- Lesson Details
In week four, Steve Huston will teach you a simple, constructive approach to drawing the arms and legs. You will learn the mechanical concepts of the limps, as well as how to compare the human anatomy to that of animals. Steve will teach you ways to make analogies between the upper and lower limb in order to understand and draw this area of the body with greater confidence.
Throughout this course, you’ll have access to the NMA community for feedback and critiques to improve your work as you progress.
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Transcription not available.
Transcription not available.
and again, let's just draw arms.
We're going to find the -
and here you can see a little bit of that
wear idea here because she's lean and thin. We've got the
bicep that can last longer than the tricep. In this case it
doesn't quite but it gets close. That's what the
contour is more or less. So off the armpit right
here that sometimes you'll find the bicep. Usually it's a very
very skinny person, not a not. The
heavier or more muscle person, real lean thin. of real lean thin.
Especially if that arm comes back farther we can actually
have the gesture reverse every once in awhile
before we get to the elbow
and take off.
Now I want you to pay special attention to where that elbow
Notice that if we do a gesture we can take it - let me
We can really go from elbow
through this and we don't have to be exactly right but
somewhere in here, we're cutting off some of the bulging
and some of the bulging deltoid and we're going right to the
elbow. Now if she were to take that arm and bend it this way
that elbow wouldn't stay there.
That elbow would move over here.
A little bit more - if a cut off the arm, a little bit more like a
torpedo or a missile.
Like that, and that's because of that
ulna hooking around that
end of the
upper arm, it rolls under and it ends up being in here.
Sitting there. So we'll watch for that. When you see it
something that goes well beyond the - this is more or less
a right angle. You see something goes well beyond that
right angle you'll start to see the elbow move inside. So let's
do that again.
Like so. Notice if we can get the gesture, that's the most
Notice how I work gesture, structure, I get enough
structure so I feel if where to begin the next gesture.
Outside corner is usually the cleanest and easiest place to
find that. It doesn't have to be the outside corner, but it
usually makes good sense to use them.
So that sits there. Here is the deltoid, we have the Delta we have the
And she has this real great
where the collarbone meets the clavicle and back. We're seeing
a little bit
of the trapezius.
We're seeing the binding up because she's rotating of the
erector muscles in the back and the gastrocnemius
over here - whoops - over here will be the pit of the neck.
And then we have the attachment of that onto the deltoid. And
the deltoid - because she's swinging that arm back torso's
going this way,
arm's going back this way. It's rotating off that front corner
of the deltoid. Use this, imagine that as the pivot point right
there. And if you're getting that
arm articulated and you want to show the power of that
thrust, that rotation back, really play up that front
and make it a little bit sharper.
And that's going to let us feel
that articulation and we actually have some shading
because of the accidental position of the light, it really
This is all side plane. It's on top.
Notice how we can make this
square if we wanted to. Every time that steps and changes
we can use that as a boxy idea that tracks over and
disappears down in.
So it's a very interesting wedge that can be treated in all
sorts of personal stylized ways
and still ring very true.
pulls down here.
The bicep in these kind of positions where it's on a good
side plane, the arms are articulating or the arm is
quite muscular or lean, you can use often time the vein, there's a
vein here and probably has a name, no clue what it is.
There's a vein there and that will often times be a door
very close to
for the shadow shape is because the vein bumps up, it creates a
little ridge that catches -
that blocks the light from going any farther and so that
oftentimes becomes a shadow and it makes you feel that that
upper arm's a two by four.
So the more - the leaner, more athletic, more muscular, and or
more male, but it doesn't have to be,
the more of a two-by-four you want to do it. Also, if it's a
more muscled arm you got bulging biceps, even if they're
flat and they're thick mass is a bigger mass, bulging
triceps and so they're extending out front to
back the muscles grow this way and not as much towards this way.
So that adds that two by four effect.
That fades out there.
And then we have a real interesting thing going on here
when it bends, let's go ahead and draw this. That - because the
forearm is somewhat open it's not binding up real strong
against the upper arm, forearm upper arm. formed upper arm.
We see that bicep settled down into the tendinous connection.
Remember that -
kind of goes into that stringy tendon. And so we go from
bulbous fibers to tendinous material and we're going to get
a wobble there as it goes from thick to thin. We can see that
And that's a valued part of any
healthy arm because the more muscle you give it,
or scar tissue builds up those fibers or muscle-bound you
make it, the more we're going to get that settling in into that
tendinous connection and it's a lovely little change. And notice
that it's structural, it's describing that architecture
and even the lifestyle, healthy lifestyle,
but also it gives us a really lovely interesting dynamic way
to go from upper arm to forearm. It's a really into track. It's a lot
better than just that or that, it's a really fun - I always
think of a roller coaster ride. Does that
that movement create a nice roller coaster ride? It doesn't -
shouldn't always, doesn't need to, can't always, but when it
does, it's very pleasing.
It's a fun swing around and it'll go on into
inside of the forearm there.
Now what's interesting - and it shows itself a little bit - if
you look right here at the crook, you'll see the shadow actually
bumps a little bit.
There. What that is is that
extensor group, pronator group, and remember that all goes over
to the thumb side, which is over here, it's in the pronation
And you can see this very strongly in a lot of how-to
books and superhero drawings,
healthy actors and athletes and such.
And what's happening is
here's the elbow on a straight arm. on.
Here is the flexor side. Here's the extensor side. This
is a - can't see it but the thumb's over here and little finger's
Oh, this is way too low? I'm sorry. I've got my thumb side.
Little finger side.
Here's that extensor group, comes way up in as the deltoid
comes way down in,
splits the tricep in back from the bicep in front.
It attaches in there. Now when that structure - let's look at it
from the profile with the arms straight.
It creates this nice egg shape often times, which again is
or the egg shape up here comes in here for a straight arm.
And here it can do that, but it comes in here and goes straight
on down to the thumb side with all its cable muscles and such
but it groups on down there.
Groups on down there. Now when it bends
like this it's going to bend right here.
And so now that's going to twist around.
And we get this weird little
And it can actually bind in here
with the flesh coming over it. So let's see in here. We'll see
Here is the elbow here, the ulna
Or come to the surface and you can also kind of see it. You
can see it just slightly here really more as a highlight that
shadow but it picks up there and comes right on down the
ulna, remember creates the elbow joint. So it disappears on the
little finger side and er just get that little knob of
the ulna finish it here that's often times visible, but we
have this nice
wrapping over and look at the beautiful overlap we can work
with. Now notice what we have here.
And in this is a flexor side group. That's what turns the
hand down this way.
This one is the one that turns the hand up
Notice what we have now, we've got the from above we got the
shoulders intruding and splitting the
upper arm and half from above and we have this extensor
splitting it from below.
And so we can take our pick. Notice if we really play up
in whatever position it happens to be in, really play up
the fact that the extensor group is inserting into and
sits on top of
the upper arm. That really helps us with that going away
position because it's showing an interlock
like the drumstick idea that reinforces the perspective we
So if I want that to tilt and go away from me this way, that
extensor is great. Let's look at that again. I want an upper arm
that really goes away from me this way.
Now if I don't deal with that extensor group
I can still get the idea across one or another but let's say I
exaggerate the shoulder.
Well that's starting to fight my idea, isn't it? Because this is
going in this way. So the shoulder actually works great,
that intrusion of the shoulder and the upper arm works
beautifully when we're on top of
And the forearm intrusion works great when we're underneath the
Now we'll need both often times. So we'll want to play
or make it clear
one way or another. Maybe make it box here
that's reinforcing that. But look at I still showed the
intrusion because I needed to, it was there let's say but I
minimized it here. It's maximized here. It's maximize
here. And then on this one, I would minimize
the intrusion here or even get rid of it.
Like that. So since we have that bisecting, oftentimes you'll
how to books and anatomy books do this and that gives you the
idea that it's
arrow piercing it from below, arrow piercing it from above but are approves it from above but
it doesn't give you any clue in terms of how to get those
structures to go in and out of the paper.
is a couple interesting things.
Most notably we see this kind of boxing into that elbow.
That's those two popping out. It's the ulna, little finger side,
here's the little finger over here.
But anyway let me do it here. it here
Thought I had the right one there.
There's the ulna there.
That creates the elbow joint.
