- Lesson details
In this lesson we will be using reference from one-of-a-kind castings of a real human cadaver by famed art anatomist Eliot Goldfinger to do a study of the form creating muscles of the face.
Students are encouraged to work from the NMA reference images and 3D viewer included on this page*.
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
In the first part of our Russian Academic Drawing Course, Iliya taught you how to hone your fundamental drawing skills. In this next part, Head & Neck, you will undertake a new challenge: the portrait.
In order to draw the complexity of nature we need to study all the anatomy that makes up the surface form of the head and neck.
Head & Neck covers topics such as the structure of the skull, individual bones of the skull, deep muscles of the face, skeleton of the neck & shoulder girdle, muscles of the shoulder girdle, and the portrait drawing process.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
- Sanguine pencil
- Piece of sanguine colored chalk
- Vine charcoal
- Charcoal pencil
- Graphite pencils
- Kneaded and Hard Erasers
- Sanding Block
- Utility Knife
- Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
- Staple gun
- Artist panel
- Light source
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This too will give you an idea of how we're going to approach the study of anatomy.
For this, we're going to be using Eliot Goldfinger's
remarkably detailed casts of an actual cadaver.
we have some experience with the skull, the forms of the skull,
and it's now time to add on a little bit of information, a little bit
of muscular tissue
to see how
the skull is still a very prominent aspect of
a human face. So we have in front of us
a mask made from a cadaver
in which you can see the
internal muscles as well as the
external ones. Now I turn
mark in such a way that we focus
more on the internal muscles
and are able to pick out
and see where they cover parts of
the skull and where other parts of the skull are
still very clearly visible.
And that's kinda what you need to
focus on when you're working on a head. You,
as I specified earlier, you need to
have an understanding of
the skull mainly so that you can keep pulling it
out of every head that you're working on.
Every portrait. And that you accentuate the part
of the skull that are there.
And I think this mask, and specifically the way that you can see
the internal musculature,
is going to help with that.
But you're going to begin in the same way that we
have. Except now with some experience in the skull you can
immediately sort of hook onto elements of the skull that
So for example, the upper
of the eye socket, the
zygomatic process of the frontal bone, the frontal process of the
zygomatic bone, the entirety of the zygomatic,
parts of the eye socket,
get that glabella. You can see
even with the coverage, you can still see the
superciliary arches, which you can
see the way that all of that
sort of the upper margins of the socket that come out of that.
You can see the temporal line
coming off of the zygomatic process with the frontal bone
and now we don't have the skull in its entirety
and this is all that we have but
sort of don't even worry about these things that you're
seeing, possibly for
the first time. And just focus on
those areas that you're already familiar with. And now here
the head kind of ends,
the head ends,
the mask rather, right before
the mastoid process.
Remember what we said about the
facial angle, just take that angle from the
outmost part of the glabella, which is the glabella,
to the outermost part of the teeth
the outermost part of the teeth in front, the upper jaw.
and here you can begin to, here you have a bit more going on
because you don't just have the
the nasal cavity but you have
the cartilage that makes up the nose itself.
Don't worry so much about the parts that have
sort of the muscles, the
more external ones, but just
get the shape. Now keep in mind that here, since
this is a cast from a cadaver, the head is not perfectly symmetrical.
And in some sense you do want to
make sure that your alignments are correct but you also want to
some of that - some of those things that are
And you know,
remember to pay attention to angles
and different kinds of alignments for example,
where the end is here seems to match up with
the outerpart of the
eye socket here.
It's helpful in that sense and then you're...
So it's still a mask.
It's still a mask.
Here you can see that
beginning to like - we have the eye socket but you also have
the advantage here is you actually see how large the eye is
as well. So you can begin to
and so the important things that are happening here is that you have
a muscle right here
known as the
and it is important because it creates
a plane here, which is -
which connects with the line that we were
talking about earlier with that temporal line up here
to create what is essentially entire in the side
plane of the face.
And it covers this kind of area underneath
the zygomatic arch.
And fills it in. In a similar
way, above right here, you have a
muscle known as the temporalis
and it fills up
the area above
the zygomatic arch.
This area. You can still see a bit of the zygomatic arch but it's obviously,
it's not - there isn't a whole, or rather there is
but these muscles are
in that hole. So
this whole area becomes a lot more even, a lot flatter.
that is an
part of what you need to think about in
like along this edge between
the front and side plane of the face. You also have, inside
here is a muscle
known as the
fills up, it's the muscle inside of
your cheeks. And it
also, it kind of fills in a lot of the space
in here that is
something that is kind of easily attributed
to the forms of a skull
but not too common in
Unless of course the
cheeks are extremely sunken in.
And even at that point,
even if a person
due to that looks sort of,
if you can see the forms of the skull in that head, you'll
still see this area filled in by the buccinator
and some other things. And then here of course in front you have
a muscle that, in our case,
you only see the small bit of the half that's
on that side.
But it's known as the obicularis
oris. Or the muscle of the
mouth and the lips. Now
that we don't need to focus on
as much at the moment either.
the point of working on
this head and on this particular side of the head
despite the fact that all of - the temporalis, the masseter
and the buccinator are taking up
this space here, you still see very large amounts
of the skull and in particular -
in particular these
elements of the frontal bone and almost the entirety of the zygomatic.
we can bring and begin to look for the front plane
but you always need to - you can see that there's this line right here but don't -
it's the muscles up here - but don't
be confused by that, and by that I mean don't make it
your center line. Your center line is here and if you were to
add the other muscle up here it would go off to the side.
There's a bit of an opening up there. So keep that
center line a little more precise.
And don't let a line
So now we're here, this side happens to be closed, but even here
this whole area is
filled in but you can still see the protrusion of the forms that pertain more
to the skull than anything else.
Even if there are muscles, keep in mind
that you have to look for the bones.
So all of this
alar cartilage, it's -
we just need to hint at it right now. The whole point is to just see as much
of the skull as possible when it's just
in this case it's just slightly covered.
And all of the same things that I
have spoken about apply. Your proportions,
and so on.
So in this case
so I have some overall
proportions, some markings, but I think it would help
even before we get any outlines that are too specific
to just get an idea of what is happening with our
shadows. That's the cast shadow from the nose, core shadow,
and terminator are down here and
you can follow this shadow but now we
already are acquainted with
the shadow from the frontal bone
right there as well as the cast shadow inside
that's obviously not all the way in because there's an eye there.
