- Lesson Details
In week two, instructor Glenn Vilppu will share with you the use of opposites or juxtaposition in composition. You will learn how this idea applies to color, orientation, size, and many other elements to create interest and complexity in artworks.
Throughout this course, you’ll have access to the NMA community for feedback and critiques to improve your work as you progress.
Transcription not available.
Now, when you think of opposites, now, you, I want to change sort of the
context of how you think about opposites.
Opposites really are meant to take and define elements.
We use opposites to make both sides of the opposites work clearer.
Also it heightens the dramatics of whatever it is that you're doing.
Now in the first lesson, I started talking a little bit about opposites.
We talked about movement and what have you, but there's many, many more elements
to that we can take and deal with.
And like I said, this will, as we go through now, this is just beginning.
As we go through.
And I start talking about more paintings and analyzing more paintings
you will see many more ramifications of the use of opposites.
Opposites, essentially the art of an individual is actually defined
by how he works with opposites.
So when you look at different artists, the use of opposites is
essentially one of the main elements that defines the look that they have.
Let's just talk about some of the basic things, and you could actually make an - I
often I tell the students make a list, take and just make a list of opposites.
I will be taking, you can write this up.
We can say, well, tall, short, fat,
slim, big, small, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera, you can just go through
and see how many times, how many different opposites you can take and work with.
So let's just take and start with some very simple things
by taking, say a figure here.
I got this figure taking it in.
Well, that's a really, that's a really make this extreme here.
It turns really into a big fat round figure.
Now as cartoony as this looks as we take a look at some of these paintings, you'll
see that this is not all that cartoony.
We take this, we can take and have a very slender.
Clear, a clear play of opposites.
So in this case, we're talking about fat and skinny, but we
can also take an have here
small and big.
And the smaller it is, the bigger that seems.
Artists did, you can look at that were really obvious where
he used that type of thing.
Look at the French Daumier did this all the time, constantly
playing with this type of things.
We'll look at some of that stuff, but in talk about the composition part of
it the opposites are getting a movement.
Now there is, if I get a movement going in,
going this way.
And let's say you get another, we talked about transition.
So if I get another movement going in here now that's not opposite.
That's just a movement.
In fact, it's like a dominoes type thing, but the minute I take and do this,
now, we have opposite.
So we're getting to point here.
Now I've made the comment primary and a secondary idea.
This obviously is stronger.
This is secondary.
If I made this equal to that, all we would have is a big X.
That wouldn't work.
It wouldn't create any movement.
In fact, it would kill the movement.
So when you're playing an opposite you have to think, okay now how
has this opposite being used?
How does it work as it becomes part of a overall movement
thing that you're working with?
So as we take and deal with opposites, we can take and say, well, in a
compositional thing, now let's just take and draw a frame here.
I mentioned about, we were looking at El Greco.
We were taking and seeing the movement going up
and on the opposite side of the picture movement was going down.
Now, this is a classic, this is a classic play of opposites.
And as you look at a lot of the masters, you will find that they actually
took and divided pictures in half.
Often people say well you can't put something in a half, you can't divide
something in half that's nonsense.
They did it all the time.
There was just, it became almost a way of working.
I've done paintings where I've taken and started out putting, measuring exactly
with a ruler, say that's the center.
And the natural tendency is to actually find the center by accident.
So I make point that I know where the center is, so I don't do it by accident.
So now as we work with this, you can say, well, okay, this
is going up, that's coming down.
Well, let's look at this as another aspect of that, as we take and
opposite could also be dealing with space.
Here, what I'm dealing with is basically a two dimensional composition to
the two dimensional idea down versus up, but we can also deal with mass
These are all opposites.
Part of the thing.
Now these opposites here maybe would be in the context of a whole series
of figures within a composition, maybe something over here, a group against one.
I suggest that you look at a charter.
You find you did this constantly taking and dealing with mass against space.
And as we look at these paintings, you're going to see
that this is a theme that plays.
Let's take another example.
And this is something we will talk about will come up within the lessons.
In other words, if I take and have a figure on this side of the canvas
and another one on that side of the canvas, well, we can take and relate.
We can relate.
In other words, if I just do this within the context of this blank canvas
and do that we can see the movement.
