- Lesson details
In this lesson you will do a study of the form creating muscles of the neck using reference from one-of-a-kind castings of a real human cadaver by famed art anatomist Eliot Goldfinger.
Students are encouraged to work from the NMA reference images and 3D viewer included on this page*.
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
In the first part of our Russian Academic Drawing Course, Iliya taught you how to hone your fundamental drawing skills. In this next part, Head & Neck, you will undertake a new challenge: the portrait.
In order to draw the complexity of nature we need to study all the anatomy that makes up the surface form of the head and neck.
Head & Neck covers topics such as the structure of the skull, individual bones of the skull, deep muscles of the face, skeleton of the neck & shoulder girdle, muscles of the shoulder girdle, and the portrait drawing process.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
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the shoulder girdle, let's take a look at the
musculature of the neck.
now that we've explored the head,
the clavicles, the scapula, the sternum, let's talk about what goes in between,
mainly the muscles of the neck. So here in front of us we have
another wonderful cast from a cadaver. It's only one side of the
neck as we see it but I think it'll be
enough to get an idea of what
the important elements here are.
And of course, our main interest
is to pick out
those internal anatomical
structures, the bones, and where they
all of these muscles that we see. Now
the neck is quite complex.
However, there are certain important
anatomical elements that you kinda can't ignore.
The other ones, ideally you shouldn't ignore either,
they are essentially sort of a problem of their own
that can be covered
in an anatomy class with a particular emphasis on the
muscles of the neck. But I will talk
about the ones you absolutely need to know. So
let's start with some of the things that we already
acquainted with. So here at the top you can
see the mandible,
the angle of the jaw here,
and the mandible in pretty much
its entirety. And you even see a little bit of the masseter
here that we saw on the head.
Here we have the ear
but we're not gonna concern ourselves too much with that.
So right here is
a bone that's rather important. It's called the hyoid
and it is
sort of - it is a bone
on the thyroid cartilage
commonly known as the Adam's apple
and is an important
landmark because it's sort of,
it ends the
planes underneath the mandible that
I would say still belong
to the domain of the head
the elements of the neck in front. And so the
neck as we know is
one should begin to see the top of it
the top of the hyoid.
we can continue inside and remember that
the ellipse that pertained to
rib number one. And so that is essentially
the cylindrical structure
of the neck.
Now right here you can see
we have our sternal notch, that
top part of the manubrium.
from that point you can begin
to see the clavicle in here.
And of course there are parts of it that are covered
the important thing is to remember what the clavicle
looks like without any coverage
and to place it in its entirety
as if there weren't any muscular attachments.
And a similar thing can be done with
the accromian of the spine of the scapula over there.
Now the other side here happens to be cut but we can
still, we can see where the
head of the other clavicle is.
So what needs to happen from
is the attachment of
a few very important muscles.
And the one to start with and the one that you might
already have an idea about is known as the
sternocleidomastoid. And now
that seems like a name that's a bit too long at first
but the important thing is that you're aware of all of the parts
here. And all it means
is it's telling you where its origin
and attachments are. So it originates from
the clavicle, and it attaches
to the mastoid.
It also, a little bit of it, attaches -
part of it attaches to the back of the head as well
and I have seen it -
I've seen them
slightly change the name of it to
include its attachment at the back of the head.
But I don't
want to make that even longer than it is. And
so the important thing about it
you've probably been aware of it but it's the
muscle right here that you see
that comes from behind the ear
or rather attaches behind the ear
to the mastoid process on the
temporal bone and
rather across from the back
to the front or from the front to the back.
And it has essentially,
for our purposes here, two component
parts. A long head
and a sternum head. So one that
originates from the manubrium and
a clavicular head
originates from the clavicle.
And it plays a large role in defining the
topography of these areas, as well as
really creating the -
contour of the back of the neck.
Now you also can see a
,muscle underneath, the splenius capitis
which I don't think we need
to spend too much time on or really even
think about that much. It's a muscle
essentially in the back of the head, but it's playing a role in the contour.
We can't necessarily avoid it
as much as I'd want to.
But more importantly is
a muscle right
here that creates
more of the contour and the exterior
of the neck as well as the
what we commonly would like to think of as the shoulder.
It is the trapezius.
And it's a muscle that has
attachments at the scapula, on the spine, it goes,
it's not a small one but for
our purposes of discussing the shoulder girdle, we're
mainly concerned with its attachment
on the clavicle.
It also happens to attach to the
spine of the scapula.
So the other muscle
is one right here
which comes from
and passes under the
sternocleidomastoid and continues and
also then dips under the
trapezius to attach to the scapula.