Radius, which is the thumb side. Let's pretend that thumb's
out so you can see it.
Thumb side, radius. Little finger side,
There's the knob of the ulna, here is the bone of the upper arm, and
it comes all the way over here and there's another bone there
that sometimes shows itself, sometimes not.
makes the wrist joint.
That's very little to helps to stabilize the elbow tell us to stabilize the elbow
joint and then we get that rotation for pronation,
supination, this kind of thing.
But what it does, when we highly articulate that upper arm,
we get this lovely knob here
And if you've got the
body here and it can be a straight-on - make sure I stay on
the paper here - straight on shot of the body.
There it is there.
And notice how it points down towards the elbow, towards
the belly button.
Like that. So if you're making it up out of your head
or trying to mark your landmarks you want to make sure
that descends down
Like that, so we have a nice
structure, that's bone right at the surface. That's bone right
at the surface. What oftentimes we'll do -
and this is a fairly modern invention, 20th century where
became a big deal -
we'll make that very square. Earlier Renaissance they'd
never square that off. They, if they're going to show it they
would do three circles for the the bone surface and again,
sometimes that surfaces, sometimes it doesn't.
But for us will go square. That's a
more current trend
and of course that would be a nice way to distinguish
yourself, squaring things things off. So squaring it off like a
Botticelli would. John Currin the fine artist who's a
kind of freak, works off Botticelli ideas, but does kind
of a quirky illustration version of Botticelli that's
beautifully done. He wouldn't do this. He wouldn't make it
that square and you can make it very square and chiseled if you want.
One now the other thing that's interesting that's a little hard to
see because of the intrusion of the breast in there is because
this is in such a deep angle,
made it a deep perspective going into the paper. We're going to
see the more tendinous, can see that right here.
Okay, so we can feel this, we'll get into this with the hands a
You can pick up those tendons and we can get these lovely
insertions. Now what's happening, when we get strongly
on top of that hand, the thin wrist which is more of a stick
or two by four depending on how you conceive of it,
and the end, the back end, the back half of the form, which
is much more of an egg,
they start to separate and again you get that drumstick idea,
you see this drumstick all over the place. It's a
wonderful structure because of that interlocking nature and
that idea of thin to thick. So you can show all sorts of
variations of one idea to another. So rather than just
doing a simple idea that maybe just expands a little bit in
we can now do two simple structures together and get a
lot more bang for our buck potentially in terms of
structure and such.
And even gesture but we'll save that for another time. So
anyway this - you can really make a big deal out of this wrist,
bony wrist going into this meaty forearm here, like so, and play
up those overlapping ideas all over the place. And you can even
play this up again down to the -
down to here. Here would be that - the epicondyle on the end of the
That hooking structure. And it plays right through -
can't really get my arm in the can't we get my arm in the
right position, but this will play through. let me just do it.
I can draw it, what a good idea.
Here's the back of the hand here. Here's a little finger.
Here's the sagging gesture of the arm.
Here's the elbow.
This can be straight or slightly bowed or even slightly
S curved depending. And that comes right to the
surface. And so what we have here is the extensor side, the
overall mass of the forearm with all the muscles and bones that
attend to that, the bone coming to the surface,
and then the hanging, like a hammock hanging from elbow to
wrist, the flexor side.
And notice how that can often times be where the shadow sits
and that runs right up - that's misplaced - right up to the
of that hand.
So bringing that to the surface is a great way to get
a little bit of that bone structure coming over and this
can do all sorts of stuff in terms of
secondary details, but also notice how we now have
to get from elbow to wrist. Two gestures. And maybe you got a to gestures and maybe you got a
lot of beautiful fluid curves here in your Rubens and
Botticelli stage. And it's just too many curves and you need to
balance it out with some straights. I could come in here,
I could keep the fluid life like quality of the whole
forearm, but I could
find a little straight moment there and that straight moment
quiet down or be a nice contrast against here is that
This goes down and becomes
in here someplace a little knob over here.
There's the end of the radius there.
And sometimes you can feel for that and find it right there as
opposed to olecranon. I always say those things wrong.
Joshua is my fix it man on all these stuff. Joshua.
Josha, we call him Josha just if I'm in a hurry. Saves time.
So anyway, it's always nice to find extra new ways to get
from one place to the next. New ways to take that trip.
So that's a lovely way to do it and to bring in a little bony
and or maybe boxy structure into all that tube and maybe
egg like structure.
on her or underneath it, so we would have such a low eye
line. There's that lovely kick out on that leg. And that's - that is
to see and you'll see this on also
on - do this.
you'll see this on dancers often times they extend out and
they've got that great extension, the bodybuilders
everything shortens up and so they can't get the full
extension. But that breaks out that way.
And what what I like about that is it's a different way to feel
And also what it does is in this case, this is to me where
the funnest to work with because now this is a pillar of
support. That post and lintel, this time with the shoulder
as opposed to the hip structure.
And look at how we feel that there's this great compression.
It's starting to compress, great weight pushing down. And so we
get that sense of tension there beautifully. And now I can pick
that up in a few different ways. Here is the armpit.
Here is the bicep coming down and actually comes in here into
the crook of the arm in here. We'll look at that a little bit
later if we have time.
And then we have
There we go. Here's the epicondyle of the humerus and
that takes off in a new direction rather than bulging out,
So we feel that tension. So now the idea for me visually is
there's so much compression going down, the immovable
surface is pushing up, the weight of the body's pushing
down and it's
compressing that, it's skewing it, starting to break it apart a
little bit. If I push down hard enough that joint's going to
give or exaggerate a little bit and now I can do the same
thing up here with the shoulder.
Because it was bumping out this way. And I can do the same thing
with the extensor group.
And notice how we can bounce and maybe this way -
it's off the paper but if for the hand way down here,
of course, but this way I can break back this way. Notice how
I can ping pong.
Boom. Boom. Boom. Boom. Boom. Down that way
as opposed to doing the S curve through the secondary forms the through the secondary forms
and it's just another way to get off axis and take us
through that information.
I'm gonna reverse the lighting here. In this position then you
flat and wide - flat and wide it is across and how
narrow it is on the side.
Let's do that. Like that. Whereas
when it turns over, this way, when the
thumb comes to the inside as opposed to the outside,
crook of the arm rather than the elbow
now this is much more - if we took a cross-section of this it's
much more truly tubular.
But when we turn it the other way, that flattened way, it's
flat and wide, little more of a two by four concept.
We have a big broad surface, think of the fist in the wrist
meeting another and they rotate here and I'll show you.
But notice since we got that big fist here, when you make a
fist notice how blocky it is? And blocky means corners,
corners mean more structure, more structure means more sense of
space and position. So when you have a highly articulating
notice we did it here, we're going to want to box it out
more to at least understand and stylistically maybe not but in terms of
understanding. So what I'm going to do is we're going
to talk about this as four corners. If I can in any of
these articulating positions, when it breaks the right angle,
I'm going to want to get one two, three, four, corners. If I can
get at least three of those four I've got an end that's
going to come out into the page nicely. So that's what we're
going to look for. The kneecap floats on top of that and I
want to make sure that I'm not drawing the knee, the leg I should
say, coming from the big leg to a point, to the little knee cap.
I want to have a big leg go to a slightly slimmer leg down
here and then it's capped with a little knee cap on it. So
I'll show you that we want to make sure we don't make the
mistake. It happens more often than you think.
it's coming out this way.
This is coming out this way. So notice that the kneecap
is right here. I want to make sure I've got a nice
wide tube that just gets a little thinner as it goes from
hip to knee, but does not do this.
That happens more often than you think.
So what we end up doing then is as if we look down on this
this thing we will add the material to get to that knee cap. So
it'll be a little cap that goes on top of the knee
cap and that's why they call it the kneecap.
Like so. Okay. So that's what we're looking for.
So if we look at this other leg here - and what are we doing
here Lea is this 15 minutes?
Now just structurally this is doing a couple different things
here. But what I want to do,
look at this one again, this one.
We have the kneecap, the patella,
and we have the patellar tendon comes down and attaches onto
little knob, the tuberosity of the tibia.
So something like that. The tibia as I mentioned a couple
times is really a triangular cross-section there like so.