Well, we saw that, we looked at the Poussin.
We saw this flight into Egypt going across, but at the same
time we had the eyes, the heads looking in the opposite direction.
That was an opposite, but I could also pick it up at the same time here.
If say, if I have something here taking it and going this way.
And I come back over here and I have something going that way.
These are opposites, but without something else in here,
they would become basically equals creating this center.
So what I've done here and just in playing with this, you can see I've
taken in creating a series of lines now, and I can take any, you'd be
playing into something in here.
So now it's just these purely abstract forms we're playing with objects.
Let's take this idea of the mass here.
If I take and block this off,
that could be trees or anything else that you want, but let's say we've
got something going on here like this.
Now, but we're creating a strong movement going that way.
Well, now, if I take and just start building something up here and I've
got depth going in here and I can take and make this depth even stronger.
By taking trading lines.
Well, the space then, and the space now becomes opposite of this form here
in the foreground, which is closest to us because we get the strongest
depth opposite, this foreground object.
So that's again, playing opposite.
So what you see now is this opposite can be really highly complex.
And what's not just shape, it - there's a whole mass of different elements
that take and come into play when you start talking about opposites.
So now I want to take, and let's look at some things and analyze
some paintings and see how the use of opposites has come into play.
of stuff we've already discussed.
So we were been talking about transition sequence.
And now we're taking and talking particularly about opposites.
Now in doing this I'm the - this is an Allori, he was a very
prominent Renaissance artist who also was very noted for his writing
and theoretical discussions on architecture, and art in general.
Now the big thing here is that we got, you can see everything
here now is really pushing down.
Well obviously then the main opposites here is this figure is taking and the
staff going up, the architecture going up.
So when we were discussing the El Greco, we had opposites one
side of the picture going up.
The other side going down.
Here is a little different story.
Now, there are some subtle plays of opposites in here that you need
to take and look at, we got the major, we've got the major things.
You can obviously see two sides are going up, centers dropping down.
Now what we're also seeing here, look at this figure here.
That's going in.
We could look at this like a box going in.
The figure is tilted going in.
We use the box often as a means of helping to clarify when we're
doing, working with the figure.
But once I draw the box or you can see what it's doing well, the next
figure is taking in actually going back the opposite direction, going this
way, but the head is turning and very neutral, on other words a twist to it.
Now the next figure up on top is taking and actually leaning out.
The top part at least.
So you're seeing this, but the head is going in.
So we have all of these different heads.
Nobody is doing the same thing.
They're all being different.
Also you notice that we got this figure leaning in this way.
The next figure now is taking and going back the opposite direction and
it is taking and turning this way.
So we have the constant, simple play of opposites all the way through the thing.
One of the opposites that we haven't actually discussed particularly
here is that we have a dark light is a means of creating space.
Now this is storytelling.
So as this figure is coming forward, here we have in the background
now notice these figures.
This is the part of the story.
Look at hospitality of Saint Julian.
Well, here's St.
Julian back here.
This is the thing offering her dwelling with the person.
So we're going literally from left to right.
We're going into the picture, going back in to the story.
Now, the space is going in the opposite direction.
Going back in that way, we've got down.
Notice that we're really working off the center with the feet.
Things are coming down.
The figure here, as you'll see now we're stepping back into the picture
and a series of transition, perhaps.
So this is going back in to this, the story element.
As this figure here is taking and leaning and going in this
direction, you can see the pull of
this figure going in the opposite direction.
And actually we end up with a rhythmical type of play of the arm
taking and building and lifting up.
So just in this little, this one simple painting, it's really a
quite complicated and with a lot of very subtle plays opposites.
So we're talking about figures leaning in.
Figures leading up, out, the difference variety of the tilting of the head,
tilting to the figure in and out.
We're talking about up and down.
So he started looking at this thing now.
You can take and really appreciate you actually see these opposites
give the painting a sense of vitality of movement of this.
It's not static.
There's movement to it.
And you don't look at the painting and say, Oh yeah, here's the
bulls-eye that we're going through.
It's a sequence of things playing against each other.
my scanning was a little askew here.
But this is a very different kind of opposites.
