- Lesson details
In this second lesson of the series, artist and veteran instructor Erik Olson continues to demonstrate the process of referencing and determining scale in perspective as well as introducing set-up views and measuring in 1 point perspective. You will learn from drawings, lectures, and master paintings in order to show the critical relationship between an artist’s initial excitement over an idea, and the ability to realize a resolved version of that idea.
- 45-45-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- 30-60-90 Transparent Triangle Ruler
- Alvin Pro-Matic Lead Holder – 2H Lead
- Alvin Rotary Lead Pointer
- T-Square Ruler
- Prismacolor Verithin Colored Pencil – Red/Blue
- Kneaded Eraser
- Hard Eraser
- Helix Technical Compass
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In this video lesson, Erik Olson continues to demonstrate the process
of referencing and determining scale in perspective
as well as introducing set up views and measuring in one point perspective.
You will learn from
drawings, lectures, and master paintings in order to show the critical
relationship between an artist's initial excitement over an idea and
the ability to realize a resolved version of that idea.
And we're going to now actually set up the cone
of vision. We already have an eye level and a picture plane, as we
described in the physical lecture. Here's the eye level, horizon line because
we're gonna be in traditional one point. But it acts as the picture plane from above
and the eye level is actually the touching point of the picture plane, which I'll explain
in a second. I'm gonna put in my center of vision now. The vertical line between our eyes and
the plane between - and the halfway point of our body vertically.
Come down about there.
So the idea here, this'll be our one point
vanishing point. So I'll put in VP one point.
And the idea is I'm gonna carry my SP down
as far as I can without getting off the frame of the picture down here.
So that's the distance. Remember,
when I put my SP in here, which I'll do, that's the top of the head of a person.
There's the body, there are the feet sticking out. That's my station point.
This distance the distance line between the viewer
and the top of the picture plane when we're in flat space. Remember
our real SP is out here and we have collapsed it
to become this flat flap as we mentioned in the physical lecture of the
physical examples. So again, this is our SP distance from picture plane
which we're usually out here looking in, but we've collapsed
it to the flat version. Okay. We'll go ahead now
and project our 30 and our 30 degree angles that are our projection
for the cone of vision when we're above. And that will turn into the cone of vision
Here's my 30, 60,
90 triangle. We'll go ahead
line that up, such as this, right to the eyes of the SP person.
Lined up with the center of vision.
Project, we'll go ahead and mark that it goes past the picture plane
but also a clear mark that it strikes it.
Same on the other side.
I'll go ahead and label my
center of vision. Okay.
Now that we've got the projections at
30 degrees, 30 degrees,
total of 60 degrees.
That's the projection for the cone of vision when we're above
ourselves as the third person. Now we're gonna go into the first person and be the person
standing in front of the scene. And that's why we can see a cone.
Here's my compass. I'll draw one and point. If you don't have one you can still -
what you're doing is your going from the very center of vision, just
out to where one of your cone of vision strikes
is right there. Drawing it around. Try to make it
dark enough. Okay.
This old compass isn't doing the best so I'll have to guide it more.
There we go.
There's our cone. And if you don't have a compass, what
you can do is you can just say, okay you take that distance and you repeat it up here and make a
strike on the line here and you make a strike over here. So you're essentially still
these four contacts. These two, plus this, plus that.
I mean you could even go this distance in the middle, like this.
To make a mark you just take a scrap piece of paper, mark that distance
on two ends and just kinda do a few marks that would radiate like the cone
you find. Okay. Now I've got my actual cone of vision.
And the idea is -
remember those four items are ours. So just to remind you from the
physical lecture and the examples, the package
that is ours and we carry everywhere in our view is, of course, an idea of a picture plane.
Straight in front of us with the eye level crossing the
center of vision, having an actual station point, which is right between our eyes, out here
as far as you're marking and deciding to
have our station point and saying we're giving the illusion of being this far away from the picture.
We don't have scale yet. We don't know if this is one foot or one inch.
It can be either. Once you decide scale though, proportionally everything has to work
to that scale on the picture plane. So the station point and then the projected cone -
so the idea of the picture plane, the eye level, the center of vision,
the station point between our eyes as the viewer, and the projected
cone of vision are the package we always have with us anytime our eyes are ever
open and looking into the world, period. So that is this set up.
So what we're gonna do is now learn how to measure and begin to
measure in one point perspective. So we're gonna use that
collapsed SP. Now remember, the ideal place to view any
perspective picture is of course being at the eye level and the center of vision right
here at the actual distance of the SP. So I'll lean my head in for a second
and put it right where it should be, at about that distance. That's the ideal distance
for me to view this illusion on my little piece of paper here or my piece of paper.
That would be the most convincing place of the illusion of the perspective would be
the station point distance away that you're collapsing this SP
to replicate. Okay. Now let's go ahead and draw
in a simple little sidewalk, coming from the one point vanishing point.
And I'm gonna draw past my cone of vision.
A good deal into space. I'm not gonna
make it necessarily even.
Okay. So that's gonna be a sidewalk. And I'm gonna put my first plank about
here. And I'm gonna draw across.
Now as you remember, when we did the referencing, we already
did something similar. We picked a particular reference point to represent
what the diagonal to strike a square would be over here. We could do it over here
too. But now, because I have a particular station point distance and I
have the set up and I'm using the real cone at 30 and 30, now I
need to understand what a real square in this illusion and perspective would be according
to the geometry. So I have to project real angles from my
station point and have real angles meet the station point in order to
replicate how we'd really see. In this case let's
draw it out here. We know -
that 45 degrees bisects a square
so what we have on
the sidewalk is this. We've decided on the front
plane, going across, parallel with the picture plane is this wide, or something like it.
Okay. We also have these lines casting back
to the vanishing point, that are going perpendicular to us. So we represented those three
ideas here. How we find a square is using the
45 degree angle. This is again, remember, from above, this is flat
space, looking above at the plan of the square from above.
So this is, let's just say this
top view of
the beginning of the square that we want to be a square. But we need that 45 degree
angle to be draw across it. I could go either way, right or left
here, casting from the lower right to the upper left.
And we need that real 45 degree angle to realize
our square. There it is and
I'll go ahead and draw it back.
Draw back the top plane, or actually should be the back plane because we're looking straight
down. Okay. That gives us - we need to
replicate that idea in our set up. So how we do that is,
we're gonna strike a real 45 degree angle from our station
point viewer, which is the collapsed version of us, and
we're gonna actually project a 45 degree angle. So let's do that right
now. Then I'll show you a little bit of an idea of what we're doing and how we're looking into the cone
again, just to remind you real fast on the other side. But as long as we understand
the concepts before we start the little measuring then it's pretty
clear. I'm gonna take a red line again and I'm gonna project, again from my viewer,
degree angle. A real one. Okay.
That makes a 45 degree measuring point.
It used to be that we could use a reference point, or we could, we could call it a reference point
like we did before a few diagrams ago. But now we need an official real 45 degrees.
There it is.
That's 45 degrees. That's gonna give us the illusion or the
perspective version of what we did here, in perspective.
That's what we need to do there. But before we do that I just wanted to draw out a quick idea
of how we are standing in front
of the cone again from the side view. Okay.
Just the idea.
Let's say someone's about that tall.
Okay. If someone's that tall. Just the
idea that we're standing there.
That's a person.
Okay. So I'll go ahead and put the eye level in right
here. That's actually from the eyes, going
forever into space, right. That's our distance line, that's our eye level from the
side. This is a side view.
we have a particular picture plane, which I'll go ahead and draw
in too. So what I'll do is I'll just put in
the idea that we're standing in front of a picture plane here. Just as a little demonstration.
I'll make that have a slight thickness like a piece of
glass. That's our picture plane. Okay.
There's our ground line, measuring line from the side. There's our ground plane, so that's
the ground. Right.
Remember in diagram number one you saw that from the three quarter view with the viewer
standing in front of all of this for our definitions. That's really important
that you understand and look at diagram one because it explains this thoroughly. Not only the side view
but you get the whole thing because you're in three-quarter view. But real quick to remind you.
And there's this point here.
This is the distance to that.
Let me get rid of that top line a little bit, we don't need it. There's our viewer's head.
Okay. Now the projection of the cone real quick.
And remember that's 30 and
30 from the side as well. So if I go ahead and do this
I'm going and hitting the picture plane right here. The idea of the picture plane
right here. And also on the bottom. So the cone
of vision is a complete cone, as it is described as, meaning
it goes down and up, 30 and 30 too, and strikes and shows us where it strikes the picture
plane exactly. So 30, 30 degrees.
Total of 60. Okay.
Same idea. That's the distance line to the picture plane, the picture plane,
the level of the eye level, the ground, that's us,
the projection of the cone. That's how we're looking into here. This is just a side view.
Okay. Now we can get on with measuring our sidewalk. Because we are
already struck a real 45 from our station point, I chose the left side, we
could have chosen the right side. I've got a real 45 degrees now, let's go ahead
and be kitty corner from our measuring point and go ahead and measure
our first square back,
striking the side plane, continuing on.
Okay. There is our first, official, real, measured one point
depth for that first sidewalk plank.
Okay let me put my stuff away, come back up. My pencil, I'm gonna draw in that back
plane. Right where it belongs. There it is.
I then repeat. Kitty corner
Get my red pencil.
Kitty corner, repeat to the vanishing point,
or I should say the 45 degree measuring point. Again, drive it toward that.
Crossing the plane, X it off, drawing my
back plane for the second section of the sidewalk.
My pencil this time.
We'll do it again. Kitty corner from the reference point
at the back of my new plank number two. And then
we'll create the back of number three, again, going to
the - so it's the same thing we did with that reference point a few diagrams ago.
But now we are actually measuring according to the station
point's distance and our height from the picture plane. No matter what scale we pick, we're
actually doing real squares now, according to the perspective.
Remember, of course, a square and a cube, a square is equally deep as it
is wide. And a cube is equally as deep as it is wide as it is high. Okay, now
one more time, we'll go ahead an do one more.
Crossing here, for that last
fourth section of the sidewalk. Okay, right there.
with my last section.
Okay. So we now got four sections of sidewalk in
perspective. Okay. Let me grab my triangle. There we go.
Okay. So now we've just measured using our
left side 45 degree measuring point. We've explained how to set up the cone,
the significance of what we're doing here is explained from the top view here.
How we're set up in front of the cone is here. So that's our first move
and now let's label them. We could say A,
B, C. So we've gone here, struck
across, come back over, go back over, C, D,
F, G, H.