And it's called the
and essentially means it picks up
the scapula. It moves it upwards.
If you would like to think of it differently just
add an e and it becomes the elevator
as in it moves it upwards.
Now inside here and here
you have a lot of muscles, which all
create that cylindrical structure.
They sort of - they
build up the space in between
the sternocleidomastoid and
levator scapulae and between
the cartilage here
and the sternocleidomastoid.
I'm going to put these in and it's not -
and I do
recommend learning them but I don't think we're gonna cover them right now.
And you see it's
not particularly hard to learn them mainly because
they're - all
the ones up front
all have the word hyoid in the name.
That's because they all end up
originating or passing or
or attaching to
And the one that we are interested is the one right here
and its attachment is at
but its origin is at the
At the top of the scapula.
And what's interesting is that you actually see it continue all
the way in and it's right here.
That one that you see right here, kind of going across
in an arch that is
and it kind of interrupts
And at times you can
pick it out and I recommend you
put it in if you can
see it in a model.
It adds that
tiny bit of excitement
into a drawing.
Okay. So what
do we have - let's just do a little bit here.
You can see the muscle
right here as well.
And the only reason I'm bringing it up is because it
creates the planes underneath
the mandible. And it
happens to pass through
a loop that
is found on the hyoid and continues all the way
way back to the ear. Well it actually continues
all the way back to this one part that sticks out of the
temporal bone but we don't need to get into
that right now.
But as you see, it gives you the plane here
as well as actually like gives you almost a very specific outline
of the plane over there as well so
it's almost like the front plane and the
side plane of the area underneath the mandible.
So here you have the front, so it's actually
one portion of the
digastric originates here and the other one over here and they attach
into this area on the hyoid.
So you can already begin to see how important the hyoid is.
So let's just get
some of this in place and let's talk
just a little bit - let me
pull this clavicle back
a bit as well. So
here you have the front, so it's actually -
one portion of the digastric originates
here and the other one over here and they attach into
this area on the hyoid. So
you can already begin to see how important the hyoid is.
So let's just get some of this in place
and let's talk just a little
bit, let me pull this
clavicle back a bit.
Let's talk a bit about what's happening underneath the clavicle.
since we've spoken
about what happens above it. And
the sternal portion you can
see the top head, the
top part from the pectoralis, which we're going to cover
when we move into the
muscles of the torso. Now the pectoralis
originates on the inside of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm.
So it attaches
to the sternal portion of the
clavicle here and you can see that happening.
what's happening on
over here is that from the
anterior, the front of
the clavicle, on its acromial end, you have
the anterior heads of
The deltoid is essentially the muscle of
the shoulder. And
its origin lies all along
the anterior, the front, acromial
end of the clavicle. The acromion
itself and continues to -
continues along back
to the spine of the scapula. So it plays a very
large role here, it's
a large, important element.
But what we're gonna talk about it is something just slightly different. It's
not so much - we're not gonna discuss
where the muscles are strangely enough as much as
where they're not. And I'll explain that in a moment.
And so here you have - and obviously it's, also
a lot like the pectoralis it's going to continue
deltoid attaches to the humerus
on the outside
somewhere about half way.
And so here's
what - well before we get there
let's just see some angles, take a look at the whole thing
see where we are, I think we're alright for now. And of course
things are going to change as we
adjust and put shadows in and all that stuff. So here you have two
important elements. Right here where you see that there's a gap
this one right here is called
A fossa is essentially any kind of
that world will
also appear a number of times. So here
is an important element because that is where you're really
going to see the clavicle
because at that point it's uncovered.
the pectoralis and the deltoid.
because the attachment
is at the - the attachment of the pectoralis at the
sternal end, the origin of the -
the origin of
deltoid is at the acromial end.
Now the other important element is of
course you can see - you might even know what I'm gonna point out -
is the hole right here.
And that hole is called the
It is also a hole that is
uncovered. And also very important because -
because that is a place where you can spot
in the part that is not
covered by the attachment of the
trapezius at the acromial end or the
of the sternocleidomastoid attaching to the scapular end
of the clavicle.
you see how, by
focusing on these two areas - and in case you haven't noticed
infra and supra mean below and above.
now that we've established these important elements, let's move on
to our shadows
without spending too much time on
things like the ear, which of course might
catch your attention.
So our shadows here are going to be quite
important so we're going to see - and put them in
the areas where they play the largest
role. So here of course our light's coming from here
and you can see the cast shadow
from the sternocleidomastoid onto the
muscles inside here.
But we can also see the core
shadow on the
chin going down along the
down along all of these muscles
in front here.