And just that cast shadow
that hits the eyeball itself, core shadow
here, cast shadow there,
all of, and especially the shadows
here, which you also are very
familiar with by now.
Having worked with the skull. And then
just kind of get them in place
because, as I said, they'll help with proportions. This is now
a bit more of a
portrait than it is a
study of a skull.
These are the shadows
remember that we need to focus on. The principles remain
exactly the same. We need to
pull out the zygomatic arch.
And then all of this is side plane. So see I'm getting -
the approach is a bit quicker.
You can get it all in one
go. I'm sort of speeding the process along a little bit. And you'll see that
you'll be going back into all of it.
Now to work on the
buccinator a little bit to kind of
establish it as a plane. See the side plane. And as you see
the planes of the head
are sort of, they correspond to
the skull underneath. And the planes of the skull
you find in the planes of the head.
Though of course they're not as pronounced,
they're a bit softer and so on.
Now that we have the general patterns of our shadow we can begin
to move in a little bit and to
some specifics. So
here of course you have muscles that
cover that part
sort of go on top of the superciliary arches
but at the same time they almost make
the superciliary arches more pronounced.
So if that's a terminator I'd like to focus on. And then you can
kind of begin and get the form of the
muscle on top.
And then the important thing here
is being sort of slightly more of a portrait is you want to get the particular
character of the
orbit. The particular character
of the eye socket where
exactly does it change direction?
Where does it sweep up here with the frontal process
that highlight essentially that's on it that
gives you that edge?
there are certain parts here that you can kind of put in.
So in this case you have simply the
origins of the muscles
in these areas. You can put them in or you can omit them.
They are important, obviously, they
do go on top, but
even here, even with
those tiny pieces that you see,
even though that they're cut, you can still see that,
you can see most
of the zygomatic.
It's not that covered. Even if it
is, it's up to you to uncover it.
get some of these shapes
just a little more precise
and to make sure that this is where our contrast lies.
a bit of a cast shadow coming off of this.
Now you don't have too much of a frontal eminence but
you do have a very clean ridge here
but we'll get to that.
in the zygomatic arch inside of those
shadows that you placed initially now begin
to pull out those areas that are the most important.
Now just taking a look
remember that the zygomatic
is pretty much the same, like pretty much at the same place as
the base of the nose.
So in my case I have to bring it down just
And so I'm speeding this process
along and it's a slightly more organic approach
which I think
will be helpful because when we do the portrait we're going to be
doing the portrait in sanguine. A softer medium
in which the approach is a little more painterly.
You sort of put down large areas of
And then you work into a lot of it with
the eraser. So I'm kinda
imitating this slightly
with the medium that you are more familiar with
at this point. Get the end of the
buccinator here but also the
cast shadow from it.
And keep in mind that in this approach
your eraser is of prime importance
because you'll be carving out lighter
areas out of the darker areas of tone.
So see we can
speed this up, it's also -
it's kind of in some ways it's more
optical approach right away but you're immediately
begin to construct into it. Begin to try and analyze well what
these forms are.
And it still, it's
open to all of the same types of
correction and changes that any other approach is.
Maybe even more so.
So here we have this, the same kind of
changes in plane that we saw on the mandible. You can follow
them up and see them in the buccinator also but there's a change in plane here.
And that's something to place right away.
same kind of
element that you accent - I'm -
and pretty much along the same lines. It's the importance of really having
an understanding of the skull. Now here
the frontal eminence is
it's somewhere around here and
it might be just a little bit confusing looking at it
without the rest of the head.
But you can
see that little bit of a half tone here on the top
superciliary arches. You can see it here because
our light is
remember that our
light is reflecting
our highlights are on the major changes in plane
and our lightest high
up but it's causing a lot of the highlights
to be along this edge because also this edge
is so pronounced.
And the other - and so
here kind of move into
the other -
the other side of the orbit.
And here remember that
we don't need to have, at least at the
moment too much of a contrast on that
edge to the paper. Keep it light.
So what - now let's get a little bit of more information
in the nose. There's a lot happening there.
A lot happening but the key is to get your front plane
and if you remember we worked on this on the
John Asaro planar head.
The most important thing is the front plane
and the side planes of the nose. And kind of get
some of the forms of this cartilage, almost just
outline it, followed by in here by the wing of the
nostril as it sweeps in
or the wing of the nose
and take this angle
where these things line up. Go under and see you're just basically
you're doing all the same things but you already have a little bit of
tone on. And then here it's very important
to try to see where the end of the side plane of the nose is so that you
can place it and then everything that's still in shadow off of that
is the cast shadow from there.
Now these -
and same principle with the teeth as before.
In our case,
we have only half so we -
in this case you can use that as a center
line. And then you have the teeth
all the way up, the important one remember,
it's one of the canines because that's the major change in plane, I would take it up and it seems
to fall right into here.
Right into here. And it works.
This is also,
this approach, speeding it up, is
it's even more important here that you sort of put
down what's in front of you and then go back into it
and make the
corrections. Something that I've been talking about the whole time.
But you can see
how it applies here.
Remember to find those changes
along that edge.
Alright. With this
in place it's much easier to kind of go over and correct
certain elements of the -
certain elements of the
proportions, angles, because you already have
like enough happening, enough information
at the same time, a good amount of tone,
some shadows that play an important role in this
structure of the head. So the -
so now with that in place, now we can go back
into it and
get a little more specific.
the eraser and
slightly calmer movements of the hand, let's
make sure that our anatomical
forms, the important ones, especially
the ones pertaining to the skull, are in place.
up the zygomatic arch, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
Underneath you actually have, you see
the jaw itself.
part of the actual - the temporomandibular joint.
this important point that we spoke about
before, the angle of
the jaw, as you see, is not as prominent because of the masseter.
But at the same time, it needs to be there.
And here you can see and use
that cast shadow that's falling from
of muscle on the zygomatic
arch onto the masseter
is quite helpful because
then you can see the entirety of the
thickness of the
masseter as well coming off of that.
So take your time and just work into this, essentially what is
this tonal mass that you've established.
Here you have
essentially what amounts to kind of
empty space, often filled with
fat. But it's important to
consider that area and keep in mind
that that is going, when working on a portrait, that's going
to be something that
varies from person to person.
The amount of it. But then here
out of this you can see
parts of the jaw, parts of the mandible.
So see I'm
beginning - and then inside here
you can see the bones of the skull.