So what I wanted to think of is of the end of the
thigh if the kneecap is going to be part of it, is I want to
think of not just the knee cap because that gets me in
trouble, I want this whole structure, the whole width of
that mass which includes the quadriceps, some of the
hamstrings sometimes, and the kneecap is inside all that
structure and the humerus, of course.
I want to think of the kneecap in the tendon, so that means
this would be -
let's say I'm going to make it actually slightly less
perspective than it is. This would be the prospective end if
I did a true tapering tube.
TTT there, true tapering tube
That would be the law of ellipses says that that's at a
So I would want the long axis of that tubular end. If I were
to draw the whole thing like that, but I want to make it
simple yet characteristic. So instead of that because here
we've got the kneecap
and the patellar
tendon there, ligament there, what I'm going to do is I'm
going to cheat that,
I'm gonna me draw it this way. Because now I'm taking in that whole
and the ligament which takes me into the tibia bone, nice tibia
bone is part of our four corners. I'm going to distort
that down that way. So
it's just it's simple yet more characteristic. So it's not a
perfectly, it's a distorted end to our tube. It
drags it out this way a little bit
and sometimes even opens it up and pushes it that way.
Because that's going to be more characteristic is all.
Now just like the forearm we had the wrist when it was in a
deeper perspective, work into that drumstick idea, we'll get
the same thing here. So notice how the hamstrings
the tendons are like stirrups, like reins to a horse, it comes
around each side, catch over here on the side of the tibia.
Can't see the other side, but it's over here someplace. So
they're going to cross over and attach whether it shows up or
not, here it barely shows. But those are going to extend back in and
that gives me the sense of this lesser tube inside there
doesn't it? And that can be - go up into the quadriceps and become
an egg shape or a wedge-shaped, there's all sorts of possibilities
we can break this into two structures like we did here.
Let me bring it out here. So I've now decided,broken this
into two structures. I've made it somewhat more complicated.
This is harder to conceive of and a little harder to draw because
of the conception but it's really just very simple solid
still, I haven't upped that quotient really. Here's a
kneecap and the common tendon there we're basing that on.
This goes this way.
This is down this way.
So this is all a simple construction, but I'm basing
the construction on my understanding of anatomy. Now
this is the adductor group and the hamstrings behind, the meat
of the hamstrings. But because of the deeper perspective, those
things rather than blending together as they often times do
like this in a lesser perspective, have now started to
separate the skinnier inserting forms against the meatier
exterior forms. And we can even feel maybe I said ,think I said
abductor this is adductor group. The abductor's over here.
There's the binding up there. And now we have this nice egg
shape. It could be an egg shape
with a tube or whatever permutations, variations,
we can make it boxier, on and on and on.
And each of those things makes it more sophisticated. It makes
it harder frankly to do because you've got to conceive of that.
But it also makes it more personal. If you take any one
particular form and break it into two or three forms that
are very specifically distorted or manipulated or conceived to
speak to the purpose at hand, it's going to not only be more
accurate and if you have to stop then ring more true, but
it's going to be much more personal.
And so this idea of these stair-stepping forms, the figure
as architecture, just like creating the cornice
in a building structure.
And this was Bridgeman's great gift to us, the artist really
articulated this in a way and pointed it out in a way we
hadn't seen before and made a huge impact on illustration,
American illustration, and fine art and certainly on me.
So if we can see in the
figure as an architectural problem,
then it's just a matter of manipulating the solids and
those solids will become quite personal and the way I play
them up and exaggerate them and the way that you play them down
and subsume them is going to make us both realist, but in a
very different way,
That's really a pleasure for the - for everybody involved.
That's all anatomy. It's knowing that a muscle starts
out thick and in some manner or form thins out. Starts out thick
and thins out and that that tendinous material actually
fits in like this. So it actually inserts into those
fibers in a way
that can show an overlap
and we can then take the tendon itself and make it flow right
into one of the fibers to extend that overlap to create
these wonderful gestural movement between the forms, down
the long axis idea, and also create these wonderful
insertions, these interlocking forms, where at least some of the
it doesn't even have to be both sides. It can just be one side
some of the sides and end
inserts in there.
Notice how then you can get
really inventive or
flamboyant with it and I can make anything were bone comes
to the surface make it be very square maybe.
Now notice what I have here. This is not highly articulated
lower leg to upper leg, but I have one,
What I'm looking at is this tone here, that's part of the
quadriceps on top of it, three. And then if I had toned paper,
Right there. And notice there's really two highlights, there's a
highlight here, those four, and then there's a highlight over
here. That is the highlight here for the big structure, the
thigh, and in the highlight here for the little structure of the
So it sits there and notice how now the kneecap, because it
kicks in like this, often times draws that shadow shape for the
big thigh over to that little corner. And that's what we have
here. We've now moved in
from the shadow and tone that worked on the very edge of that
thigh. We've now drawn it in
to the interior to get to that that
step in for the kneecap. So we're going to step into the
knee cap and then we're going to actually go down the front
of the knee cap
and all of that or most of that kneecap and patellar
ligament is going to go into shadow. Kneecap, kneecap,
highlighted kneecap, tendinous connection.
And once again, that's the [indistinct] over there so make for natural over there to make
sure it attaches like that. You don't want out like that. You don't want
to miss that.
now we've described the kneecap, the tension of the knee cap, just
think of that. If you've got a rope
think of here's the kneecap,
there is the common tendon. All of the four heads of the
quadriceps attached to
one way or another we don't really care exactly how they
go. It's not that useful
at this point any way. Fits there. Bone. That's a floating bone,
tendinous material here. And think of you've got a bucket
full of water
and you're trying to pull it out of a well.
You gotta drag it up over this way. Now rather than actually
hoisting the weight up here because of the hinge joint it
swings the lower leg up like that, but there's an incredible
amount of tension going on to get
to pull that whole lower leg. This little fellow here has to
do all the work to pop that out, to pop it out into a straight
leg. Your leg lifts and you even put weight in the gym to do
that. I never do such a stupid thing, but people do do that.
And pull that out and it's all working on that little ligament
There off this little bone and then this
nice wide band, sheath
of tendon, and then you got four massive muscles that
connect onto the
the femur and onto the iliac crest, the erector femoris goes
up to the iliac crest. So that also helps move the whole leg
and bend it into a lap seated position, like that. Tremendous
amount of force involved. Notice how the big focuses down to the
small and just like if you have a big
tube of water, they used to do this in early gold mining. All
it was was the creek flowing down the slope and they'd let
that creeks flow into a 10 inch pipe and then after however
many yards it'd go into a four-inch and two-inch and one-inch inch and two-inch and one-inch
pipe and would be this actual absolute blast of power because
it reduced down and focused. That's what's happening with
those big muscles going into those little tendons. Has
incredible amount of power, but they have to be able to attach
and not be detached, which is always one of the injury
Now watch her get back into her pose, see what happens with
the hips and such.
Notice how it went from this
This changed quite a bit.
Now inside here is that greater trochanter where we've got that
pivoting joint, the ball and socket joint. evolved socket joint.
And we won't revisit that but it's fitting in there and just
structurally what you'll find is whatever you draw for the
and however it happens to be distorted because of its distorted because of its.
compression against the ground
then above that split, just above the sake remote just above the
pubic area somewhere in the halfway point that's going to
be the pivot point for where that leg takes off.
If the leg moves up strongly we can feel that leg, top of the
leg come way up higher but where the bone is, where it
attaches is somewhere in that midpoint there. That's where
that greater trochanter - and when you look at the bone
structure it doesn't look like that at all. When you look at
the pelvis as just skeleton it looks like the legs are
attached on the bottom of the pelvis. But by the time you add
the gluteal muscles, remember how far they go down the leg
fatty adipose tissue of the buttocks there it drops it way
down there. And so the bottom of the pelvis is way up.
Screw you up on something else.
Okay, so this is taking off this way.
I'm going to make it go away from us a little bit more so we
what's going on here.
And I am going to draw this
a little differently than it's staged to make a couple of
First, but I'll draw it first as it is staged.
Alright, so now notice
we've got this coming this way this way because that's
swinging out this way. We've got a pinch here. It's binding up
against that joint.
So that's a big deal there and we want to make it a big deal
to show that articulation. And so the contour will be very
And what you can do, do what I do, you can draw several lines,
let the audience figure it out.