Strike, back over, strike, back over, strike, back over, strike
to here, gives you each depth each time you do that move. Each time you
create a new plank or a new section of sidewalk. Okay.
Now we'll do a standing plane
over here. Okay. So we're gonna show you
something about a standing one point plane of -
there we go.
We're just gonna do - this is completely independent by the way
of our other object. I'm just gonna give it a height -
maybe I'll do this. I'll say it's planted here.
So I just drew the bottom line of this
standing wall. I will then go
ahead and draw its standing
height. Something like that. That's how high it is. And
we're gonna thrust the top plane back to the vanishing point. Okay.
Alright so we've extended out of the cone. But that's
our first section starting and we're gonna draw back into space.
Now what we could do is we could find the equal,
horizontal at 45 degrees to that equal height. And then
we could make a square on the ground and go back
to the 45 degrees measuring point like we did here and then we realize our
depth. We just draw over and back up. But there's another method too and
that is always existing for any standing plane in one point perspective
that you want to make a 45 degree auxiliary -
declined 45 degree reference point. That's what the SP is.
The station point is always an auxiliary, declined,
auxiliary vanishing point, or we could call it reference point
for 45 degrees. What do that mean? Well, if I want to get the
next back section of this standing square, all I have to do
is draw from that kitty corner
on top, into space,
and down like that, toward
the station point. And I'll go ahead and make these cones. Actually, I'll do that
with all the arrows. Because really I wanted to explain before we go on,
including this move here, that's actually a 45 in perspective now.
Let me just finish out my plank I'll describe deep space real fast.
I don't want to forget about doing that.
Because that's important that we understand this stuff is moving flat to
us in some cases, and then it is moving into deep space.
So these projections - this is flat because we're looking at a plan -
these projections on the paper represent the illusion of these
lines moving toward the reference point, in deep space, going back
and up and over to the left into deep space forever like that's a star. So
these are traveling forever into deep space. This is flat space
because we're looking at the top of the picture plane, the true - the
distance line and the station point on top. Because remember, we're here as the viewer
with these same projects going like this and meeting up at the same place. Our real
45 degree measuring point from up here is
cast down toward that too, it meets at the same place. But since we've collapsed this, we're on top and
it's flat. So these are real, flat angles. But these
represent actual angles and lines moving in perspective
into deep space, over there, forever to that measuring point.
Same here. This is not just a flat line any more. This represents
moving and sliding down the side of this plane, down to the
left forever into space, meeting at a star or a point. That
happens to represent the SP. It happens to be our 45 degree
declined, auxiliary reference point for 45
degrees. And that will be true when we repeat these squares. I just wanted to make the
point that we could make these little arrows into cones, saying that they're going into space and down
forever. Out into the left forever into space
to meet the 45 degree measuring point. Okay, so let's go down here
now. Next top corner here. We cast
down and use the station point again for
our declined, auxiliary for 45s.
I'll make sure that's 45 again. That gives us our next section.
And you could also
plot another 45 above, equally if you took
literally this same angle and shot up at 45 to hit your center of vision. That's off
camera for you guys, but that would be an inclined, auxiliary 45 degree
reference point for all standing squares. And you'd go from the bottom corner, up
through here to get your first plane to that auxiliary
up there. It's just that we don't have room to show it. So we can show the SP
but why not use that one. Now I'm gonna create my third section of standing squares.
Going back into space. Opposite corner going
through the plane to the SP again. Gonna use my red pencil one more time.
actually showing that arrow as a cone because it's going down, a little bit to the left
into deep space forever to that star or that infinite vanishing point,
or auxiliary, 45 degree reference point. Okay.
And remember, reference points, vanishing points, measuring points, all that
it's - they're all vanishing points. The idea is we just have to name them differently to describe
their action for us, or their use. Okay, there's my third standing plane.
Okay. So that's a pretty clear idea.
Three standing squares.
What else? Okay, we're gonna do an independent, floating square that will
turn into a cube. So let's draw the face plane of a square up here in the air.
Okay. Coming right up here.
We'll do -
It's not gonna be huge, so let's do a reasonable size one.
Okay. And I'll go ahead
and use my 45 and my red pencil
to strike a square.
Let me get out of your way here.
Remember, a real 45 flat. Remember, all these planes
facing us - sorry that's a top view going down - but any plane facing us in one point has no
perspective. It's flat. Okay, so in this case that's what's happening.
That cube, or eventual cube,
was actually facing us directly and is flush with the picture plane.
So it has no perspective. So that's a real angle going across its face.
These are real angles going across these faces too.
And these faces are footprints, but they are implying perspective because they're in
the illusion of perspective, working to the geometry of the station point and the subsequent
angles. Okay. Let's label that with a - again, these are real
45s we've set here. Okay. Now let's case back
our side planes of that square, turn it into a cube.
That's where they'd lead.
Okay. I'll make that transparent
box effect a little more obvious by casting that back.
Okay. So again, easy way to get the depth of a real
cube because we're dealing with a whole bunch of squares as we go kitty corner again from
here in the bottom would be the easiest one, the most convenient one. We could do it from up here too but I'm
gonna do it at the bottom. Cast to my 45 degree vanishing point.
Remember that's going into space. So it's going
down to the left, into deep space, eventually to that infinite
measuring point. Okay. And it's striking against the other side, plane
of the cube. And now we get our depth from that mark, just like
we've been doing with the sidewalks and everything else.
Let me be accurate about that. Okay.
And that goes back and connects right here. So don't be confused, that's
where it connects. I'll go ahead and shade in that little bottom plane
in red. Our first section, we're gonna create two sections.
There it is. Okay. That is
our bottom plane of our square. Now of course we could just follow this line and go
straight up and get the back plane and end off the shape and draw it out.
We could do that. But we could also remind ourselves because the SP
also always represents an auxiliary, declined, 45 degree reference point.
We can go from this top corner, down through here to here
and also get that same depth. So I will do that just to show you.
That would be the move from kitty corner top up here,
going to the SP, going down. I won't make it go all the way down, I'll just show
you that it goes forever into space, and we strike the exact same place here.
And that gives me the back
of my square, which I have to draw in the vertical of.
Square my cube, hello. So there it is.
And now I'll draw out
and I'll put in the red of that plane here real quick.
Okay, so there's the side we got with the 45
angle. So remind yourself that goes to SP. So that one there.
Let's make it clear. Keeps going
down all the way to the SP. So the SP is, in itself, an auxiliary
45 degree, declined
reference point. You could call it an auxiliary vanishing point too, but that's
what we'll do. So that's its second use. Obviously it represents
where we're standing in flat space, but because its relationship to the cone
and the set up of the perspective, it also acts very conveniently as a 45
degree, declined reference point for us for any standing squares that are - by the way
standing squares that are going into space perpendicular to us. Of course any
standing square face that's facing us directly in one point is flush with the picture
plane and has no perspective. Right. Okay. Let's go ahead and draw in real quick
another square. I'll go from here, you know, on the bottom
to get another depth. Again, into space,
mark it. Now we'll just draw back up using that one.
Real quick I'll just make it obvious what's happening here.
Bottom plane then we'll go up for the side on the second
strike. There it is.
So there's our side plane of that square, and that's pretty shallow.
We'll draw the depth inside of the square too in a second.
There's that second square. Okay. So the idea is right behind it
is the second one. let me draw that in a little darker.
Okay. And there's the top plane.
Alright and then here's the back
plane of the square from the first one,
going down to meet that. And the second one would be about
there. I'll just make them real light lines. And going down
we'll meet it there. Okay, like that. Okay.
So there you have the depths of two cubes that we've found
using the 45 degree measuring point but we also found the side - that little narrow side plane -
using that auxiliary there as the same way we did here on the other side
of those standing squares. Okay. Now we can pretend we want to do two other things.
We can show how to use our protractor so I'm gonna put a horizontal line
on each side of our SP.
Okay. And just to show you
real quick, the protractor has a total of
180 degrees if you consider this zero all the way over 180 or zero all the way over to
180. And this is a line you line up right here, in the middle, along with these
alignments. So I'll do that right now real quick.
And if I hold my finger there I can just point out that this is zero
and I can go one - ten, twenty, thirty, forty, forty-five exactly
That's because it's a 45 degree angle from an SP and you can measure all real angles from here.
When you have different arrangements of two point vanishing points of course, two point vanishing points
would have a 90 degree corner idea that we'll get to in a couple diagrams
and explain why. But that would mean if I wanted one projection of
at 30 degrees I'd add 90 to that for 120 being its counterpart vanishing point.
But we'll get to that in a bit. So the protractor can be very, very handy and very fast
at marcating real angle projections from our view from plans or
people's instructions. Or just kinda feeling out a composition and knowing what angle you're really at
compared to your center of vision view. Okay. So that would be the
use of the protractor along side the SP or on top of the SP. One more thing too
is we'll just project a couple things out. So if you're wondering
how do I get another section of sidewalk out here and another section
of standing wall out here? We'll do that real quick. And what you're doing is
you're saying, well now I don't have a kitty corner to start from, but what I can
do is repeat the 45 degree measuring points action past, down
to those. So I'm going to pick the next corner here and simply
project from the 45 degree measuring point this time, this direction.
And that gives me - and that's coming
toward us in space now. So this projection is coming toward us, moving to the right,
down toward us, our view, then going under us into deep
space behind us. Okay. And that marcates right there, that
next section of sidewalk, which I'll put in with my pencil and my T square.
That's the last section, right there.
Okay. So if any of this gets confusing, just pause, you know,
again, any section of activity at a time. When we laid in the cone, when we did the little
diagrams. Go ahead and pause it and go ahead and screen save or whatever you have to do to understand
it better. The idea is, this is only a set up
so it's mechanical. These ideas would be very light and barely noticeable. Just enough for
you to reference them when you're setting up a picture. But we have to mechanically make them very clear as
demonstrations. Okay. So don't be overwhelmed by all this and say oh god I'm gonna be a drafting
person for the rest of my life. The idea is these ideas are giving that three dimensional
platform we talked about in the physical lecture and walkthrough
in your mind. This makes you understand how and why real space
works. Then when you're sketching and drawing you're drawing to these ideas and making little ticks
and cobweb thin lines as references and it's underneath. A lot of great
German landscape drawings from 200, 300 years ago, you see all sorts of those
ticks and marcations. Thomas Eakins knew all this stuff and used it underneath
a lot of his paintings. People made a big deal of it, like oh my god isn't that incredibly
measured perspective into those paintings. It's like, big deal, there's people and industrial designers
and illustrators all over the country in game design doing that every day in drawing. So
it's been happening for, you know, hundreds of years. So remember this is all
the idea of what you can think of as you're drawing and sketching over it. Okay.
