form, not just talking
about what it is, but what it’s doing and how it behaves when light hits it and so on.
So, we’re getting a stronger light in here, but as it goes down it tapers off.
In the meantime, rhythmically we’ve got—this is pulling across this way.
Get the soleus and the calf muscle here.
Notice the calf muscle is a little squarer and comes in a little lower.
We get it here too.
Something like that.
This whole area, by the way, is kind of like a cone.
So, up against the bone like this we feel this cone-like quality to this and feel the
Feeling this wrap around and pulling off in this direction.
Then we get a cast shadow across here as this swings out and becomes the ankle.
Then we get the ankle on the outside and it’s pulling in.
We now feel the quality of the foot and how it is cranking up against this.
Remember, I said one is going toward us and then back away.
This is what we want to see.
That’s what’s happening here.
This one is happening this way.
Make sure we get that clear.
Then the foot down into the toes and so on.
Okay, now I’m going to do this again.
Do you remember?
I’m trying to find my way of making sure my pencil stays the way I wish it to be.
That means I have to constantly be maintaining my pencil as I go.
If I don’t, I will get basically diminishing returns as I’m coming across.
Oftentimes, one isn’t aware of that.
One gets so involved that one loses track.
But, I’m using this now to kind of work this a little bit.
On the other leg.
This is the one, essentially, that he wanted to make a point of, and the back leg is somewhat
He’s casting a shadow across from here.
It’s very simple.
Shadow is always darkest closest to the object that’s casting the shadow.
Then it begins to become softer, open up, and become more luminous, so you get that.
It also, because of the way it’s wrapping around it helps to describe the volume of
the form that’s behind.
I’m not going to go into that in too much detail, or any detail, frankly, because the
point I wanted to bring out we’re making; we’re already doing it.
Again, I wanted to show you how we’re dealing with the foreshortening and the development
of forms using light and tone.
One can bring it up more dramatically.
I could come in here and tone this with my fingers, for instance.
It would soften the whole thing up quite a bit.
Bring this in.
There are different ways to handle this.
Minimalize the value of this things.
Different ways to do this.
Okay, so what we did is we handled two or three different ideas here.
We started with the big gesture.
This was always really paying attention to what it was trying to say overall.
It’s not just its own animal.
It’s actually paying attention to the attitude of the overall figure, and so it’s not independent.
In its own way it’s got it’s own signature contribution to the big design.
We’re doing that with the understanding of foreshortening ideas without losing the
gesture and the use of light and tone to turn and describe forms as well as the use of light
and tone to create design.
We have all of these elements involved in something such as this.
In addition, we have let’s just say a certain understanding of our anatomy, and we’ve
turned it over to the service of storytelling.
The anatomy is not just sitting there saying this is what I am.
It’s actually performing its part in the larger statement, in the larger story.
This is, they say, by Piazetta.
I haven’t actually drawn from this one before, but it has some interesting things about it
that I think might be worth exploring.
Again, I’m not going to do this for accuracy.
It’s not about copying.
It’s about basically understanding the concepts and ideas that we’ve been discussing.
Again, for me this is what I do.
I test my pencil and I make sure it’s going to work.
This is kind of a signature of what most of my work looks like.
So, I’ll start that way.
Someone else, like I was saying, will maybe use sandpaper.
Wipe it off on a paper towel.
Make sure it’s clean and clear.
I’m a little more direct than that, and so a lot of what you get in my drawings is
the thinking is all around it.
Let’s just, I’m going to take an aspect of this drawing, not the whole drawing, so
that we can explore the thought of light and tone.
And the last drawing with the Rubens we did a lot of work with second light, that is conceptual
Do you remember the way I laid it out?
I said there was direct light, which had its qualities.
Just as a reminder, we have here local tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
That’s essentially what we’ve been talking about.
As long as we’re working on a light surface like this, that kind of works.
So, we’re going to look at that aspect more or less in this drawing.
There will be some of the secondary light, which is, again, the center of the form.
It gets the light.
But, we’ll come back to that in this case.
The other drawing we started with that.
We started with it, and then we came to the direct light near the lower part of the leg.
In this case, the center of the form gets the light, therefore, it gets more and more
tone as it goes toward the edges of the form.
Local tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
That’s basically it.
So, let’s get back to this gesture.
It’s relatively vertical figure.
If I look at it there would be a temptation to just draw it like this, which is really
very static and boring.
So, I am actually really looking at how the movement is in it.
I’m looking at the spine, and the spine kind of swings over, and this hip is high.
Therefore, we’re going to get some compression on this side.
We’re going to get some stretch on this side.
Remember, I’m saying you want to find out what the story is.
Well, this is part of the story.
In order to be convincing you have to look for the evidence of that when you’re doing
the drawing, not just copying everything you see.
Look for the evidence as you’re doing the drawing.
So, I’ll come down here.
This leg is this way with the foot straight down.
Therefore, this is the leg that supports, so it’s got to swing in a little bit.
Please take note of that when you’re drawing.
This is swinging up and over, and the head is over the corner.
So, if we look at that, we begin to see that there is a movement.
Then the arm goes up.
I won’t get into that, but the arm goes up and it’s rather foreshortened.
It’s holding something.
I’m going to concentrate more or less on the torso portion and maybe a little bit on
this leg down here.
So, maybe I am already a little loud.
Notice I have quite a bit of tone there just to describe what I’ve done.
If I’m going to work with light and tone that’s almost too much information already.
I’ll try to compensate for that as we move along.
So, like I said, I want to know what the story is.
I’ve already kind of decided that, that there is a kind of—this swings over with
this hip high.
There is support here.
That drops this hip down low.
Even as that gets low, this arm is pulling up.
There might be a tendency to pull in this direction.
This arm is tucked around this way.
The ear over here, something like that.
I’m trying to get things in their right places.
Now, what are the characteristics.
What’s happening on the surface, and how do they reflect and help us understand the
Remember, if I were diagramming I would draw a big rib cage in here.
I might navigate around here and pull in and find the sacrum.
I don’t want to be too loud about that, so I’m just kind of notating it for myself.
I’m coming over and because I’ve studied a little bit of anatomy I might notice that
this is pushing out and that the trochanter is there.
So, you know, it kind of pushes out a little bit more.
Even as the sacrum comes down—and by the way, I know that it tucks in whether I see
it or not.
I’m going to notate that.
And because he’s standing on this leg, the gluteus maximus is contracted a bit because
it’s involved in supporting.
So, it’s not at rest.
This other one is a little bit more at rest so it can relax a little bit more.
And so it does.
So, we’ve got this pulling down.
All from—we know there is a rib cage there.
There is also a muscle that comes around.
And it’s coming down.
It will be attaching to the iliac crest.
I’ve heard of that before.
There is evidence of that here, here, here, and here.
Maybe I need to pull this down a little bit.
I’m kind of gauging what I’m doing and attempting to make it proportional as I go.
This is the kind of shoot-from-the-hip-proportion.
I’m not actually measuring like this.
I’m kind of shooting from the hip.
I’m feeling a strong pull over this way.
This arm is pulling over this way, so it’s pulling the scapula over, opening up this
space right here.
So, I’ll use some tone.
I guess you could say that our light source is coming from above and slightly from the
So maybe from this direction here, so if we could we might say the ellipse is closer to
Maybe there is even less of an ellipse that we see, even less.
Okay, so that means that all our light is hitting the top surfaces.
Light is hitting the top surfaces.
Now, before we start going into these areas, I want to remind you when we talked about
the Michelangelo we were talking about finding discreet areas, and that each discreet area
had its own signature contribution to the overall story of the pose.
In this case, we have the upper torso, and we have the lower torso, and we have the leg.
You’ll notice they all have their own way of expressing this movement that runs up through
Let’s take the upper area.
I don’t want to complete any area and then move to the next.
I’d like to kind of work one into the other and make sure that they kind of work harmonically
with one another rather than finishing one without feeling its connection to the other.
Well, in a way you can say we’re already feeling its connection to the other part.
We’ve done that with the first statement, the gesture.
I’m coming down.
Foot’s going to go off.
But, I’m coming down, cranking around, and hip is high and coming down.
So, let’s take—so it kind of squares this area.
Remember, we’ve got this but then each area is maybe broken up into its own discreet breakdown,
has its own idea of how it wants to express this action.
This happens here because we’ve hit the edge of the rib cage, and now it’s tucking.
Now we see the flank pad pulling off from that and wrapping around.
Flank pad is wrapping around the hip, which it does.
So, we can indicate it that way.
At least for the moment we’ll do that.
We’re seeing this tuck here right at where the iliac crest is pulling back around and
the sacrum is in here.
Again, I feel that might be a little high.
Drop it at this point.
So, I’m actually treating some muscles that are coming this way.
They’re kind of the lateral muscles that pull into the muscle group that goes up on
one side and the other side of the spine, basically calling the sacrospinalis group.
There is many of them, and they have different characteristics depending whether on one section
or another section.
They change basically the way we experience them visually.
For instance, it kind of flattens all out in here.
And that’s why we’re doing such a light tone.
But here we’re starting to suggest that there is going to be a faster turn because
these muscles are rounder.
This is kind of tucking in.
It also helps to distinguish this group.
This group is large enough that when the spine tucks in, this group is therefore actually
casting a shadow over on that same group on the other side.
And so we see, as we do here, we see it turning now away from the light and into the dark
from the cast shadow on up, for instance.
Can hit this a little harder as it comes down.
And the reason I’m hitting it harder, and the reason that Piazzetta hits it harder is
because we have a reflected light coming in here that’s rather luminous.
Now, I don’t know if I’m going to keep it this light.
This is kind of the way Tiepolo would handle it, but I’m going to leave it at least for
some moments so we can understand the quality of reflected light and how it creates interesting
patterns with the edges of cast shadow and the rolling over quality of this tone here.
We get this core shadow and it can be softer or denser.
If it turns very fast and it’s got a lot of reflected light hitting it, it becomes
very dark, dense.
Cast shadow here will do that.
Cast shadow down into one that turns, but maybe a little cast shadow right in there.
This is tucking.
I’m going to do this.
Alright, let’s see.
Let me do that.
Pull it over this way.
I’m going to treat this as if it’s a sphere, so that means the core shadow is somewhere
around in here treating it as if it’s a sphere, but not precisely a sphere.
It’s got its own characteristics.
It still gets a lot of reflected light in there.
Then it tucks and some of the muscle itself, the gluteus maximus, drops below this edge,
which is where the fat is.
We’ve got this pulling down on this side.
Okay, so this is tucking.
Now, this form, make it a little wider, a little hippier, so I may need to bring this
out a little bit.
Okay, as I do that I’m going to create a cast shadow on the other cheek, which is also
going to be treated like a sphere, so this sphere is in here.
We’re catching a cast shadow across this way and then very broad
here down this way.
There is a lot of reflected light down in this area.
Get this pulling around down this way.
So, you start to see what’s happening here.
Interestingly enough, I started this cast shadow here, but it kind of cascades across
the body, tripping from one form to another.
It hits this around the spine then here.
Notice that at all times it’s describing form as it goes, so it has an edge to it.
In this particular case, you usually have the form that’s casting the shadow creates
a cast shadow that’s darkest closest to the area that’s casting the shadow.
In this case, he’s keeping it strong the whole distance.
In other words, he’s creating a pattern out of it that he wants to use as part of
the graphic statement here.
It’s pulling up, up.
This is pulling this way.
Alright, so we begin to see the flow.
Notice that this now is the latissimus.
We talked about that muscle as the muscle that’s over the rib cage, all this pulling
up into the shoulder girdle.
But we feel this tension now, this stretch in here.
This is pulling down into…this is tucking in a bit here.
We’re going to go up into the shoulder girdle a little bit.
It’s more complex, the neck, the head coming up here.
This can’t exist all by itself.
We need to feel how it stretches and how these muscles are characterized as they’re involved
with the stretch.
Pulling up as we go.
Alright, so when we do it this way we can really see how this is really helping to create
what we’re seeing all the way down, that one thing is influenced by another as we go.
Again, now let’s come down here.
Remember, I said this muscle actually cuts across this way here, here.
That’s the vastus lateralis that we see here, and it’s the outermost quadriceps muscle.
We have the hamstring muscles that are attaching to the sit bones back here.
They are the center group, so look at those as if they have a volume that is not dissimilar
to the sphere.
Not dissimilar, and then we’re getting some rim light in here.
It’s actually rim light but it’s still reflected so we’re catching, again, the
main light is hitting in this area, so as it turns away into the actual strings that
We refer to them as hamstrings because of this pull in here and here.
This is the hamstring on the outside.
It’s the biceps femoris; it’s the long head.
On the outside is the brevis, but we can refer to them as the hamstrings.
On this side it’s the semi-tendon.
Semitendinosus over the top of the semimembranosus.
Notice on either side of the calf muscles.
Dramatically he’s got this strong cast shadow cutting down this way and making a point of
that and dropping all of this into tone.
This is turning slowly.
All of this in his drawing is actually much harder,
much more severe than I’m choosing to do.
I’m making this more luminous.
I may change that at some point.
I could make this bolder and stronger in here and take quite a bit of the light out.
I wanted you to see how it might be when it’s really luminous.
And we’re coming down.
He’s also designing with this.
We’ve got this light form that’s coming down here, here, as we’re dropping down
into the calf muscle.
The calf muscle, again, is another form which is taking light here.
Notice that it will pull from here.
Actually, I should try to open that up a little bit.
Perhaps I didn’t allow this to stay light enough.