Now the big thing here is of course she's all the way up here, okay,
the head is down here, going down.
Okay that's a big play of opposites.
Now here we're also getting a subjective element.
Now, if you notice that we have the feeling that we're looking up at her.
Now, if we analyze her action, we see that she is really - spatially
we're seeing this type of movement.
The arm is coming out towards us the way he uses the drapery wrapping around.
And then we get the head down here.
Now this movement here.
They should be playing of opposites, but notice in the corner here, the
closest object to you well is probably the head, but we get this going through
here and we now have a - she's glazing - gazing, excuse me, gazing towards us.
She's looked literally looking down towards us.
She's coming down and looking this way.
The arm is going back.
In the opposite direction, going back in space.
So now you've got this spatial movement going in, playing
opposite of what we have down here.
We have the up going down and, you know, we're essentially playing with the center,
although you don't get that feeling.
So we're coming through, we're moving into the picture actually this way.
And all of this drapery now notice this is all building, going back up.
See the next figures here.
We get the feeling that she's going in.
Well, the next figure is coming out, leaning out towards us, coming
through and gazing up at her.
So it's a different kind of play of opposites.
It's not big against small.
It's more of almost a psychological
sense to it, but foreground pushing back into the space and
it's working around a center.
In other words that the composition is taking and developed in the sense, if
you think of this as like a pillar in the middle that we've got things going
back in, got things going down here.
We got stuff pushing up, but it's all working around the center here.
That's an interesting painting.
Very, very sophisticated.
Now let's look at Caravaggio, this one now, this follow through with
much of what we've already discussed.
Caravaggio was very inventive in how he took and worked with
the space within a picture.
Notice we have this platform kinda going out and pushing up, like you're
pushing right out of the frame.
So what we have then is we have a - even though we feel this flat surface,
there's our eye level right here.
Our eye level is right on the ground here and see where the feet are.
So we're really looking up at him.
We get the feeling that this space is pushing out towards us.
It's kinda levered out over the surface.
Now that was a major thing.
You can imagine this inside of a church, dark church, and it's dramatic lighting.
This thing would just come off the wall.
Okay, but first let's take what we've been talking about.
One our first lesson would take starting with the frame, simple verticals.
And then we get a series of progressions.
We get from here, going to here, here, the transition to taking
and dropping down all the way.
Step one, moving down through the canvas.
Now let's take a look at this a little more carefully now, let's
look at a another version of this.
As a working on this thing now the whole point, and this is one
of my first points to make, you compose to communicate an idea.
He is being lowered into the crypt.
He's being lowered into the crypt.
So all of this progression of movement is taking and making us drop and the
drapery notice, for instance, the drapery is even going over the side and
dropping and we're taking and again, pretty much working off the center here.
So the first be obviously she's looking up, gesturing up.
We're going here and the composition then is dropping down.
So this is where we get.
So now each one, these figures, if we start with figure here,
She's three quarter looking up.
The next figure, and this is what's so beautiful.
The combination of two dimensional and three dimensional.
So we have this figure of behind here.
She builds right into that head.
Now this is one of the, one of the points that we'll be talking about later is
in this week, you can start thinking about all of these things take and
build one on the other is the 2d, 3d.
So all of these things now have had a very strong, two-dimensional
component to the work.
So you can feel the line and you draw through, you always carry the
lines through as you're drawing.
You notice here he's taking and repeating horizontal, got the verticals being
repeated, repeating the verticals, the frame for the guy's legs, basically
vertical got the horizontals coming down.
He's -the bit of light here is helping to keep us down here.
So as we go through now, the arm notice that the way the drapery
here has pulled, we're going down.
Now, this arm is going up.
That's an opposite.
The figures here are taking as we go through, you have
actually layers of figures.
Well, could we have the figure let's say one, two, three, now these figures
are literally coming slightly forward.
This figure is taking and facing us
Now you have two more figures.
We have figure back here.
We're actually three here, this one in here,
and then this.
So we're getting this again a transition of these things dropping.
Well, if you look at this as the whole series is a series of arcs now
you find that's carrying through.
That transition is carrying through.
This is carrying through to where we're starting to build working
from the frame top, going down.
We take, and you notice that we've got the pull.