And it's important to make sure they're pretty clear,
accented, and so on.
Now the masseter of course has -
it's rather organic in shape but
you can still see almost a slab
it's cut here and
it continues out a bit more.
But for our purposes this is ideal.
And I think we can actually lower
the jaw a bit. I think that'll
that's more the character of our model.
Now this is quite an incredible
object to work from because you often, if you see anatomical
have muscles on them, they're all sculpted. So there is,
in some ways, an advantage in that
because a sculptor, an artist
they kind of clean things up
and sort of establish their own
hierarchies of importance
and a lot of times it's
based off of other objects of art.
kind of - there are a lot of conventions that go into that.
So there could be some advantages
to learning from things like this but in our case
this being cast from a cadaver, it is
a much more sort of accurate
depiction of what really goes on under the skin.
It's quite a unique opportunity.
this is already like moving towards a top plane
this is still part of
the frontal bone.
I don't actually see the end of it
I think it was
cut, the mask was essentially cut before the
end of the frontal bone so we don't see any of the parietal bones.
Which is totally
okay in this case.
And here, remember
to find that sort of rectangular
area, which will give you the front plane of the forehead.
Front plane of the frontal bone. And from that I
can extend these construction lines.
And here as well. This is kind of an intermediary
plane if you recall in between
side plane coming off of this temporal line.
And see I'm working a bit more with my hands
and I think I'll just put a general tone.
So I'm kinda giving you an idea
of what's gonna go into working with sanguine. Working with the
red chalk. It's a lot more hands on
and as you see, it's possible to do this
with the pencil as well. Now this
isn't the only way that I'm going to work in pencil.
as we move on
on the other
casts, the other anatomical
but there's going to be more and more elements of this.
An approach that's a bit quicker, a bit more organic
And, in some ways,
a bit more
of a tonal approach as well.
You're kind of relying on
a lot of your shadows here.
You're using them to give you the form. But
even more importantly and we're just sort of not
as common, like
keep in mind these shadows are also
giving you your proportions.
Here you can see the
other zygomatic and
then the muscle of the eye.
The muscle of the eye,
muscle right here is called the obicularis
oris and this obicularis oculi. And essentially that's just
telling you that it's round. It's round,
it pertains to the eye.
It's round, it pertains to the mouth.
a lot like
has to do with speaking
and the mouth.
See so like use
the muscles up here to give you
those superciliary arches. Use them.
we're not gonna put too much information
on these muscles, the more
external ones here. The eyes closed there. The obicularis oris,
so sorry, obicularis oculis.
Just kind of,
we need a tone there we need to show
that that is our terminator also, up there.
So we're getting
more and more, more and more
precise but we're kinda just inching towards it. And we're
sort of correcting outlines and working with the outlines, internal and external,
at the same time
as we're working
with half tones as well as our shadow. So a lot of these things
that we used to think about as
a step by step process are combining now.
Thinking of it as
uninterrupted approach where a lot of
these, a lot of these
angle and proportion and
tone are all taking place at the same time.
but I think you're up to it.
There's some small muscles
in there, don't concern yourself too much with any
of the smaller ones except the ones
that I spoke about. There's plenty of time for you to go
and learn them all. As
a teacher of mine once told me, anatomy is something that has to be
completely internalized and
understood, and then forgotten.
And he doesn't, of course,
mean that you have to forget all your anatomy,
but is sort of emphasizing
that process of having to internalize
all of the anatomy. Of being able to pick it out of
what's in front of you. To pick out the important
It means essentially that it has to become
But of course for that to happen you do have to spend
some time and learn it, including the names.
And of course,
what we're talking about here is
kind of an introduction
and kind of a cursory one. And there are
but there are of course certain things that we just can't simply talk about without
talking about anatomy.
But I'm more focused on its practical application
at the moment.
Now I think it's time to begin
on really spending
some time on some elements. And we're gonna start with the same elements,
the ones that we're
just as important on the skull.
And the advantages of that you will see immediately because
here they are
on the parts that are
not as covered.
In our case, completely uncovered.
So we're working along that
And that cast shadow, you can still see it.
It was of course much larger
in the skull. But you can see it here because
there's still that area, there's still
essentially a hole there,
a gap but it's
considerably more shallow
due to the fact that the temporalis is
in that space.
But it's all there
kinda build your half tones up to the point where you can
place that highlight.
Go with the whole form of
this muscle and then inside you see the socket
of prime importance.
This top edge has actually got a little bit of a
half tone in here.
Little bit of a half tone
A light above it but then also
the main highlight I will
use my sort of pencil eraser or mechanical pencil eraser
to place that highlight on the major change in plane.
and then of course moving it up here with a little bit of light and a strong
amount of light on that edge.
And it's of course considerably harder to pick out the exact
edges, the exact sort of contours
of the orbit
on a person, but I think
this practice, first working from a skull and then
from this écorché head
will give you
a good amount of
experience to be able to pick these out from a live
model. And also, as
you're working on this, I highly recommend that -
it might happen automatically, but I highly recommend that you kinda just
spend some time looking at the people around you. And you don't even have to
sketch them or do anything, but just try to pick these parts
out as you're looking at them. And you
you'll see that the more you practice,
the more of them you'll see, they'll just
jump out at you.
of course we're always thinking of
the changes in plane right? So
this is our
major area belongs to
the side plane. If you remember on the
head, on the planar head, there are two
intermediary planes between the front
and the side. And one is right here, the other one
is this area right here that's taken up by the
buccinator and by
everything else in that area.
The fat and the cheeks.
in a skull, this area is practically
it's not sort of turned to quite be an intermediary plane.
It's turned in such a way that
its like almost immediately on the side. And, as you see,
this happens also with the buccinator
because it adheres to the forms underneath. So what's really causing that intermediary
plane is the
that covers this
and evens a turn there, it evens out that curvature.
let's get this into an intermediary plane.
Only way to do that is with
the proper tone.
See this is beginning to come
alive a little bit.
Which is, you know, ironic
as we're working from a cadaver.
I don't know how alive he can be.
we're still focused on these areas here. The areas of most
importance, they're the closest to us and the most prominent
in terms of where the skull is
closest to the skin.