So I will actually do that. It's kinda silly isn't it but I'll do
that and you'll see other - Pontormo will do that. He'll draw on turmoil do that. He'll draw
like six nipples instead of one nipple. Not that many but he'll move
them around, six or seven fingers, finding several
contours, trying to get a sense of where it really is.
Is it that, that line, is that line. But also it gives of zeth line, but also it gives
a sense of the energy, the flow down, the coursing, the
complexity, the possibilities. And maybe the actual action
movement. It's one of the reasons I do it.
So we want to make that very active. That's our bean bag
idea, variation of a bean bag idea. Binding together as opposed to
Then also in this case overlapping,
the hip essentially hips turning slightly
to the side.
To the side. Just do that.
Was seeing more of this side and less of that side, really.
Less than I have it here,
So this is in front of that and thigh is behind it.
All right now because that's such a straight leg and she's
relaxed a little bit and it's interesting to see how poses
change, they always will and there's no model in the world who
can hold it
forever. Just going to relax out, twist away settle down, shift
a little bit.
All that kind of stuff. So originally this was going up
into here very strongly and that's the gastrocnemius
Below it is the soleus
muscle. It's named after a fish because it's kind of a fish
And that goes way up in and it actually bisects
the hamstrings, the hamstrings wrap around both sides like
And sometimes you can actually see them split apart, in this
case you can see it right up here. I'll play it up big time
here so you can see it and that's
the outer head and the inner head.
And the - from below the calf intrudes into it. Now the
problem with that, look at how weird that looks.
Why does that look weird? Well, remember what I did to begin
I've got the hip way in front of it and then something that
was fairly flat perspective I put in deep perspective. This
became my constructed concept that the hip was closer to me
and the knee was farther away and I played that up like a
good romantic. I made it more dramatic.
More angst involved and then I came down here and I saw, this I
conceived of and I pushed my conception. I wanted to make a
scary story so I made it even scarier. I pushed the
construction. Here I just observed the information. I
observed that this overlapped this way. And when I do - and overlapped
this way, much like we had the problem with the arm, the extensor
group of the arm and the deltoid in the arm,
when we overlap
that calf structure and have it bisect and intrude into the
hamstring, the structure gives us this idea.
So my observation, just an accident of connecting tissue
tended to help my - I'm underneath it concept.
started out with I'm on top of it concept and then the two met.
Started out, both start out fine, but once they met at the
joint, they destroyed that joint and you get that mess.
And notice also that the
overlaps all go down more or less the long axis and the
shadow shapes, all go down the long axis of the form. And so
there's nothing that's moving us over the form.
So with all the best intentions it's a blunder.
you can make it work out and so atelier style, European indoor
artist style, basic academy style, they really do all the
work in the setup. They'll spend quite a while with her or
with a still life arranging the fruit and flowers, arranging
the pose. And that's why often times the poses seem so posed
because they really are because they want to make sure
everything, you know, don't do that, do that. Don't do that, do that, do
that, and everything - well push that a little bit farther. Okay
can't do that, we've got to move that and you spend all this
time arranging it and then it's aesthetically beautiful in the
arrangement and then you sit down with your tools and you
sight size and you see and you use these observations and
you try and copy what you created up on the stand and
that becomes particularly problematic if the flower has
or if the drapery is involved because you could never get the
folds right. High Renaissance artists would even soak the
drapery in plaster and then they lay it over her and they
cut her out and that nice Madonna the nice Madonna
lap for the children would stay perfect and she'd just come in
from behind and set down, they'd set a stool under and
it never changed fold to fold. But if you're going to conceive
of and make the world work for you with a powerful
then you've got to - then it becomes a lie in effect. The
fact is that is not a tube up there. There is no bean bag up
There is no Gumby wire in any form. So those are any form. So those are
convenient lies. There's no such thing as line but if you're
going to tell a lie you got to be consistent with it.
So I can do a couple things. I can say that because of that
powerful insertion of the lower leg into the upper leg, I'm
going to make this flat in perspective or I'm going to let
it come back this way a little bit.
And maybe I'll then twist the
hip this way and
I'll start manipulating the material because of that joint
I'm going to minimize the damage and maximize the
Sounds like a self-help program.
So if I'm going to have it go this way away, then I'm going to
make sure that the
off that upper
hamstring and fatty pad
that we all have,
especially on the female, and the
or play it up. So I did a lot of good work at the beginning so one,
little overlap here even, three. Three times I've shown how to
move over the form.
This is a gluteal fold with the gluteus maximus and glue to the gluteus maximus and
the fatty deposit. This is some of that flank deposit that
women have so they've got plenty of fuel to feed their
baby when they're carrying it.
Again, we men hold it up here. You ladies hold it down
There's the adductor muscle coming on down. Now when I get down
here I've built a lot of goodwill with my audience.
And even this contour is starting to go across that way.
And this is starting to go back the other way. Now when I do
overlap it, maybe I'll keep it really light,
Or I'll hide it in the shadows.
And then I just can't help it, I've got to
show how this thrusts in here.
Let's see what happens there.
And then I can put this secondary structure in there or
not. I'll go ahead and put it in there.
Now that didn't do much damage at all actually when it came
down to it, even though what it really was was this coming up
in there as we showed in that other messy drawing. Let's
go ahead and pick that up stronger so we can see that
problematic intrusion of this going into that, which makes it
feel this way when we want to really go this way.
The reason that didn't do a lot of damage - did more damage now
that I've darkened it, but I can play that down a little bit -
is look at where this bumped.
And look at where this bumped.
Let's take this off now. Look at what I've done to the end.
Here is the bump of
Here is the bump of
my overlap and then here is the contour.
See how that reinforces this idea?
That makes sense to everybody? Okay.
So in one way the overlap went wrong, but the alignment of
stuff and especially since I did such good work - remember
they want you to succeed.
So if you gain their confidence at all in the beginning, as long
as you don't totally blow it -
and sometimes even when you do totally blow it -
you can get bailed out.
And notice how if I play up the base of this gastrocnemius
as it goes into and even overlaps,
is overlapped into the soleus, that also is something that's
taken us this way.
And then they we have the Achilles tendon here and the
foot going back this way. Again that shows us
where it's going. Okay, so so all that anatomical stuff
has reinforced the structural idea.
of the knee
based on the bones. Okay. Here's that kind of fist and
wrist idea, that knob, that hammer idea.
What we have is basically
this kind of thing
and then as we modify it down.
The bone almost always wants to come to a wider surface. So we
have surface play, we have that
connection there. And it's - you can think of it as a tipped
And it's actually kind of - instead of a cylinder that's
square across it's actually
is kind of a quirky cylinder.
And in fact, you can think of it as a spool of thread
or a dumbbell kind of shape.
No teacher jokes, please.
And these - those wheels to the spool or to the dumbbell
ride along the surface of this is all femur.
Upper leg right along the tibia, which is all lower
leg and if this is the inside and this is the outside
then the fibula would be over here and of no consequence.
It's hiding over here
and helping to attach and form that silhouetted mass, it comes
out at the
end here but not of much consequence to us structurally.
So we can just pretend the lower leg is all tibia. We
can't do that here obviously because of that special
articulation. So here it's simpler. It's more of a dish,
slightly concave, that fossa idea. is.
Like that, except that it has a little track to run down. It's
kind of like a monorail where we've got that something to ride
along so it doesn't slip the track.
And there is a little bit of rotation this way actually, but
for all intents and purposes it's just a hinge joint like the
upper arm or like closing and opening the door
and then the special quality of the tibia is it's
rather than a rounded cross-section -
badly drawn there - it's a
Like so. But that tracks like that. So if it then -
if that straight leg
bends, then we're going to get the underside of the spool.
space this way and the underside
of the tibia
more or less dynamically and dramatically
Then I've got them floating away from each other a little
bit so you can see them.
And then the kneecap sits in between.
what I'm going to do is I'm going to take all of that head
of the femur.
And all of that head of the tibia, and I'm going to make a
and call it good. That's all I need to know about is more that
can give little bits of help, but this is most of the battle.
When I get any kind of bent leg - if it's a straight leg, I don't
have to worry about it. It's actually a different problem
I'll show you in a second. Any type of bent leg I'm going to
make it the special end of the tube I talked about or the end
of a box. And I tend to like to make boxes this way so that
each side is bulging. So it's a little more organic. Not like
that. That's a little too mechanical ,little simplistic.