Now we've got to look at the legs because looking at the drapery here, feet
where these lines are taking and going.
You start to feel all these forms.
Now, as we build, this is dropping, we go through a series of dropping
forms, dropping, dropping, and it's coming up out of here.
So we've got, now here, you can see what we get is very simple.
Almost like, like an S curve here.
Well, that in the sense of what the whole thing is here.
The total it's this into this, and this is repeating and we're coming off here.
So, and you got the transition, the pole playing thing, feel the drapery behind.
It's pretty, pretty neat composition.
You can take and some of this stuff you can start to carry
through from underneath.
There's a subject that I will bring up as we talk about other things
later is how you diagram the space.
How even so subtle that's so much at what gives this figure
three-dimensional quality is the way he's diagramming the space by
how he sets one part in front of the other, creating the three-dimensional
objects, how it's overlapping.
But that's another subject.
Let's look at another painting.
Let's first give you a chance here to spend a little bit
of time looking at this.
So now in all of these, you should take and get online and look at these
things and get copies for yourself.
If you don't have books that have them already and really, really taken draw
over them, analyze them, and then see if you can take and develop compositions.
Maybe even doing a still life based.
I do that in my essentials class.
Have students analyze old masters and do still lives.
Now let's take and go on from here.
And this is another Caravaggio.
I think this is one of the most beautiful Caravaggio, it's an early Caravaggio.
And so in that sense, it has a - it's the more traditional Caravaggio.
This is a early one.
It started where - it's before he developed his mature style
that we think of as Caravaggio.
Let's take and ghost this down and go through some of the basics here now.
And the first part of the lectures, I talked about mass against space.
Well here, you can see that the whole left-hand side of the picture is
completely blocked off in the background.
And there's no space there.
All of the space now is into going back on the right-hand side.
So in a sense, we're going in back through here.
Now this works with also the idea that again now we look at these things,
we see all of this three-dimensional stuff, the realism, but notice
he's being very traditional here.
He's taking and coming across.
Everything's on a stage here in front.
Notice this is all happens within a very, it's a plane type of a painting.
So we take, and we feel the spatial plane type thing.
Now, let me just make a comment since I brought the term up, planal is
what, if you can visualize a stage.
Things that are parallel to the front of the stage, foreground, middle ground,
background, but they're all parallel.
Later on, we can, we'll bring up in the context of some of the other
artists we'll talks about recessional.
Where things would be maybe going on more on the diagonals and what have you, but
also you can see the repeating of the frame, the horizontal here, where he's
coming through, we see where he's actually taking, you're dividing this picture
right down the center, right in half.
The left-hand side, he's looking in and we got the angel playing is having
the music being held up for him.
So we got into the right hand side.
It's just the opposite.
The figure is leaning out
And with the baby, the whole figure is taking, and we see this sort of the
movement here is this all going out.
The whole figure that almost like you can, if you start to analyze it, you
can say, well, she's going to fall over.
She's not that clear.
She's going to take him plop over.
But you notice that while we get again, he's aligning this stuff,
building, he's building these frames.
So now let's go back like first I said, well, you know, the general approach
is that things read from left to right.
So what we have then, and even if you're looking at the leg of the
donkey back here, it's a vertical.
We find all this stuff is building here they're vertical forms.
Now the drapery, all of this is leading us into the picture.
You can see this notice that this is all leading into the picture.
This goes right along now with the fact that she's taking and leaning over.
So you've got all this play.
The drapery here is wrapping around the figure.
Now, as this wrapping around, we can feel this flow, this stuff coming
through, looking how he uses this drapery is pulling through and going back.
So here, this figure is actually slightly leaning in
let's figure is slightly leaning out.
So you still there's a constant dynamics to the thing.
And then we, of course, we got the donkey taking a staring at us.
But as this happens, as we're building up, we're building up, see
this figure is leaning this way at the angel wing here, coming through.
And we go right out into the tree here and we're taking
leading off as we are building up
here, dropping down.
We go from the light to the dark, to the light to the dark, light, dark to light.
And you find that the trees and stuff back here are creating a sense of the direction
going back so our space is back in here.
So it's a very it's again play of opposites.
Just constantly shifting the eye, moving through.