I’m just taking and tamping this with the eraser so that it brings it back out.
Erasers are tools.
They’re not to correct cheats or mistakes.
They are tools.
A drawing is like painting.
It’s back and forth and in and out.
Don’t over think of a tool as simply a correctional tool because one is always adjusting.
Then this gets rather dense, and we can take it on down.
This is where I wanted to basically concentrate.
You’ve got a lot of luminosity in this leg.
It even looks odd in the Piazzetta drawing.
Does it hit that lightly in there.
So we’re pulling up.
I think that I will continue this drawing by handling this area a little bit here.
Let’s do that because what we have on this side is a lot of stretching, and on this side
a lot of compression.
Let’s deal with that.
What would that be like.
Take the head over.
Just a quick indication.
Again, I was saying that this flattens out, pulls over.
Now we’re dealing with the shoulder girdle.
This whole thing—remember what we’re saying.
We’re breaking this down this way and this way and then even smaller.
We’re breaking this unit down here.
I don’t want to consider it as a bunch of little spots inside of an area.
It has its own discreet form, a little modular area.
I’ll be basically dealing with this in this way.
Do you see how this is pulling back to here?
Okay, I don’t need to be too loud about this.
It’s already beginning to make its point.
We feel the weight of this.
Maybe it hits harder.
Maybe we even get a little bit of luminosity in here.
There’s a little bit.
This form turns.
We started that earlier.
And this starts to take on some tone as it turns out.
Okay, so we’re kind of getting there as we go.
Just a direction.
Notice I’ve kind of pulled this across.
This is a habit, I think, that we all fall into.
It’s very easy if we become mechanical.
We have a tendency to make things like this.
In other words, we’re making corrections.
That’s one of the things I said about this drawing.
It could be very easily interpreted as being straight up and down, but you can see by this
that there is a lot more going on, though it be subtle.
Well, here I made a little horizontal.
If I want to get this, I think, right in feeling right I would want to, I’m going to try
to pull that back just a little bit because it’s really an adjustment.
It’s really pulling on an angle.
I want to emphasize instead that angle, and I might also emphasize the pull here and the
small basically into the large.
So, we’re moving from a smaller into a larger area.
So, narrow and small spilling into something larger and so on.
Okay, so there is that.
That’s kind of like that.
Once again, I said you can handle this a number of ways.
I could come in and start to use some adjustment or tonal
tool that softens everything.
You can just begin to work it in that manner.
And again, you can actually work back and forth because that might soften some of the
things you might want to hit harder.
This might be that you need certain areas
very dense so you can come back and revisit those.
This almost becomes a silhouette right down in this area.
Kind of nice.
Even though we have what appears to be a little bit of rim light that’s created by the reflection,
the bounced light, reflected light, bounced light—that it comes down and becomes silhouetted
but a little farther down.
It’s a nice switch from one attitude about the form another to another attitude.
I guess one could say that in many respects this is a lot like music.
You’ve got a melody that’s working along, and then you have a phrase and things shift
and they move from one thing into another and then back again.
Okay, so I guess we could keep working on this, but I think also that
I’ve made a case for this.
Notice I didn’t copy exactly what was going on over there.
But, we’re basically analyzing and trying to take advantage of what’s taking place
in his drawing from the point of view of understanding and appreciation.
Okay, let’s leave it there.
just play around with a few parts of it.
Again, you remember I do this just to get my pencil.
I am starting the gesture.
It’s kind of a keystroke.
I am starting the gesture, kind of a keystroke, and we’re coming down.
I might want that a little lower.
I don’t want to get it too high.
If we’ve got a raised arm it’s kind of coming down and finding where our figure is
Maybe something like that.
Okay, so he’s a little more vertical.
I like that because it actually gives us the feeling of the form.
Actually, on a further look I’m seeing that we’ve got this arm and that the arm is way
out like that.
It means in a certain sense that this can’t be over that far.
What’s making me think that?
I’m kind of thinking out loud.
He’s twisting, so I’m looking at that twist.
Then now I’m looking at, okay, one hip is higher.
So this is obviously the support leg.
I’ve said before the pubic bone is about the center of the body, so I’m going to
come down maybe here, maybe here.
Let’s keep this.
The head is actually going to be more tucked.
We’ve got this arm is coming up, and let’s just give an indication, just something.
Just something to bring this, this, this, this.
Again, we’ve got this and this hip is really—as I look at it, it’s really pushing up.
This is really pulling down a lot more.
That brings this leg even more underneath the body, more like that.
So, again, I’m examining in here.
I want to try to find the solid body about where the rib cage is.
Keep it light.
The hips are, like I say, radically shifted high and low.
So I’m going to make sure I catch that.
That means, of course, that facing slightly this it is going to be more stretched than
one side or the other.
Now, in this case you have the flank pad.
So, because the flank pad flares out a little bit, it’s harder to show stretch.
On this side, the flank pad is nonetheless is compressed, folding around a little bit
Perhaps you see that.
Then it pulls down more radically.
Here it’s already fairly close to the pubic bone.
We can see that.
So, in a way we have to—we did the gesture now we’re analyzing our choices.
Because this is so subtle I’m having to go back in and do this before I develop with
kind of a strong style what the next phase will be.
I’m going to make sure I’m getting this the way I’d like it to be.
So, we’re looking again—I also feel strongly that this arm is coming down to the side,
but there is the sense that we feel the top of it.
So I can’t help but think that the arm might be something like that.
Then perhaps it’s coming back at us by the time it comes down here and then out into
the wrist and so on.
So I’m seeing it possibly as something like that, lifting, head is over.
I am keeping it light for more than one reason.
I’m keeping it light also because I wanted to develop some tonal work here.
Whatever I’m exploring needs to stay nice and invisible or it will compromise everything
when I start to come in to the develop of the form with light and tone.
Remember the center of the leg starts here, so the first indication we see of it is right
Leg is back.
Hip is out.
Pulling up, out.
So you see, it’s not about measuring so much, you know, this kind of measuring where
you’re trying to find the way X lines up with Y.
We’re not just thinking about how this is on the vertical line, although this is certainly
I’m feeling this up and out, and I’m feeling this up and out, and I want to see, for instance,
as I pull down, this leg is not really sticking out.
And one way is to kind of think of it in terms of how it lays on the vertical, against the
As we go, just check.
That means I’m not just thinking around the form.
I’m not just thinking through the form; you know, what is that spine doing, and so
I’m also thinking across the form, what’s happening from here to here and so on.
This is heading in this direction.
That means it’s actually coming this way toward us.
That means that when I think across the form it can’t be from here to here.
It has to be from here to here because the surface is not flat.
So, when I think across the form I’m thinking—and you’ll notice as I’m going this is kind
of in front, I’m thinking across the form is like this.
Across the form, across the form.
Kind of thing.
Alright, maybe I need to—I need to bring this down a little bit and, therefore, bring
this down a little bit.
I’m headed to here.
You’ll notice that cylindrically we’re still going in this direction, which means
across the form is like that.
When we add the anatomical element to it, we’ll see that this muscle is pulling up
If I go across this one is higher.
Therefore, I’m finding the rhythm.
This might be more dramatic.
Maybe this is pulling up even more.
Notice that I pull this in when I get to the chest muscles.
I’m seeing that they are pulling up and over like that.
There is some slight rounding from the rib cage.
That’s what we’re thinking.
Thinking about getting these things.
Now we’re pulling across and again we’ve got the calf muscle here.
I’ve got the peroneus longus coming down here and tucking behind the ankle.
High one, low one, again the rhythm.
Again, adjusting my pencil.
Like I said, this is something I do.
This is not something you need to be concerned about.
Now I’m pulling across and just verifying and checking as I go.
This is coming around this way.
It’s still coming forward even though we’ve got this pulled.
Maybe this could even be higher.
In here the knee is pointing in this direction.
Leg back into the foot.
Rounding of the quadriceps group.
A little more flare to the soleus on this side and this side and this side.
So, we can come out and just indicate where that foot is going to be.
Let’s just indicate where that is going to be.
Kind of something like that.
So, let’s come back for a moment just to the arm.
The arm is tucking in here.
Our center line is established, coming across.
I’m feeling the triceps pulling down toward the olecranon or the elbow.
I’m feeling this group up here, the brachioradialis, or radiobrachialis pulling up.
Pulling down and feeling the weight of it.
Notice it’s very rounded.
Then we’re seeing a little bit of the tendons into the wrist, and we’re feeling the flexors
on the back of the arm.
The bone is here.
This is down.
And a little more given the weight of the biceps.
Well, little bit.
We’re kind of laying out a little bit of the form.
Sometimes I think that it takes going this far before you actually get involved.
Sometimes people will get into the tone too quickly.
In this particular case, I want to make sure that we know what the underlying forms are.
For instance, I can see here as the neck pulls down into the tracheal notch.
I can see a little bit of this on the inside here.
So, what we’re seeing is a bit of the clavicle as it’s pulling back, and it’s pulling
the shoulder back.
I’m tempted to go into that, but before I do that I want to establish where the other
It has to be done kind of with the tone.
I’m attempting to draw the top part of that and leave this relatively open.
Now, I’m going to treat the deltoid like a semi-sphere.
In other words, center of the form right here gets the light.
I’m giving this some treatment and a little more weight down here.
There might be a little cast shadow but not deep, not too deep.
We get a little tuck here, a little tuck here.
Hardly anything at all.
The center of this form.
But, actually the light is coming from up high.
A little bit like that.
One has to be careful because Bellini wants the forms to read, so it’s more important
that the forms read than to get the light absolutely accurate.
He wants the center of the form here.
He’s lowering it slightly.
A little tone in here.
So we have a little tone along the clavicle here on the upper side of the clavicle.
We feel this tucking in.
It’s a little lighter right in here, and we’re seeing a little bit of the trapezius
as it tucks into the shoulder right here.
Now, I’ll come back to this side where we’re catching a little cast shadow here on the
clavicle going around that way.
Here is the throat.
Something like that.
The face is casting a shadow on this portion right here.
Again, it’s a cast shadow so a little deeper, closer to where it’s being cast.
As it gets over it starts to soften, and then we pick up a core shadow because the pecs
that are turning into the deltoid as it goes up and over are turning rather quickly at
So, we’re seeing some reflected light in this area and some core shadow as a result.
If you get reflected light you get core shadow, right?
So, we’re getting a little of that, a little of that.
See a little of the flange of the muscles coming up off the neck, the pit of the neck.
And so we’re also feeling this rounding slightly, just a little bit.
As we come down underneath—see, I already almost have too much don’t I?
Too much of the underdrawing in order for this to be really effective.
Let’s just see what we can do with what we’ve got.
We’re going to reinforce this edge of the weight, and I’m going to put a little
core shadow in here as the bicep turns away from the flat plain and into the roundness
of the biceps.
It hits hard here because they see this deep cast shadow which also helps describe a little
bit the mainframe, the upper body mainframe.
A little something like that.
These are all very subtle choices.
This is coming across.
This is pulling across this way.
Notice that everything is pulling to help express the twist, kind of coming across.
Maybe there is even a little bit of just a slight indication of the ribs, very little,
as it’s pulling across.
Pulling across and down.
And you’ll notice that even the naval is pulling
and that this whole area here… for instance, we’ve got the abdominals which can also
be described fairly simply.
There is not a big dynamic explanation of these muscles.
In this case it’s fairly simply illustrated softly.
Not a big issue made of it.
Not the 20th or 21st century superhero body.
Which would have extraordinary looking 6-pack going on.
Instead there is a great deal of subtlety involved in describing the abdominals.
Okay, so we’re kind of getting something like that.
This is pulling down.
Now we might pull this inside.
So we do have this big piece of material that’s pulling up and over and around.
I don’t want to spend too much time on that, but it’s wrapping around and pulling off
and coming up with a little help from the angels.
We’ll keep it simple.
Put it in the hand of our subject.
Alright, we see that we’re just kind of subtly pulling our subject over
Okay, let’s see.
Into the wrist, the fat pad of the hand.
The lower arm.
The forearm here.
Some tone too.
Let’s get a little tone in this.
Squeezing up and tightening here.
Over to the bone.
Just a little bit here and there.
This is also treated spherically.
Suddenly it flattens out.
There is a temptation to be very stylistic when you’re doing
shadows so to speak.
There is this temptation to be stylistic because so many people that draw currently like to
do this very sort of stylistic calligraphic approach that is very appealing, but unless
you’re really skilled it’s very limiting in terms of how far it can take you.
It can give you a certain effect and it generally ends there.
So, I would be cautious and try to do, in a sense, your own study on how to treat light
Better that you come away with your own ideas based on your own analysis.
I’m trying to give you a way to analyze form here by saying there are two approaches
to light and form.
One is direct light, and that’s what’s happening here.
We’ve got local tone, core, reflected light in here.
You’ve got this.
It shows us, in a way it shows us how to move across form very subtly.
By the way, this is unfortunate.
This is a little heavy.
Remember, like I said, maybe you can lift some of that so that it isn’t so dominant.
Same thing on the other side.
When I was explaining earlier the development of the form I hit things what I would consider
a little hard for what we need to do in terms of developing the form with light and tone.
If they don’t disappear it’s not really all is lost.
You come down and you modify it like you would with a painting.
Painting is you work back and forth with things, back and forth into the form.
You have the form.
You lose the form.
You come back to it.
We’re coming down in here.
What we’re doing now is we’re bringing this up.
Again, this might be a little heavy in here, so I’m just going to lift it a little bit.