So that's that extra section of sidewalk we got from projecting
forward from the 45 degree measuring point. And now we'll go ahead and make an extra section here
by doing a similar move. But now we're coming back up from the station,
point through this corner here to realize
that plane. So let me get my triangle.
Station point acting as auxiliary, 45, declined, reference point,
coming back through bottom plane here,
striking our top plane and becoming our next section
of standing wall. Even though it's out of the cone, so what,
you can still show it. Form out of the cone distorts as
we talked about in the physical walk through, but you can still measure from distorted space.
This is not distorted space, this is distorted space, but it still works to
perspective. So again it's gonna be like a car accelerating. A little bit of distortion and then suddenly
boom, a lot, a lot. It happens fast okay, right outside the cone of vision.
I'll go ahead and put in that last standing section then.
Okay, so it hits here.
I draw it straight down. Okay.
And there we have that last standing section. Now we have four standing sections, but
see how that's being pulled out of the cone here. A little bit here, but
a bit here and that looks like that's too steep of an angle, that doesn't look right or natural because
we don't get to see angles that are like that that are truly 90 in our views because we're
always stuck inside our own cone of vision. By the time we move our directed
over here or over there we're still at the correct undistorted view because we carry all this stuff
with us in the snap of a figure. Okay. So we can never escape, again, our own
clear view. We really can't see our own peripheral distortion
space. Okay. And that's about all I can talk about on this one. Again,
we've covered again, we have a sidewalk using the 45
degree measuring point from the top view concept and getting the real squares going back in
space. We also did the same thing, we showed you what's
happening with the cone from the side, from the top view of the square and the importance of the 45
degree, giving us the back plane, giving us a square. We have
standing squares here that we use the station point as an auxiliary, 45 degree reference point
to get those. And we used both the 45 degree measuring
point and the auxiliary station point as 45, declined RP
to get the side of that square, the bottom here, all that work. So
go ahead and keep pausing and taking your own notes. So it's important again to take your own
notes by pausing it and clearly translating into your own
way what these mean to you after you've played the tape and
clearly understand why the perspective works. So you very much understand how to draw it right
before you talk about and describe it to yourself in words. So your
notes come after your success at making this work. So that's why we're drawing
together, you're pausing, you're trying to make it work, you're trying to get back on track and
correct and then describe to yourself why these steps work. It takes some work, but
this is how you internalize the perspective and you'll actually remember it and your notebook
will become a permanent reference source for years to come. Okay.
So we'll go on to the next one now.
going to be doing, the set up for the cone again to get familiar with that. And then we're gonna do a whole
bunch of squares in one point, or cubes I should say, sitting
and floating and such and going way outside, and somewhat outside, the cone of vision.
Okay, just to get a view of what that looks like and the kind of distortion effect
it has on a very predictable object. Obviously a cube being the most predictable
because it's as deep as it is high as it is wide. Okay. So I'll go
ahead and put in my center of vision. As you can see we already have the eye level, horizon line.
So I'll put in my center of vision.
And I'll put the station point as far down as I can, about there.
There's my little station point person.
Their body, their feet from above.
There's my center of vision. Okay.
And there's my one point vanishing point.
As before. Okay. We'll move right into this then.
We'll get our
30 and 30 degree projections from the SP real quick.
Before now. Because we want to get used to this routine
when we're doing the formal. And you could do this as a sketch routine just to feel out -
even in a thumbnail - what would be distorted or not in your picture. Because you don't
have to do it really formal, you can do it all by hand and still project an idea
of where your cone would be even in a sketch and have a, you know, a controllable idea of where your
distortion will start. People do that all the time. It's just that you're not used to seeing that
information because most people cover it up. And a lot of people don't show their lay in work
either. But we are doing it all here, so
this is it. Living perspective underneath the drawing. Okay so that's 30
degrees, 30 degrees, total of 60.
So let's get that cone with our compasses. Let's see what size this exactly
one is. Okay.
Okay. There's my cone. I'll just make it clear
where it hits the picture plane eye level. And again down here.
Up here, right where I had center of vision. Okay.
So there's our cone. We've already got our flat work because we've been looking down at
ourselves the whole time as the third person. But now we're suddenly looking into some type of
picture we're gonna create in traditional one point
as the first person viewer. Okay. As before, we're gonna need our
45 degree measuring point again for the reasons we described
on diagram 13. So here we go. 45 degree, 90 triangle.
We'll go ahead and get that 45 degree
measuring point in. I'll go ahead and use the left side again. You could
project this to the right if you wished.
Depends on what room you have, what might be in your
composition or notes you have or different, you know, little plans using elevations you want to do.
In this case we're just gonna do a whole bunch of random cones, so there's really no reason to do
a drawing. The idea is it's just - we're gonna randomly place them as we feel like, at
different sizes and different rates out of the cone of vision. Okay. So there's my 45 degree
measuring point. Right. And that
is 45 degrees to the left of our
center of vision from our SP person from above. So remember, this distance to our
SP person is really this distance
brought down. Okay. Alright, so we've got our set up. Pretty quick.
Now let's just start drawing some boxes. So what I'll do is - let's just
do the front face of the boxes as squares first
then we'll go ahead and put their
projecting side planes, that are perpendicular to us, going to the one point
vanishing point, then we'll decide how deep they are. And then we'll
do some outside the cone of vision. Okay. We don't need to do that many, but we'll do -
one standard one up here.
Let's say, one's doing this.
Okay. And we'll build these pretty quick.
Because we've kinda done this routine before now, so we'll
speed things up a little.
I could measure this or I could just find it from my 45.
So if I want to do that, I'll just mark it. And I'll go
ahead and do it in red just to be thorough. Because I do want to not confuse
people that haven't done much of this. Okay.
And just - I can pick any corner and come down. And there I have my
45. Gives me my bottom plane.
I'll go ahead
and draw across and there are my four corners
of my square. And then I'll go ahead and bring those
back to the vanishing
Okay. And if we want we can finish
that one off. Yeah, why not. And then we'll do a whole bunch of others.
Well, not a whole bunch, but probably a total of five or something.
That way it - the point will be pretty clear. We just want to show some distortion here.
Okay, there's my projection out to my 45 from the kitty corner bottom. So I can get the
depth of that square. So I've got
that depth now from that red line, striking the side edge there.
Right. Because we went from kitty corner
all the way to our 45 and where that strikes the side plane, going back to the vanishing point
that gives us our cube. Then we can draw up
and find our sides basically
as well. So we can
see through this thing. Alright, so
it's a very, very shallow, very, very barely seeable, foreshortened side there.
That's fine. And again, if I wanted to go from this top corner
through this corner, that would lead directly to our SP if I wanted to use
the SP again as a reference. But this time, we're pretty much gonna be using our 45
degree measuring point. But always be aware that can be helpful with standing squares
that are going to the plane - to the one point vanishing point.
Of course we don't need any angles in perspective
for our front facing squares for one point because those are real angles because there's no
perspective to those front facing planes, or back facing planes in one point.
Okay. Alright, so there's one square. Let's put another one well outside
the cone now. Just to be
shocking. So I'll put one out here. Oh my
god, way out here into space where its cold and there's no oxygen.
This thing's not gonna make it for very long I'm afraid. Okay.
So there's my front
facing square. I'll go ahead and get my 45 on there.
Right. So if I get that
projected up real quick
I get my square.
I could do that with a compass from here. You could take that
distance and go boink and get the same thing. But we'll just be consistent with these 45s.
You know, 45, 45.
Alright we'll close off the top and then draw the square and see what it looks like
that distorted. Okay.
And we'll go ahead and lead its perpendicular plane
to us, to the one point vanishing point. I'll
overdraw as usual. Okay.
And inside the cube we can see because they're transparent like plexiglas.
So let's find out where
our measuring point
gives us. So we're gonna go all the way from this kitty corner now
to the 45. Correctly
And that strikes right there. So that's how long that
correct square is being pulled out and distorted in
the outside - the right side - of the cone.
So that looks much more like a rectangle. Not horribly distorted but
that will start happening in like a lot of games - video games and things on wide angle.
You know, the wide angle bottom border would happen about there, but then all this pull you've got
on the outside of the cone on a lower millimeter lens.
So there's one. Then we'll put another one correctly in here.
And then one way out here. Actually we'll put one way out here. We got -
we don't have that much room, I think that's the top of our video. So again I'll put one,
I don't know, we'll put another standard one over here somewhere real quick.
Use my 45 again.
And you make up your own squares if you want. You know,
you just keep
going and just get the feel. But you'll get a real clear idea
of how distorted that becomes.
Okay. So we gotta get that closed off.
Get out of the way here. Square. Turn it into a cube.
Alright. Let's draw the back in.
That 45 almost goes where we want it to, but not quite. Okay so we take
the kitty corner again. It's a little easier that we have the steeper
angle here, or I should say the one that is not so foreshortened as the
top. So it's a little easier using this. I'll just draw it back.
Almost the same as the other one, but it hits right there.
It gives us the back of our square. Make it a cube.
So there it is.
Just to make it clear.
I'll shade it in in blue, what the side of it is if it gets a little
hard to see. Okay. There's the side of that one.
I'll do this one in red. It's very, very shallow so...
Alright. Oh, nice.
Alright. So next we're gonna do probably one way, way out
here. Let me grab my pencil.
Alright. So let's draw one
even further out than this one was. See what happens.
Alright, we'll be - let's see
if we're out here we'll just draw one way out in the netherlands here.
Take my 45, my red pencil
Okay. Clean this area up here, not drop everything on the floor
and then close off.
Alright let's run those perpendicular, side planes off to the one point vanishing point.
Let's see what that gives us when we take our kitty corner
going to the 45. Ooh that's
way steep, see.
It strikes right there, so that's gonna be our back plane.
We'll close off as a cube.
There's our corner. I'll runs straight up.
Get our verticals in there.
It's right there.
And that is right there. Alright.
So, let me remove
a line because that's confusing. There.
So there's the back square, properly a square. There's our front square
but that's still - that's how long a real cube is in that much distortion
space. So, you know, it's quite a bit. Again, these are all
properly measured from the 45 degree vanishing point
and that's how long they get. We could do another one way out here if we want to have fun. Why not? Just
real quick. And then let me check my time here. Yup, we got time.
So good. Let's do one more
way out there. If we get you off camera here we'll just put this down to about there. Alright.
Okay. We cross over our 45 again.
So let me come down where that one is. So there's my 45.
Okay. That gives us that.