We also use the white here becomes a tool to take and is also picking up the
white in the figure, which is being, pushing the light in the sky in the back.
But again, structure, it's your feelings coming across, creates the plane,
working with the frame everything's thing, but play of opposites.
Again, just take a look at the painting.
I saw this a couple of years in Rome.
It's really stunning when you stand in front of this thing.
Now I mentioned earlier, he was the head of the French Academy in Rome and you
would think so there's again, what we're working with are two elements, opposites.
So I say each of these lessons now, like I said, they build one on top of the other.
So very obviously now you can start looking, you
look at the general sense of the line.
We got the pull, figures coming through and feel this are basically
a little rhythm coming through.
We feel this chariot, a big thing.
All this stuff is building.
You can see the total as this is all this is building up, we're
building up, we're building up.
And this building up keeps going.
So he's taking us, carrying us all the way out over here.
But at the same time now, as you've got this strong movement going up this way we
get the next movement is basically down.
So what we've going from this play of opposites to these very long lines,
rounded figure coming down, through, you can feel notice that with Poussin
particularly, nothing is accidental.
Everything is worked out.
So even here we can feel like all the way the trees are taking and notice
that he's doing the same thing that Caravaggio was doing, using the tree
to keep the eye going type thing.
So now, as we're taking and dropping down, coming through, we're taking
and going down, figure is going down.
The arm is going down.
Drapery is going down.
The helmet is down.
And we look at the, even the light is part of it.
It's like the thing I was showing you.
So as we get a - there's a continuity of taking and feeling these things
picking up, but now what we also have the same thing now in the
background as we build up this way.
You've got this figure now coming thing, they're taking sprinkling water on him.
Or pixie dust or whatever.
And the next figure, there's another figure here, he's taking and going in.
Going through, you can see the, as you're taking and moving around this
way can see it going, carrying the tree back here, but at the same time
that the space is going back in here, but we also have, as we come forward
this way, got the space going here.
You also got the strong space taking and going in the back and the
shapes and its depth keeps on going.
So as we've built everything up this way, he's also taking with the
clouds and stuff, taking and going off and building in that direction.
Again, pretty much horizontals, he's taking and playing dark, light, dark.
We've got the background here with the tree, taking and coming back in.
We still got all his foliage building up.
So all this is building up as we've dropped down here, that we can move
into the picture from the left.
Notice how much empty space really.
And he got the bushes out in the foreground here.
So overlapping, we're going in, we're going up, we're dropping down.
Let's look at the composition here now so we can see, you can feel it.
Just, type of thing like orchestration.
You try to feel, notice that light in the right-hand corner now it's showing
up a little bit better now than it was when I was trying to analyze it.
And the way he's picking up the shapes, the white and the tree, that all these
trees sort of blowing in the wind as we take, and we go back and feeling
back in space, you get much more depth over on the left-hand side, opposite.
The closest thing on the right and where we actually move into the picture.
The figure in the background on the left is actually coming towards us.
He's tilting in.
Now in some respects, it's almost the reverse of the one we just looked at.
But as you become familiar, looking at these pictures, you should start
to be able to ascertain now how the eye, how these things lead ideas.
So in here, the essential element here is now is that what you
have, there is an opposite.
Now, if you're looking at this, you can see there's some
obvious player differences.
We have the one side is lifting up, or should say the top is
lifting up, bottom is going down.
But what he's doing at the same time is try to see this now, again, the
very classical, essentially we have a
repetition of the figure here, notice that this is really
incredibly flat across here.
This is really - he's taking and building off of it.
And so this figure, as it's taking and there's a lot of subtleties
taking place in these figures now.
So as we see that this figure is taking and actually arching
the shoulders going back.
So this figure is taking and coming this way, the head is going down,
going the opposite direction.
And so we actually have a rhythm being built within the action of the figure
taking and going down that is carried through all the way through this figure.
And so now as we're dealing with this, and this is also now you can see as this
movement, he keeps this movement down.
Now at the same time now we're taking and lifting up.
Well, we have this figure here.
We're taking, and this figure is arched looking up or
looking out, but it's going up.
And again, we get this rhythm within the figure that he's taking and coming
through, and we feel this flow building up, coming across through here.