This is not much more work, and it rings more true to our
bulging structures, the bulging bone and the bulging muscles,
so it's more useful.
So I'm going to do that
in whatever articulated position
that thigh is in, as we discussed before.
And move right along, placing the kneecap
wherever it belongs
and the common tendon and move on. Now, let me say something
about how we articulate this. Let's look at a profile,
perfect profile of a thigh.
If we we - with the knee on there -
if it's a right angle
you're just going to make it a corner until it's not a corner.
When it gets to be a straight leg it becomes a curve,
but when it starts to articulate at all it becomes a
has usually that same fluid
line, in fact when I'm on a profile - make sure I'm
staying on the page - when I'm on a profile there's the hips, there's the
thigh, full thigh, thin chin, the thigh thrust forward, the calf
and chin push back to get an S curve. Anytime you see the
ankle bone inside it's almost always, not always but almost
always, it's going to be an S curve.
Like so. If it bends we can still keep it a curve for that
lower leg, make it nice and gestural, but it's going to be
off that corner.
But as soon as we break beyond
the right angle,
now we're going to end up having two corners. And here's
why. If I take this nice, solid, fully realized thigh and I try
and attach a lower leg that bends back really highly
articulated, look what happens. Whether I do a curve or not it
comes to a point and I have that kneecap problem again.
It's lost all structure and it's not doing this anymore.
It's doing that with a calf on it and we don't believe it for
So what we have to do is respect the full mass of the
end of that thigh structure because look at how massive it
is in bone. That's not going anywhere. Even if the soft
tissue of the muscle gets pushed on, as it can, you can't
push the bone around.
And we said
that those two bony heads
Have a lot of mass, they're hammerheads. hammering reasons.
So we've got to maintain that, respect that.
So that means when I go beyond a right angle,
I'm going to have two corners.
I'm going to come off the top of the head of the humerus
and I'm going to come off the head - let's take this back
this way now,
the head of the tibia. I'm going to come off the head of
the humerus which gives me my front plane where my kneecap
my knee cap is,
and I'm going to come off the -
let's make it that way. It's easier.
Got those two bones doing that or maybe even more so doing
this. So we've got to change and go there. So with that in
mind, let's see how that works.
glory and we'll make sure that that thigh is well structured.
And I'm not going to worry about the lower leg that
attaches to it. That's always the case. I'll draw the upper
all the way down to the elbow and all the way up to the
shoulder. I'm not going to worry about how the arm morphs
into the shoulder girdle or morphs and moves into the
forearm. I'm going to draw this as a complete concept, in this
case a tube, a tube, and then I'm going to come to the outside
corner I'm going to attach the new structure on it. I'm going
to come to the outside corner and attach a new structure on
it. But if it goes beyond the right angle, I'm going to have
to bump around
the old structure so that means instead of one corner I'm
going to get two corners.
And it's going to do that.
And because you have that massive calf
on the back side of the lower leg, when that bends
that massive calf is going to meet that massive hamstring and
that massive calf is going to spill over.
And you'll often times reverse that curve. So let's take it
even farther so we make sure it happens. That's going to
go that way, that way, but when it gets this tight and probably
even that tight, this massive calf is going to the
gastrocnemius going to bind up and spill back over.
This pushes against that, that pushes against that, and that
material's got to go someplace and so oftentimes you'll see
the knee structure, that's a tibia, the surface with the
common tendon somewhere on there over the top of it, and in
that gastrocnemius bulges out and then we come back to that
skinny lower shinbone, the tibia going into the foot. And we'll
end up with an S curve because that. You can cut off that S
and then -
and then add the egg, the secondary form, the egg on top
And this will bind in here however it binds in. buying Zen.
Make it simple.
This is going to do whatever it's doing structurally or
slightly on top of it or slightly
won't matter what concept you do for the
upper leg, whether it's square or boxier or three forms or two here or three forms or two
forms or one form will still have that same dynamic, that
gesture will be the same, the fundamental design won't
Won't matter if this is coming out more towards us that way or
going away from us more that way, it would still
be the same idea.
Like so. Okay. So two corners when we get that articulation.
Notice we did that and more or less, we weren't quite as
comprehensive when I talked on this one. If this
bend that way we also have two quarters, not quite as
dramatic though, elbow moves here. This is the upper arm
I'm talking about. Here's the
So that elbow swings in rather than being on the gestural edge, it
That kind of thing. And there's our one two corners, but here I
think that the under the lower leg we go straight across here
because of that knob, that quirky quality of the
elbow there we step in this way. And then
we take off.
And again this material binds up against each other, this way.
Say that it lines up against each other.
There it is there.
So attention to detail and be aware where the bone comes to
the surface and you're your own best model so you can find out
real quickly where the bone comes to the surface
because that's not going anywhere, that stuff that has to
stay. And you can actually
make a point to call it out by making it square or whatever.
pelvis here, pelvis just me bowl.
But think of it as a kind of a basin. It opens up in the front
to allow the stomach and the pubic area to attach and opens
up so we have full range of motion.
So in an upright pose
here's our pelvis in here.
In an upright pose we angle back over. Let's look at a profile.
We swing back over. So the pelvis tilts forward on this
axis more or less depending on the person, the pose, and the ribcage
tilts back on that axis and we get this balancing act over our
I get my head in there, is that why you did that? lead them.
Like that and notice that it's this watery design that flows
all the way through.
there's that lifeline, the water, it starts with the head
neck. And so it flows this way.
This beautiful design and the torso is unjointed.
The ribcage does not contact the pelvis
unless it's in some dynamic articulation where they
come together, but they're not jointed together. They're
jointed into the spine. They're connected into the spine
and the spine in affect is an accordian
in incredible, flexible ways and that allows for that wonderful
of a rib cage in relationship to the pelvis. And you want to think
of the - if we think of it as a real simple idea the pelvis is
is the joint. And then the waist and rib cage everything
attached to that,
arms and head, then articulate against that joint
and the pelvis is the joint and then the leg, legs,
articulate against that. And so it's the fulcrum -
what we saw in our lever system - it's the fulcrum of the
body. It's the power center where everything
is rooted there.
And you'll see that in martial arts and in well taught sports
where you have a good strong base, your core muscles we
thought about now are all rooted in there.
And that's where your strength comes from, your immovability.
And so that's the stability idea, but then the pelvis also
is jointed in such a way, ball and socket for the legs, the
most flexible joint, and completely unjointed
structure we said for the ribcage. So both has great
mobility as well as great stability, very hard to design
that into something.
So we have this big bowl, this big dish, that accepts all this
material and then moves that material in wondrous ways.
So what is the anatomy that allows for that?
So we have the greater trochanter buried, which is
Buried inside. And we'll see it's actually a little fascia
or the thick muscle is turned into a sheath. Happens
we'll see with the quadricep, the kneecap. It happens with
the tricep, elbow.
Gluteus maximus attaches there, comes down here. Most and comes down here. Most
powerful muscle on the body.
It's the tensor fascia latae
And notice that we're getting this convergence, moving
all along that long axis of the leg because the hip is
again the fulcrum to move the leg and so we're attacking it
from several different angles. This pulls, this contracts, and
the leg goes back. This and this contract and the leg swings out.
This contracts and the leg swings out and a little forward.
Then we have the sartorius over here and the rector femoris.
rector just means straight, the straight muscle, the quadricep,
those flex and the leg comes up this way in a sitting
position or a kick you in the shin position.
So they flow that way.
The oblique comes down. Here's the iliac crest, that actually
shows up on the surface give or take the fat content there and
then we have the oblique which is very strong on the male
sometimes because it's developed but always because
that's where men
have their fat.
We call that the love handles, the medical term.
Or just chubby,
that's what they call me
That's what they call me.
Women collect the fat down here.
Could always have an outie belly button.
Now the external obliques come up here.
And they pull that rib cage
this way and
this way. Notice again these are going off the access, somewhere
like that. And so it's pointing down and over this
way. It can rotate that
ribcage from this position in relationship to the pelvis,
male or female,
to this position. The oblique's going to do this. It's going to
pull it down
to the side and forward towards us as, that oblique
Always sitting attaching on the
iliac crest, which is right here, right here.