We'll go ahead and close it off
with our T square. Then we'll project it back
with our triangles.
gonna be doing multiple views. What you can do in the cone as far as framing.
I still want to show you the behavior and do some more measuring
in one point, but then we also want to break to the side and really just draw out three or
four cones of vision, kind of in miniature, and then one large one on another
diagram. What we're gonna do is compose a bunch of different frames around where
we can do traditional framing and show you how it differently affects the
composition of basic one point objects and other things in there.
That's important because it has to do with composition. Okay let's get that 45
degree measurement. So again, I can come kitty corner
from over here and go all the way down to here.
See what we get.
And it strikes right there. Let me make that a little darker.
On camera it might be a little light. So that's how long it will be.
So I'll go ahead and draw that out real quick.
I'll go ahead and use my T square just
to be really clear. There's that square behind.
That back square will be almost there.
Just about there. Alright.
So that's how long that square is.
So to be clear about the distortion space, let's shade
it in real fast for some of them that are distorted.
It's that distorted there.
There as well.
So the whole point of this diagram basically was, you know, quickly do the cone of vision set up again
and show you how distorted these planes get.
what else can I think of
and point out about this before we cut? Yeah, because we
did that I wanted to make sure that we understood - yeah, so we'll be getting to
how to compose more in the cone. I know we're using it kind of randomly now and just as a cone
and not really putting a frame in but I wanted to talk about just the behavior of the cone
and why we don't see in frames actually. We see the whole
landscape obviously and have more of a cone shape peripheral.
But we'll get to that just a little bit here. And of course the other side is distorted too.
Leave that open. But that's pretty much it. So there's distortion out of the cone
for a very common, easily understood shape, a cube. Alright.
And so next we'll do a little more measuring in one point. Alright.
now we're gonna go ahead and do some actually measuring in
one point with an actual measuring line in front of a little simple object. Talk
about height and also talk about
width and the station points and the 45 degree measuring points some more.
So I'm not gonna put in the cone right away. I've got everything else.
I've got my center of vision. I've got my eye level horizon line.
Picture plane, we're from above, like when we're looking down on our SP and
again, just to remind you, that can be realized up here and then swung down, flat surface. So we've
got our SP too as well. Okay.
So what I've gonna do is I'm gonna designate just an area where I want a box
in one point. And I'll make sure it's well within the cone. We know if we - if we were doing
a sketch now, and you can image you put this very light marcation down, just with
ticks. Very, very cobweb thin for a sketch that was somewhere up here. But you
put a little bit of an SP below it and a little bit of a longer eye level for instance.
You could just estimate 30 degrees and say oh the cone would be from here.
Just about there. And you could get an idea of where the cone is. So I'll draw well within the cone here.
Probably make the measuring line down here with a box or something like that.
What I'll do is I'll put a little measuring line down there, that's
this is just gonna represent an actual
measuring line that's
here in front of a
box. So we'll go ahead and just probably use little half inch increments or something
and see how we do. Alright. So what I'm gonna do
is I'm gonna go ahead and put in
increments. Well, you know what, we'll just
do one inch increments and make them real big and simple. So I take my ruler.
There's my - I'm right on 16 in the middle. And
I'm gonna put 17, 18, 19, and then 20.
So I'm using one inch increments. You're welcome to if you have a smaller
piece of paper than me. Mine's pretty big here. So if your paper's smaller
than this then go ahead and use one-half inch increments. It's really easy on a ruler. That's
fine. And then we'll also measure some
increments going up. Let me get my
old miniature T square here from the elder days.
And I'll go ahead and measure
one inch increments as well.
up from here.
We won't really use them up above, so don't
worry about that.
What we're doing
realizing the one's we need below the eye
level. So there we go.
So one increment above that zero.
Call that one, two, three, four to the left.
One, two, three, to the right.
Same increments. One, two, and then
three up. Just for the heck of it. We're not really concerned about
how high the eye level is. We can talk about it because we can put real measurements on
that but we're gonna talk about that when we're really constructing a one point room
and really talk about how we know how high we are as opposed to how wide we are in
a shot. Just even right from the picture plane. Because the idea is we can use this true
height line and a measuring line across horizontally as
we were really putting a yardstick up, and a measuring stick, right against the picture plane.
I kind of mentioned it and alluded to it in the physical walk through, but we'll really do it
right here. So let's just concern ourselves with a couple units of height.
And then let's go ahead and
draw in a box. Okay so we're gonna get the front plane of a box.
We're gonna say that - let's say I want it to be
starting over there and
going, so it's a total of three increments.
It goes back to zero, back over to here. I'm just
putting them in so we can count. So it'll be a total of one, two, three
across. But it's - one inch of it, or one unit is
over to the right of the center of vision and two are over there. So I'll go ahead
and I want my box to be one inch high or one increment high. Let's not put a scale to it.
Let's just say one increment from now on. Okay, so I'll go ahead and draw in that idea.
Alright so, right above there
and it ends there. So I'll go ahead and draw in my sides.
And remember the box is resting right again that.
measuring line. Okay.
Alright, so it's one unit to the right,
two to the left, total of three. I'll go ahead and put some red in
for the measuring line. Just so in the future we can be
consistent. That kinda makes it
like it's alive. It's red, it's hot, it's alive, it's a living measuring line.
Also makes some red to measuring point, so it'll be consistent. Okay.
There's my measuring line. I'll put measuring line over there again in red.
And so now we know that the true height line
tells us we're in one unit tall for the front face of that box.
It's behaving in one point, so we know that
the perpendicular side planes go ahead and trail off
to the one point vanishing point.
So it'll be important in this one to put in your side planes. They become
a fact during measuring and showing why measuring works. So we'll go
ahead and put those in. Get my head out of the way. Alright. Okay.
now we don't know how deep we
want the box. We have a lot of choices. All we did is was we committed to the idea that
the box is one unit high and one, two,
three or one, two - sorry - one, two, three. So one, two, three,
or one, two, three wide. So we know it's three wide.
And it's one high. And we don't know how
deep it is yet but we can make some choices. But able to count in
cubical space, kinda like we counted before when we started to learn how to do that sidewalk in
one point, we need that 45 degree measuring point. Because again, if we're gonna count
kind of a grid in squares, we need to be able to measure real squares
as unit to measure with. And of course squares
are part of the whole cubical measuring idea, that whole animation, 3D
programs are made from. To be able to measure in cubical, square
and then cubical space rapidly. So we'll go ahead and put in
another 45 degree measuring point from our station point as we did before
because we're gonna need that now. So I'll go ahead and take my handy
dandy 45 and
line it up to the center of vision and put that point right to the eyeballs of the station point -
flattened station point viewer person.
And I'll go ahead and project from that person. Remember, this is
projecting into flat space if we're looking from above, and
also we'll be projecting in deep space, over to the left,
into deep space in our perspective picture. It's both because this is
a flattened version of our station point person. The angles
come up and strike the eye level picture plane and then go into deep space as a permanent,
infinited vanishing point. So that's our 45 degree
measuring point to this point. We're gonna put another one over here
later for another idea.
And so now - let's see. Let's play with the idea. How deep do we want this
box? It's a real simple idea. So now that I
have a measuring line in front, just like it's literally sitting there and that's where
we're gonna start our picture. So we're pretending the picture plane is actually right here, like a flat
wall and it starts here. This would be coming forward from that picture plane
and anything going behind. So the box is touching the picture plane let's say.
In our imaginations the front face of it is touching the picture plane. And the
depth of the box is going, you know, behind it. Okay. So
I don't know. Do I want it one increment deep, two
increments deep, or three? Why am I counting across? Because we know if I want it
one deep, I have to go to one across and draw to my 45 degree
measuring point. That will strike across the left side plane
and give me one deep. So let's do that.
as an option. We're not saying we're picking it permanently.
Strike, continue on to the one point
measuring line. That gives me one unit of depth
for the one unit I moved across. So starting here on the left side
because I moved one across, kitty corner to the measuring point,
I can strike into deep space and strike the side plane and get one deep.
I could also decide to make the box too deep. So I've
gone one, I can go two, maybe I want
it two deep. Okay.
That strikes the side plane there. That would be two deep
to three wide. So if we were to do it two deep, the box would - we could say
in one point perspective we have a box that is
three units wide, one unit high, and we could make it two units deep.
Or if we wanted to make three units deep or be a square
in other words, if we were looking down on it, it would have a three by three
depth and width, with a one unit height. So let's try three
from - well we have to go one more unit over to here, all the way to kitty corner from
the 45 degree measuring point, strike across,
going on forever to that vanishing point. Remember, once
we're in space, unlike looking straight down at our little SP flattened person
now, in space and the illusion of space on our picture
plane, standing here and then going into deep space. Remember, in our
imaginations I have to keep drawing these in properly, kind of as little cone arrows instead of just flat,
we are going across to the left and into deep space.
So we're not just going to the left on a flat plane, in our imaginations and
our 3D platforms we're trying to build in our mind, we're going to the left
and a little bit up and into space, forever to the horizon. So this 45
degree measuring point when we're in perspective inside the cone
represents going on forever, until we travel so far it could
be, you know, a sun, you know, 50 million miles away. It doesn't matter. Everything
diminishes and goes to something infinity long. So that's the
whole point. It's deep space. But when we're looking at it from above, as a plan,
this is the flat, thin piece of glass as the picture plane. That's our distant line
that we're looking above at down to the top of our head of our little, flattened SP
person. This distance out would be to view the picture from but
we can't show depth in a 2D world on paper so we flatten
the idea of the station point person, us, and there we are. Okay.
So we've got a real 45 degrees as we know to
be able to project from our station point, us, to find it striking the
picture plane eye level, forever at 45 degree measuring point.
And now we use it to actually get real depth, unit per
unit, in our little box scenario. So there's the third strike there.
So I'll say, you know what, I guess we'll do -
we'll make the box as deep as it is wide, to just use a square again.
But we could have, and we can still make scene marks or anything we want,
and the proper diminishment to look like they're in one foot. And it's like a Rubik's cube,
a section of it. But, okay we'll go ahead and put in
then our depth. And we've decided
three feet deep. So we'll go ahead and go
that far. Alright. And then we'll draw out the top of
our box, once we get our back verticals.
So I have to draw a box there. And we'll go there.
And then we'll finish out
the shape. Okay.
Okay, so now we have a
little box shape
that we could have made one unit deep,
Get my head out of the way here.
Two units deep if we wished.