And you can see that
the important thing here is to be constantly thinking about
the cylindrical aspect.
And you can see that it
already beginning to look like
a cylindrical object.
Which is why I'm
avoiding some of these shadows that might be
smaller and some that are caused
by a topography that's -
a topography that
is interesting but definitely not the one we need to focus on
right now because most importantly right now is we need
that cylindrical structure.
Here I'm just sort of -
I'm finding where these shadows are
and I'm blocking them in.
And the number of occlusion shadows here
in the sternum notch. They
play a very - and since the sternal notch
plays such an important role, this is a place
where we can't omit those occlusion shadows. They need
to be there.
So even if this is all
in shadow, we need to make sure
that you can still clearly
sternal notch. The other thing that's important of course is to try to see
where the other sternocleidomastoid
is. Where that head that attaches into the
manubrium is. You can see that there's like -
the feeling here is quite constructed.
I'm much more concerned about the construction than the individual
details that we might be picking up. So I'm gonna leave that at the moment
and I wanna move on to the trapezius
and I'm gonna begin with the core shadow
and then I'm gonna use the cast shadow from the trapezius
and allow it to fall on the
and the other
muscles in there and allow it to give you
the structure of the form there.
A well as inside here, this all seems to be
as well. The one that's catching a lot of reflected light
so we'll make sure to
make that work eventually.
Now keep in mind you want to
differentiate between these
so here you have a
tone that's a darker
value and here really
find the outline of that. And obviously
in the human model,
this isn't simply all open. There is a
muscle that goes over all of these
and then there's also skin and
but at the same time if you're aware of this, like with all anatomy,
it's much easier to see.
So here we are and now,
you can see how because
there's an opening here, because of the
opening above the clavicle in these areas
it gives you a certain amount of
contrast to establish the upper part of the
clavicle. Now here I'm gonna place the half tone before I place
anything else. There's a shadow in there
but this is also very important right because here
you get a very - you have the bottom of the clavicle so see even right now
you can already begin
to pull the clavicle out. Because if I take a look at
what's in front to me, the clavicle is not the most obvious.
But we need to make it
the most obvious. So what we have here
is some of the shadows from the
as well as the cast shadow from the deltoid into
And it falls onto that head of the pectoralis as well
so we might as well continue that.
And then let's establish some of the core shadows on
the clavicular portion as well as the portion underneath
it. The one that's attaching to
the sternum itself and let's tone that
all the way
placed our shadows.
So what we need to do right now is of course, begin to work in the half tones
and see how far we can take this. So we'll start with the
We'll begin to place these half tones because the sternocleidomastoid
is tubular, like a lot of
by making sure all our half tones are
making it tubular as well as
thanks to the clarity of this
cast, making sure -
making sure to differentiate between
portion and the sternal one.
keep in mind that the
sternal portion is actually flatter. It's more like a ban
than it is a tube. So that also
will help to distinguish them.
And there's a little bit of a cast shadow
depression between them and it's
falling from the clavicular head onto the sternal head.
way we show that it has
kind of a rectangular cross section is
by giving it that side
plane that happens to be catching light here.
And now I'm avoiding a lot of these sort of
textural qualities here.
For the purposes of
the structure, the form.
Now this - there's a
little bit of a cast shadow from the
sternocleidomastoid onto the
sternohyoid, the muscle here.
We don't need to concern ourselves too much with this
but we could try to get,
try to push, that main
the one that's really making it seem
cylindrical to really push that
make it a little more organic so that we have
even more of that cylindrical quality
of the neck.
And if I can get some of these smaller shadows in there as well that would be good.
In general though, sticking
to the fact that it's cylindrical and our light's coming from
here we're going to need the strongest light
to be here on the levator scapulae and maybe in some
parts of the sternocleidomastoid there.
I've repeated the word sternocleidomastoid so many times by now that I
am certain if you didn't know it already, you do now.
So what we need right here
is we do need that cast shadow from the mandible
onto this whole area underneath
we need to establish, if you remember, the top of our
cylinder of the neck.
Now from this part of the digastric
and from the sternocleidomastoid there's also a little bit of a shadow and
there is the shadow from the ear. I don't wanna do too much with the ear here.
Especially since it's half of one and I'm just going
to tone it away.
Okay so, we're still
in the realm of forms that are relatively simplified. And if you've noticed
the way that we've approached every single thing that we've been working
it keeps changing.
There are times when
I've started with outlines
or rather introduced them rather quickly. There are times
start with some kind of slightly more
generalized constructions like I'm doing here
and sort of I'm working to make them more organic
as we go. And sometimes you start with the ones that are
more organic and you
build planar structure into them.