Pulls down and gives us at lovely articulation, that dynamic
And that's why with that oblique
the bean bag, when you're drawing the bean bag and whatever
three-dimensional position you may be drawing,
when you do that bean bag, that little pinch between the
hips and the pelvis is really the oblique right there. The
oblique can all but disappear and
completely disappear and in fact on a female, once in a while on a
but on a female you can get the oblique
first, both male and female you can get the oblique where it
just feels like an extension of the ribs really.
And notice if I make that hip shape shape taper out to the bottom
it feels more female.
And if we make it more parallel inside -
and I'll oftentimes do it bulging so it feels more organic, seductive long term organic
feels more male.
So you can get it switching sex to sex but that's just kind of
the generic and a stereotype which is generally true but not
always true. So we can get that going straight down male or
female but on the female since the obliques are minimized, get that
word out, because we're gonna have a fat content that
you get that hourglass
look to it.
And then this, the
weight collects here, the deposits, food supply basically,
for child-bearing deposit down here.
Like so. That's all oblique stuff.
Rib cage is coming in here. We can feel the ribs through this.
We have the serratus here, which are
secondary structures, help expand the ribs. And if the
serratus go this way, ribs go that way, the - I'm sorry if the
oblique, fibers of the oblique go this way, which we'll never get
to see on anybody except the most lean model, fibrous
direction of those obliques. But they go that way, ribs go
this way and serratus zigzag across this way and have that
criss cross. You get a lot of criss cross in there which can
really get confusing, you could start doing this and the
audience will go now what do you really mean there. So let one
dominate, we'll see it in some renderings as we go on the next couple
days, let one dominate the rib cage for just the
the big shape of the oblique there against the ribcage. And
what we'll find is the oblique stays on the side plane here.
So if we were to look down on the ribs,
we'd see this kind of thing.
If we can see the feet this is a front of the body.
This is the back of the spine.
Do the nipples there so you can see it but rather than the
shoulders, this is the oblique
on the side there and
the oblique is thinner. And we step forward to see the
And then we've got the back with the with you.
spine cavity there.
So the stomach, the abdomen, sits inside the obliques
and push out from the oblique. The obliques are little narrower see obliques a little narrower
like so. So this is oblique here
attaching into the ribs
up here. Serratus in
a=And then this is the rest of the rib cage and the stomach
You can feel it right here with the hip also is out
wider and in front of the stomach.
Stomach sits inside that. We're not gonna do a lot on this, we just can do a lot on this we just
don't have time, on the stomach, but that's there. Here's the
oblique right here. But that oblique does a nice job. I was
showing how dynamically the rib cage and pelvis act
against each other by squished out because of the
fight between them or get stretched and
disappears subsume into the dynamic
stretch away from, they pull away from each other.
And then it becomes a great place to show a side plane.
Narrow, we got a little bit of the spine and back, can show a
little or a lot of the stomach can show in front, but it creates
this nice slide plane.
This is abdomen coming down here, attaching up there. This is
the erector spinal muscles
for the back to hold our ribcage up in relationship to
our fulcrum. These guys work and they pull us up right,
rib cage goes back this way.
That's where we get that ow I pulled my back out of whack because
I picked up the kitty cat.
So this is all oblique here. Often times you'll just draw
the meat of it is down here, it thins out up here, becomes very
thin and oftentimes completely invisible. And so we
can - if you focus on the most visible part, it's an egg shape
there and that's the nature that's happening there. That's
a spare tire idea here.
And we can make it come all the way. So that's
look down here. There's
here's the maximus.
That pulls it down and out or back and out. This pulls
out. This pulls it out and a little bit frontal. And this the
other pulls it forward and out if it needs to. So these guys are 15 students. So these guys are
to get this leg to do this here and they can even come way up
Hi-yah karate kick kinda thing or ballet move out this way.
And notice when that - this powerful muscle pulls back and
kick dirt and really pull help to propel you forward.
But it's really to hold that leg in position. Now this is
all analogous. This is very much analogous to the shoulder
girdle, deltoid, chest, and on the inside chest and the teres
major, minor, infraspinatus.
And then out of that hamstring comes out. Hamstring is the
of the leg.
So if we want to make that leg contract, then we're using the
hamstring. If you want that leg to kick forward and extend
we're using the quadriceps.
Okay, so we have this little pad if we look at the female
it's going to do something like this.
Just in general. Here's a gluteal split, that's where the gluteus
maximus on one side meets the gluteus maximus on the other.
This will be the gluteus fold. That will be doing something in
here. We'll talk about that in a second.
Notice when we look at it from a back view the top is going
into the paper. If I'm standing here and looking at this as I
then this is farther from me than this point. We build out from
the skinny waist,
the fullness of that hip, and then we go back into the skinny
So we're going to have this doing this and then tucking
back under. And so usually the gluteal fold will show that
underneathness tucking back under. What we want to do is make sure
through construction that we show this going back in the
other way. So what I'll usually do in my construction lines this way
so I can see that natural
pinch between rib cage
And again those obliques then are the -
are acted on by those greater forms in
one way or another.
There'll be a natural pinch as this goes in and this goes in
and binds up that waist area and that back area in some way
sacrum, leads in the tailbone. Sacred because it's sacrum and
sacred because it's a triangular shape.
And the Renaissance named for the Christian Trinity idea.
And so we have a sense of it there. It's not in that
position. It's floating down inside the structure lower down
in here. But we see a padded semblance of it at the surface
there on most female hips from the back side. Male you may see
it often times you don't. Female also you might just see the two
dimples, see the flesh dimple just a little bit.
And we won't see a true triangle but that down to
where the gluteal split happens again creates our triangle
idea. That's a great landmark because oftentimes that oblique
because it's acted on such a wild and crazy way, we can't
always depend on the contour to tell us exactly where the hip -
the waist ends and the hip begins. So oftentimes if we
look at the contour it's distorted and we might put the
hips in the wrong place because of that.
If you look at these two pinches though, they're always
So if the pinches or the dimples are doing that, you
know the hips are sitting this way. And again that may not be
true with the gluteal split, the gluteal split may not track that will split may not track
like a T as it does here. So that may not show you the long
axis. It might be off somehow because of the articulation of
this leg doing some crazy stuff. Being acted on somehow.
So that sits in there.
comes down here and attaches down below.
that would be the greater trochanter right here. These
guys coming out. You'll see it here is a little fascia. If you look
at an anatomy book you'll see the fibrous stuff and then it just
into something like that.
And that's just - it's just a sheathy material.
That like a flat sheath, cellophane version of a tendon,
That folds that way, this is attaching along the backside of
back side of the bowl, back side of the iliac crest
here obliques if we can see them attach on here, here, like
Comes all the way down here, all the way down here, and then
sacrum like I said will actually be down lower.
And notice we get kind of a classic feminine
and not the I work out at the gym, do pilates feminine that
tends to be our kind of Hollywood ethic here, but the
pelvis as just a general
or aesthetic or however you want to do it will feel
a butterfly kind of shape. We'll get the gluteus medius up here
if there's any type of
torque or anything we'll see some of the tensor fascia latae
of this guy here.
Gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and you can think of that as
little eggs and this is what they did in Renaissance,
Botticelli or Titian or whatever. It was saying eggs
because the egg just like the the triangle said Trinity for
Christian mythology, the egg was the born-again idea.
Not birth but rebirth and so you make - even this can become
an egg in a Renaissance or high Renaissance early artist.
Like that so you can see that or you can see it as a kind of a
butterfly, come out of the sacrum.
We get this kind of idea, butterfly wings.
That's not a bad way to look at. If you look at look at
Bridgman's work he'll have some version of that and it's
worked out the structure there.
And then the hamstrings come up and similar to the
bicep they're on axis. Now notice these are going off axis and
look at the the beauty of this design in terms of showing
just the aesthetics of it.
These forms wrap over and so we're getting the muscle fibers
coming off the back plane.
Off the back plane and going over to the side plane. That's
incredibly valuable to us because now instead of just
moving down the form like a hamstring would do,
like this, which just shows us what we already have in terms of gesture
and basic construction
we're taking, coming off the center and wrapping around
because the rib cage does something somewhat similar.