That’s why I was using it to demonstrate to you.
It went a little heavy.
I’m just lifting it a little bit.
Get it out of the way.
These forms, I’d like to put them in in a subtle way.
Again, the center of the form gets the light so there is tone here, but we’re working
it towards the center here.
Maybe this hits a little bit harder right in here, just a little bit.
Maybe we even feel some of the subtler muscles and how they’re all working together.
But we’re keeping it fairly, fairly simple.
Down here this is turning very fast.
This is the medial quadriceps, the vastus medialis, and it’s coming I, the rectus
femoris over the top.
We’re feeling a little bit of the outside, a little bit of the patella.
Again, we can use—and he does, Bellini uses a little tone to turn under.
There is just the basic subtle connection there.
We’re coming down here across the bone.
All of this is in tone.
Notice at this point that this starting to develop volume
on this side, but this isn’t.
Some of this just kind of lays back in its flatter form.
Notice how flat this is.
We have some description, and we can continue that description.
But right now it’s not saying much.
In this version, Bellini’s version, he’s got several tones.
What if I just knocked the whole thing down and said let’s play that down.
Maybe we’ll just kind of give a little bit like this but even less than a description
than he gave.
Kind of works, doesn’t it?
So, this is not about copying.
It’s about understanding.
We’ve got a little bit of cast shadow under here and a little bit here, and that reinforces
this edge, cast shadow.
It also kind of comes around this way.
Now, watch the moment I do this.
I’m using this material here to help describe form.
We’re also using the shadow of it to come around and help describe the roundness of
the upper thigh area of the leg, you see.
So, it’s pulling this way and then it starts to go along and become the core.
On the outside we get some reflected light.
As it pulls down we see on the, as we come down here we see on the inside
the quadriceps pulling down and attaching to the patella.
Again, I have so many lines in there—see what’s happening.
If you have lines that are going back and forth, how it messes with our interpretation
of the form.
If I get rid of that, I don’t advocate using this as a tool all the time.
What’s interesting is that because I did this, it allowed me to say something about
how not to mess with form and how you can make something go flat or confuse the eye
if it’s not helping to describe form.
What we’re looking for, really, is the way these muscles describe form.
Here is a very subtle turn on this center muscle of the quadriceps right here.
They’re kind of coming out here.
Add to the outside muscle here.
So now if we just kind of follow that up thematically we see how everything is lifting and pulling.
Notice I’m keeping the form relatively abstract, but I’m making my point about what’s interesting
So as we pull we’re pulling up and it’s also sliding down.
And then this is the stabilizing leg which allows this leg to be more relaxed.
We could go on.
Notice I’m using a soft tone on this side and a subtler but more of a line on this side,
but a soft, darker tone on this side.
And they work very well to help establish what’s going on.
Come down here, and once again we’re pulling off and using the direct light source coming
from this direction to hit this leg and calf muscle, peroneus longus, and everything else
involved turns away from the light source.
It catches some bounced light.
Catches some bounced light.
Let’s make that a little wider.
Well, we’ll make that up.
Okay, well that’s sort of a way of using tone to describe form, to help express movement
and form, or actually designing light and dark patterns.
Alright, like I say, you can experiment with your medium a little bit.
See hwat it has to offer.
This paper is relatively new for me, so I don’t know completely what to expect from
it, so it becomes something that we get to play and experiment with.
We can come back in and reinforce something.
Even as one thing gets knocked down, another thing will be brought up in importance.
Let’s bring that in.
And so on.
Alright, I think that more or less gets the idea across.
Working with subtler and subtler forms.
Very soft in here.
Could even be softer.
I brought it out a little bit, more than what you might be seeing in the photograph of the
Maybe brought it out a little bit more, but it can be as subtle or as dramatic as you
want or need it to be, but one thing is that you don’t want it to take over the whole
drawing by itself.
It’s really there to support the big story, and one always has to aks what is the big
What is the big story?
You’ll notice I changed it.
There is no cherub in here, and I’ve just brought this up, changed it around a little
But, essentially what we’re talking about is light and tone.
That was our objective today.
Not trying to do a Bellini, but using Bellini as a point of departure.
Please remember that.
When you’re studying from these guys, it’s not about trying to do what they do verbatim,
it’s about trying to understand their conversation so that you can join the dialogue.
the surfaces of the face and how light describes those surfaces, using the two concepts we’ve
been discussing, which are direct light and conceptual light.
I’m not going to attempt to make a copy of any of these portraits that we’re trying.
I’m not going to try to make a perfect copy of a portrait.
We’re simply looking at the way the surfaces are turned using light and tone.
I’m going to knock these down rather quickly.
This particular one is the Piazzetta head, and I’ll just start simply, something like that.
I know you can barely see that.
He has a hat.
I’m going to ignore that and just kind of come in and describe these areas rather quickly.
I’m not going to give you too much of an idea of how I build or think about the head,
but simply describe quickly how the lights and tones will work.
Alright, knocking it down quickly.
This area, the mouth area.
I’ll just give a quick description of the features.
This is the bridge of the nose here.
We’re coming down.
We’re going to draw the ridge that turns under into the septum here
into the nostril.
The philtrum into what some people refer to as the cupid’s bow.
Alright, and this is kind of coming around and tucking in like this.
And then there is the lower lip, and as that drops down into the chin,
the chin rounds out like this.
Like I say, I’m not giving you an extensive idea at this point about how to build a head.
We’re just laying this out quickly to establish a starting point for our real discussion,
which is to talk about light and tone.
Now I’m going to lay in the eye.
Just remember the eye is basically a sphere, and I’m coming across the bridge down and
over where the eye will be in here and this one over here.
Okay, now we can come up for a high brow.
With Piazzetta he’s giving us an awful lot more of the jaw than what we usually get.
Piazzetta is a Rococo artist, so you see a lot of flare and flamboyance in the drawing.
I’m not going to pay much attention to that.
Once again, I am simply pulling this as a starting point.
So, he’s got this hat which kind of pulls down over here like so and up and over.
I’m not going to spend much time on that either or maybe no time.
It’s basically drifting around the eye, something like that.
So, that’s our starting point.
Now we can actually begin to look at these surfaces.
Again, I want to remind you that the eye is a sphere, but we have these lids going across.
In this case it’s dark.
They’re in the shade.
We’ve got kind of a shade shadow going across here and here.
This is a cast shadow, and it’s cutting across this way and throwing all of this into tone.
You’ll notice that the pattern of the tone actually—it’s also used to describe actually
the surfaces of the form.
Notice how it comes over the ridge here and then drops down here.
It’s a cast shadow over into the eye.
And then it picks up here and begins to work toward the cheekbone.
That is a pattern that’s actually created by the hat itself dropping this tone down
over the head, so it’s a cast shadow.
In addition to the cast shadow, you have a describing of the cheekbone here.
You have a little bit of the tone that turns away from the light source.
So, what we’re really talking about here is the direct light source creating this tone,
and in this case it helps—as it turns away—it’s also catching reflected light coming back
from this direction.
Therefore, it creates what we have been referring to as a core shadow.
As that comes down it begins to soften as it gets fleshier and it pulls around.
Let me just do this.
Keep that soft.
It pulls around the mouth area like this.
The mouth itself is turning like a sphere.
Let me just do this.
It’s going around like this.
So, if the center of the mouth is here, and the light source is here, which I think is
apparent, then it’s going to take more and more tone as it goes around.
That’s what we’re getting here.
I’m keeping it light at the moment, fairly light.
We can get in there and get this description of the mouth,
and then we can create a little core shadow.
Maybe not so much.
Little bit there.
Little softer here.
A little softer.
Then it’s also creating a stronger cast shadow down here as it beats the surface of
the chin, which again is like a new sphere that’s hitting the edge of the denture sphere.
If you treat it like we’ve been discussing, like a surface whose light is hitting from
the left and picking on tone over here and then catching a bit of core shadow as the
reflected light comes in.
We’re treating the chin somewhat like a sphere.
It’s got its special characteristics, but it’ll be something like that coming around that way.
And then this comes down to meet it.
Alright, so right now I’m leaving the reflected light area extremely light.
It depends on how strong that reflected light is as to how much we will
bring tone into that area.
So, with Piazzetta he is bringing in more and more tone in here, leaving it quite a
bit lighter right where the jaw meets the neck.
Then we’re coming down here with some cast shadow.
We’ve got a strong shadow right in this area.
Kind of more core like here and then down into here.
Alright, so the mouth itself is the ridge of the lip.
The upper lip is turning away from the light source.
Maybe we can see that.
So it’s catching a little light in here and a little tone in here, and maybe this
is a little denser because it’s facing away from the light source.
Okay, we began to get that.
So, you see we’re actually using the same techniques that we were using for the full
figure, except we’re now moving in closer and we’re now describing features and characters
which are much subtler.
Again, now the light is hitting—as we said, it’s coming from this direction—and it’s
hitting the surface of the bridge of the nose, and this is turning away slightly.
It’s taking on a little tone like that.
As it comes around here, it’s taking on a little more now as we hit the ball and the
tip of the nose, and the nose begins to turn under.
Notice I’m doing it this way, which really means that I’m coming right in and doing
core shadow here.
Also here and then we’ve got light, core shadow, reflected light before it hits the
nostril, and then cast shadow here.
It gets much stronger right in this area.
Then the nostril, which turns in.
And around the other side of the septum here we have the other nostril.
We’re seeing the other side of it.
Something like that.
I’m not going to describe anything on this side of the face at this point because I’m
going to use the second concept of light in order to deal with that.
I’m holding off on that.
For the moment we’re getting some tone because this is tucking.
It gets a little stronger down in here as we start to describe the lower lid of the eye.
Get in here.
A little bit of the brow.
Let’s just suggest a little bit of the brow in here too, just a little bit.
If we like we can make this a little harder-edged, bring a little more tone into this area and
a little more here.
This whole, we were talking about the denture sphere.
This is part of the denture sphere, and as we said this is all in tone here.
As all this area turns away, it also takes on tone.
We’ve got the cast shadow from the nose here, but this whole upper ride is also pulling around.
You’ll notice that it’s a little lighter right next to the lip.
That’s because this whole upper ridge here flutes out just before it meets the mouth.
What we’re seeing is that it lightens up because this surface begins to face the light
a little bit as it tucks around like that.
Something like that.
Something like that.
Now, brought a little tone in here.
Going to bring a little bit of this surface down here just slightly because the light
is coming across and hitting and all of this is also turning ever so slightly, so it isn’t
just a big fat plain.
You start to see this surface turn.
Even as it comes down here, this surface isn’t absolutely the same everywhere.
This starts to take on just a very subtle drop in tone.
Again, I’m leaving this for last so we can describe that in the area of the nose.
We’re seeing a little tuck right here because the cheek is tucking in towards the mouth slightly.
We can feel that tuck on this side too.
I would always—if I’m doing this, I would always look for the opposite surface, the
other side of the form and see if one thing is doing something, what is the other side
of it doing.
Okay, let’s come up here to the philtrum.
You know, the philtrum just kind of tucks in.
It kind of gouges in just a little bit here.
And so we’re seeing it pull away from the light as it dips down and then comes back
out, and that surface starts to turn away.
We can go into the description of the year and so on, but it’s basically what we’re
seeing is relatively neutral and is kept minimalized so it doesn’t become too important.
Now, with Piazzetta, he likes to draw really big ears, so I’ve already made this ear
quite a bit smaller than he would ordinarily do it.
Let’s do that.
The area is darker, definitely darker in here.
But, nonetheless, it’s more or less kept at a minimum, and he’s got it against the
That even takes some of the harder description and neutralizes it because it’s next to
this dark around this away.
He’s got this hair coming in and also some back here
coming in and describing some of the characteristics.
I’m sure that this young man is fully aware of his visual impression in his world.
He’s probably very fashionable.
We’ve got him looking over this way.
I’m not concerned with, like I say, getting involved in all of the detail.
I’m not going to spend a lot of time on this.
If we come up and we draw this ridge, and we come in here we can see that he’s also
using tone to help us experience the turning of form around the eyes.
Just a little bit.
I’ll just describe it a little bit.
He’s keeping that low profile as well.
Something like that.
What I think I’d like to do is come in and soften all that a little bit with a chamois
so we can get into the light side and the other aspect of this drawing, which is the
helping light that helps describe this area in here.
Let’s just tone this down and bring it back.
If we need to we’ll come back into a bit, bring it back up.
See what this does.
Let’s just see what this does.
So, I’m kind of getting everything back in order.
I’m going to come back into this and re-strengthen this a little bit.
So, we’re going to come back in and hit some things.
Bring a little more emphasis in.
We’re actually just coming back now for a second pass
on some of these things that we’ve described the first time through
We’re designing the light and tone.
We’re also designing with light and tone, and we’re also turning form with light and tone.
Describing form with light and tone.
And we’ve primarily been using the direct light approach for it.
In a moment we’ll be discussing the other side of that issue with the helping light,
how we can help fill everything out.
As I said, I’m not trying to do a portrait.
We’re just simply trying to play around with this and get an understanding of how
we’re going to turn the form.
Okay, we’ve kind of more or less explored this whole thing that way.
Now, let’s go into the other side of this face and work with the—this needs to be
softer maybe, a little bit.
You remember that one of the basic thoughts about it is center of the form gets the light.
It’s the idea that we may be dealing with something so flat that we can’t actually
see a description of it given naturally.
What we need to do is conceptualize that form.