Now it's difficult to explain
why you pick one over the other but it's important to be open
to all of these approaches
because you see how -
that there are times when one
will get you what you need quicker than the other.
And in the end the goal is to
simply have a synthesis of
all of those approaches anyway.
So there are
well I can try to explain I guess
this kind of approach is the one I pick. I honestly have to tell you
it wasn't conscious. I
kind of allow the objects in front of me to
dictate the approach that they require
and I go along with it. But
here I just feel like it's so easy to get caught up
in all of these intricate
muscles that we see
and it's so easy to get caught up
you're not thinking of the larger
structure, namely that the neck is cylindrical.
And from my experience I've just
seen that as a common problem and I
had that issue as well in school.
You wanna capture all these small
elements that you're not
thinking of the whole
thing and its importance.
And so I
guess I kind of
automatically picked this approach because I
thought that this would be
the way to bring to your attention
the face that you always have to be
thinking of the neck in terms of its
entirety. Now of
course we could have started from one
point and moved out but I just not so sure that would have been
Now when we were working on the clavicle
the approach I picked involved a little
more - I relied more on the used of a line
and I think that is just simply dictated by the fact
by the S curve of the clavicle
itself. It seems
it seems to kind of require
the use of -
the use of outline to establish
its curvature. Now that's not the
only approach but it seemed to get the
point across quicker.
And so it seems as though the approach
that I picked has to do with
the most obvious way to get across
to you the
the particular object that we're working on. And now the interesting thing
about that of course is that there
isn't a single approach that applies
equally to everything.
You probably can
use any of them and still achieve a good result
I think that maybe just comes down
to the fact that some are
quicker than others in
getting across, I guess, the
points that I simply, in these courses, want to get across to you.
I'm going back into the shadows and beginning
to build up some
of the forms
in the shadows. So some of the
reflected lights and things
Now the interesting thing about all this
is that probably, as in most
cases, when you spend too much time working within
your shadows or in your half tones for that matter, you end up
losing that larger structure.
So a process of unification has to take place,
however because we started by thinking of that larger structure,
because that's what we focused on at the beginning,
I think that is
sort of more securely, sort of ingrained at this point in your mind
and it's not
hard to come back to unify
everything into like a singular, geometric
You might even spend time
unifying it not at
the very end but kinda half way or at intervals.
That is the ideal approach that you spend a
little bit of time on something specific
and then you move and sort of integrate it into
the whole, integrate it into the larger structures. And then you go back to something
specific. And so on
and so forth. So
let's move on to some
of the core and cast shadows on the individual
muscles of the neck.
So here we have some
of the terminators
along the levator scapulae.
And a little clearer even with that
cast shadow from the trapezius onto
the levator scapulae.
And unify them where they meet a little bit
and then kind of move down to the
cast shadow from the levator
one of these
muscles of the neck.
They're called the scalene muscles
there's a small one, a medium one,
they're in there. Not
of prime importance at the moment.
And then to really define
the next point here would be to define
end of the trapezius.
The trapezius itself. And take that core shadow
along with its terminator all the way down to its
attachment at the
clavicle. And then to push that
cast shadow from it. And honestly because of the
depth of the depression, even the occlusion
shadow inside there, just a little bit more
just to make sure
reads. And now we're really beginning to develop
the superclavicular fossa
a little bit more there. But we don't want
to go too far until we get
some more of these shadows
on some of these scalene
And now we're not actually concerned with some
kind of, I would say very important half tones
that we're going to place
over larger areas.
And we're going to do that
relatively soon but not until
we build up some of the detail.
along this protrusion
we're going to
because that is going to be a major
change in plane inside here. Now how important is this
for when you're working on a model,
where this whole area, for the most part, is
Not that much. But for our purposes
and our goal in all of this, regardless
of whether it's gonna get used or not
when working from a model, is to begin to pick out
the points and analyze those
particular areas that are giving you the largest amount of structure.
Here you see the end
of what is another one of these scalene muscles.
You see its -
you see it end there and then there's a
change - so it's
almost like inside there it's almost like a room.
And if you look further in
we can't see it from our angle, but there's almost a floor to it.
Inside there. So to think of
even something like that and to really see it as a
like a structured element is
important. Even if that's something that won't ever appear on a model.
Because there are plenty of other things that are going to appear on a model
and the point of this whole course even is not
even so much anatomy and
it's more of approach to
kind of - it's known that we see only what
we want to see so at least
in our case
it's good to establish that which we
want to be able to see.
Now I'm placing some of these half tones on
Reinforcing these. I'm working inside the
And it's beginning to feel a little all over the
place. So there's definitely going to
be a need for some unification. We'll get there.