It takes us off the center and moves us out towards the edge.
And that's always very valuable if we can go there we're moving
from center to side and it and have a wonderful opportunity to
describe that transition, that lovely movement. And it's just a
nice variation. Spine goes down, sacrum points down, gluteal fold
goes down or the gluteal split goes down, legs go down. Having
this wrapping over is a great way to show variety, to take a
little side journeys, have little subplots that we'll look
at tomorrow, and to move
over the form in a structural way.
Okay, so very useful. Now on top of that we then get that
just like we get
the breast or even on the male a little bit of far underneath the
We're going to have a fatty deposit here so we could sit
on a drawing bench and draw for hours and hours and hours
and hours and hours and hours.
And so we get that, what's called the gluteal fold. And
this is fat here, and it does an interesting thing.
real simple miniskirt. That gives the sense that it's
female because it bevels out.
Notice we get kind of a diamond shape in effect.
And I like to look at the biggest possible shapes in
terms of design so I can take in the whole picture and I
don't get caught up in the little thing and then find out
the big thing - all those little things don't cohere. They
don't add up to a hip and the thigh or a full body or
whatever. And also if I can look for certain types of shape
showing up I can then repeat that thematically. Maybe I'm
going to take the sacrum and a little bit of the spine and
erector structure and I'll make a secondary triangle. Maybe
it's an open triangle that goes in to the fascia around the
spine. And I can start to get some kind of triangular idea.
I'll come all the way up and I'll pick up the trapezius and
that'll be another triangle and each one maybe is a different
variation, triangle diamond shape. Maybe it's a different
variation. It's interesting wobbly thing going
on. This is open-ended and blunt on the sides. This is
long and simple and curved and beautiful and then we come out
here and with the calves down into the Achilles tendons
or ankles or something like that we maybe get the same
thing repeating again and maybe even the calcanean on the back
heel, the heel bone, into the heel bone with the Achilles
tendon creates another little triangle that's half a
diamond. So now we have this diamond like motif going on and
it's - now I've made things designed and interesting and
maybe very personal.
here's our gluteal structure coming here. The muscle
structures do something like this. That fatty structure
though does a lot to affect the shape and what we have is we
have the hamstring which is a bicep.
The bicep of the thigh we said it contracts that lower leg,
contracts and bends that lower leg up this way any bulges out
when it works just like the bicep will
do its thing. Bend that that load up and bulges out.
So that bulge, that little bulge because it's straight.
Or that big bulge because it's working, is going to have an
effect and what will happen then is a split will come down
And the egg shape of the gluteal structure with that
fatty deposit will sag with gravity some way or another. Or
the fat can't work so it's going to drop even if the
muscle is doing some work and and that falls as an egg, but
we have another egg shape coming up
to support it. And so when we get an egg meeting and egg,
we're going to have this
affectation. And so what happens is that gluteal fold
cuts off that egg because it's bulging and binding into the
other egg and we get something like that. And that's a lovely
opportunity to show the underneathness of that hip
going back that we talked about before. And it may well have a
shadowy structure to it
because of the light source.
It also reinforces.
So notice by drawing the detail of that
fatty deposits, muscular structures,
they pull over here and attach down or they fade out here, roll up,
we've now got a reinforcement of that
architecture in a certain position in space.
And that can in fact continue to cross course in this hole
underneath the eye area.
Does a beautiful job of showing us that.
Now that figure in this case is way up on that model stand
above us. And we might even make the sacrum
curve that way because we're savvy to that effect or because
that's what we see.
This a gluteus medius - maximus. This is the gluteus medius up
here. That's that butterfly effect, that's more or flying fact, that's more or
less prevelant. Usually not that prevelant.
That's if the leg is straight and stiff or if it comes back
towards us at all then that massive muscle there is
going to fight against this and we'll get that fold going as we've
just draw it. And you might get another series of folds
And the shadow will go over that bump and do something like
Why is this gluteal split straight and this pretty straight, tray? And this pretty straight
in other words if this is all egg shaped, why didn't do this?
And why could I even make it more stylized and it would feel
okay, like this.
Well part of the answer is
if you've got a round
fighting against another round, my round is going this way, your
round is going that way, they cancel out to some degree. Now
one might be slightly more dominant, slightly more dominant
then it's slightly curved one way or another, we curve this
way because that reinforces perspective. But notice that
when they do our snowman - when you squish those balls together,
where they come together it flattens to some degree.
Up here the material of the muscle thins out. And this the muscle thins out and this
is a bit of a depression here and then we have the meaty
mass of those muscles and whatever fat things on top
of them. And then the thick flesh on top of that. So it's
cushioned and softened but this flattened out. So up in here it
does get pretty straight and stiff because it's more bony,
you don't have a lot of pillowy material up in that
area. It's actually a little concavity that we usually don't
bother to draw.
And again now the gluteal structures, if we make them real
simple, they're eggs and they're eggs that are fighting and
pushing together. They're pinching.
And so again they can flatten out there.
So that's what happens structurally, but aesthetically,
if we make things very very round, or
even very very curved, it's constantly changing directions
and it's very hard to get a handle on it and it's very hard
to make an audience look at one area of the curve over
So if I want to show that this is an upright vertical figure, I
need to have times and it may be just little moments, but
whenever I have the opportunity to extend that time through a
spine that was straight on or through a group of gluteal
pinch, I want to play that up so that we can get the idea of
this upright, maybe even morally upright individual that
we're trying to make a visual metaphor about. And likewise if
this is a person that's at attention in a very formal pose
because of the valet position or whatever it is or the Earth
goddess statue that we're doing whatever then we want to pick
up some horizontals horizonte's.
to do that.
But if I can show structure
when I get more corners.
And I can make something very very round and give it a corner
and maybe it ends up being around a corner but it's still a
corner but again the rounder it gets, the less we can start
talking about axis. What we really want to get structure
very clear to the audience and more easily for ourselves we
want a lot of corners.
So if I take my ball and I let you know in some way where
exactly the side of the ball is and where exactly the bottom of
the ball is,
you're going to feel that box logic even in a ball because I
chiseled the ball or I flattened
here and there on the ball to get those differences.
Now you're very clear
where the bottom is within a very close tolerance, right
here you're not sure if you're on the bottom or the side and
here you know you're on the bottom here, you know you're
on the side. That's going to feel more structural to you and
so it's going to help things track well.
So we can create that symmetry across and there's something very
pleasing about that, very safe and comforting.
And it's the basis of the
morphology for Christianity, the triangle
is a religious concept.
But it happens to also be the most stable
geometric form in nature. And if you've got God protecting
your soul or you've got the mother
protecting the child and especially if it's a mother of
God protecting the little baby God, what's better than putting
in them inside the most stable
idea in nature. So there's something very comforting about
symmetry and stability.
So maybe diamonds would be just the thing to do for this
Madonna image because if we took these, this diamond, and
split it apart
and combine them together we'd find the Star of David which is a
earlier - not a spin-off - but earlier incarnation of the same
triangular idea and what it was is the energies above,
the mysteries of above, that we call
Yahweh or God or whatever we're calling,
and the energies below, the mortal world and the immortal,
the natural and the supernatural have
come together now in this faith, in this idea, in his imagery. So
they have potentially incredibly powerful
ramifications. And so we're going to - if you do
something triangular, if you take the whole pose and do
that, the audience will feel protected by that, they'll feel
comfortable because it feels like that thing is not falling
off the page, but it can have much deeper more powerful
meaning and of course because art is a reflection of life, we
are the separate soul in this world or separate biological
accident - whatever you think it may be - spit into this world and
how does that part reconnect? We were connected when we were in
the womb, now we're out there and the cord was literally cut
and we're all alone in a very real way. How do we make a
life? How do we connect to the community? Anyway, that's art's
job, it is religion's job, and some of these
shapes, these ideas, instructions and digestions
have all of their structural and engineering
and mechanical ideas. But they also have deep
emotional ideas. It can become life philosophies and can help
to explain something that you really don't have any hope of
so there is truth - I'm pointing to my head and there's truth,
I'm pointing to my heart. There's different kinds of
truths and religion and art work much better when they
speak to the emotional truths. That is not a rear end. And
that is not an egg. And that is not God living on my paper.