We're not worried about
too much else at the moment. But we do
wanna get some information of where the nose
is where the wing of the nostril ends
The important thing here is to make sure that there's a clear - like to get
a nostril in place but not so much as a whole but
a shape that comes into existence
because of the cartilage. And the cartilage in front curves under
and the cartilage of the wing of the nostril curves
under as well. So think of it as a form
that's continuous as opposed to a hole in
a form that's more solid.
here, even though that's not so obvious, it'd be good to
differentiate between core and cast. To make it known
that the forms here end and then
Now it's still fairly outlined so we're gonna have to
look at this and give it a little more atmosphere.
But not until I make
some things happen on this
kind of to get - even here you get that
terminator because the head is beginning to turn away, even though you can't,
you don't see where it is.
Right you don't see
where it is but it is
Okay and I think the
interesting thing about this approach is that
it's sort of, like, everything moves
a bit more evenly. And that's because you're tackling
multiple problems at the same time. And so I'm just gonna
get that into a half tone and establish some of these highlights.
And we can go into them and make them
a bit more specific later but the important thing here
is that like if you just compare any -
like if you were to take images of your
drawing at different stages of completion
you would see that everything kind of moves up very evenly.
There's not much of a different between
where it was an hour ago or
at the moment. It's just - everything is just slightly more completed, there's more,
but there isn't anything that really stands out
and there isn't really a clear way
to move it along, except to just keep working on
everything as much as you can and just adding more information and more information,
becoming more and more specific and precise
as you go. The hard part to this approach is slowing
down enough at some point
to really take a look at the whole thing and add
some things that are specific, that take more time
in order to do that, all you need to do is take a break.
And then I'm gonna come back to it.
there's still a lot of outlines here. A lot of internal outlines.
It's time to kind of begin to soften them, make them
And I'm gonna start up here because
the temporal line, which starts off as a ridge
up here, if you remember on the skull it softens out
as it heads back. It becomes more
of a just a general curve softening the plane.
And then to kind of continue
into it from there.
The importance of that,
of really thinking about how hard and how soft those
terminators are. Because they're giving you a lot of the form.
They're describing the form. So I'm gonna start here.
It seems - I'm gonna start here
so it's an easier -
always sort of begin
especially if you've taken a bit of time off to
rest your eye a bit, always start with sort of
the easiest problem that pops out at you.
Or rather the one that calls for the easiest solution.
So this is beginning to happen, something interesting is being
to happen up here. And here,
to really find, to mark the end of the zygomatic, the bone,
I will add that little piece
right here of the -
that's cut and has a little bit of
light on that top ridge, that piece of the zygomatic major.
It's a - the muscles
also, the importance of knowing the names of the bones
you'll see it helps considerably when learning the names of the muscles as well
what the muscles are called usually
is signifying its connection
bones that it either originates
or attaches or in some bases both.
I made that very clear, sharp edge
signifying that plane
of the masseter but it's softer.
And then to take
that and move it.
And then here also kind of just remove the line. Make sure that that's a cast shadow
that fills that empty space, that cast shadow from the buccinator.
From what I remember
the translation of
buccinator, I think it means
muscle, which makes it easier.
It's called the trumpeter's
muscle. If you imagine someone playing a trumpet
that's the one they're
now we're still not into all...The
hard part with
this head is that there's a ton of detail.
As I said, that's coming from the fact that this
is just a cast of a cadaver, it's not -
there aren't any artistic
conventions that are usually reductive.
That are at play here. So the important
thing here is, on the one hand, sort of
enjoy the fact that you have all of this information
that you could learn from, but on the other hand not to get
so caught up in it that it's kind of
just a mass of unconnected parts.
And now the focus is on sort of larger forms.
What's happening up here
you have sort of the cuts.
You have, a lot like the forms up here,
you have the cartilage
sort of exposed. And then on the other side
muscles that go on
top of it. Which, of course,
play a role, but not
that much and you can even see that it's just
But we're gonna try and capture them nonetheless.
Just and - it'll be
important to capture
And here you have
core shadow followed by a
cast shadow. And you could accentuate these
and make them, you can tone them,
because this is an important element
up close of the bones
where the cartilage -
but in this case I would treat them with the
same - I would treat these elements of cartilage
with the same importance
as the bones that are up close here.
Follow that center
line to curve that cartilage underneath
to begin to give you
The hard part here is to differentiate between -
I'm gonna just do this right now with one large element to kinda just
tone away that other eye. Kind of
remove it so that we have a light that's stronger, even though it's debatable which
light is actually stronger but to have the stronger light
on the -
stronger light on the front plane of the nose.
Now to kind of even out
And we're getting closer to
a point where we can just go and focus on
individual, tiny details piece by piece. Right now we're still
jumping around. We're still establishing
sort of larger elements, some detail,
some individual structures and forms
but none of the minute stuff.
Here we've got a nice bit of shadow,
core shadow, tiny little cast shadow, core shadow again.
Probably bring this down a little bit more even.
the same as before, that bit
of cast shadow underneath.
go back into that later. But in the meantime.
of these small bumps that
you see, these sort of, these elements that
come out of the particular, sort of,
the tendonous and
considerably more organic -
in some ways for our purposes, accidental aspects
of the muscles that you see,
we will use
when we need them and we'll pick and choose
the ones that
will play the largest role in helping us with these forms.
In some of these places you get some accents in there.
out the areas of most importance.
But maybe carving in a little bit
to get it just a bit more
observed. But at the moment, trying to get caught up
in all of the information.
We're keeping things a little
more unified, if you will.
And here, begin
cut of the muscle here.
Levator labii superioris.
We don't wanna
overemphasize it but we do wanna give it form.
Now let's add
a little bit of more information where the teeth are.
Remember not to focus on the
teeth as much as on essentially
on the individual teeth as much as on the, like, entirety of a row of teeth.
And now I think that this whole area underneath can probably come down
a little bit. And this all as well.
Or quite the opposite. So I'm going to just take a measurement
and if you think it's too late to take a measurement, it never is.
I can raise the teeth up a bit. I made the same mistake
in the skull. So I should take note of that.
And you see I seem to make this area
a little bit longer than it is. Which is some sort of proportional
bias that I seem to have.
And keep in mind that everyone has them
and the important thing is to just take note of
where your bias is and compensate for it in the future.
And usually it takes you about -
as soon as you're aware of of it it won't take you long at all to fix it.
Here is where we are right now. We're not focusing too much on this other side.
We kinda just glaze
We'll make sure the outlines are in the right place
but here just to get the form of
the chin, which you can see, even with all of
the muscular coverage,
here, as I said, you can see the other zygomatic. It'll be important
to get those overlaps of outlines, we'll get them in place.