Or three units deep. And we
chose to go with a square, you know,
we went with three. So now the box
for the total shape is three wide, one
high, three units deep. And the units are
taken from the real flat space, actual increments we drew out
here to be an inch, they happen to be an inch, and the real height we put in
real height, true height line. Because this, again, the measuring - we're pretending the measuring line and
the true height line are smack dab, flush against our picture plane. And that's
where we're starting to count. So only on the picture plane are these increments
truly worth one inch. If we went back in space, as we're seeing, that
increment would become smaller, just like it does in perspective to us when we look into the depth
of the world. And if things came further forward of this line,
imaginary line that's against the picture plane, this measuring line, the increments would become larger.
So if we put another measuring line here, it couldn't be the same increments. It would have
to be projected forward from the one point vanishing point, or a reference point, to become
larger increments because it's further forward. That's exactly like when we did
the five different sized figures, counting down from the eye level. We had
to make different size scale, even though we were counting down from a
eye level at the same height. Each time a person was more forward in the picture plane,
like forward from this box or behind the box, the increment size would have to get larger
or smaller, depending on if you were coming forward or moving backwards. Same
deal, it's just three dimensional thinking now. We are giving this the illusion that it's
real space, even though we have some flat space elements as well.
a box looks like that because
we have a particular length of station point. And that
realized gives us at that view. This a real height we could count too.
If you wanted to know, we are - how do we know this
measuring line's depth? Because that's our eye level, just like we did with
those five scaling - you know the scaled figures we did. This is one unit
two units, almost three. So this is about two and two thirds foot height.
I know this
because I've already set scale flat on the picture plane with this measuring line
and my true height line. I started counting from zero and said one unit
is flush again the picture plane, two, and here's three. Nice.
Our eye level doesn't quite reach three, it's about two thirds of the way up.
Number two, number three. So I call it two and two-thirds feet. So this -
but we have to count down, because remember - let me sharpen my pencil
here for a second. Remember now, the important thing is
that our eyeballs are always on
the eye level picture plane. Meaning - I'll just draw it off to the side here.
These are our eyeballs, permanently attached. As painful as that
may be. There they are. Alright.
We'll make them like Grover or something out of Sesame Street. Anyway. Those are our
eyes. Okay. And we're saying
they're permanently attached to the picture plane and
they're always here. So I have to consider the space between
here to count down. So I actually counted up with my
true height line, but the reality is that this measuring line,
because we did the count between the two using these real increments,
I know by counting down or up that this measuring line
is in fact two and two-thirds feet below
this. Because I set scale flush on the picture plane. So I'm just counting up and around
and to the side horizontally for one inch
equals one increment. Okay. So I counted up here too because
front of the box is just kissing, or touching, that measuring
thing. Just like we had a real box shoved up right against a real standing stick
and a real measuring line somewhere in space. And so because
that eye level is also cutting across a real increment
on the true height line, I know that that eye level, that this measuring line and the base of the
box, at the point of the picture plane, is truly two and two-thirds feet.
This would be three up here. We're not quite that high. It's this distance
we're concerned with. And that turns out to be about two and two-thirds. Okay.
So that's the beginning of learning how to measure in perspective. We use measuring lines that go straight
across, we can use them. We need measuring lines to be straight across
because we want real, actual flat space increments just like
when we look down at a plan, or at a real elevation or front view, we don't want
any perspective. We're pretending it's flat against the picture plane. Then we have to cast
into the illusion of perspective to actually mark those depths on a plane.
Like we did here. This is the illusion of this going
evenly and loosing size as it goes back. It's all an illusion based
on the geometry that divides things properly to give the exact
illusion of diminishing space, or enlarging space as we come forward. So that's
the trick. The idea is we're using real flat space angles
to achieve the perspective or the illusion of perspective in the picture.
Okay. Now I want to talk about distance of SP.
So we're gonna start with another 45 over here and draw a little
box here and another one here. All straight, kind of all in the same place.
And see how that goes.
I wanted to show you what different 45 degree vanishing points would
look like - or measuring points as they go. So we're gonna make another projection
with our 45
over to the other side.
Alright, that's the next one we put on. Don't worry
about what we did here. That all has to do with that one. We're leaving this behind now and we're just
doing something of interest. That we're gonna call station point
one. Where we've already been and already
are with our current station point. And then I'm gonna put in
the idea of a little shape
With my -
well I might as well use my T square. Alright.
Let's just say it's just a simple square I'm drawing
on the ground.
Okay. And again that square has nothing to do with this shape.
That shape's all by itself. We've already done the work on that.
I want to make that
projection, I wish to have something a square
that's the width of it, it's going back to the one point
vanishing points - point I should say. So from
this SP position, we derived this 45 degree measuring point.
So I'll draw back to that one.
I also wanted to mention from this SP, we
get a cone of vision that would start here on the picture plane
and, you know, we'd draw around on our compass and everything.
And also associated
with SP one. So we'll call that SP one, gives us that cone
and you know, we'd start drawing our cone of vision here. We'd come around,
come around, come around. But it would start here, because we are this far back
from the picture plane from above. The real angle of 30 degrees
would work and strike there and we'd have a cone
that big. We would also have a square this deep.
So here's my mark. And that's my square I'll draw back
That's a proper square, looking at it right here in this position
from that SP. Because it's this far back. That's what a correct square
looks like. That's where the cone would go, right there. But let's just
suppose now I wanted a second SP position
and I'll put it right here. Just as a little ghost.
Okay, that's our number two
SP. So again, anything you wanted to take down
about the box and how we got the box
and measuring lines and all that, you know, do a screen grab or whatever you have to do before we start
this idea. That way as we add it on it will make more sense. Because even though this stuff is already there,
if you comprehend you get it, you draw it, you take your own notes. D that first
then come back and we'll just add this little thing on and it will make more sense. So we're leaving the box
behind and the measuring line and all that. We're just doing this and we're considering
if we had a shorter SP with less distance. So now, this is less distance
to our picture plane. Also then
a different angle going to our 45. It would come in
the picture more because we'd have a shorter distance. So
now we'd get a 45 right
here instead. 45 number
two. This is number one.
For station point one. Number two, position two, for the
45. So I'll draw a little of that going up so you can connect them later. It makes more
These are parallel. This and this because
we're just getting closer. We still strike out at a real 45 degree angle but we've decided to walk closer.
How is it gonna affect this square? Because we're closer.
Now I'll do a blue line - well
I'll just do a second line.
Number one. Now I'm gonna
take that same kitty corner
and suddenly we get a deeper square. Because
we're further forward with a smaller SP as well. We're gonna get the illusion
that we're standing over the square more steeply and suddenly - I'll draw
the back line in. In blue.
Suddenly we get a longer square. In the exact same position. Nothing has
changed. Everything has stayed exactly the same. The square's position, everything in
space. We have just moved closer. Because of this movement and the 45
having to come in, we now get a deeper square.
We measured a 45.
If it was in that same position it would change the character of the square as we moved.
So the idea is, even though it's in the same, you know, same location
in the drawing it changes, changing the SP really does
affect, you know, the disposition of a shape. And
because of that, let's project the
cone of vision from that new SP. Just as an idea.
That would put it here. So that's
number two. Now the cone would be this small. And as you can
see, getting this small, this is starting to become out of the
cone of vision and get distorted. So the reason it's getting longer, to the blue line to here, rather than
the correct red line, or the more correct red line, is that we're getting actually
the edge of the square coming out of the cone. So if you allow it to have this
marcation, which is the true, 45 degree measurement from this closer
SP, you realize oh, it's stretching. But it's also because it's out of its own
cone when it's closer, in position number two. It starts
distorting. Whereas before, we drew across and got this
result here. And that looks correct and not distorted because
we're well within the cone if we're back in this position. And again, if we went to a third position,
we could then do SP number three.
Just as a little idea.
Number three SP.
And I'll go ahead and do a 45 from that
I'll just make a little bit of a - so that one would be number three.
And now, if that cone in that position
was that far to the side of that, I'm sorry, of that station point, then we'd
get really distorted. So if I go ahead and put another red line now, that
corner of that same laying square would be well out of the cone. Because we allowed ourself
to be this close. And we'll discuss this when we talk about the cone of vision setups
and a couple diagrams we're gonna do a whole bunch of cone of vision set ups and talk about this exact issue
of closeness or farness of the SP in relation to
proportion of stuff. So again, look at that, how that stretches.
If we look at that, we can see wow, that
really gets long because from this position, if we want to derive a
square here, our 45 would only be here.
And then this thing
would really be pulled in long. Just like our cubes in the last diagram.
We're getting pretty pulled now. This square gets more pulled. It's a confusing
idea but I wanted to make it clear that we have three positions with three 45
projections here. As we get closer with our SP,
the cone of vision also gets smaller. So let's draw in that last little cone mark.
Here's where number two is. That's the cone for number two SP.
This is our cone, we didn't - I'm sorry, excuse me, we didn't draw in a cone,
for this one all the way around so I know that's for
number one, for number two. So SP cone, 45 for number
two. There's the cone for number two.
Would be that big and the 45's out here. For number
three, the cone would only be this big.
Number three cone.
And that would be really small. So this thing would be well
outside the cone for our closer third
SP position. And that's why this shape, even though it stayed here, it
gets longer and longer according to how close we step and will get more and more distorted.
It's a weird idea, but you start understanding the - I'm trying to bounce around in your
head for this kind of 3D platform. It all has to do
with the where is my station point compared to where I want
to draw an object. You're gonna get distortion. So the closer we get,
to something or to the subject matter, it can be
really, really distorted if you still want it in the same position. So you have to be considering, when you're even
doing sketches, you know, how far away is my station point, so I can get an idea of where my field of distortion
is. That's critical when you're framing out a composition. We didn't really set up a cone in this
because I wanted to make the point of this SP, this shape
would easily be within the cone, or very, you know, so that would be here. And so it would swing down
here and still be inside of it. But as we get closer, that
territory gets more and more out of the cone and you can see how it distorts. So by the time
you get here, here's the actual position. That's
number one, number two, and number three. But it's a weird
idea, but to try and explain the idea as we come closer with the SP
all of this changes. So just think of it as: original position, those are our
projections, coming closer now, we've got a closer cone here,
we got a closer 45. Alright. So just a weird, little idea.
The bigger idea on the left side, of course, applying measuring to
in one point to that because we're gonna go on to now realizing a simple view of a
cube standing in front of it from both a side view, a top view,
and the perspective view. Okay, so, to
recap: we got our increments by just putting this measuring
line down and deciding one inch was one increment. We decided the height of the
box, the width, and we gave ourselves all those choices for
depth. And we decided to make the box a square. But we could have
actually stopped at one or two increments as well. Alright.