It's the idea of those things. It's a abstraction of those
things. But they - people will live and breathe and die
for abstractions. They do it all the time, they're doing it
in a different part of the world right now.
And so they're very powerful concepts.
You have muscles that work and muscles that relax, that
are intention and bulge up and we have the big muscles like
the gluteal muscle can become a big egg, the
hamstring can become a big egg or a couple eggs. But there's
also thinner muscles. The big muscles are going to be big
shapes and specifically on the body, almost always although we
can design them differently, they're going to be bulging
ideas. So you think of the bodybuilder or Hercules or
Samson at the temple that kind of stuff and it's bulging big
biceps, big deltoids, bulging six-pack, little bulges down
They bulge out. And so when you have a
shape that gets bulbous, it starts to expand this way as it
tracks that way, it's going to feel like it's bigger because
it's taking up more real estate here, but also it's bulging out,
it's expanding. And the funny thing about muscles is we only
as humans were very strange and science fiction will deal with
this a lot, they'll have the alien say why are tears leaking
out of your eyes, they wonder why we're such strange
creatures and stuff. And one of the odd things about us
that's interesting to deal with as storytellers is we only
perform really well under stress usually. When things
are really stressful sometimes we perform really badly
under stress and we all probably have family members that we can
point to for that. But often times we're at our best or the most
heroic the most creative and the most interesting under dramatic
situations. In fact in storytelling when you're
creating a character because it's true in life, you're not
going to really know who that character is until you put that
character under stress. This guy will walk around the bar
saying I'm the toughest guy in the bar because it's all
waitresses this call, but as soon as a big biker comes in he
melts and he's the weakest guy in the bar. So it's the stress
that affects us the most and brings out the character and in
some ways we crave that stress. And for example where I'm
getting at, the muscles, when you exercise your muscles, you're
actually injuring those muscle fibers. When you work those
barbells or push against that resistance or run those miles,
when your body starts to fail, when it's at the point of
failure, that's where you stop, at some point along that that
continuum and your muscles have actually been injured, you've
hurt those fibers. And then the muscles heal themselves, they
rebuild. And when they rebuild they rebuild with scar tissue,
so all the fibers - there's thousands of fibers of There's thousands of fibers of
say the bicep. All those fibers have been injured and when they
come back to health they've got scar tissue on them and so
each fiber is a little bigger and that's how you get the
bodybuilders with big bulky muscles. You'll see the same
thing when you got - I where is it? I got it someplace here. I got whereas some place here. I got
a pocket knife when I was 10 and I went ahead and cut my
finger immediately with it as little boys always do when they so the boys always do when they
get pocket knives and there is a little
It's called chelation. There's scar tissue and it's actually
built up and that part of the skin is armored. It can
take more abuse now than it could before, so it builds up.
something about things in tension they get bigger. And if
you want to show something that's really working, let it
bulge out, because it does, but also you can use that as some
kind of metaphor for life of how things -
we only learn through our mistakes kind of thing.
So we have that and then when we get down to the thinner
muscle or many - really most - of these muscles when they attach,
some will attach with sheaths and a lot of these big guys,
especially the big - the ones we think about the biceps, the
triceps - well some of the tricep,
anyway, some of the - a lot of this stuff will come down to a
tendon, a string connection, and then you also have ligaments.
We have tendons and ligaments and those will do a lot of the
attaching and a lot of the work and so when we get down especially
to the joints we'll often times - not at every joint every time -
but a lot of times we we'll see a lot of tendinous connection,
And we can do that just by line.
So I've got all sorts of structures in here that we'll
talk about other time. But I can add these connections of
these big structures, big bulbous muscles that come down
tendons or these little skinny muscles or whatever. I can do
those just as a line quality and look at how lovely
that can work. And I'll do this in my work to correct a
correct the drawing, but also to show a sense of energy, kind of
like speed lines. Like a
comic book, you punch him in the nose and it pushes him back.
But all those things then become
a way to connect. Notice now, I can overlap and interlock this
structure into that structure.
I can lock these things together in these wonderful
interlocking, solid connected truths. And then - so it helps
structurally. And then these are also pointing or maybe even
picking up and continuing
along the long axis more or less of that structure and so
it's gestural too. So this comes down.
This stuff comes up and any of these thinner things I can
just make little lines and they'll be strings. So they'll
have - they'll be tiny little tubes in effect that you probably
will never bother to render, but they're going to be
ringing true to what's going on.
And they're going to be a way of taking one thing
and showing how we move we move to another thing, the movement
between those forms. And notice the line could become a tone
and the tone could become a shape and the shape can be a
big mass. And so we can move from one idea to the other in
these interesting and clever nuanced, realistic ways. Okay
last thing on this.
If the leg drops forward or steps forward,
now what was
become a - what had become a fight now as that leg comes
forward this hamstring drops away and that gluteal
structure can fall.
And now the gluteal fold will go this way.
I'll be something like this give or take.
Notice if we try to use a gluteal fold to find the hips,
we'd be way out of whack.
This can still track over.
structural idea. Whoops, it's busted.
But this falls away. So notice when I turn this this shows the
hips going back in that perspective. But also the mass
of this leg either the
bulge, the top bulge of the ball. Maybe it comes back down into
flat perspective if it's a standing pillar of support. This
one's going away from us and this also shows that going away from us.
So that gluteal fold is very valuable for how it can move us
into the leg, describe the perspective of the leg, show the
of those massive forms being thrust together. It
does a lot of good stuff. They're fun beautiful shapes to their fun beautiful shapes the
Notice the more the gluteus medius separates from the
gluteus maximus on the contour - potentially, not all the time,
but potentially the more the shadow of the gluteus medius
will separate from the shadow of the gluteus maximus and
actually I didn't do that shadow very well. Let's do it again.
Here's the contour.
Here's a test.
Here is the shadow of the gluteus medius. Now why - and
there's the shadow of the gluteus maximus. Why is that a better
job than this?
You might find that this is more beautifully done, but I'm
not talking about the technique.
It's because it's structural. Notice how where the shadow notice how where the shadow
bumps in relationship to where the contour bumps, we have to
rise up to that.
And then what does that do?
It helps that underneath quality. So that's closure. We
see this bump. We see this bump. Let's do it again over here. was do it again over here.
Here is a bump between two competing forms.
When I put the shadow
of those two competing forms bumping up,
we're starting to feel that underneathness.
We'll see that. I'll show you that again and again to make
that sure that reinforces and we'll see it in old master
drawings are great at doing it. And often times they'll math and often times they'll
even darken that a little bit so that you key on that and
then of course I could do the same thing over here. Here's
the contour over here.
Here's the contour over here.
And I'm going to do the highlight
See how that works? Now if I can be that clever in two or
three other places or one or two other places on the
structure, you're going to feel that structure going to
the paper like this. Because we're underneath it the
detail at or near the center goes higher and the detail at
or near the sides goes lower.
in this case because of the character form, all this deal stay all for him all this deal stay all
that detail stays on about the same level and then only until
we get here that we drop down to that lower idea to get
Okay, that's a tricky thing. But that's being in
control of your materials. Whether it's anatomy or structure or
laws of light, making everything reinforced.
So notice here, there are more like that, aren't they?
Now I did a lot of good work here so I can be a little
forgiving. The audience will still get the idea. Would be
much better if I was up here.
And you're not going to get that probably just observing.
It probably will do it frankly because the fact that you are
underneath that form and that form is rising up and into the back
end of the picture plane, but you're probably not going to be
that quick to observe it and to
catch it every time and you certainly won't be in a
position to exploit it and play it up.
So it's good to know.
So everything is an excuse
is really what it comes down to. In writing they say
the story is never - the scene is never about what the scene
So wobble meets wobble.
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1. Mechanics of the Limbs17m 40sNow playing...
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3. Movements of the Arm15m 53s
4. Radius and Ulna10m 10s
5. Rhythms of the Arm4m 14s
6. Live Demo of Knee1m 29s
7. Attaching Upper to Lower Leg15m 11s
8. Upper Leg & Hip8m 40s
9. Fluidity of Leg7m 59s
10. Bent Knee9m 36s
11. Knee & Elbow Analogy5m 41s
12. Pelvis and Balance16m 53s
13. Pelvis from Rear View10m 5s
14. The Leg Rear View26m 57s