Once we decide that it’s volume then we can light it by saying where is the center
of the form, and generally we’re talking about the center of the form in the simplest
possible way as the form or the surface that faces us.
Once that’s understood then you can do a series of things like that where the center
of the form gets the light.
Then it’s possible to shift the center anywhere you want it.
You can shift it to a new location, but still the edge near the original light source, the
edge that says that the light is coming from this direction.
Even that edge will take on some light.
You pull this new light source more toward the center that faces us, but slightly up.
Now we’ve moved directly from something directly at us to something that is slightly
up and to the left, but the edges are still getting some tone.
And that’s what we want to do here.
We say the tip of the nose.
We’re going to give it a little more light right over here in this direction, but as
it reaches down in here it’ll take on some tone, and it’s the same thing when we get
down into the nostril area down into the septum.
And we’re going to actually get a little bit of tone here showing this form moving
around and tucking slightly.
I don’t want to do too much.
If you do too much it’ll look basically, perhaps too masculine.
It’ll could look—you could age your figure quite a bit the more lines you actually put.
Notice that up here.
Right now this is getting a little heavy around this area.
So, the truth is is that we should be backing off from that a little bit.
If you were painting you would just paint back into that and simplify the form.
By taking that out a little bit, it doesn’t need that much description.
It takes out quite a bit of the stress that is felt in the surface.
The same thing here.
We want to be very careful.
We don’t want to show too much.
Okay, let’s continue with this for a second.
I’ll come around to this surface here, and we’re going to bring in just a little bit
of tone, just very, very slightly.
Again, the surface is high, and as it comes down it’s taking on some tone.
This is taking on some tone as it comes down.
This is taking on some tone down in here.
As this tucks under it’s also taking on some tone.
We’re seeing a little bit of the tone on the ridge of this upper lip right in here
and a little bit of cast down in here.
Get some tone in there.
And he’s keeping it more luminous right in this area back here.
Also, one way to bring this up is to bring some tone into the background.
Sometimes bringing tone into the background is a nice method for giving us—that allows
us to come inside the form a little bit more too.
Let me see.
Again, he’s got these well-placed locks coming around.
I think that more or less covers the point with this particular drawing, and we can move
to the next one and then review some of the same ideas in a slightly different context.
and making sure.
It’s what we—again, I’m not trying to copy the Sargent.
We’re just going to talk about a couple of things that he covers in this portrait.
Well, first of all, the axis of the head is to the right, and it’s tipped away from us.
I’m navigating around, finding my way where the nose is, where the mouth is going to be,
where the chin is going to be.
We’re going to see under the chin on this one.
We’re going to see a whole lot of under the jaw, under the chin.
That’s one of the things that I’m interesting in—showing something about how that turns.
Here’s the tip of the nose.
Again, I’m not going to take time to try to make this a Sargent.
Sargent does damn well at that all by myself.
We’ll just talk about some of the principles of light and tone for the description of form
and a little bit about the patterns.
We’re going to get the eyes in here.
Cheekbones on this side.
If I do this on this side and you can actually see it, that may not have been so, but I’m
using my understanding of where these cheekbones are at in addition to the idea that I can
make sure the center of the form gets the light.
In this case I’m coming right in and brining in that helping idea about the way we’re
going to use light and tone.
This is the conceptual form.
Center of the form gets the light.
Okay, so now we’re coming down along the jawline and the tip of the nose is here.
It’s coming off this way.
We’re turning under the nose, septum, nostril, other nostril.
We’re basically looking up at the underside of the nose here.
It’s actually not straight across.
It’s not dipping this way.
This is actually describing essentially the denture sphere that the mouth is a part of.
So if we come down here and do the septum and we do the upper lip, in this case the
cupid’s bow of the upper lip and we do this, at least three parts of the upper lip, and
we’ve got this, the lower lip and how it connects.
This is coming over and tucking back into this here.
Okay, this is part of the orbicularis oris.
This point here, these two points.
There is a lot of muscles that connect to that point.
That’s why we see so much of kind of a push out in these two areas.
Then we’re coming down here.
Just indicate something like that.
Remember, this is somewhat spherical.
But the sphere doesn’t just go to the edge of the tone.
It goes under like this.
The light source is hitting.
Remember, our light source is coming in again in this case.
It’s something like that.
And as we draw along, in this case it’s the direct light source that gives us the
We’re seeing actually under the chin.
I don’t want to do too much too soon here.
I don’t want that to be too strong for the rest of our decision making here.
This is also showing us underneath this big form.
This is turning away.
This whole area is turning away from the light source.
We see it here as it turns away.
It comes down here into kind of a cast shadow at this point.
This form, the underjaw hits the neck about here, so we see that crash point about here.
It’s a soft crash.
This is coming around like this.
We’re seeing the chin and jaw turn here, something like that.
We’re actually dealing with the more difficult part of the head drawing, that is down in
the neck area.
Cast shadow here.
And he’s coming down with a kind of soft cast shadow.
I’ve often said that cast shadows can have a hard edge.
It really depends on the kind of light that is coming.
This particular case, we’ve got this neck.
Long, long neck down to the pit of the neck.
It’s kind of indicated down here.
So, he’s got a high shoulder, and he’s going to go down to a lower shoulder here.
It’s going to be on this angle.
I will not get to that.
But, just to give you an indication of where he’s going with that.
Okay, so the light source is coming from here.
If we need tone on this side, we immediately go towards the concept of center of the form
gets the light.
Remember, we decided to do center of the form gets the light.
It’s centered but high.
That allows us to get tone on this side, and that’s what this is here.
It’s tone on the side that’s receiving direct light.
I can bring all this down.
This is beginning to turn and tuck.
Turn and tuck.
This is receiving the most light right in here.
We get a division.
The mouth just value-wise is darker, and it’s also catching, you know, it’s catching a
little more light in this area but less light as it turns and tucks under away from the
This is even tucking under so we’re getting a little tone right in there.
He’s making a point of that.
We’re catching a little highlight in here.
It takes on tone as it comes over this way, the lower lip that is.
We’re also catching a little bit more cast shadow right in this area as it tucks under.
The upper lip is going around the corner of the denture sphere, so it’s taking on more tone.
It’s also catching a reflected light down in this area.
The upper lip area philtrum and next to the philtrum under the nose and everything that
is turning away in the denture sphere area is even—it’s actually a bit darker than
what’s happening in the mouth just below it.
It’s catching actually more of a reflected light right in here.
More tone here.
Alright, I’ve exaggerated it in the moment, and I will come back and take care of that
in a second.
For now, I’m dealing with the cast shadow off the base of the nose.
By the way, the way I’m doing this is to show the light and tone.
This is probably not the way I would build the head in the first place, but we’re simply
jumping ahead and discussing how light and tone helps us describe form.
Obviously, all of this will be down in tone.
We’ll get to that.
Some of this surface, by the way, is receiving light.
The whole side of the nose over here is turned away from the light source.
So, once we hit the plateau of the bridge right in here, once again, if I do this, I’m
also thinking center of the form gets the light right in this area.
So, this is dropping down and away.
There is a surface in here off the eyes.
Let’s just come out and give a placement for those eye.
Probably a reasonable thing to do at this point, just give a placement for the
eyes looking over in this direction.
Notice that as this turns here we get a core shadow that’s pretty strong because it’s
a fast turn.
As a result, in here we get a good deal of reflected light.
Right at the edge of it we get kind of a cast shadow.
It’s soft because that’s how he’s handling it in this picture.
Cast shadow off the bridge of the nose and off the ridge of the brow.
As this begins to pick up some light again, takes on some light, we see that.
Off the bridge.
It also begins to turn away again a little bit here from the light source.
This is taking on a strong cast shadow right here.
He hits it very hard.
This is also very dense right in this area.
Just coming around this ridge.
We’ve got some light in this area.
Notice that the light in this area is not going to be as light as the area over here.
But it is receiving direct light.
He’s making a point.
This is closer to the light source.
Although it’s the same surface, this is turned, well, it’s just that much further
away that it can take on some tone.
So, we’ll just give it some tone.
Make this a little denser.
All things considered.
In here we also have the turning away of the skin that overlays the orbicularis iris,
which is the muscle that supports and surrounds the eye.
It’s going to take on some more tone.
Before I make that too dark, I think we should come in here and show how he is handling this ridge
A little denser right in here because there is a bit of a tuck. Then it comes back out here.
It’s actually rather dramatic, this light.
It’s more like that.
This upper ridge is actually catching some light.
As that ridge in this whole upper portion of the mouth here above the mouth turns away
from the light source it takes on a bit of that tone, and it’s met with this core shadow
off the cheek here.
This is relatively strong, as we said.
He’s making that especially dramatic and then cutting down this way.
Getting the idea.
Also, this lid is, it is receiving some light, but as it tucks here it’s catching a little
bit of an accent of dark, and that accent of dark is basically a cast shadow that’s
not casting very far.
The next form is coming right out to meet it and bending back toward it, so it’s not
really casting so far.
As we go.
And let’s get the approximation of the ear.
Since the head is tipped back in a way that brings the tip of the nose up.
Get a little of that.
It brings the tip of the nose out.
Therefore, because the ear is behind the facial plane, the ear is down.
The ear is in this area here.
Not going to make a big issue of this either.
We could basically get started toward our edges.
We’re going to get some—
remember this is soft cast shadow that’s cutting down this way.
It’s a little denser in some areas like this area.
That helps us to understand how the form is working.
We can see the glow of the reflected light, the bounced light tucking.
I just hit this—I’m just going to get rid of that because it’s a little tick off
my pencil there.
These things are—just get rid of those.
These little ticks here.
They’re not interfering with the drawing.
Alright, so now
just helping this along a little bit.
Should be denser.
Start to see the reason why tones are what they are.
They’re all involved in one way or another in this clarifying of the description.
And here, as I said, a little darker.
Remember we were talking about this fluting, and this is turning back and under.
Slowly, if this begins to make sense, it’s because of the attention given to the way
we’re working with light and tone.
We’re able to actually describe the some of these forms.
This is so light I’m hardly putting anything on here at all.
And that’s just to help describe what’s going on in the light area.
That’s just not the whole area.
Okay, like I said, this is not an attempt to try and do a John Singer Sargent.
We’re simply examining how he uses light and tone for the description of form.
All this begins to turn under.
And then we can go up and create whatever we need.
Even this could be dropped down.
The main light is actually right in here.
Even that we could bring that up.
We could tuck it slightly.
So, to the degree, and of course I think this is always a choice, but one does need to be
conscious about how far one goes with these choices.
I think we could probably let it go at that.
Okay, let’s do that.
Let me do this one thing.
I wanted to get the turn of the nostril under here.
I neglected that.
Because this is actually turning under this is taking on some tone here.
It’s got a little tone right up in here as well.
Even though this is more, a little bit here and there.
Just a little bit of tone right around here as it turns away.
So, I think that’s enough to kind of get the point across of where we would like to
go as we develop these ideas further.
Let’s keep it at that.
Alright, good enough.
Again, we’re just going to take a small portion of it.
Just a simple breakdown.
The center of the face.
The eye socket is going to be in here somewhere.
Nose here somewhere.
It’s going to be looking off in this direction.
Mouth this way.
We’ll be wrapping around here.
Something like that.
We’re just kind of setting up where the tone might be.
Go over this way.
Come down to where the chin is going to be here.
Cheek into the chin over this way.
Notice I kind of put the direction of the eye in first.
I have a tendency to do that.
Let’s go with it.
So, the eyeball is in here somewhere.
We’re going to make sure these eyes kind of light up.
Tear duct is approximately here.
Why am I saying that?
The bridge is here and we’re coming down to the corner of the nose.
This one, we can’t see it.
This is the brow ridge here.
This one here.
Again, we’re not trying to do a portrait.
I’m just kind of setting this up for dealing with a couple of things.
So, anyway, we have to come off here and down here before we hit the tear duct.
Then we start to see—if we decide if the eyeball is in here then the lid has to be
large enough to cover that.
And it comes over this way.
Generally speaking, the lash on the upper ridge covers the actual edge of the lid itself.
You’ll notice because this is round, I’m going around the edge.
We see this.
Round it out.
A bit of the forehead.
Something like that.
I may have given her a little bit more space between the mouth and the nose right in here,
but that’s not of great concern at this point.
This lower ridge, we do see—I should say this lower lid, we do see the ridge of it.
This pulls around, wraps around the eyeball.
We see the ridge of it and its width.
We’re going to see the ridge of this one too coming from around the corner.
And then the width of the lid, the lower lid.
See a little bit of this pull down.
Make sure this stays soft here.
Okay, so this is one of the things I’d like to work with a bit here.
We’ve got the nose.
He’s actually got the nose coming over a little more like that.
Showing the underside of it with a little tone.
Little tone on the inside of the philtrum.
Let’s come back to the eye for just a moment.
Playing out the eye in this area.
Notice I established the pupil right from the get-go, and essentially when I work them,
I work them at the same time.
If I work one eye, I’m going to come across and work with the other eye.
I’m not going to finish one and then afterward go up and work the other eye.
So, that’s an approximation.
Okay, we have this and the cheekbone over here as described by the light and tone.
The tone is turning away from the light source.
As it does, it takes away more and more tone.
It reaches a certain point where it begins to get reflected light back at it.
Again, we’ve got this in these usual areas away from the light.
In this case, our light source is coming from this direction.
So, you see what’s happening.
This whole denture sphere here is turning away.
There is some muscle down in here.
Muscles that pull off from the large muscle that surrounds the mouth and pulling down
around here and helping actually to describe that area.