Here it'd be nice to really
get that outline, you know, small, cast shadows like this one from the
omohyoid, we know will help define
the forms that they're cast upon.
And here it depends on how you want to
approach the clavicle here,
the upper part of it.
But you could bring that edge out with the shadows
or you could actually show a line. Like in reality
you probably wouldn't see that as a line and then
you might just get a little bit of a half tone on top there but
I wouldn't even object to like a clean
Not gonna do it yet, I might not do it at all
but I'm gonna think about it and maybe I'll do it.
We're gonna tone
down that whole area underneath there. Underneath the clavicle.
And it'd be nice to, honestly, to even
tone down the clavicle itself. Here
because the sternal head
the clavicle, you can see it
and it's the front of it - you can see it kind of
moving on top of it and
you can even see the curvature of the clavicle underneath.
This is something to pick up on. It seems minor but I
think it will help describe
I see now, and I have a tendency to do this,
I've curved the clavicle more than what I see
up there. And I'm going to keep it that way
and I'm also going to tone back
Only to bring up
the highlight that also isn't really there
but won't hurt if I put it in.
What I don't see here is, I don't even see the bottom of it, but
I think it doesn't even hurt to kind of
show where the bottom edge of it is. It doesn't have to be a sharp line
we wanna get the most out of them.
Getting back into that
cast shadow from the
clavicular head onto the sternal head.
here. Also, not something that needs to be as bright as I have it.
It has that top edge that's catching the largest amount of light
and then the rest of it can kind of be pushed back a little bit.
So I'm doing small
things, I'm not figuring out larger
changes just yet.
But at the same time I am thinking
of general tonality, of
at least a group of elements or a single element that
constitutes an important -
plays a large role within a group.
I think we could spend a little bit of time
deltoid itself. And we're gonna get into the deltoid
when we do the arm and
we're gonna see it a number of times
there's multiple portions to it and
individual parts of the deltoid
commonly, especially in artistic
anatomy, divided into
three parts. The anterior, the one in front,
the acromial portion, comes from the acromion,
on the side, and the posterior
portion on the back. And here you can see
where, at that
acromial portion originates at the acromial
end, like the actual, the end, of
clavicle and the acromion.
While the anterior portion
the anterior part of the clavicle.
Of course on the acromial end but not at the
end of the bone itself,
that, for the most part, is connecting
to the spine and the scapula.
So here too
what's important is a certain kind of roundness.
And what's going to allow us to see
that line I'm putting in, is kinda the
movement of the highlight. As you
remember, the highlight is giving us that major change in plane.
So in order to do this, just gonna start
and obviously you can build this up slower. And I have no
But I do wanna get
a point across.
And that's still a little, of course,
a little simplistic but
it sets me on the right path.
It's almost an
abstraction, it's sort of a more painterly
And then we can draw some of these individual
We don't want to spend too much
time on the deltoid here.
We'll encounter it again
but I do want it in there. most importantly, of course,
is what we've been talking about
as concerns the clavicle
and the scapula.
And that is
where they meet.
And where there is
an important bony landmark
that is so important to accent
you hit the deltoid.
Now to do a little bit more work on the trapezius. This is
all in light, so these half tones can't be overstated.
And I don't want to overround
this, so we're gonna
get something a little more interesting
with that line.
Without the other parts of - without
the rest rather of the deltoid it begins to look like
a pepper. And if that
I say use it.
The important thing here is also to begin the same way that we
sort of exaggerated the clavicle here and try to see it
as much as we can in these
openings. You want to lose it a bit
where it's covered with
attachments and origins.
So you - all these lines I have are good,
that they're nice to have to establish where it is but
I would say that on the sort of acromion
and on the acromial end of the clavicle,
you want to show where it is, show
that bony landmark more
with tonal changes than with line.
And honestly if I just squint
at this cast shadow
it's almost impossible
to see where it is
but that's where our knowledge comes in and that's where
I'm always a proponent of outlining it at the
beginning, like just find where it is,
outline it, and then spend the
rest of the time trying to lose it.
Because you've outlined it, because
you're thinking clavicle, clavicle, clavicle, clavicle,
that's all I'm thinking I assure you,
then you'll still be able to pick it
out and use what's around it,
hints at changes in the topography.
I've been using that word a lot but
it's essentially what I mean by it is it's not major changes in plane
but changes sort of along the
surface. Changes along -
changes not so much in plane but changes along
These are the - it's still there
and honestly if you lose it again,
outline it again
and spend time on the clavicle.