So that's a little bizarre moment there, but I just wanted to make it clear
that everything's contingent on how far away that SP is, where your cone is, and
where the objects are within that. That's what decides how they look because
as we get closer and farther to things is the lesson, they actually
change the way they look. So you can't just be really close to a table and have the same
perspective to it as if you back up at the same angle. Even if you're at the same
you know, you perceive yourself to be very, very much the same, at the same standing
angle or side to side angle, the further you move back it will still
condense space. And that's important. Okay.
as a real quick follow up to what we just did, I wanted to clarify some more about the
station point getting closer and what happens to the cone and the 45 degree measuring point.
Just as a real quick one, we'll do a fast set up then we're gonna go on to a whole bunch of
cone of vision set ups an\d sketch inside of them different set ups for framing
and compositions and why it affects compositions. And what first be
the traditional setup methods that have happened over the last many hundreds of years,
and then we're gonna go to film frames a little later, after that, after we get some
two point and some more one point measuring. Okay so
here we go real quick. Let's make this fast. I'm gonna get from the
furthest away, since this is almost out of your frame. We'll go ahead and set up what we know
is the cone here.
We'll do this really fast. To this distance. SO
for this particular station point distance we've picked
randomly, which is really out here and swung down. That's where the cone would be.
So we'll hit that right away.
Okay, let me pinch this in.
So I'm just gonna -
There's the cone for that.
Let's get a little darker.
Alright, so there's the cone
for that particular set up. And let's do the 45 degree measuring point on the other side.
With my red pencil.
Just to show us the difference of what you
Alright, so there's our
45. That's number one,
number one. Okay. That's set up number one.
Then we'll come closer with our SP.
Again to here.
l'll go ahead...
Because before we get to the measuring I want to make sure people are comfortable with, you know, composing some of this stuff.
And we need to get to those cone of vision variations I was
talking about. So that would be a smaller cone because we've just
stepped this much closer to our flat picture plane. Remember, we're above and we're setting
this up. It's the cone when we're the first person looking in. But some of the set up of looking
above and these real angles is when we're looking down at this as
the flat, very thin top of the picture plane, the real distance line from above, and the
station point person from above. Alright, so there's the cone. Let me set that up for that
smaller step forward. We'll have a smaller cone because of that.
there's our cone number two.
For SP number two. And we'll project our 45
for our 45 degree measuring point.
It's just, if people are confused by that last
one, because you needed to see the cone, well it's
certainly worth the time because - and that's
45 degree measuring point number
Smaller cone. 45 becomes further in. So now
we see this travel here.
And then, once again, we see this movement forward and
then if we step in one more time, let's
say to here.
There's the little body, the little feet. Call
that SP number three
Now we'll project the 30 degree angle for the
Oops sorry, that's in red. Oops.
is. Remember that's 30 degrees
still. That's still 30 degrees here. And yet it's still
30 degrees here. Same thing. Parallel but getting
smaller. So again, you can do a drawing any size
you want if you're trying to gage it. If you're in a sketchbook you have to gage this stuff to how much room
you want - room you have to be inside the cone. If you want some distortion, how much
room you have outside of it. All that stuff, this is like in a living gage, so that's why it's
critical to understand as we step in these things close in
proportionately, in step, become smaller. And then you have, you know, less things available
to you. Okay.
And then we'll do the third one right here.
Alright and we'll do the
45 degree measuring point as well
from that third station point. And again
I know a lot of you won't have some patience sometimes with some of this and go what's the point
of all this? This isn't helping me directly for the job I want or
what I envision myself romantically right away with my art. That's not
the point. The point is, if you understand this stuff by these kind of arcane ways I'm trying to
explain it, which I found very helpful when I was a student from my instructors, and actually just
understanding, again, this 3D matrix of why space works and how
we see, then it all becomes subliminal and you no longer have to talk about it. It's like anything
else you've learned. It just becomes internalized. So we're just trying to get the idea
of this compositional element. So there's number three.
45 degree MP.
For the smaller scenario. So as you can imagine, what we could place
out here and be well within the cone in this area, as an object
we could draw to the one point. So let's get the one point vanishing point in here.
VP one point.
Right. You know, by the way - even though we're still in
one point and our, say, we're just imagining our center of vision,
crossing our eye level stays the same. The character of
and the distortion of the object changes a lot as we get closer or we try
to fit things on the peripheral of the cone. That's why. So if we're out here
and we know something easily fits in, kind of near the edge of the cone, but right here it's
fine. But then on the second position it's actually a little outside and will start distorting. So
the very way we take measurements and understand how space behaves
changes. And so this is just the 2D representation of that idea.
Because all we can do on paper is change the way we relate
to the 45 degree measuring points and the cone by
giving the impression we're getting closer with the station point to the picture plane
And as we do that this way, we're actually out here getting closer, doing this.
Furthest, closer, closer. It's the same idea, but as
you can imagine, if you start drawing objects - go ahead on your version in your
sketchbook, draw some objects in and see how they change if you tried to fit
something out here in the cone for the smaller set up. From the small, or the shorter SP.
It will greatly distort it of course because it's on the peripheral. So the
idea is, it's proportional to A) how big you want to draw, how do you want to
control your distortion and where you're eventually gonna put the compositional frame you want.
And that's exactly what we're gonna talk about in the next diagram actually. Because I want to get to
that before actually we get to, you know, measuring a cube and seeing
an elevation, a plan, and then an actual perspective view. That gets more
technical. And I want people to understand, that's not the main driving force
between - from the lectures. The main thing is how to compose
and draw and understand the space. So before we get to the measuring, some more
measuring, we're really gonna talk about compositional placement of the frame within the cone
and the station point set up and how it greatly affects what you can do with those
compositions. So we'll probably draw a couple cones next to each other and just talk
about all sorts of variables on one sheet of paper. Okay. So that's what we'll do next.
going to do two side by side cone of visions. And I've
drawn the first one so if you wanna go ahead and just draw one and set up for that,
pausing it and then catch up when, you know, keep going when I
start drawing in. Or you could set two up side by side like this or you
could do them on separate pages. Either way, I'm gonna have two side by side to show a whole bunch
of traditional frame set ups like I started to talk about in the
physical explanation, lecture one. Now we're really gonna put in a whole
bunch of little, simple sketch ideas around and in the cone of vision to show
all the variety you'd have, you know, and so many
that I wanted to do too. Okay. So remember, just real quick, this is our
package. This is our, you know, eye level.
Put that over there as well. Eye level, picture plane, horizon line.
We also have our center of vision, as you know, then our station point.
I've decided to put it that far away again to be near the edge of the camera space down there.
And then the projected cone. So we have all the same work we just did
before. And now, what I want you to do, is think about
the fact that this is underneath your thinking when your doing these sketches. So we
really have it here, but we're really reversing it. We're doing this first and then the
sketches over it. But in your mind or in your practice, if you start doing
sketches with all this in mind, then we can easily see how this stuff
really helps to be just underneath, or in little, tiny cobweb sketches
and marks underneath your sketches. You can really get helped out by this
to understand your options and stuff. So again, it would be in
reverse. We would really sketch first and then draw it back to this idea and think of it
as we're drawing in our minds. So that's, you know, part of that 3D platform we're trying to build
in our minds. Okay, so let's get started. Let's say I want a frame for
a landscape I did a while ago where I didn't want one point vanishing point in the picture.
Get my head out of the way here. So, essentially
I drew the frame something as I remember.
Let me get up here somewhere.
So let's say my frame was
kind of out of the cone of vision. It can be. It doesn't have to be, by any means, centered.
That's only for film frames, because the camera's view finder, we can
divorce ourselves from the fact that we're in the center of our own view, because
we're using a sequential tool. Meaning the camera, because we're moving, has to show
repeated images of slow turns. Almost like animation, or like animation
in film so we have to be at a center spot that is consistent
in the frame. Whereas in traditional we can pick any kind of cut out
frame we want from anywhere in the cone. We don't - you know, the scene doesn't change, it's
still here. This is still the horizon line. Make it clear, so here's some little mountains.
You can get the idea of that. Okay. That doesn't change. We still have this whole
view in perspective, in one point, which we'll be doing. But the frame can be put anywhere. We
can choose to only show this window if we want, and nothing else.
This isn't even considered. We consider the space around it, but we're just only
showing in here. So that's our first frame. And let's say I have a building.
And again, this was a
old building here that I did a painting of.
And the idea is, I didn't want the one point
vanishing point in the picture at all, I just wanted my material on my right side
to lead to it. So I put the building down a little bit before.
Here, this old building
in front. And then, of course, we know it behaves like this
cast back to the one point.
We know that
much because you're drawing to it. So the idea is that once you actually pick a diminishment
for your side planes in a sketch, you're actually implying they meet at the one point
vanishing point if you're drawing this as a face plane that's parallel to the picture plane. You're drawing
in one point essentially. So we can change the frame anytime we want to be bigger or
smaller because this all exists as space if we want to show it. This will be
distorted space as we move out of the cone. The idea, even with this very simple start,
I can start thinking in terms of, okay, I want the eye level
here, which I've already put across my frame, you know, as a drawing idea, and I
already am leading to a vanishing point on that eye level. Which is here.
So in reverse, we don't have any of this underneath, you're just thinking like that and suddenly
that thought appears and you go, oh yeah, I'm drawing to this eye level and I'm going to put a vanishing point
about there. And you're drawing to it. Well that imemdiately commits you to an idea
pretty quickly that you're already positioning
it somewhere in the cone. You don't quite know where yet until you figure out some other
stuff. But we'll go ahead and say okay, now, we'll show the building
as transparent. So we'll show that back corner coming through here. So now we have our two side planes.
I want to overdraw them a bit. Our perpendicular plane's going back to the VP.
Okay. Now, we've
already decided where our SP and our 45 is. But we're gonna draw to it like
we're pretending we're doing it for the first time. Just in the sketch, you know, and feeling out where
we want the 45. And as - by reversing the action of already knowing what's here
it's easily - much easier to explain what I'm doing. But
I could set the 45 anywhere I want. But once I set the 45 by going
across, kitty corner, and setting a square to this - meaning, I want the building to be
as deep as it is wide to see what the square would look like. I know this
real building where down here in the city I live in, in this area,
is actually only half as deep
as it is wide. So I'll cut that in half. But the idea is I'm looking
for - where do I want my 45 to say this total
horizontal squals this depth? Okay. Yeah, so I play with it and
well if I want it at about half, and then here, and then the other
half about there I'd be putting it around there. So let's, you know, let's just
see where we cross and figure it out. So there it is.