As we said before, this is to be considered somewhat spherically,
so it’s going to take on some tone too.
But it’s also getting some reflected light, so just handle that gently.
We could bring this in just a little bit closer for our description.
I want to cut that in a little deeper.
Bring this over.
So, with the light coming in and hitting the surface of the brow and down onto the lid,
you’ll notice that the lid itself is turning away from the light source and takes on some tone.
This is something that we’ll revisit later.
Then out to here the muscle that surrounds the eye, the big muscle, it’s the orbicularis iris.
We are getting some bounced light in this area.
Even as the forehead turns away we take on some tone, right.
This does take a little tone in here as well.
This is hitting particularly heavy right there, making some emphasis down there.
So, we’re looking at core shadow coming across the nose.
Core shadow underneath so we get some reflected light.
Not as luminous, say, as some of the later artists.
Not as luminous as you would expect from artists such as Rubens or Tiepolo.
They bring a lot more luminosity into these areas.
Essentially, it’s the same understanding, just with a different basic sensibility as
to how to work the statement.
So, he’s using a kind of hatching stroke her to accomplish this.
But, remember, it’s not about the hatching.
It’s about the understanding that we’re discussing today.
I’m not making that an issue.
Again, we’re not copying.
We’re trying to grasp something about the way the light is used.
Notice I’m hitting—this is a cast shadow that’s coming off the upper lip.
The upper lip is actually a little bit lighter than the lower lip.
It’s coming down this way.
Of course, the lip has a little more tone to it.
As soon as it hits the flesh here it takes on a little more light.
Not too much.
Notice right now how bright the so-called white part of the eye is.
We need to bring that down.
It shouldn’t look like it’s got its own inner light.
When you do that there is way too much glow.
Just catching a bit of tone on the underside of the mouth.
The tone is really basically created from the value of the mouth.
It’s not the same value as the skin.
You see, essentially we’re using the same thinking.
I want that hatching to be more important than what we’re actually trying to accomplish
with the tone.
Just coming into a little here
A little here rounding it out.
Little tone in here. Little tone there.
So, we’re kind of following the light around the eyelid, how it goes into tone.
How it hits this form.
Plus, taking on more tone here as it tucks away from the light source.
It’s taking a little more tone here.
So, he has this a little tighter.
A little closer.
But, our point is turning form.
We could probably try to soften this whole thing and see how that works out.
All of this is at the surface of form, volume.
Alright, just taking it a little deeper.
Again, it’s not a portrait. We’re not copying.
Just trying to grasp some simple ideas about working with light and tone.
There is basically the eye socket area down to the nose approximately where the mouth is.
Let's get it this way.
I’ve got this against this.
Broad forehead. Down here. Down here to the chin.
Now if I were to show you how to construct a head, I wouldn’t be doing it quite like
this, just kind of knocking this down quickly.
Look where he is looking.
I’m going to come in and just say, alright, the eyes are going to be in here.
The eyelid in here.
I’m going to try to keep this very light.
I know that you can sort of see it.
I’m going to keep it fairly light so that I can come in with some tone and not have
the underdrawing obstruct what I’m trying to say with the tone.
I’ll try and do that and let’s see what happens.
Okay, come down.
So, he’s got this interesting mustache that’s going to be in here.
Sort of pensive look about him.
All interesting, but once again, we’re just going to go for the tone.
His mustache is pulling off and actually around the corners of the mouth sphere.
The mouth sphere is kind of in here like this.
We’ve discussed it as kind of the denture sphere.
If we’re lighting like this then it’s going to take tone around here.
That’s basically what we’re doing.
I’m doing it softer over here than we are in the example.
But, there it is.
In a way, I guess the mouth is going around that in this way.
It’s going around this way, coming around here to the underside.
We're treating the chin also, again, like we would a sphere that’s being hit with light up here.
A little core shadow, you see.
Cast shadow here.
Something like that.
And so his cast shadow, in his case it’s going to be a little denser than some.
We’re thinking about the chin again.
A little core shadow.
A little core shadow.
He’s got a bit of a beard here too.
Let me bring this in a little tighter, slipping behind the denture sphere.
We're also saying that if we need help from the second light
where the center of the form gets the light. In this case, again, we're making it slightly high.
We'll get a little tone on this side, bringing it slightly higher and to the left.
This is the first one and this is the second one right here.
This is direct light, conceptual light.
We’re doing kind of a direct light thing over here.
And where you would have gotten some reflected light down in this area.
We have what looks to me like a bit of scrubby chin hair, beard type of thing.
Something like that.
Keep it that way.
Come back up and catch the areas around here.
Core shadow off the tip of the nose, and the alar here.
Nostril in here.
However, we’re catching a lot of cast shadow right around the nose, and it also helps describe
And it’s pulling down here.
Again, it’s hitting the area of the denture sphere that’s turning away from the light source.
You have the philtrum here and the mustache kind of overlapping this and pulling off.
It’s got its areas that are catching light.
It’s got its own slight shapes as it goes and pulls down under and actually somewhat
helps describe the denture sphere.
It kind of wraps around it.
Get a little bit of this in there.
Get a little bit on this side and this tone business there.
And the mustache going around to the outside on this side.
Catching a little tone on the upper lid and edge.
The lip, even though it’s catching some reflected light in here is still, nonetheless,
deeper in tone than the flesh itself.
It’s going to read a little darker.
All of this is turned away now, so it takes on some tone.
All of this is taking on some tone over here too.
For the moment we’re working the lower area coming down here.
I want this cheekbone to take on some tone, and I do want it to match this side.
On this side, we’re bringing a little tone in here, and that’s using the center of
the form gets the light because it’s slightly high, as you see.
We’re bringing some tone in here that helps show us where the bridge of the nose is.
This is shifting down.
As we said, the mouth has a little more tone.
Over, catching some highlight in here, showing us around the corner here.
Now that we’ve done this, I’d like to come back hit this a little heavier.
It’s just—trying to keep everything in the same context.
At this point, I’m just simply doing that just to bring it down.
It’s going to be more severe at some point.
As you can see, Bernini turns this form a little bit here and start addressing that
a little bit, suddenly turning there.
I’m kind of taking my time with this, building it slowly.
I’m also keeping in mind the very definite ideas.
And so we’re coming across this form.
This is catching light.
It’s not a flat plain, so it takes on a little tone as it comes there.
The lightest area is right in this area.
This is actually tucking; it’s catching some light here.
It’s catching some highlight along this area.
As it gets over here and begins to turn it’s got some configurations of its own as it drops down.
Every nose is slightly different in that respect, how it shows these characteristics and features.
This also takes on some tone.
The lightest area here is going to be approximately in this area here, taking on some tone.
Okay, taking on tone.
Coming off from under the eye and that lid we’re getting some tone.
Here, this is a little softer.
This whole area under the eye here under the lid, this area right in here, the orbicularis
iris over to where the cheekbone is has a little bit of light.
It takes on a little tone as it’s going around.
Not quite as much as we see here.
This whole area above the eye, and I suppose at some point I better get in there and put
the eye in, the eyelids.
Let’s do it.
This whole area is tipped away from the light source, and it turns rather rapidly right
here, and so we get a heavy core shadow and some bounced light up in this area.
It makes it a little bit luminous.
By the time it hits here it’s deepened again.
Something like that.
As I said, I want to try to keep this up so we’re kind of on the same level as we go.
His cheekbone is turning under at this point.
If there is more beard—and there may be, it’s kind of scrappy—it keeps us from
being able to clearly define where the jaw is.
Alright, coming down.
I’m going to bring some tone in here now just to keep it up, keep on the same, keep
everything working kind of more or less the same.
Make this a little sharp.
Okay, let’s come back to the eyes now.
I’m going to start with this.
Wide, goes wide.
Ridge of the lower lid.
Turning away from the light.
The lid turning away from the light source there.
Tucking, tucking under.
A little character of the eyebrow.
I’m catching a little light right in here.
I’m just going to bring that tone in gently around this area.
A little tone on the underside here.
All tone is at the service of showing us what’s happening to the form.
I know there is some drama, you know, question about there being drama in using light and
We’re not concentrating on that aspect of it at this point.
Again, lightest light.
We have a bit of a highlight here.
Some here, here, and in this area.
It’s because of the prominence that occurs in this area.
If I pull a little tone on this side of the highlight, for instance, and then bring a
little tone over this way.
It eventually just sort of blends into and maybe just a little quality along here showing
what looks like showing some concern.
It gives us some description of what might ordinarily be considered a relatively flat
This pencil that I’m using is rather coarse for this paper, and that’s why I have come
in and worked a little bit with the chamois.
I will attempt to do so now and see how that affects things.
Alright, let’s see if we could just bring a couple of these areas back up.
I think that’ll do it for right now.
I’m pushing it back and forth and around.
Partly it has to do with the courses of the material.
I’m kind of experimenting and finding out how we want to do this and then still express
the ideas as we’re going along.
I’m also experimenting with medium.
In a way here you have it.
Again, it’s not to duplicate but it’s a study in light and tone.
It’s an indigo blue.
I’m working on animation paper here, and we’re going to continue the lesson working
now with some of the photographs available to us.
Basically, I’m going to try to handle a partial on this figure, and we’re going
to be spending about 10 minutes on it.
I’m just going to basically lay out…
Let’s see how much of this we can actually get to.
So you see, I’m just doing what are the fundamental characteristics of this pose or action?
Bring this up.
Again, I’m just laying out some fundamental thoughts on it.
Once I get that I might construct a little bit.
I’m seeing this arm as lifting, so that shoulder blade is going up.
We’re going to be paying attention to that.
This arm is coming up and over.
Over here the fingers are attaching, or I should say grabbing, her waist.
Coming down into the lower torso.
We’ve got the cross axis, and we’ve got weight spread between two legs, so I’m going
to find the center line.
Try to keep this relatively simple and light.
I have this straight, but I’m actually going to change it slightly to—it’s got a slight
break in the leg.
This portion of the leg is really kind of doing something like that.
This one here with the hip is coming straight back.
We’ve got a break this way, and this one is straight back.
I’m actually going to concentrate on the middle region here.
Remember, what we’re talking about is light and tone.
I’m not going to draw the complete figure.
The light sources from above, perhaps somewhere around in here.
You’ll see basically how that affects our choices.
We’ve talked a lot about this.
This is our first light.
Just reminding you with a little cast shadow.
Alright, something like that.
Something like that.
And then the second light we said, the helping light would be center of the form gets the light.
What that does I that helps just create volume in areas where it may be difficult to perceive it.
And so we can create it using this concept or this idea.
Okay, so here we go.
You know, I’m just toning my pencil rather than running to the sandpaper every time.
I’m paying attention to where that rib cage is.
I’m finding where the scapula is here.
You’ll notice that the neck is pulling off trapezius up over into the deltoid.
Something like that.
This is pulling in, center line.
Bring in a little bit of tone or just the placement of the tone.
Remember, I was saying that you take an area and you divide it.
You’re dividing it into the subdominant areas.
We’ll be looking at that throughout these demonstrations.
Alright, so this is here.
This is here.
Then we’re swinging off into the hip and finding the—iliac crest here into the lumbar region.
The light is actually hitting in this area, so I’m coming down showing a little bit
of tone there, a little bit of tone here.
I’m also planning, I’m not putting in all the tones in right now.
We get some cast shadow there into tone shadow here.
Cutting across cast shadow.
It’s a softer cast shadow, softer form.
Again, we get the division here.
We’re getting some light hitting this whole surface in here.
This is turning away just like on our sphere up here.
I’m giving it some shape.
In other words, I’m not just making it round because the forms don’t lend themselves to that.
Notice that the underside of this form as this surface here breaks into the leg.
As it breaks into the leg it kind of feeds into the—it’s not independent.
One thing kind of flows into another.
And so we don’t want to circumnavigate that.
We want to allow it to flow, one thing into another.
So, here we are.
And then we’re coming into the hamstring into the calf muscles here, and they’re
going to swing around like that.
We’re catching a little cast shadow as this pulls over and then over and then maybe over
a little bit over here.
Gastrocnemius muscles here.
Hitting that a little harder.
I’ll come in in a minute and kind of work that area, but for the moment I’m still
planning the forms.
So I’m planning the forms in such a way that they also help to tell what the action
is for coming up this way.
Notice that this is kind of a cast shadow so I’m hitting hard.
On the other hand, swing up.
Get the shoulder headed up in this direction.
On the other hand, some of these forms in here, once I plan them out will be softer.
Now, off the spine getting a little tone, a little tone this way,
a little tone here into the shoulder.
Notice I’m paying attention to where the landmarks are, where muscles attach.
I’m not actually designing without actually considering those things.
This arm is going up to the wrist.
I’m going to pay strong attention to the wrist.
I made that arm a little strong here, but let’s just round it out.
If we’re headed up, a little more attitude like that.
I’m actually looking at what the tones are doing, but I’m also asking myself what are
they telling me about the form.
What they’re telling me is what the action is.
I’m seeing the basic elements and character of this body, but also how this body expresses
the action of the pose.
I’m taking everything relatively slow so I’m not going so fast
that you kind of wonder what happens.
You see again, we’re hitting light here, tone, core, cast shadow.
Cut across into the calf muscle.
Gastrocnemius down this way.
Slight cast shadow here.
Notice I’m keeping it light in the dark areas at the moment.
Alright, here, here and here.
That’s a kind of device that you see Tiepolo use.
He’ll keep the dark side and the light side relatively the same in terms of value, allow
the eye to experience the form through the ribbon of tone that runs down through the
body as core shadow.