I've brought up those half tones a tiny bit, I thought they were
a little heavy.
What we haven't been doing
too much up here is really bringing out
those things that are closest to us
and pushing back that which is further away.
And I am going to leave that until the end.
There's a lot to kind of think about here
and I think that dividing
up that task, in this case, also
is preferable. And on top of that
I don't -
on top of that I don't
think it applies here the same way. Because if we were to think about it the same way
then the deltoid would probably
be what we accent
and then push everything else
back. But this rule is a little more complicated than that
because it's not only -
the part that's closest but it's
also the part that's most important and the part that has the most
anatomical significance. So
in this case
the clavicles I find
have more significance. I would say
the deltoid needs to be
treated slightly lighter
specifically and definitely
not as accented as
say the sternal notch. I would say
that for all cases, actually
by that I mean that accent,
of if it's close to you or far away or something
interesting in front of it, accent the sternal notch.
But we're not too concerned with any of that right now
with those accents.
We're more concerned with
Not as concerned with hierarchy.
Now here's a nice, interesting change in plane,
with a half tone
coming off of the
sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid.
And here that tiny part, the splenius capitis
from the back of the head
essentially a muscle of the
there, influencing our
Working up that gastric a bit and
honestly this is - I keep saying that - and this area
now seems empty and light.
So I think a general placement of tone
over it is going to be good.
And then to pull out certain areas,
with the side of the eraser for example like I'm doing.
And then to reinforce those terminators.
Not to forget that other
importance of that terminator.
I don't want to leave this upper
part in the state that it's currently in. I don't
want it to be too raw so the important thing, right, if we're
thinking about the structure, is to
actually pay close
attention to where the cuts are
and, of course, you won't see these
in a model,
because the model is
him or herself.
But here it
it's helpful to pay attention to
these cuts because they're giving you the
of an element.
And so, the
idea is that even if you don't, even if this won't
be something you will pick up from
a model, this is still
an element of all structures
that you are going to have to
keep an eye out for.
Where they are in space and
where you have major changes in plane.
Of course at the same time, we don't
need this to be
over emphasized because
we are focusing on the clavicles and the muscles of the neck but there is a little bit
of a half tone on top there. And
then we can go and really
the structure of the mandible is down here. And we've covered it a bit
in the skull and in the shaved head
it never hurts to repeat these things.
Here you can even see a little bit of the oblique line
and it's changing
the direction of the form along the surface
so that's a half tone we're gonna have to
put in there.
And as you see here I am
using a harder pencil for some of these half tones
and a softer one
for the shadows and the darker half tones
coming right off of them. And I just
kind of, I've decided to
do that mainly because I -
not even for ease
because you can't get a -
because the harder pencil of course prevents you from pushing
those half tones darker than you need them,
but also because I like the way it looks.
There's kind of,
there's a textural difference in the way
the harder pencil
sort of picks up the
grain of the paper.
And you can see that this cast shadow that I'm working
on from the mandible continues onto
the digastric and it gives us
its curvature, its form.
and then even if you see variation
within this shadow, remember that you can kind of
simplify it, group them into a single
element of shadow.
Including the shadows here on the
front of the
mandible, on the chin.
point here is to really
sort of stretch that you see
happening so in order to pull
these areas apart a bit so
we can see what's going on.
So now I'm going to go back into some of these
terminators on the sternocleidomastoid
and reinforce them.
And obviously in a
human model with
skin and all of the other stuff happening on
top here, you're not going to really be able
to see a gap
between these muscles as you do here.
But that is the advantage of having an écorché is that
you have all of
in front of you and essentially all that you're going to have to do
when you do encounter a model is to just slightly soften
it. I mean even when -
I meant here isn't anything
just putting in the entirety of the sternocleidomastoid,
outlining it, and then going back in
and softening some
of those edges. Kinda like we did with the clavicle on its
So now is a good time to kind of, to go over
everything piece by piece, push some of these half tones
pick out accents.
So I'm going to
emphasize that this edge underneath
of the mandible because it is closer
while at the same time I think we can just
put most of it into a darker half tone.
So it's a game here like you -
it's a push and pull.
I think that
we could do a little bit on this half here
without really spending too much time on it
but to just get a more proper outline and actually
what might help, more than any of the
information inside it, is once again the edge. Because it's a cut
and it gives you that
idea of what the structure of it is
these sort of
lines that I draw on top of the form.
And then we see it
and the concha
and wrap around. The only form we see
kind of completely intact
is the tragus
here and the earlobe.
too, I think, for our purposes and
for ease, it'd be good to get some
larger half tones
overall half tones
to clean up the outside and
then to use the eraser
when we need it to place some of the highlights
to better describe the form. At the same time
I don't want to
over emphasize the ear here. And I already
have though, in relation to the rest of it,
actually a bit higher but
it doesn't really matter.