I'll put my kitty corner idea here,
and let's just draw the 45 and say okay
if I draw to that idea
from my sketch, that's where the back plane is hit. So I'm gonna go ahead
and draw out the idea of the square of this building.
It turns out I was pretty close. I was saying I wanted the square to be back here but
the building's only half as deep as it is wide. So I was about right, with a little bit of perspective
to foreshortening it's about there. So let's just say I decided
to make that commitment here and square this off, which I'm showing you now,
before I drew in the 45. All I had was an eye level so far
of our setup and I knew where the one point vanishing point was because I was drawing to it.
Right? But I didn't know where to place the 45 until I sketched some
and decided, yes, if that's the full depth compared to its width, or equal to its
width, and I put that in a perspective half and say okay the
building's now half as deep as it is if I split that in half. Well that's about where I want my
45. I don't know where this is yet, but I draw to the corner of my
square I've created and I derive it. Now
what do I have? I have on my sketch book I have an eye level, this frame, this
building started out in one point. The perpendicular projections
to where I said I wanted my vanishing point. And now I've just figured out where I could have a
45 degree vanishing point, or measuring point, to the left of my sketch.
That commits me to this entire set up. I have no choice now.
So I could do it that way, or I could do it with the cone. With the same
way I could say, well the cone's here and I don't mind some distortion. I coulda put the cone
here, which would put this projection mark out here. And when I worked back
at the proper angle, we all know the cone is 30 degrees up till the eye level,
so really 60 degrees back down, 90, or 30 up.
So by simply reversing the idea of where I want the cone, I find my SP
automatically. And if I find my SP, I automatically get my 45.
In this case, I wanted to find the 45 degree measuring point
first. That automatically, going down at 45 degrees back here, which
always happens, I find my SP. Because I found my SP
from this little sketch, knowing that my one point vanishing is on the
center of vision. So how can I figure this out and reverse it so easily? It's simple.
We started with a committed eye level. We knew that we wanted the one point
vanishing point kicked out to the right of the picture at about this eye level. That commits
us to a center of vision, which we know the SP is on. So we're working backward
in thought here. Okay, I decided well I don't mind if the cone has a little
distortion here and goes out a little, that's not important. What I really want is the right depth of square so I can
get this feeling for when I cut that in half. Because again, this building
is only half as deep as it is wide. So I'm giving myself a square,
which is equally as deep as it is wide, and then I'm cutting it in half for my
composition. So ultimately my desire would be to have
the side of the building actually be here in the sketch. But I needed
the square to figure that out because I just halved it. That
kitty corner to the back of that imaginary square, how I wanted it compositionally.
So far I've only done things that are driven from my compositional desires
in this sketch. I have not been forced to find any of this perspective
set up. That's not what I'm doing. I'm thinking of exactly the view I want as a
drawer, artist-person. Then I'm making the perspective
subordinate to that sketch idea. That's the important thing as an artist. We're
subordinating and we're ordering the perspective what we want it to do because we know
how to use it. Okay. So, I find the square and I find that 45
degree measuring point from there. Then I reverse my
thinking back to here. Because I already had my center of vision going where the vanishing point was, I
already committed to an eye level. I reverse back, kind of drawing this idea
of this 45 degree idea back to the SP. Now that I've got a
committed SP I know I have to project up at 30 and 30. So I know
this is my cone now, centered around my one point VP. And I know it
goes through my sketch right there. So by a real fast reversal, after starting a sketch
you can figure out how it relates the entire cone of vision set up.
And you could go ahead, if this was a more complex picture you could plot two point
vanishing points, you could do anything, in a large digital file you could figure all that stuff out
and then just crop in a little bit outside that frame and bump it up to 360
dpi and you could start digitally painting. Or you could transfer this
idea very loosly and very carefully with a wooden stick, that's a piece of
trim that's really straight that you pick out from Home Depot or something and you could
draw this on an eight foot by six foot canvas. And if you had your wits about you, you could
find your eye level on the sides of your studio wall, or imagine where they are,
you could use real verticals, you could use the idea of where the 45 degree
measuring point would be on your studio wall as a point. All this stuff is working
for you if you just step back from your image, even if it's larger, and think about it. This
whole thing is living underneath, all the time. Again, like the constellations and the stars
they're always there. We just can't see them all the time, or we choose not to.
Okay so that's how I reverse this one. So, there it is. Now I know we got this
first, but the idea is we have to show this first to show you the process
of coming up with f rames and reversing back to the idea of this already being here.
So in a sense, when I started my sketch and committed to that 45
then all this suddenly appeared because it's always there. Alright.
I know it sound weird and confusing, but that's the thinking. You have to reverse
your thinking and be a bit of a mental acrobat with that 3D platform we've been talking
about. So I know these are really simple sketches. The point is not about the complexity
of the drawing, it's understanding how to use the perspective correctly. We
could make this infinitly complex with cars in front to all different two point angles,
drawn with perfect ellipses and incredible creatures running around. It'd be amazing.
It's like, god, just blow us away right? Well that doesn't teach you how to learn
perspective and use it. Only in using perspective in a basic way and then getting more and more
complex with it teaches you how to use it. The drawing part is separate. That - you have to learn
a lot about anatomy and sculpting and landscaping - landscape painting. All
that stuff is important and of course so is perspective. So we're learning the
basics. Alright so let's go on to some fast ones. Now that I've kinda explained my
idea. And we're gonna start one up here let's say...it's gonna be here.
Alright, just for the heck of
it we'll do more of a vertical set up.
separate idea now. We still have the same setup surrounding it, but you say you
decide to start a sketch of this proportion to know that -
a frame of this proportion and you know you want the eye level somewhere down
here below the frame. You just know that. And you're just saying I basically will pick this area
to do the one point vanishing point, so the side planes go. Okay
so what am I doing? I dunno, it's like Dracula's castle or
something. So we could draw a corner. We could
set out a composition like this and say oh, okay
the side of that castle had diminishment to there, quite a ways back. I dunno how deep it is.
It might be incredibly deep and huge, I'm not sure. I've got my corner.
I'm just designing at this point. This is doing thumbnail
designs. But instead of not relating the perspective and the - which perspective is
design by essence. It's a compositional tool. This can be an extremely simple
postarized design. And there you have it, it would be considered graphic. So we are
designing, we are using the graphic and we're building. So the idea is there's a tower
behind possibly. Okay, so that's back
there, the perspective might be something like this of this turret
So the idea is there's some kind of turret back there. Some ancient
castle. There's another shape coming up like this.
And we just keep drawing to the fact of the facts of how we want the castle to look
a bit but also the facts of where we thinking we want our vanishing point and basically
our level. Remember, eye level. Remember the vanishing point commits us the minute we draw
to it in one point. It commits us to an actual eye level, if we're in one or
two point. And it commits us to a center of vision. It has to, especially in one point.
Because the one point vanishing point is always on the center of vision, crossing the eye level.
So you're automatically commited in one point once you make that decision. You automatically have an
eye level and you automatically have a center of vision. There's no way to escape it. Okay.
So we'll have that side plane go off like this. Okay.
I'm sketching. There it is. Oh, I want the depth of the castle like here.
Fine. Okay. Okay.
That's happening. And then I'm not, you know, how do I justify being up here? I don't want it
to say it's on the ground ncessarily. Maybe the foundation of the castle's right here
but we're actually on a really steep precepice that comes through like this,
you know, and breaks our frame a little bit. And we can a figure then and say okay, the figure's
a good deal forward from the castle so they're like where am I?
When are the wolves coming? That kind of thing. And then another person could be straight down
toward the vanishing point on kinda a little path, smaller and farther away. And again,
you can just start playing with scale with these kind of ideas like we did of
invisible bridges and you could still measure. And you could still use your 45. So the idea would be
where do I want a square, or to say a square would be, here
for a equal section of space from let's say here,
equally in depth. And if you decide well, there's some design in the building that I have to find a
foreshortened version of here, compared to an equal depth, well
then i could just draw in the idea to our 45 and say, I choose this
depth, but it will just happen to be the 45 we've chosen because we're showing both.
The set up first and the thinking behind the sketch. But the sketch is coming first
and the commitment to what would be a square that we'd want
compositionally is first. It then leads to a particular
45, completely indepedent of this sketch. This dissapears now and we're only doing this. But
because I want fairly is a conservative, flattened perspective, I'm only showing a little frame
within the vast cone of vision. And so, this, you know, doesn't even come
close to showing the eye level. But it's still truly in one point. It's not three point
when we're looking up, because then the verticals would have diminishment
going up to this center of vision here. They would be going like, slightly like this and they'd
tilt up more and more as we got further away from the center of vision. But that's
not happening. We're in one point still. We're just choosing to show a section,
some of it being out of the cone of vision here, that part. So this part will
slowly start distorting, but so what? It will be subtle enough where it won't matter
especially if you're doing a painting or something that isn't - doesn't have to be
to camera because you're doing a traditional frame.
that kitty corner, that shape I wanted strikes the back plane. So this is now
this flat horizontal space is now equal to that
and that seems satisfactory to me in my design. I say, yeah, that's about it. If I have something there
like a huge banner draped over that goes around and is a square, that
is a fine 45 for me. So I find my 45
degree measuring point. And again, because I know I have a center of vision, because I have
a committed vanishing point for this little sketch, independent of this one, and I also have
a committed eye level down here, that gives me - I have to work backwards to the center of
vision from that chosen 45 degree measuring point I randomly
got by just designing this. And I have to lead back now and I find
my SP so I can reverse it. And again, I did it by the 45. I could say, oh now
I don't mind if the cone comes by here. Then I could take that idea of the cone from here
simply come down to what I know is my eye level and project back at 60
back to here and then I'd find my SP that way.
So you can do it with where you want the cone, slamming it down to the eye level and then coming back
at 60. Because we know it's 30, 60, 90. And then we find our SP
that way. Or we find our 45, knowing that it's on the eye level, know this is
our center of vision, where the SP resets. We follow that down, follow this down
and sure enough you
get your SP again. And then SP then, you could put a whole bunch of two point work in there and do everything and
it'd look correct. And yeah, some people would say I've had enough
experience so I can just draw to that. Great, so do I. But the idea when you're learning
this stuff, a lot of you don't understand how different two point things will look
correctly and mechanical perspective really helps you learn and remember
drawing and angle relationships that you would never know if you didn't have
the formal perspective. The things these days is popular for people to do
is say well I didn't really enjoy the formal, but I learned it, but I'm gonna deny my students the formal
and just tell them to draw really well. Well, the reason those very people that are teaching you
to draw really well is because most all of them, you know, if they went to school anywhere
before, like, 1995, 1992, in some, you know, some
of the more intense colleges had all this. So anybody
that's telling you that, that had college before 1995 you could essentially say, is oh they got all this
stuff, but I didn't. But they still expect me to draw really fast and well and understand where
I'm going with all this. Well what I'm saying and declaring to you is, you wouldn't
know this. This is stuff you have to learn and practice and take careful notes on.