A little tone.
A little tone on the underside here.
Some division like that.
A little bit of division here so we get some tone coming across.
A little division right there.
That helps us separate this.
I’m not actually dividing the form up into small parcels.
I’m just making this kind of suggestion that one thing has character that is slightly
different than say something else, but at the same time, flows into everything else.
Let’s do this.
Everything flows into everything else, but it’s also got its own signature in how it
expresses an action.
There we go.
Something like that.
This is pulling, pulling.
I might just drop that whole thing.
So, I’m making it less important.
We can continue on.
But, what I think I’ll do know is make the tone side not quite so luminous.
Give you an idea of how we can actually handle this.
Now, I can also go into this—and I’ve already done some of this where I’ve used
this helping secondary concept on tone to bring out some of the form on the light side.
We’re, therefore, pulling the light more toward the center of the form in any one of
these given cases.
But not too much.
Not overdoing it.
We’re just trying to make it so that the form isn’t completely flat.
Also, notice that I made a choice here.
Not making a strong statement that on the photograph suggests a strong kind of complex form.
I’m making it relatively simple because this relatively simple form then helps us
to describe the form instead of doing all of the convoluted changes that take place.
In other words, we simplified it, and the point is to make a strong statement about
what the action is as well as giving us some interesting design between the light and dark patterns.
Alright, let’s do another figure.
Again, it’s not about doing the whole thing.
We’re just going to try to understand the ideas we’ve been discussing about light
So maybe I need to bring it down a little bit because she has his raised arm.
Let’s see what we can do.
I’ll swing that down.
Put her arm over more.
I’m an artist.
It’s my choice.
I don’t have to copy.
Using this figure as a point of departure.
It’s not a portrait.
You’ll notice I’ve said throughout.
When I’m working on something even if I’m studying an old master, I’m not trying to
make an exact replica.
That’s not the point.
The point is to understand something about the drawing process that I didn’t know before,
or to practice some portion of it by studying to see maybe how they’ve handled that.
So, we’ll do this.
Again, this is just the gesture to establish what the figure is doing or what our subject
There we go.
Once I establish that again with a few strokes I can go in and play with the forms.
Rib cage is going to be here.
Breast line approximately here.
They’ve got that up into the neck.
Neck is going to fit into the rib cage about like that.
Head is back.
Something like that.
Maybe I’ll make that head a little bit smaller.
There is a tendency for these things to grow.
You’ll notice that I don’t spend a lot—I’m not going to spend a lot of time on the head
Or at least on this drawing.
We will do a couple today where we go into the tone of the head, but I’m not going
to spend time on it here.
I’ll concentrate on how it’s working to give these forms dimension.
Notice that the breast falls but the pecs are picking up as they go off.
I’ll do this even more.
We have the neckline over here.
That neckline is the trapezius.
We’ve got the pit of the neck here.
Sternocleidomastoid coming down.
Clavicle is going over here.
So you see I want to be aware of these things.
This is lifting more.
Even though I brought the arm out more we can still do this lift.
We’ve got the breast pulling up and up over into the shoulder.
Notice I’m just thinking of this as a simple idea first, just like this.
Maybe I’ll turn it a little bit more into the thumb, get the fingers.
Something like that.
Coming back on this side of the arm we’ve got the bicep coming in.
On this side is the triceps.
We’re seeing what would be the scapula pushing out a little bit and the latissimus kind of
pulling over the top of it.
You can’t see this very well but it’s going to be tucking into the armpit like that.
So, we’ve got the lift.
Something like that.
Coming in here, rounding out the rib cage.
I’m going to pull into the internal muscles where this is because I’m actually looking
for the flow.
It’s flowing and now we’ve got the rectus abdominal muscles, the division.
It kind of looks like fruit here.
Slight pull down.
I haven’t forgotten where I am.
This side is stretching.
It’s stretching between here and the iliac crest.
I’m bringing the iliac crest around from behind.
I’m identifying where that is even though we’ve got the rib cage here.
On this side we have compression.
We have stretch on this side and this is pulling off, and it’s pulling down and in.
This side, this is tucked, kind of quilted in.
We’re seeing this pull around this way because we’re catching light on the top.
The breast here, this breast is kind of falling into place laying on the rib cage.
This one would actually be higher.
This one would be lower.
We’re actually seeing the nipple on an angle.
It’s turning away from us, right.
I would really pay attention to this, what happens to the surfaces.
Be careful not to just draw a round nipple.
This is going to have some core shadow in here.
I’m not going to hit it too hard yet.
Under here, cast shadow is going to be here.
I’m hitting that a little harder to make a distinction between those.
So now we’re looking at—notice I’ve redefined that slightly.
Pushed it out a little bit more.
Maybe stretching just a little bit more.
We noticed that her hip is high here and probably higher here.
In other words, rounder.
That area is the oblique area.
I pulled this all over in this direction, but at some point I might want to say yes,
but what we’re feeling is this form pressing.
Then finally the leg takes over.
What I’m thinking about the leg taking over, I’m actually thinking about its direction
and its volume.
It’s really doing this.
As it lifts it’s forcing itself.
This is forcing itself this way, and this is forcing itself back against it.
What we see in here are these attachments in this area.
And they’re pulling off into the leg.
And it’s helping us to define how we’re going to see that leg.
Bring it out a little bit more.
Bring it out a little more.
That means we’re going to lose some of that.
Okay, and this, I’ve lifted the leg a little bit more.
Give it a little more pizazz.
After all, I’m asking what is my subject doing, remember?
What I’m looking for, again, is not to copy but to tell a story.
So, this tucks.
This is headed down in this direction.
Now, this surface is receiving light, and some of this tone is working its way this
Try to keep this from being an absolute straight line.
In other words, try to pay attention to where the muscle hits the bone
because when you do that it really does—these tones, the way you’re using it—they really
do help define the form.
This, I’m just going to drop it down.
Say less about it at this point.
We’re getting some tone up here as this goes around that corner.
Okay, so now let’s go in and define what we were saying over here.
The first light which is direct light.
It’ll get a little cast shadow as it’s coming around here.
We’re going to hit these things a little harder now.
This is coming.
The tone here.
Actually, bring all of this down a bit.
We’re picking up some tone over here.
Would should see also how we’re actually designing.
I’m pulling this up, allowing this to go into some tone.
Not define it too much.
The light is coming around and out as this stretches up, pinches.
All of that can have some tone.
The whole idea, again, is to describe the volumes.
So, we’re describing the volumes.
That means we’re turning form with light and tone.
Let’s bring this down a little bit.
We’re also using the light to help us to express the action.
We’re basically pulling it along, pulling it up and out.
Bring some tone into that too.
Again, I’ve done this before so I’m going to do a little bit of it now.
We can play into this.
You can use a chamois.
What that does is it kind of dramatizes the tone a little bit more.
It knocks some things down.
It makes other things important.
It’s kind of like painting.
When you’re working on this level, you’re kind of working really back and forth.
Here a little bit of tone on this side.
A little bit of tone over here.
Let’s do this here instead.
We’ve moved this point, you see, I’ll just knock that down a little bit so it’s not so confusing.
Okay, so we are playing with the light a little bit, but all really to help us understand
the action and to define the forms by turning the forms, and to give us the best graphic
statement possible under the circumstances.
Something like that.
Let’s get this little tuck.
So, one thing here, just one last thing.
You might want to bring the light to the center so that this just doesn’t feel like a big
board length, and we begin to feel the tones working to help describe form.
We have a big corner, but having it help to describe form.
It’s always this thing between one and the other, designing the form and describing the
form and describing possibly the action.
A portion of this figure.
I’m just going to lay a little bit of it out.
Just basically show you where we’re going.
So I’m thinking, alright, the arm is coming down this way.
Keep it simple.
Hand coming this way.
The upper torso here, lower torso here.
Rear, lower, pelvis area here into the leg, thigh here.
Alright, let’s see where we’re at.
Just get a few things mapped out here so that we can talk.
Making a few adjustments in this action.
He’s pushing up on the shoulder because he’s got his hand on this other leg.
I’m not going to pay much attention to that and those things at this point.
My main concentration in this particular pose or action or both is going to be the patterns.
We’ll get this.
If you remember when we were talking about Michelangelo and the complexity of the form
and how he would break things down into a primary form and then have a secondary series
of forms within that.
Then out of that the tertiary level so that all the primaries would have patterns within them.
Then those secondaries would have patterns within them.
We were discussing that, if you remember.
I thought maybe we would just kind of address that thought or idea here with this pose.
I’m not going to get into the pose so much as I’m going to get into these patterns.
For instance, we have the gesture.
We start basically with the gesture.
Then gesture—let’s say we’ve taken care of it and the other legs over here.
I’m not going to do it at this point.
The other foot is back here and so on.
As I said, the arm is—what I’d like to do is concentrate on this area right in here.
We’ve got our gesture and now we’ve got the two primary forms; this one and this one.
I guess you could think of primary forms as being those eight parts that we’ve always
talked about. Right?
There are eight parts of the body: upper, lower, head, arms, legs.
So, that’s a primary for instance and so is this.
I’m just sort of thinking this is one.
This might be one.
Then the arms and the legs.
Something like that.
Therefore, I’m just trying to keep the idea simple.
There is one and there is another one.
There is an intersection between them and so on.
We’ve got our primaries.
I want you to notice I’m going to do this.
Make sure I keep this soft.
We’re going to break it down into secondary forms.
Here is a pattern here.
So, within this area we have a pattern.
Then, within this area we’re going to have another pattern.
Okay, and back over here another one.
Let’s kind of really get a strong oblique angle as this pulls over.
We have this against this.
This actually going into this.
Okay, so this is pulling across.
I guess we would have to include that.
In here we have this.
Let’s give us a little more space here because we’ve got the leg that comes in now at this point.
The leg is also going to be broken down here.
Here is the major form, and now we’re just breaking it down into a couple of smaller forms.
This is pulling off, pulling off.
So, you see, we’ve divided those into any detail yet.
We’re trying to keep in mind the basic sense of the action.
So what we have is we have primary, secondary, and now we want to go inside that.
Basically, for this even though we will be using this concept here where we have direct light.
Again, the cast shadow, we’ll also be using the secondary one.
Center of the form gets the light.
Notice that I’m not spending a lot of time trying to make these little examples perfect.
Think of this more like notes.
It’s the idea that’s important at this point.
Then can you execute the idea.
That’s primarily what we’re doing.
Let’s take, for instance, let’s go over here and start to play.
Alright, so we’ve got this line.
We have where the spine of the scapula is coming up and the undercut here.
We have this form folding over, and that form is part of the trapezius coming off from the
back of the neck.
Knock that down so that we can concentrate on these areas.
Out of that we have some muscles that are pulling toward the shoulder, tucking under.
Again, we’re now dealing with what’s happening within the secondary forms.
Remember, this is the primary.
The secondary forms have been described here.
The light is basically hitting the top of the form.
Again, center of the form gets the light more or less.
We’ve got this coming down.
The shoulder is pulling into the back up into this area.
The posterior section of the deltoid attaches to the spine back here.
Nonetheless, you’ll notice that we’re allowing light to be in the center of the form
That’s basically what we’re basically concentrating on here.
When we come down the arm you’ll see the biceps on the side.
Notice when I go cross-axis I didn’t make a straight.
I’m going around, cross- axis to the form.
We said that the triceps comes in and attaches to the edge of the scapula, and it disappears.
It has its own volumes, egg-like in shape.
It comes over.
It’s got a strap if you notice.
Plus a band that kind of holds it in place this way.
It’s pulling over toward the olecranon, the elbow.
That is kind of in the dark.
We have the brachioradialis pulling around and these extensors as well.
You’ll notice that this is deeper.
It’s a deeper cut over to where it reveals a little bit of the bones.
This pulls over.
We’re seeing just a bit of the condyle.
Condyle of the humerus pulling across.
This straps in.
It’s kind of a strap.
We’re not seeing it except that it begins to take on some tone in this area.
This starts to lose tone as it joins the
rest of the muscles that are headed toward the fingers.
Once they get down here it goes through a band.
This is tucking around, down.
It’s the wrist.
Remember, we’re thinking squaring.
I’ll square it just for a moment.
What I’ve done is I’ve moved from the organic description of the form which is what
light and tone is all about.
That takes over from the diagrammatic.
I came down here and started the diagrammatic description.
In other words, I’m blocking it out in terms of concepts and ideas.
This takes that job over and describes things with organic forms.
Light and tone does that for us.
As we’re coming down, we have these muscles that as we said are tying into the armpit
from the scapula area, and now we’re going to look at this area.
It’s way across like this.
This is coming down, just kind of pulling down slowly.
If you observe the tone, pulls down slowly.
It’s turning slowly and pulling down from the rhomboids into the spine.
On top of that is the trapezius which is also pulling off this way.
Notice we are creating patterns, but also we are describing form.
Here is an interesting pattern in here.
You’ll notice that it’s confined when you have this where the ribs are over to the
edge of the latissimus.
The latissimus is cutting in this way and pulling down like this.
It rounds out here only because of the way he is bending forward.
We have a lot of contraction in here and compression.
This is pulling over.
The latissimus, this whole edge does go down and it attaches back here.
I think that’s useful to know because in a certain sense even though this is confined
to its space in terms of the primary, secondary, and tertiary elements, it does indicate that
it has a direction.
I’m trying not to lose that.
I’m actually pulling over toward this meeting.
Coming up the back.