And that's what I'm doing, in the meantime I will of course
go back over that and see where
everything is later
but just to make the shape of the
mask. I haven't really adjusted it since I started and
there are things that are slightly off.
And slightly off is always the worst because
it's when - it's just slightly off then it looks the most incorrect.
When it's obviously, simply
an error. If it's really off then
even if it's not intended
it always appears intentional.
It looks like some exaggeration or
But when it's just slightly off
comes off as intentional, it just looks wrong,
which is a
good idea to experiment with.
You can see up close that
is we need to place the temporomandibular joint
in there and
the opening of the ear canal in here.
You could see it.
Okay, so we've kind of
blocked things in. It feels a little smooth
that's because there's not enough happening and the
half tones aren't - there's not enough differentiation
between the half tones. So that would be
the next step in the process.
And I would say to just begin from the top, establish
where your brightest lights are and then tone everything down as you go,
adjusting the shadows in relation to the changes in half tone.
those outlines and figuring out the shape of the mask
as a whole before we get
placing those hierarchies of
light. And what helps is, of course, to really
squint and begin to see
where that highlight is, where its edges are
and there's a particular texture to these casts
and there's no point in trying to recreate
that, it's more about analysis of the form
and understanding where the muscles are, what they are,
that is more important
than the particular texture of this cast, which is not really
the texture of skin either, it's a combination of
all the stuff you find under the skin.
So it's kind of a,
right now just piece by piece
getting more and more specific, cleaning up outlines, finding those
Making sure there's a clear change in
where there needs to be one, where there's a change in plane.
And then if it is softer than
just a clear cut, clear change in the plane, it's not
a big deal, it's easy to go back into it and soften it.
kind of emphasize this terminator.
So as you see, we get to
practice our sort of
simpler forms, like a sphere, again and
again, as you do with the eyes. This is one of
strangely enough here, this might be one of the more simple parts,
but it's one of the more important ones. It's an understanding that the eye is a
ball that is round. And that's the way that one needs to think of it.
Even when the obicularis oculis
is on top of it and creates the
eyelids and all of that.
So even here though
it would make some sense
get a tone over the socket. You wanna place the
and obviously it's not a hole anymore
as much as it is in the skull
of course. But it just needs to sit in there.
Because the lights
on the zygomatic, the lights on the superciliary arches
the lights on the bony structures that are going to
creating the eye socket are more important
than anything inside it. Including the eye, strangely enough.
So as you see
a lot like with the skull, I'm focusing all my
attention on the eye socket and the bones around it.
Or I'm focusing a large portion at least of my attention on it.
A large portion in order to
make sure it's as clear and as
emphasized as it needs to be.
And here you can see the eye socket, it's actually
gone a little bit too high. I'm gonna bring it down a little bit.
Bring it down here as well.
And you have the advantage of having that wonderful
element that is not often possible to see on a live model
but you have a superciliary arch and
the muscles above it, casting a
shadow onto -
onto the zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
And here they are. Here's that cast shadow underneath
and it is wrapping around a little bit. And remember
that when a cast shadow's small and it can really
help and give you
the form. And also it can create
a dark enough accent
that might be
just what you need.
And then this
right here, this is a continuation of that cast shadow
onto the eye socket.
And we can even - that shadow's
probably we could pull it even more to really create
a nice, sharp edge of that
super orbital margin. That's the name of it.
That upper edge of the socket.
So if this is the part that.
Right now I'm
proposing almost like the opposite of how this
approach started out. I'm proposing that we spend as much time as
possible really completing one area because the amount
and it's helpful if that area is the most important.
And if we focus on that
it'll - and
put as much into it as possible,
get our contrast there, it'll sort of
help with just an understanding
of how - of the amount
of completion that all the other elements need to have.
Because then you'll be sort of basing it
off of this one, sort of, important element.
You'll be keying it to it.
And at the same time
you can't help but notice some things as you
move around that maybe require some changes.
Some lines that need to be corrected.
Here, because it's in shadow and not helping us
too much, we have to ignore that little cut.
little cut of the zygomatic major over there.
Don't think we
And this curvature actually comes down a little bit more
because the zygomatic arch and that
all starts to come down. So I'm gonna make a change here that I think will
be important to just change the
zygomatic arch, the angle of it, just a bit, and then kind of
adjust accordingly. Pull this,
pull the entire arch down
a bit as well.
it's still a line at the moment.
a line at the moment but
it does need to be made a little more
And in general toned away I think here.
Combined with the background a bit and then even with the
eraser, kind of just to remove some of those contrasts.
At least for now.
Don't need to be there so
we'll get back to them later
Hmm. All of this
too. Probably toned away.
And then there'll be a little bit of light, right here on the zygomatic,
on the other side
to always have that,
the other element,
the pair of elements, accented.
I'm going to cut a little bit
more off the top here as well.
take some angles again
in the way that we did it before.
Hmmm. I think
Never too late to check those proportions.
I'm thinking maybe we can bring this up a little bit.
And then to take the
distance from the teeth to the base of the nose, see where that matches up with.
Seems to correspond quite well to the eyeball.
Slightly smaller. That still makes sense
to me. That works. That is what the distance is. But
the nose has now gotten a little bit shorter and
its shape a little more precise.
So where are we now? Now
it'd be good to
get some of these...
now that we've made some corrections to the proportions
we can keep going.
So now it's a matter of just continuing
piece by piece, of adding, adding
establishing, for the most part, our half tones, which are still a bit confused.
right now it's time
to go piece by piece
and spend some time
really polishing some areas.
Before I do that I just feel like this area right
here underneath the zygomatic arch and this continuation of it,
the temporal line. There are a number
lines on the head, there's some that extend from here
and continue all the way to the back but it's also
this right here, this extension of the zygomatic arch
on the temporal bone is also a temporal line.
But then here in the opening of the
ear canal, this is
clearly on the outline you can see a change in plane.
This is up and then
it goes in at this whole area
and the mastoid process,
which is behind it, not on our mask. We're just gonna slightly
tone it away to kind of
make sure that that
is reading and possibly some of these
outlines are preventing
the effect that I want from happening.
just to - you can really see the entirety
of these zygomatic arch here. So it almost
requires something like
an outline. And in - on top however,
the end of it, I think it would make
a bit - it would be clearer to show it
as a change in tone
and that's sort of the
game you play. You're always sort of thinking about what actually can
and where you need to kind of just complete
an element or a structure with an outline.