And to make sure we have our
shadows on the ear. I'm just thinking the importance of the
ear here sort of comes into play because
of the shadow underneath it being cast on the
sternocleidomastoid. So it's, we kind of
have at least to some extent, the object that is casting that shadow.
And then you can see that that's the long
head, the sternal head and that overlap
underneath is the clavicular head.
The importance of overlaps on contours
can't be overstated.
I would even
go so far as
to tell you that a proper contour
with all of the right overlaps
will give you at
least 50 percent of the form, the information about
And if you
think of contours as
an element that provides that kind of
then I think you won't necessarily
approach them as a line that you simply have to copy.
Because we don't want to copy contours
or you do want to copy contours
but always ask yourself what
are the forms that they are
Here we have a little bit of light on that
of the pectoralis.
It's a nice element. Here I'm sure you
can see that there's a strong cast,
like a strong occlusion
shadow underneath that clavicular head
and it's falling on the sternal
portions but I don't
want to place too much attention on it. It is in
it is all in shadow and is
not at the moment the object of our attention.
Now here, you can see that
we can sort of give the
that sort of tendonous
part of the sternal head of the
sternocleidomastoid a little bit of a
structure. It has a front plane and
a side plane, especially as it
inserts so it
it'll help get
a bit more
And then as I said before, we need to
make a point to emphasize
the sternal notch.
And here, it's very obvious, it isn't
always but that's sort of the point of the écorché
begin to draw
elements that are on the
models that you encounter.
Not so much from observation
but from your understanding of them
and your experience with the écorché.
this whole part on the
other side of the
we want in there but not
but not overstated,
it is far away. At the same time you can't have
one clavicle and not the other.
And if I look I can also
get that part right there. The other sternal
sternocleidomastoid. And it's not
too obvious. But I think we need to make it more
obvious than we see it.
you have a shadow
And there's - hmmm, this is gonna be hard
to do but there's a little bit of
highlight in there. In my guess it's coming from
alternate source of light,
which of course wouldn't happen if we just had sort of
a singular spotlight but you're always
going to have the interference of other -
like windows and
lights in the room. You could of course control it
and put everything into a
box and make sure that there isn't a lot of
sort of counteracting the
light that you
have established as your main source of light but
at the same time, things like that highlight actually
I think help. I think that
without that highlight it would have been - and you don't have, like
you could tone down that highlight, it doesn't have to be as
bright as certain others. But without the help of it, I'm not sure
we could give as
convincing an impression of that
other - of the other head of that
other clavicle. And here I'm working on the
thyroid cartilage a bit
and I don't want to get into
all the stuff that's happening in there.
I'm gonna kinda simplify it
a bit and only focus my attention of that protrusion
out there of the cartilage
make sure it all - it falls into
a general area of shadow. Here
we do have the hyoid and I would like to
make it a little clearer than we have it here and mainly because
as I said before, this is an important change in plane
and we can see it on the contour but we're going
to have to see it inside the form.
Now I'm working on the omohyoid
that I spoke to you about.
I don't want to do too much but at the same time because the omohyoid
continues all the way into here
and it so obviously
down here that we can't have half of it and not
have the other upper portion.
and it's important
to get all these cast -
shadows that fall from one muscle onto the others.
I'm beginning to think we almost have enough
in these areas underneath the
mandible and in the front
of the neck.
So the question is how do we emphasize
the sternocleidomastoid even more.
I think if we get
a little more contrast on its
we're going to have an opportunity to push the
half tones on it, which will then
in turn give us an opportunity to have a clearer
highlight because it'll
come out of a base of half tones that
will be generally in a darker value.
So right here is
where that highlight is going to be because that
is a change in plane.
And here is the upper most part and then it begins to turn again. So your highlight is
going to be along
that edge. So it is
going to be impossible to do that
side that's beginning to turn away from us is
in a dark enough half tone.
Okay so that's beginning to happen.
But then as the sternocleidomastoid begins
to fall into a shadow in the front, I think
this gives us an opportunity to push some of these
half tones and to get a
as it moves towards the light.
At the same time, we can see a little bit of a brighter light
along this edge.
And of course we
don't want it to compete, so once we erase it
we can tone it
so that it still reads like an area that's
catching more light but
from a tonal perspective isn't
interfering with some of our other values.
Now just to add some - now this to some degree is kinda
accidental and coming from the fact that
this is a cast of a cadaver
but we do have some textural qualities that were captured
during the casting process that
I think at this point that all of the
major elements are already in here, it's
things like that that are really going to add to completion.