Look at the lines of the competition and feel like this, all of this is
taking going way back up all the way to the corner of the frame.
And so then we go through a progression from the verticals.
We get all of this, the cracks in the rock.
The figure here is enclosed within this frame.
As we keep going this way, notice that he's also, he's pretty much divided
this picture in half, straight down.
So as we get going, these things will take and work off the frame
and we progressively - this big tree is actually slightly bent.
So you can get in all of this movement, pull, going off.
Notice how again using this trees to take and keep the eye moving.
We've got the little angel here or whatever you call
them, looking out this way.
The staff here coming through this'll be working off the frame.
And we take and come through.
All of these, we start going down, you can see the building,
how these things are building up.
Everything is actually starts building off of the frame.
So all of this movement is going back this way.
These are building, we've got a space being created back here using
series of horizontals that come through this repetition of the frame.
But the depth is way back here.
So as we moving forward, the depth in the back of the picture is taking and
going back and that way, but it's the idea of transition, opposites at the
same time, transition, play of opposites figure taking and leaning forward, this
figure in other words, rolling forward.
This one shoulder is going back.
There are subtle things.
Now, one thing that you have to take and I can - I know people often students
think, well, you're making that all up.
Well, what, you will find that if you look at artists and you look at many works
of an artist, and you see that they're doing exactly the same thing all the
time, or in this case, we're looking at a bunch of artists that are doing the same
thing over periods of hundreds of years.
This is not being made up.
This is - these are the basic tools of the trade.
Now let's take and look at a couple more pictures here.
Now I find Rubens for myself is is really, one of my favorites.
I do a lot of stuff, not only in looking at and analyzing the
paintings, but also in the drawings.
Now let's look at the dynamics of what he's got going here.
He's taking and at first, looking at the gesture, look at this line,
this long line going like this.
The opposite of how we get these, exact opposite.
These things are playing against each other.
This figure now is taking and coming out,
going in, and feel the pinching.
So we're taking and we're going over the surface, feeling the figure coming
out as we come down and go across here, this is now taking, coming out.
So we get really the twist that's taking place in here.
These are the classic heavy Rubenesque figures.
That's where the term comes from.
But surprisingly enough.
Ruben's actually drew very little from the female nudes.
Now you can see the head she's turning.
The arm is going in.
The head is turning back as the arm goes in.
As she's twisting with that, the other arm is coming back towards us.
Through and we're going down the space down here.
Now, if we take the next figure, the other female figure is just doing the opposite.
This is going in this way and it is twisting also.
So we're going through in space, this direction.
And we're looking at the under side where we would be buttocks.
We could see that this is going in that way.
So these two figures now are going exact opposites.
One is essentially actually going up, the head is turned going up.
The arm going behind this figure, which is taking and going down, notice how he's
really playing the difference between the male and the female in terms of color.
The women are very light.
The guys are very dark and bronzed.
He's taking your hand leaning in the arm of course he's holding her, but
he's taking it and going out this way.
So this very complex play a differences in here.
But if we started looking at the big - look at the big things.
Now we're starting down here, the drapery lower left-hand corner, come
in, going over and going in behind.
Look at these big movements, even to this horse and this guy's drapery here,
this is a big flowing movement going up and we get this sort of rhythmical
play where these things are building up.
This guy is now coming over spatially.
Now we start thinking of the space here.
You're a little bit of how the figure taking and coming
through right underneath.
So this figured out is going through the space created by this guy's arms here
and she's going in behind and through.
Rather complicated thing.
But we're having all this really sort of dramatic spatial elements
involved here, and yet has a very strong two dimensional element to it.
The whole point here now is we get this feeling of lifting up.
We're looking up, we feel this really, this height, the horse is rearing up.
It gives us a very low horizon line.
He's dropping all of this down low down here, which helps
to make us feel the height.
In other words, if we take it, if you look, if we take a canvas here, See what
he's doing as he's pushing stuff up here.
And we feel that height by pushing this down here.
But if we take that same point now, this is where you're using
the horizon line becomes a tool.
If I take that and move the horizon line up there, it
means we're looking down here.
You're looking up or in.
It gives a very different thing where you use the horizon within the picture.
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