And other times where essentially that outline
or that edge is created with changes in tone.
And a lot of it is up
to you. A lot of it
is going to depend on your interests in
a particular object and the amount of attention you want
it - and the amount of
attention you want it to
sort of acquire as
you progress. Essentially
how you want it to affect the viewer. Okay so
I know I
haven't started on any of those small, like
the small forms I was talking about. But I think it makes a little
I think it's important to
begin to also at the same time
changes in the half tones to kind of to get
some of these
sort of curvatures
in there and a bit more intricately.
Smaller like to kind of introduce smaller
gradations in the curvatures.
here we are. Beginning to
do some small form modeling.
All at the same time, really paying attention to
the tonality of our half
tones in relation to the shadows.
To make sure that our shadows
in one tonal range and our
half tones in another. I'm sure
how important that is.
Now a lot of this sort of
completion of smaller forms is going to
begin by a proper
assessment of those terminators.
they are, how hard of an edge it can
be in some areas where there's a more
abrupt change in plane.
And, more specifically,
the half tones that come off of it. Those changes
in the half tone
and the quality of that half tone as it moves
out from the areas of shadow into the lights.
So here I'm working on the
one of the main
important elements in the
Those small elevations
on the frontal bone.
It's also very
right here is the area
where the -
the frontal bone connects to
bones and then
to really establish that
amount that the
muscles on the other side of the head
how and where they overlap.
Now we're not focusing on them, because like I said I don't think
they're as important in portraiture
as the ones that we're focusing on here.
The ones that are really sort of adding a
relief in the head.
Along with those
bony elements that are so important.
But at the same time, kind of, you could just
put in the ones that we have here
because I think they'll
still be helpful. And it's helpful to get acquainted
with some of them and
you'll probably know all of them soon enough.
So now I'm working on the -
this is the actual area
and you can see it on the skull even. There's an actual area
where the nasal bones end
and the cartilage
in this head it's not like a clear change in
plane. But it's still, I feel, important to
kind of hint at it at least a bit.
And, in some areas,
you just want to get an overall
tone in order to then erase
out the highlight. I think it's
a little quicker that way and you'll see that that's the approach that
we'll have when we're working in sanguine.
In sanguine and other types of
media that are like that
you'll see that
you use the
eraser as much as
the medium itself and sometimes
So here I'm working on
the alar cartilage.
And primarily because it has such
a clear form. It has a very clear
so there's a major change in plane but overall
it's a bit rounder and a bit more bulbous.
And it is going to create the tip,
the bottom of the nose.
So we need that in place.
And here's the
other side. I'm going to take a look
the advantage of having all of this cartilage here
without getting too specific
is that it allows you to -
it allows you to see the formation of the nostril
as we have said.
As we have seen before.
To not think of the nostril so much as
but to understand how and why it forms.
You can see
the wing of the nostril curving in
And I sort of urge you to
take a look at
sculptures, at people's heads.
Begin to notice this.
This is a common error.
turn in here from this is a form that's sort of complicated because
it begins to curve in and around
and almost hides. So we're gonna
try to show that and the hard part -
The hard part about that
is that inside there you'll probably get a little bit of an occlusion shadow
question always is, how much do you need those
So you don't wanna overemphasize it, you don't wanna make that pitch
black but you do still need to
end the form somehow.
And here I'm continuing
And you can see once again
the parts the
muscles from the other side
coming around here. And I think, I mean without
getting overly specific, it'd be nice
to put them in because they do give you a form and
a relief. And the advantage here
is that you can actually see what that relief is.
You have it right in front of you because you have it cut.
And then a little bit of a cast shadow in these
that we could get into
I'm not entirely sure is necessary.
Okay so here we have the end of the plane of our nose.
It's hard to see here because you don't actually have an eye, but you always want to go
sort of to get this angle. You wanna go from the corner
of the eye, the inner corner, which would be
and take the angle from that sort of that area
where the wing of the -
the wing of the
nostril, the wing of the nose,
whichever you prefer, I've heard both of those
used, begins to curve in.
But I'm just going to - in this particular
case, signify it as a line.
And then the advantage of
the muscles that you see here, inside is that
most importantly, for our purposes here,
they give you a curvature
that I'm almost even exaggerating but it's gonna give you the
to give you that form.
So to move
on, let's sort of place this entire
area in a little bit more of a shadow.
It covers the majority of the
But that is often what you're going to have
due to the shadows cast by
the nose onto the face.
Here a clean
from the levator
And then to just take the form of the -
of the zygomatic
and just take it all the way into that. Because that
is more important. Even here
you can push
to make certain anatomical elements more obvious than others.
And this is probably as clear as you're
ever going to see it.
And now to really
just see that terminator on the buccinator
and to make sure, right here
we have the full,
all of the elements
that make up shadows.
And simply to repeat them, they are
the terminator, the core shadow,
the cast shadow. So even this small one
right, even this tiny part of the buccinator, you will have your
terminator, you will have the general area, which is
of the shadow, which is your reflected light in the core shadow
and then a tiny little cast shadow
There's some advantage to that ridge.
I think it's nice to have - you don't, I don't think
we need to over, to kind of
to give those all of those textural
elements over the muscle
itself, which came out of the fact that it was cast
from an actual cadaver.
But then here,
regardless of what you see, remember -
I'm actually gonna place this, there's a cast
shadow up here which I seem to have ignored. But remember
that for the most part, in order to make a
cast shadow read like a cast shadow, there has to be a darker
value in your core shadow.
And that's not exactly what I'm seeing
in front of me because
there just happens to be some light reflecting
into the cast shadow, which of course would make it
a little bit lighter
and that is something which happens so you do have to think about that in the future,
because that is in fact something that you can explore
I think for out purposes
right now and that is to make the most
almost exaggerated representation of the
let's stick to some of these rules.
Of course keeping in mind, as I said,
that the reason for rules is
so they could be broken.
But you gotta know them to break them right?
So we're getting a little more clarity, we're getting specific elements here
I'm just gonna keep cleaning this up because that's
simply what happens when I work. You could, of course, anchor on your
pinky and I do do that
at times but sometimes you want certain angles
and you end up kind of
placing the side of your hand on the
paper in an area that already has
graphite or whatever on it.