The idea is that you don't need to do all of them, you just
need to do a few
few I don't know if I can tell you.
Not because I'm hiding it from you but because I just, I honestly
am not always aware. They're usually along
the terminators of the shadows that you encounter
here in front of the terminator
in the portion of half tone and
sometimes on the other side of that shadow, right off of the
a small cast shadow.
There's lots of options there so pick and choose.
Okay so the problem
that we're having, I'm having, right now
is this area right here can probably -
it's beginning to compete with some of our half tones. And even though that
area in there behind the sternocleidomastoid
and under the omohyoid, that part of the
superclavicular fossa is catching
a lot of reflected light,
it's still shadow.
Gonna tone that away a little bit.
But at the same time not evenly.
We can make sure the edge of the
sufficiently a darker tone.
We can make sure that this
terminator right here is also. And when we do
that, the shadows
inside that, the gap here of that,
are really going to
appear to be catching more reflected light.
there's just a larger tonal
sort of gap between
the terminators and the
So I like where that is but at the same time
I do think
that this cast shadow here, from the
deltoid onto the clavicle
be emphasized because
it's closer and because it's emphasizing the clavicle from
underneath. I'm going to
almost put the entirety of the clavicle here
as we started to do
And to get some of
these smaller half tones coming off of that shadow on the trapezius
to get a little more of that curvature.
And I'm more concerned with the clavicle than
most other things here.
And here it will help to really, in some places,
to find those overlaps of
where the muscles
in this case the deltoid, attaches,
Now we're gonna unify this
whole area underneath just a little bit
without too much information there.
Even those tiny
areas of light, they're not bright.
We can continue with that cast shadow
down here I'm just trying to get this into some overall
making it too important. And then if we of course squint
we can see that all of
the parts of the
pectoralis except for that one tiny portion attaching to the clavicle
right here, they're all, it's all in
a dark half tone or shadow.
So we can just make sure that
our terminator is reading well
and to emphasize just
a little bit the end of our
And just keep in mind that everything that
I'm doing here on the
deltoid is in service
of the accromial end
of the clavicle as
well as the accromian itself.
And even if I - you
can see it - even if I
it is important
to make sure that you definitely have
the acromion on
the contour. On the
And a lot of times because of all of the
muscular attachments, you're not going
to be able to see the
acromion that clearly.
But that's when
you can use the contour
to really to give you an idea of the
of what's underneath there.
Those important landmarks.
Now this is probably
the highest point up here,
where the trapezius begins to
turn away from us. So
I'm going to just
slightly emphasize that with a little bit
of a lighter area along that
plane, along that edge between these two changes in plane
the plane that's receding.
And then here
want to show with greater clarity
that overlap. Now occasionally
I look at the whole thing and I see that
I've gotten pencil marks again on the paper
and so I clean them up, as you
have seen me do countless times by now.
Emphasizing that cast shadow
just a little bit of some of these sort of
Now I'm simplifying the forms of the deltoid
up here, mainly because
I just don't think
that they're that important right now.
I am interested in completion so
I'm also kind of just looking around, I like where
things are and I think we're close but there's
something here with the splenius
capitis, that small muscle in the back, that I would've ignored
entirely if it were not so
instrumental in describing
But I just think it needs to
turn away, along with the light along
the trapezius there. Along with the light along.
even the levator
can be pushed
a bit so that it's not catching that much
that much light. And now to take a general -
I think what we need to do now is
to just figure out the
larger tonal areas.
this is kind of a process of unification
Even the clavicle here.
And there's a little bit of
light in some of these areas,
a little bit of light here.
You want the light right here, we want it on the
edge of the clavicular
I'm not so interested in
placing this highlight right here on the
with an eraser. I'm more interested in toning away
the rest of the mandible.
And I'm not interested in the masseter either.
But they are there so
they gotta be at least hinted at.
in order to achieve this I think you can see
I'm stepping away and kind of trying to
take a look at
everything at the same time
the paper in front of me and on the model.
And now that that has
happened a little bit,
we can go the opposite way and add
smaller areas of light where we need them as well as
And a lot of times they're usually
points of origin and attachment
along the bones.
At the bones rather.
I just feel like this sternal head can be
The cast shadow
under here a little more unified,
and I think
there we have it. The
muscles of the shoulder girdle and the neck.
main muscles of the neck discussed in this lesson.
Then, using the 3D viewer or the provided photographs, draw the
Eliot Goldfinger cast of the neck, paying particular attention
to the skeletal landmarks.