We’re actually picking up some light over here,
but not quite as much because it’s turned away slightly.
On the other side of the spine, maybe we hit a few of these points.
It catches some shadow.
This also gives us the strength.
Most of this has been brought down by the photograph, and I’m probably in agreement
with that because we don’t want all of this over here to compete with this.
This is our primary description.
We need to be careful not to make this whole thing too busy.
As per example, it would be easy enough to say, well,
I need to say everything that’s happening.
Once again, I’ve said before that when we start thinking like that it’s like it’s
akin to saying, having a vocabulary that you can’t not audit.
Instead one becomes way to verbose when simplicity would be the thing we’re looking for.
So, in this sense you’ll sees that Michelangelo and what we’re attempting to do here is
kind of audit and simplify by making choices.
Now, this is a subject that we will be discussing
again when we start talking about drawing aesthetics.
For instance, here I might just, I don’t want to compete with the arm so I’m going
to simplify, and so on.
We’re feeling this tension.
In the light area I still have the ability to make a statement, but I’m minimalizing
that statement once we get into the toned area.
It’s always about choices.
What is the story?
Anyway… sense of direction.
Without going too far.
Just get a little bit more.
Tone on this side.
We’re going for the center of the form on some of these things.
Alright, so I think that more or less gets the idea across.
I’ll remind you, we started with this idea that we’re going to break the large forms
down once we’ve got our gesture into primary forms.
One, two, three, and so on.
Then break those forms down into smaller groups, secondary forms, and so on.
Those groups each have their own individual characteristics.
Then out of that we have the whole of it on every one of those levels working to describe
the overall story and action of the pose.
Again, I’m not trying to give you a head drawing.
It’s not about the head drawing.
It’s about how the light is hitting the surfaces of this head.
Let’s keep that in mind.
Let me do it this way.
I’m just going to try to lay some things out.
This isn’t to demonstrate head drawing, and it’s not a portrait.
It’s just simply we actually want to talk about some of the principles of light and tone.
We’re using this as kind of a reference.
I will say this.
We want to describe this plane of the nose and make sure that the eye doesn’t get too
close by understanding that there is a plane that goes down from the bridge.
Alright, so that means that the eye, once we find the area where
we want it is not going to be pushing in.
On the other hand, on this side, the eye will appear closer.
We have the eye in here, the lid, brow.
I’m going to make this a little higher.
Make that a little tighter.
We’re just basically identifying the planes.
Just identifying the planes, right?
Okay, so that’s cutting across this way.
More or less, we have what we need in order to start thinking about this.
More or less.
Okay, so our light source is mainly from above.
Perhaps it’s coming from this direction here.
Let’s just say something like that.
So it’s hitting certain surfaces.
It’s hitting along here.
Hitting along here.
It’s hitting the bridge of the nose so I’m just going to come in and define the bridge
a little bit and the tone.
It starts to pick it up on this side over here.
You’ll notice that this area here gets some light, but it takes on just a slight bit of
tone as it drops down. Very little.
We have this turn right here.
It tucks a little bit right here because this fatty area right around the eye here, this
overlays the orbicularis iris, this area.
We get a little tuck right there in the eye.
I think we can see a little bit of the ridge.
So, if we come over here, same thing, you get kind of a tuck right there.
This is slightly rounded.
There is a little tone as it tucks back.
So, we have a little tone here, a little tone here.
Might as well state where the pupil is, so I’m just going to do that on these.
She’s got some nice long lashes.
Drops, does something like that.
Gives here these rather sultry looking eyes.
Ridge, we’re seeing that.
We have this.
We have this. We’re actually seeing in there like that.
And that lash is pulling back.
This is picking up some light right in here.
As we come down now I want to help define this a little bit, but very, very lightly.
Even as the tip of the nose turns and rounds out this way
it begins to tuck a little bit around the alar.
It’s actually taking some tone.
In fact, it's even getting some reflected light.
We’re getting some cast shadow under here.
Nostril. Turned under.
And so is this turned under, but softer.
This turns with a little bit more character.
Sharper, and the undercarriage of the tip of the nose takes on some tone.
So something like that.
The nostril is actually darker.
Alright, something like that.
Over here, again, we’re getting a little bit of lash.
The lower lid, by the way, down here is going to also be described with some tone.
We need to be careful about how we do that.
You can give somebody bags under their eyes relatively quickly.
Let’s see if I just did that.
Notice also I’m trying to show this.
This is the ridge. This ridge goes in and tucks.
Right now it looks like it’s too much.
It may not look like that when we’re finished.
As I said, this whole plane of the nose off the bridge turns away from the light source.
It’s picking up a little light, a little light.
You could say using the principle here—the center of the form gets the light—that we
get a little highlight here.
If we do that we’ve got to come down then and make this a little darker, deepen this tone.
Then there is this cast shadow off the nose into the whole upper region above the mouth.
So it goes from the septum into the philtrum.
Something like that.
This ridge is picking up some tone.
It might be too much, but you get the point. Soft.
The underside of the mouth also because it’s rolling back in.
This whole section right here is going to be darker than any other portion.
I wouldn’t overdo it.
This does have some value to it, so it’s not that it is the same tone as the skin tone,
the local part of the skin tone.
There is a little pull here.
Alright, say something like that.
The lip itself coming across, maybe slight division, catching some light on the top.
Getting some of this like this.
This kind of like pulls around underneath and here down to where the chin begins.
The whole plane. This is the denture sphere in here.
This whole denture sphere pulling out this way.
You’ll notice as we come along here that this does this,
and it begins to pull out a little bit.
Perhaps we’re on the kind of the angle where the mouth actually goes past and hits here.
Then we’re going to treat this again like a sphere so this area gets more light.
Also, there is a big muscle around the mouth called the orbicularis oris,
and this is helping to define that a little bit.
Be cautious, especially with women, on this.
This is not extremely bright in here.
We’re not going to make it compete.
This is tucking back here.
Little bit in here.
There is a little bit of fluting above the mouth,
and it can be defined because the light hits the fluted part.
Be really careful about that.
The cheek itself takes on some tone.
Be really cautious.
The cheekbone, the zygomatic arch in here turns under.
So, we have this.
Helping to define this turn away from the light source.
This is a core shadow.
Cast shadow. Soft. This is coming up to the ear.
All of this in tone getting a little harder back here.
This form is coming around.
Again, this area is the area that’s getting the most light, so we’ll treat it gently.
I think it’s important.
I think you understand I’m coming over here, and I’m actually refining my pencil.
You may not always take that seriously. I do.
That’s why I’m doing it on the paper rather than on sandpaper so that you see
basically how often I’m doing it.
And how important it is to stay up on it.
If you lose control of the tip of your pencil you’re not in control of your drawing.
You really are not. You will lose it.
Okay, so I’m using kind of a lot of hatching that can be handled a lot of different ways.
You can leave it like that.
The main thing is the defining of forms.
Notice I’m not putting a lot here.
This is a choice to keep it simpler.
Now, another way to keep this simple is to come in and all these choices where we have,
for instance, this hatching can be brought down into a tone.
Notice I’m also, at this point, I’m giving less attention to what happens in the ear.
Do you see the moment I do that the attention it brings to it?
You have to decide where is your story.
Once you do that it helps you clarify where you need to go with this.
Essentially, I’m using this as an example about how the light works and how it helps
us to get inside and describe these areas.
You see what it does with those areas.
What we need to keep in mind then is not just about how much to say but about what not to say.
In this particular area, I’m choosing not to be defined.
As I said, we can also come in and knock these areas down and soften this whole thing.
Once you do that now you’re working in a way on another level
changing how we’re actually handling that.
It’s actually simplifying.
I’ll take this.
It’s a little strong here.
Might be too much here.
Might maybe even knock this down a little bit. Not quite so strong.
Again, we sort of talked our way through that.
You can kind of see how we’re thinking about how to use the light to describe the form.
When you’re done you can come back and decide what you want to give more emphasis to or
what you’d like to tone down or simplify.
Also, the amount of detail you want to give something is a personal choice.
I would just be cautious not to overstate something.
Sometimes it takes a while to understand that.
Don’t be discouraged if you overdraw. It’s bound to happen.
You can’t be so cautious that you’re afraid to try something.
It’s trying something and failing many times that you begin to discover
what it is that works for you.
Let’s just say something like that.
I think that we can leave it at that.
Let’s just take this little hit off of here.
Little things. Let’s try one more thing.
Again, this is not a portrait of an eye.
Again, we’re trying to pay attention to some of the characteristics.
Some of the characteristics of light and tone.
I would ordinarily say that you should be drawing a sphere for the eye, and I’m going
to suppose in a sense that we’ve already done that
so that we can concentrate on something else, which is light and tone.
So, we’re coming in.
I’m not seeing a whole lot of the ridge of the upper lid
because of the thickness of the lashes.
Yet, on the other hand, as we come down into the tear duct we swing around this way,
we are seeing the ridge of the lower lid.
We’re also seeing the edge of the lower lid.
And let’s do this and put this right in the middle.
Usually the upper portion is covered, and the lower portion either
has space or seems to rest.
The pupil here has some interesting things that we’d like to know about the pupil,
but it’s not for this lesson.
Right away I’m going to come in and start dealing with some tone
or bring some tone in here.
You’ll notice that it gets lighter as I get up.
This is not uniform.
This is not the same tone all the way up.
This is slightly—there is a thickness to it that we want to not ignore.
We can feel that thickness if we don’t just make the whole tone uniform.
The iris itself…
generally has more tone on the outside edge.
I’m leaving this room for this highlight here.
We’ve got the iris on here.
Generally it has a glass-like glow to it.
The tone coming from the lid of the upper side.
Notice, this isn’t completely light.
It’s not the lightest area.
We talk about it as the white of the eye, but I notice in painting that so many people
that are just beginning will paint this area, the sclerae, the white of the eye, the so-called
white of the eye, they’ll paint it white, whether it’s in the shadows or not.
We’re actually observing the ridge.
This upper ridge, this whole section here.
Again, it slightly swells out.
As a result, the lid pulls out from underneath it in this case.
Not all eyelids are the same, by the way.
Here is the lightest area in here.
Taking on tone as it comes this way.
The ridge itself as it turns away from the light source.
Most of the light is hitting in this area.
So as this turns away, not only does it get a shadow from there, real narrow cast shadow
because this is pulling back out into the light.
So this cast shadow doesn’t really drift down because
this is pulling back and catching light.
Nonetheless, it is turning away from the light source.
We’re going to see little flickerings and groupings of lashes coming off this ridge here.
They’re not really individual and sometimes they point towards one another
as they cluster in this little group.
We’re also going to feel a little bit of the flickering up
even with the straight-on view of the lash above.
Okay, so we’re kind of getting there.
We’re taking on some tone as this drops down.
This drops into here.
Let’s get rid of this excess here. Eyebrow.
You’re usually going to see it going this way, and then it picks up this way,
joins in and then you get—it’s basically a three-part situation.
Let me get that brow a little lower.
Alright, our light is coming from this direction, picking up light here.
Picking up light.
Pick up a little light in this area.
There is some light in this area.
I’m just going to actually describe light along this ridge.
Then we’re going to hit it again along this area.
We’re going to pick up light.
This might take on a little tone and so on.
Alright, so here, here, here, here.
I would like to give you three photographs to work from for your assignment.
Take 20 minutes or so, and when you’re finished check in and see how I’ve handled the same assignments.
handled the same material.
Okay, I’m going to start with a gesture.
I’m going to try to keep it pretty light, kind of a gesture of the big action.
Now, I’d like to say as we’re working along and just kind of developing the opening
here that I’m not doing a master drawing.
What we’re doing—I’m reminding you here—is we’re talking about the principles of light
and tone and how those principles are instrumental in describing form.
Also, they help us understand how to get a simple read, design, and so on.
At this point, I’m more or less concentrating on those characteristics.
I’m actually slowing it down a bit.
Again, I’ve said before that this is the stage.
If there are any changes to be made is the simplest stage to make those changes in.
We have a whole lot less invested so I can come along and make these decisions like that.
Now, if you’re doing a 2-minute drawing everything is on the run.
In this case, you have a little more time.
When you have a little more time like that, often things can get stiff.
You want to be careful about that.
Because we get involved in detail, you get involved in that kind of detail, sometimes
we forget the big story, the big idea.
So for instance, I could get lost in this hand.
You could say, well, maybe it needs to be up at this point.
Maybe I need to change it.
See what I mean?
Just a simple little change like that.
This is the time.
Also, the drawing is, at this point, as you can see, it’s relatively dark.
That’s for your purposes so you can actually see what I’m doing.
I might not put everything down.
I might leave some very simple statements at this point.
The reason is is that I would pick it up with tone directly.
In other words, I might come along and hit something like that, which seems a little
premature, but it’s based on what I’m already experiencing about the form, what
I want to say about the form.
For instance, she’s pulling up.
The rib cage is pulling up.
Now, if I come in I can get the tone using the direct light aspect of tone to support that.
I’m not digging in.
This isn’t a two-minute drawing, so I can take my time a little bit with that.
I’m pulling down like that.
This is, what I’m doing here is actually doing some half-tone and some core tone.
I’m pulling this down over the hip so we’re experiencing the hip.
Some tone here to show this turn.
A little bit here and a little tuck here.
Again, I’d like to state that I’m not trying to do a portrait of Catherine here.
I’m trying to draw an idea.
Catherine represents that idea.
It’s a certain action.
It’s her action I’m interested in.
So, this is far from being a rendering.