And then you smudge the whole thing. So, it happens. But
it's not a big deal. And you'll see that
it not only happens a lot more when you're working in sanguine,
but it's almost
the approach. But as I said you're working with the eraser as much as the
medium itself. But you're also,
you're working with your hands
at least as much as the medium itself.
Now here I just feel like I know
we're already sort of getting to
a place that in terms of the tonality and accent
is a hard one. Because there's a lot
happening in this area and you don't want this to be too much of an accent
but you can't ignore it.
It is, after all, the angle of the
jaw, beginning of the side
plane, and so on.
All of that is very important.
So we're gonna have to make it as
round as possible.
So that we can see it turning in
and away but at the same time not
over accentuate it.
And the interesting thing is a way to not over accentuate it,
is to simply, at some point, to just put in a few accents
so you're doing the opposite almost, like you're -
but you're not accenting the whole thing, you're accenting parts of it
and it places the rest of it
in a relationship to that accented part.
And in order to kind of achieve a bit more atmosphere
in this area, and I'm sure you've already - I haven't like
spoken about it too openly,
I didn't want it to be confusing,
though I'm sure I often am
but in order to really sort of remove
as you saw here, remove some of these
like these contrasts to the white of the paper that I have spoken about,
what kind of
needs to happen is you just need to bring up those reflected,
those areas of reflected light in the shadows
a little more than you see them and see how they work.
Because you'll realize that you can actually
lighter than they are because, if you recall, as long as you
keep them within our element of shadow,
you'll be fine. They just only have to be slightly
darker than the half tones.
And they have to be kind of - they have to be
but it could essentially
be only about half a tone.
And in some cases
here is where I am going to get a little confusing as
in here, they can even be a lighter value
than the half tones.
And by doing that of course you're sort of removing them from this,
they're clearly no longer shadows
but it's almost as if they're sort of an
added, like a
a source of light on the other side of the object
but as long as you
as long as it's not competing with the
main source of light in front or
wherever the main
light source happens to be
then you're fine.
So I think
a bit more beginning to happen now. I
think what we could
begin to do is to place
some of the teeth.
And here you have that -
the important ones are the canines. That change of plane,
the ones that are really gonna get that -
really gonna get that terminator
that's going to describe a lot of the
form for you.
And currently I'm just
outlining for the most part, simply to have them there.
Now we have the canines underneath.
Based on where these things are
I actually think I can move the
buccinator a little bit closer to the front.
And slightly change its angle
make it a little bit straighter,
a little bit more vertical rather.
And then this -
and you see some of the
the teeth behind it, the ridge
of the lower mandible, of the jaw.
So this is also in part
like that time
when you just slow down, you focus on a single area
and allow it
to give you some information about the proportion.
which you think you need to get straight away before you start with anything else but as
we have seen time and again by now,
the proportions are something that's being corrected throughout the entire process.
Now with the teeth in I feel like I need
a bit more of a curve there to pull them out. A bit more.
Now I haven't
figured out what's happening with the shadows
on the teeth
not yet. And I
will get to that in a moment but I've noticed something
up here. I just wanna get that as a little bit more of a ridge
to stand out there
just a little bit more.
Begin to kind of get these constructions a little bit
softer along the frontal eminence
up where the head begins to sort of
curve around into the
We could place...
So now to
really see what's happening with
the muscle up here on the other side
because that line
is going, once again
to give you a curvature
of the form that it is describing.
Anytime you get that, use it.
why don't we put some of these half tones
and shadows onto the
and around them on the
That's a clear terminator.
Core shadow. And keep in mind, every tooth
will cast a tiny, in this case an occlusion shadow
and in this case an actual cast shadow onto the tooth next to it.
Gotta clean that one
off a little bit and place this important
That terminator which is really gonna give you that change.
Now of course, in a human head,
in a portrait, you don't have the teeth
the person is smiling.
And that is one of the hardest -
one of the hardest
tasks you can assign yourself is to do a smiling
often end up
caricatures or it's something
And often that happens because in order to really have
enough time, you end up working from photographs
and things like that and so in general
I would avoid it. I think in the history
of art I can count
under a handful
of portraits of
people who are smiling in which
you can see their teeth that are successful.
That's not to say that you can't
But be prepared
it won't be easy.
The other thing here
is that you kinda probably
want to get the upper teeth also in a little bit of a tone,
a lot like we did with the nose so that you can erase out the
highlights on them to give them more form. We did this, if you remember, with the skull.
Of course your highlights are going to be here, that's sort of the
largest of the protrusion, the most
And then to give a little bit of a tone on
the ridge here of the
gums essentially but we're not too concerned
Now I think I can actually
I can carve up a little bit, carve -
make them a little
smaller. Also they're a little flatter
and obviously keep in mind that there isn't -
there isn't like teeth are
a highly variable element
That's pretty obvious if you
take a look at people.
different kinds of teeth
Then what - I'm just trying
to get that accent on
the canines at the bottom, followed by a pretty clear
sort of sharp cast shadow onto the teeth behind it.
I think that's going to be effective.
And then also here you have...
Now the other thing that we can do here
is to tone away this front plane, this cut
of the buccinator. It's taking a lot of attention but at the same time, maybe do
a little bit of a gradient as you move up because our light is
coming from above and that half tone
is going to slightly diminish
as you move
down on the face.
Now they're in there. They're not
accented to the extent that they can be or
All of this is in a cast shadow
and to really use that cast shadow to get
the forms here.
And here we have
a bit of a tone
on the structures of the mandible.
this line into here, all the way into
the chin, into the mental protuberance.
In order to make sure that there is a clear
front plane to the chin
and then the plane on the side as well.
And of course it's not,
as with everything, it is much more organic than I'm
making it out to be.
But you want to always kinda have that
interplay between the organic
the organic elements of a
our mask is
placed on the table
so I am going to just extend that
little bit of a cast shadow underneath it.
It doesn't have to be exactly what you
but it has to read
Just begin to clean up a little bit of the
the other side.
always, we come back to our zygomatic.
I'm feeling that this reflected light on the side
here is reading a little strong.
just kind of go over
some of those elements
and really accent
the ones you need.
And make any
corrections that you need.
Along with unifications.
And keep in mind that if you
a terminator in one of these areas, you have more
room, essentially, to
emphasize the half
tones coming off of it, allowing you to spend,
to sort of
allowing you to
those important areas even more in the lights.
And now at this
point, I'm just going over the whole thing
the whole head,
making sure that I have all the accents I need to
I can just -
when we're sort of
so close to completion
that aren't so much observed
as they are
just going back over some of these
outlines, making sure that there's enough of
a variation among
a softness in some areas where you need it, a sharpness
And the whole -
that's that interplay of the inorganic and organic that I was talking
It depends essentially on you at what point
you want to sort of
stop converting it from one to the other
and it's not as easy as
start out thinking of the whole thing as a constructive element and then slowly
curving it and curving it and curving it and
you end up
sort of working in between that
spectrum the whole time because a lot of times
you might actually start an
area by thinking of it as organic
build the construction into it.
these things, remove half tones that sort of are
kind of interfering with the
overall structures, the forms. I do feel
that we could give even a little bit more
here to the
it is an element that
is organic but we need it to read
And take it all the way across.
All the way across.
And at the same time if you remember that
rectangle up here, allow
that rectangle of the front plane, allow it to
the curvature of
the curvature of the
frontal bone is going to affect the structure of the
superciliary arches on top of it.
And to get
into some of these elements without spending
too much time on them, they are on that -
on the other
side of the -
and we don't need to have anything on that side really but
I think it'll be important simply to get it to look round
so that we can really
see the eyeball that we see so clearly on
And then maybe hint at the
just a little bit.
And there are some
shadows in there between the eyelids. And you -
and they can have all those elements of shadows but at the same time you don't
want it to be overpowering.
And then here we get a little
bit of the
But here too. You gotta begin to
feel that roundness. And it helps if you
remember that obicularis, which appears in the muscle here,
obicularis oris and obicularis oculis, appearing here,
essentially it means that it's round.
if you're aware of what it means in a lot of cases
it can help you
remember that that's the way it needs to be depicted
in our case, without getting too specific
establish the overall structures there,
the forms rather. And I would say a bit more
of it's organic qualities than any sort of planar
analysis of them.
And keep in mind where you really can have that sort of harder
edge of a
highlight against a half tone
try to use it because it's going
to give you an
abrupt, rather small
but important change in plane
that will greatly add in terms of
So it seems like I have been
neglecting the cartilage here as well
and I feel like if we just get it into a general half tone
on the most protruding parts,
we'll have enough of a structure there
for our purposes here.
We're not really analyzing what's happening
much as we're trying to see, as you recall,
as much of the skull
here I wouldn't even
object to a sharper
contour. I wouldn't object
to one here around the area
and right here to can still see the beginning of the zygomatic process
on that side.
And then here to kind of to get some
of these overlaps that you can see
but to make sure that we get a cleaner and
sharper contour on
this area of like the
front of the
Now all we're trying to do now
is to complete this head.
that completion is a product of a hierarchy of elements.
It's not something that happens
once everything is equally
Completion is something that happens
when things are unequally observed, if you will.
And here, just going to sort of
put that tone into the paper and then
hatch over it again.
And see I'm sort of not putting so much of a contrast
against the angle of the jaw.
Because I still want that to be an important element.
But at the same time we can't compete with some of the stuff up here.
Now, I don't feel
like these important connecting points
between the frontal bone and the nasal
bones are accented enough. And here
a similar thing needs to happen and
that happened in some of these places, in that
I want the cast
shadows to be a
darker value - here too - than the
core shadows. Especially at their origins.
And now the hard part with this
eye is that it is important, it is up close, but I don't know what -
know to what extent it needs to be
I still think our zygomatic is more important.
Here too. This area
is going to be the cast shadow -
the cast shadow from the nose onto the cheek.
And so I'm just toning it down
at its origin a little bit more. It's going to
help us achieve that.
This area, coming up here and connecting to the
zygomatic, the zygomatic process of the
of the upper maxillary
not catching as much
light as it was
before I toned it down.
And then to just figure out
what the end of the form is. It doesn't need to be
integrated a lot.
It just needs to
exist as the end of a structure.
We don't need to spend a lot of time on. But I
do feel like we should
go back over one more time over the
And I think you see by now
the amount of times I keep going over
our most important elements.
It's not that I pick them out right away,
I do pick them out right away but I don't complete them right away because
I want to work everything pretty much at the same
time. But that does not mean
that you work everything evenly.
the amount of time and the
degree of completion that you -
that you impose on these elements.
And the neck curving upwards.
Not focusing too much
on this but then here too just to begin
of the head that we don't have here but you can
see it happening on the side.
I would emphasize that
where the buccinator begins to really change in plane
and bring it close to us.
Almost have a sharp kind of
outline of the
And you see
I'm, as often happens towards the end,
I'm bouncing around a lot
because I'm trying to keep my eye
the drawing. And with my eye,
my hand. But most importantly is that
I'm actually spending more time looking at the
drawing than I am at the head in front of me.
At this point.
Because, if you recall, it's
not so much anymore about what's really in front of us
because I think for the most part all of this is in here.
At least to the extent
that I was planning to
All those elements are here.
What's important now
is to put them in order.
An order that we have been thinking about
the whole time but one that often
we spend the time on
completing individual parts.
I think we can add a little bit more of a light to the top of
the eyeball here.
And to go back over all of our
highlights where we need them.
Little bit of light on the
I've been working with a harder pencil this
whole time, I'm gonna switch to a softer one for some of these
accents at the end.
And in some places for
more accent, introducing a bit more of a hatch.
hatch in some places.
See even here I've placed
the teeth but I haven't spent too much time on them.
I just have them in there.
A lot like with our skull.
They're important as
structural element, not important as a detail.
I'm just sort of moving around the whole thing a little bit
and seeing where some corrections can be made.
Some of these areas are a little bit narrower.
Probably come in a little bit more.
Maybe we can emphasize this terminator more,
it's a bit stronger.
These particular overlaps.
I think for our purposes we have
understood and worked on
structures that add
a relief, an important
relief to the human
head. And they're the ones that
need to be
focused on along with those
important elements of the skull.
you're going to write down the main muscles of the face discussed in this
lesson. Then, using the 3D viewer or the provided photographs,
draw the Eliot Goldfinger cast from three angles, focusing
primarily on the deep muscles of the face.
Free to try
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
30m 23s2. Deep Muscles of the Face Instructor Demonstration
27m 58s3. Anatomical Forms
21m 27s4. Internal Outlines and Forms
15m 56s5. Establishing Outlines
35m 33s6. Half Tones and Shadows Part 1
18m 56s7. Half Tones and Shadows Part 2
22m 52s8. Completion
25s9. Deep Muscles of the Face Assignment Instructions