In other words, just a copy of Catherine.
We’re using the principles of tone that I’ve been discussing with you.
It’s direct light because we have a light source coming from this direction.
Therefore, the form is going around beyond the light into the tone.
When it makes that turn, well, it can be core shadow.
Then we have this tuck and we have reflected light.
So, you can see that I’m concerned with using the tone to help describe
how the surfaces change.
Again, this is not a long drawing.
This is a drawing that is more spirited and less meditative,
and I can throw all this in tone.
That’s where we’re going with this.
We’re actually also designing.
This shoulder blade, because the arm is pulling out this way down to the olecranon, the elbow
and into the wrist.
We’re going to back that up see.
Just a suggestion.
Notice that this tone comes up this way, and what it does is it helps describe the form.
This, on the other hand, helps describe the form using core shadow.
This is a cast shadow.
Let’s get back to this point now where the shoulder is actually lower.
This shoulder blade is pushing up against the spine.
On this side you have a cast shadow.
It’s pulling off from here.
All of this is casting shadow across this way.
Over here it’s just sort of just kind of turning away.
You get some kind of core shadow as this is pulling down.
Core shadow on this side.
In the leg we also have a cast shadow.
This cast shadow kind of loops up, and it goes around the axis of the form, and then
like a cylinder it’s turning away from the light source.
Therefore, it describes the volume of the form, and also if I pull it down this way,
if I do this.
It describes the action.
Do you see where I’m headed?
Come back here.
Say something about how this turns, too.
There is kind of a hard cast shadow here.
It cuts down over.
So, if I just come in and bring some tone to those areas, it might help define them a bit.
Over to the bone.
Coming along, grab the tendon.
What I’d like to do here, although we already have a lot of tone going on is to indicate
using the second light, the second light being conceptual light.
Indicate where that center of the form is so that even on the light side we feel the
I’ve given you the concepts, so I’m not going to go into them in here.
That means that we have a little tone on this side.
We can actually feel this turn under.
We can feel some of this half-tone helping to describe a little bit on the light side.
Bringing some things out a little more.
This muscle pulling across all the way up to the elbow.
Ankle, bottom of the foot here.
Back this up again.
Let’s bring this down.
Okay, I’m going to pull a little light back out in this area.
Pull a little light back out because that got a little dark.
If I were you, I wouldn’t think of the eraser as something that makes corrections.
It’s more like painting.
You can use it vigorously as a style or technique.
Pulling your lights out and so on.
Mainly you’ll see that the points that I’m interested in are the ones that helps support
the action and the turning of the form.
Let’s get up here and take some of that out.
Alright, so sometimes it’s necessary.
Sometimes, as I say, it can be used as kind of a technique.
But that’s kind of the idea.
We’ll leave it at that.
Alright, let’s try a front view.
Again, I want to repeat that I’m not trying to go for everything here.
I’m simply going for the things that I think will help me tell my story
in the best way.
By the way, I think it might be interesting to say here is that that doesn’t mean that
every time I might work for this that my drawings would be identical.
There may be different aspects that strike me each time so the story could vary.
But, here notice that anatomically I’m pulling from the pit of the neck over to where the
clavicle is going, and the clavicle does fit on the rib cage here.
So, there is a feeling or sense of the rib cage and center line.
And the center line, okay, let’s do this.
Pulling over like this down to the pubic bone.
Over, we’ve got these abdominal muscles tying in somewhere in here.
Obviously, even though we’re doing light and tone, we need to be aware of the volumes
and we also need to be aware of what they represent, the anatomical significance of that.
For instance, here we have the rib cage.
I’m aware that the rib cage is in here.
Now I’ve got the neck, basic direction of the head here.
Alright, this is pulling up.
This is down because what we have is we have this going in this direction.
And this whole lift here.
All the way up, we’re actually seeing a little bit of the shoulder right here.
And the muscles that are tying into the armpit here.
To the elbow.
Elbow around there and muscle, triceps.
It’s actually cylindrical, so it’s pulling this way.
This, feeling the weight of the—let’s make that a little more like that.
The weight of the deltoid that’s pulling over, notice it’s pulling away at the rib
cage a little bit so we get some tone in here.
Therefore, we see the shoulder right in here.
All this will be in tone.
This is dropping down, seeing the breast fall on this side pulling up.
Notice that the breast is turned away into this direction a little bit as she bends.
Also, notice that I didn’t just start drawing parts.
I drew the sense of the whole figure so that I know that this is more than a part.
It is a part that’s also in its own unique way—because of its shapes and volumes and
its active participation—each muscle part is like a tool so it’s participating in
This is going around and catching some light.
But notice that it’s pulling, pulling all the way say from here.
This is not lost on me.
I’m actually thinking where the hips are.
It’s not like I’m doing them now.
I knew where they were a minute ago.
If you don’t know where they are then you should probably indicate them before you start
But, like I was saying in the previous drawing, I drew everything out so it got kind of heavy-handed.
I’m not doing that as much here.
I’m just drawing simple directional lines.
Okay, so this is pulling around.
Again, I want to remind you.
This isn’t about doing portraits.
It’s about creating story.
My story is not so much about character.
It could be, but it’s not today.
It’s not under these circumstances.
The story is more about the action itself.
In a way, it’s more about the action than it is her as a person.
This is more about the mechanics, the wondrous dynamics of the human body.
All creatures have terrific dynamics, but we’re exploring this one.
We’re discussing it this way and trying to catch the poetry of the action under this
kind of cast shadow there.
I don’t think I’ll spend too much time forcing that.
Notice that this pulls down just a little bit because it’s respecting the sacrum and
the first ribs that are pulling in this direction.
So, you see kind of a little V in here.
Pit of the neck where we’ve got some core shadow.
Notice up here that this is narrow, but then it starts to widen.
It’s not just one big straight line.
It starts to widen because this is rounder here and this is straighter.
Then is pulls in tight because of the way this attaches with this muscle here.
All of these will be in the dark.
Let me do a little bit more on this hip here.
First let’s push this a little more.
Find that hip.
Notice I’m going cross-axis.
I’m describing the
form by going cross-axis.
Down into the knee.
And I’m just going to simply bring that down.
I’m not going to spend much time down here in the lower end of the drawing and talk more
about working with the tones here.
Notice that the underside of this is catching light on this side.
Again, the light source is coming from this direction here.
Okay, that means that everything that turns away from the light source gets tone.
Now, the question is how are we designing that tone?
And up in this area we’re swinging up to the inguinal ligament.
Catch a little bit of this.
Going to back off a little bit on this.
That’s another thing I’m often asked.
Where should you put lines or where should you put emphasis.
I think that you can set up a theme so it can be whatever you want it to be, but it
should be something.
If you want to hit heavy where the bones are or where the weight of the form is like right there.
Let’s say the weight of the form like that.
Drop the whole thing.
Then for me I’m emphasizing this stretch.
It’s all the way out.
Like I say, what we’re doing is we’re just exploring the ideas.
We’re not trying at this point to make a master drawing.
We’re attempting to just—in a relaxed way—how to explore where you want to put
Let’s back off here.
Maybe I want to kick this up a little bit, pulling back up.
Could maybe de-emphasize where this a little bit.
Pull it down.
If I pull in down it makes it work.
We’re kind of exploring what we want.
It makes this pull stronger.
We want this, so this is pulling that way and this way as well.
This is pushing up.
So, this side is compressed.
This is stretching.
It straightens the whole thing out, down and out.
We’re actually using the light and tone to help tell that story as well.
We need some tone to help describe this form a bit.
Now, maybe that is too much.
Okay, that’s about it.
Now, we could go in here.
I think that when we do a session on the master drawing, I’ll go into a great bit more detail,
but in a very subtle way.
Again, I don’t want you to become self-conscious about this process
because it’s about exploring the ideas.
It’s not the time to be thinking am I doing a perfect light and tone drawing.
Okay, I think that’s good enough for now.
Okay, here we go with our third one.
Pull it up a little bit.
What is see here is this lift.
I want to make sure that we have a drop here, spine.
Hip high, low.
Here is your rhythm.
This isn’t exactly a straight line back here, but the pull feels very straight.
It’s almost like a bone.
We’re pulling this around it like this.
Right, that’s that muscle.
That’s the outside quad here.
Narrowing it helps us see the corner, so I’m actually using the tone at this point.
It’s pulling off this way, going around.
Already it’s very dark.
It’s this paper and it’s not as forgiving as some.
Anyway, I’m going to get this tuck pulled in this way so I can come back here with the
We’re also seeing around the corner here as we go to the other hamstring.
Then in between, calf muscles.
This is pulling down.
Now, I’m going to bring this knee down.
Get rid of the tucking.
This is a little high to this.
This is not exactly round, pulling off that way.
So, in a way you’re kind of seeing how I’m designing the tone and the edge of the tone
with the light.
A little strong.
Back that off a little bit.
Stretch from here from the hip.
Up past the rib cage into the scapula and the muscles.
We have the spine of the scapula pulling this way.
We see some of these muscles here up to the bone, the elbow.
See, for my money, I’m already too dark in this area if I want to develop this.
My gesture is too dark.
You might find that happening a lot.
I notice that it happens a lot in my classes.
People get dark too fast.
If you’re working with new materials like I am here then you kind of have to play with
it and get used to it a little bit.
I’m doing it as we go.
Again, this is important.
We’ve got this arm cranked back up against the spine.
It’s doing something similar to what the first one is doing here.
In this case, the shoulder blade is shoved back against the spine so it gives this kind
of a feeling.
Don’t be fooled by that because that’s just the flesh and the muscle.
The actual rib cage is still going this way.
Don’t be fooled by that.
See it for what it is.
Then you can use it dynamically.
Up and over.
This one is actually coming back toward us.
She’s stretching for it.
We’re seeing a lot of tone here to describe what’s happening here.
Let me not overkill that.
The trapezius is going across the spine of the scapula.
The lower part of the trapezius is pulling down and it’s going to head down this way.
We don’t see it much past this point.
I think everything begins to turn into tone.
This is pulling this way toward the deltoid.
Head way over here.
Shift the head all the way over it like this.
Coming out to the bone.
Again, the roundness.
You see this kind of completes this side.
This is swinging out, pushing it, pressing it.
Pushing the point.
See, without that you miss everything.
This is a critical point.
It is totally swinging back in, and this picks up the edge.
This swings inside the form.
This picks up the edge.
This tucks all the way back up into the small of the back.
This is doing this into the small of the back, into the sacral region.
Make that oblique a little narrower.
Come over here.
Feeling of this.
Notice I didn’t go to the heel.
I didn’t do this.
The main thrust is down and hit.
There is the other side of this.
We see the core shadow here, but the other side of this muscle here.
And this is pulling from behind.
Now put a little tone on that to the ankle.
I’m emphasizing some of the business of the scapula here because so much of it is
going to go into relief.
Drop that down too.
Our issue is to get this stretch where we had it—we’re headed to the elbow.
Tone on the underside.
Tone on the underside.
All of this is in tone.
We’ll just drop it down this way.
Okay, let’s take a look at the light side and clarify this a little bit.
Clean it up.
Kind of a little bit of draw through there.
Let’s come back to this.
Again, the quadriceps here and the hamstring coming from behind and pulling over.
Lighter, a little lighter in here.
Let’s drop that down.
Let’s talk a little bit about this area here where the ribs are.
In this case, the ribs are going to help describe the form.
I wouldn’t overemphasize this.
Notice how they’re coming around this way.
They’re coming out from this tonal area so it’s going to be stronger right around in here.
I’m going to knock this out a little bit...
by coming around the corner,
catching the bone. I could leave this.
I mean a lot of it is very expressive.
More expressive than it describes form.
Let’s just come back a little bit.
I’m going to actually change this line because I actually wanted to do something else.
It was a perfectly good line but what I see is that it’s lifting up and off and then
it’s joined by another one, which straightens the line out.
So, you’ll see that here and here.
And we start to pull out again.
There is a feeling or an action that this is pulling down this way off from the hip.
I’m actually going to open this up a little bit.
Let’s back off on this.
Frankly, I would recommend that you explore more before you start doing the fancy designs,
you know, where you do everything with a single stroke.
This way you’ll learn a lot about the form before you commit to a quicker version.
If you did this in five minutes it’s going to be less labored, but you will have learned
a great deal if you explore like this.
If you render I don’t think you’re going to get as much out of it.
You’re going to get a slicker drawing, but you’re not really going to be exploring
those forms in the way that we’re talking about here.
Alright, now that you’ve finished the assignment and you’ve had a change to look at how I’ve
handled the same material, take some time and work on some more at your leisure.
See how you really begin to understand the nature of these
two light sources working together.
I will see you next time.
Our next lesson will be aesthetics.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview55sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Overview of Light and Tone10m 55s
3. Single Source Lighting34m 33s
4. Multipoint Lighting9m 58s
5. Michelangelo Demonstration41m 30s
6. Rubens Demonstration22m 35s
7. Piazzetta Demonstration 132m 24s
8. Bellini Demonstration41m 5s
9. Pizzetta Demonstration 233m 41s
10. Sargent Demonstration27m 42s
11. Leonardo Demonstration24m 53s
12. Bernini Demonstration35m 51s
13. Demonstration from Model Reference 1 (Maude)33m 37s
14. Demonstration from Model Reference 2 (Clay)25m 12s
15. Demonstration from Model Reference 3 & 4 (Monika, Lilias)35m 43s
16. Assignment1h 1m 5s
17. Karl's Approach to the Assignment57m 12s