Then you can apply it in freehand drawing, getting canvases and murals,
up to side, all that stuff. Yeah, obviously. But that's something like a language. You have to learn
it first before you can speak it well. And this is a language and you need to learn how to speak and
its basics and speak eloquently in it. Then you can do anything you want with it. You know, I'm not
telling you what to do with it, I'm saying this is how you learn it. Okay, so there's our
45 and I'll draw the square back. So the idea is, there is
the idea of that imaginary square we wanted like
something draping over. So now we could say. Oops, go like that.
Sorry. So that would be -could be a draped, huge banner.
or something. Whatever. But that's the design you wanted that happens to make a
little square in there that
goes to this 45. And that reverses the commitment
to all this set up from that little sketch again. Alright. So
that's that one. Let's do another one here. Maybe we're above
the horizon line a little bit. We don't have to be equal to that. So we'll -
okay, we'll have this one end right there
and go out here a little bit.
Maybe it's a little bit below the cone. I'm just drawing it in quick here.
Okay. Comes down like that.
So that's my frame.
My new frame. I'll make it a little darker so it's not confusing. Okay. That's
where I want to be for my next frame. That's still my eye level, horizon line. So that could still be in the
desert and the eye level. But I choose to make my frame here now. Okay.
So maybe we have a really straight road or
something coming forward.
And I have
a reason to make a square on some weird pathway in the middle of the desert but it's
a metal, really weird, high tech metal pathway.
Okay. And then I want to draw a figure next to
it. Figure's that tall.
Okay so we just got a little bit of scale, saying if the figure's around
six foot, five and a half, whatever. But we still want to say okay, where do I want
that depth of that square. Well you haven't done any of this setup. This is a brand new idea
a first time sketch, it just started and you're sketching up these ideas. But you've just
committed to this, the eye level. You've already committed to the one point vanishing point with this
little path, and that commits you to the center of vision, in your mind, forever.
Okay. Now, working backwards, I could go, where do I choose
to make a square? This deep. No, that's too deep, that's too shallow. Probably
about there, whatever. And you just happen to end up here.
There it is. And so now, you're committed - let me just go ahead and finish that out.
Now - oops that's too much. Now you're committed to
that square. That square, that one choice of how deep to make
that first section of the path that you're going to repeat and draw way into the background and forward and all that,
that just committed you. That one square, laying down, committed you to this entire
setup like that. Because you already had your eye level, you already had your center of vision from your
vanishing point. But we didn't have a reference to depth until you made that square,
then we come back to a diagonal, either way we want, and we are committed then
to a one point, 45 degree measuring point. Which brought back at 45
gives you your SP. And because we project from the SP at 30 and 30
for the cone, it commits you to the cone. You're committing to this entire setup
instantly because you made that one decision with that square. This is really important.
So even though these are very casual, little, you know, thumbnail sketches, the
idea and thinking behind them is very formal. But it's all
behind here. You're not drawing all this out. You're doing like, very, very light lines until
you're really sure where you want your compositions. Then you go ahead and draw really beautifully or do your
sketch style, your ideation style, whatever. It's the thinking underneath. And this is the kind of
practice we need to do to get good at it. Okay, so next I'm like, now I
have that pathway, now I can make a few other squares because I I've
come back and can do this. I got another section and I can come forward.
So I just got two more sections real quick. And I could draw on and on.
We already know that so I'm just gonna go ahead and shoot them in real quick. So now we got three
proper squares and we could go on and on and do the zigzag thing we've done before, in the previous diagrams,
coming forward, you could review that. But we're not gonna go into that. This is just
a compositional talk. Next, you might have another road, or part of a road,
coming forward, you know.
Kinda a rugged terrain here.
And I want a car passing or something.
I know I want that alignment to be here but I'm like how do I get reference on that? Oh, that's right.
If a person could be shuttled across the picture plane to touch that
say oh the car's top is around that person's shoulder let's say,
and we've got a reference plane and now suddenly we have a standing height for the
car, even though I have to make a box for it first, alright.
And say, okay foreshortened I believe it's like that, and it's passing by like that.
It has to fit within there. A car isn't a block but
you're building the block for the car to get its basic dimensions and say okay, it's raised
this much, it's got ellipses, so, you know, if I want
the ellipses would be something like this.
Touching the ground, more straight, but then this
would curve maybe. You could get some - some kind of
idea of how the front would behave.
Possible the windshield coming up.
You know, quite figure out how wide it is, that kind of thing. So
a real ugly car, not a car designer, so I apologize to all the IT people out there.
But, you know it's starting to come up as something here.
As it passes by in scale
because I made that one reference plane from the shoulder and the ground, straight across
the picture plane is the passing car, behaving to the one point. I was like, okay,
so the idea, I could go on and on and reference size here now. I'm totally free to reference the
reference point methods and the scaling we talked about is all alive and well in here.
But the thing I want to do before I get all the cool, awesome stuff that
blows everybody away because it's so incredibly drawn, which a whole bunch of people
seem to know how to do these days, but the important thing is that from this one
sketch we see in our minds eye in our three dimensional platform in our brain,
this entire ability to understand one square commits
us for the whole picture of a committed station point, which is really important
because then you're drawing to that idea, consistently. even though people aren't showing you that
there's very light lines underneath and the idea of this. Someone could just put a tick on a paper
like that and you're gonna go oh look there's a tick over there and ignore it. That's their SP, they're just
not telling you - a lot of people aren't explaining that's what they're doing. They're using their vanishing point,
they're using measuring points, but they're these little ticks and tiny, little, thin marks that
are like invisible once you do the drawing over them. Again, we
completely wanted to design the sketch first and play with it. But there's an interaction -
I can't just keep going with the sketch without committing to some real space. And that
commitment to real space, like the square and referencing the car, how deep
and long the car would be too, is a commitment to having to find and commit to a
45 degree measuring point. And the SP acting, again,
like the diagonal one remember? If that's a standing square here
how do I find it? Oh, simple. If I say, that's the height of the car on the side
just as an idea, the car would actually taper in a bit, but we'll just say oh, well
all I gotta do is draw to that. Just freehand and I got it. That's the depth of my square. I don't need
to pull out my ruler even. I can just draw to the idea of a little tick I put on
making the SP. But if you're not aware of these things happening in people's drawings, well I'll be
really honest with you. Storyboard artists still well into the 90s
and the 2000s all do this stuff. Yes, the 3D programs have taken over for this stuff, great,
but we're talking about learning how to draw, and keeping drawing alive and wanting to teach people drawing.
Well this method was used by storyboard artists and people that designed theaters back
300 years ago. All this stuff was alive and well for hundreds of years being used
just like this for, you know, the subject matter of their day. So this is not new.
This is - people have been drawing like - and the computer programs are used much
the same way. It's just that in the computer programs you're building and then viewing, but you're not
actually drawing. Drawing has to be in perspective, at the same time
as you're making decisions about depth. Everything's happening at once in a drawing.
That's why it's so important for you to be able to understand
that we can draw to a really accurate plan in our minds in flat
space, but we know we have to behave like this in three dimensions. We can do
both at once because we're a person. We can think both in terms of plan,
height, width, depth, all at the same time and just start
drawing in a real composition. But at the same time thinking about a flat
plan with real measurements too. Or, we're just sketching not knowing
where we're going with it. But we get real spaces starting to behave to help us with our
guesstimations. And that's what I wanted to get to with these sketches. We're just starting an idea
committing to it, then we've committed to all this stuff. Okay, so there's that one.
So we've just started a simple idea, but we could keep going into a very complex picture
as long as we keep all this referencing and a few of these ideas alive, we could get through
this thing in a half hour on a canvas, maybe an hour, and then, you know, you're off
to the races painting. And everything is right. You don't have to go to bed and wake up the next day and go oh
crap that looks like - oh that's way too big, what was I thinking? That's not gonna happen here.
Because you've actually referenced real space with a real, committed SP
and if you wanted to distort then you could pull this frame bigger and larger out of the
cone of vision by using these same estimations, working backwards, techniques
and you could pull this car even further out of the corner and have it really go woot, you know, pulling
out. You could do a whole bunch of stuff. You could exaggerate, you can use unrealistic
gestural exaggeration in the picture. No one's policing you, I'm saying at least
you know where it starts is being correct and then you can push and pull it
wherever you want. That's the reason I wanted to do these side to side cones, to be really clear
about - don't get sold the idea that that stuff is all about
measuring and ruins creativities. It's just ridiculous
you know. This is understanding space, like a violinist has to understand how to
read music, play scales, and compose. Then they might be one of the most
progressive musicians in the world in Jazz, because they took all these ideas and did
something brand new with it. That's what you want to do with your art. But these are the
mechanics and these are the fundamentals. Alright, these kind of thinking. Okay enough of that.
We'll go on now and continue on to this cone. Let me whip this cone up.
I'm not gonna really label it now that we know what we're doing. I'm just gonna get my
30 and 30 again. And I'm doing this just to make it clear.
But now I'll really put this in quickly. Okay.
I'll go ahead and get my compass. There's my one point.
We all know that's the one point vanishing point. So VP. There's our
SP. I might as well put that person in too. Little head, body, feet.
SP. Go ahead and put in the 45 on the side. We get our compass
cone in. So I'm gonna go to the right now with the 45 obviously, that would be
convenient. Hopefully it's just in there, if it's not you'll
understand the idea. There it is, there's our 45 degree MP.
Okay. It's a real 45.
30,30, total of 60, alright. Okay so
This is just ideas underneath, but we'll draw them out because
it's instructive. But at the same time, I want to convey a little bit of the sense of urgency
to say, well no, by starting to memorize this stuff now, I've done the
diagrams in order and listened, you should start internalizing this stuff and just
have to make casual marks and not keep going, what is that again? Oh, wait, wait, wait, what, what, what? And go back.
You'll get better at it and these will be secondary thoughts, just like using a clutch car.
If you drive a clutch you don't even think about it, but the first three days you were like oh my god,
I gotta think this out step by step. But eventually it's just subliminal, you're just like boom, boom, boom.
Okay. So, the compass, here we are.
We'll go ahead and catch our mark for our 30.
And it's the same, so I'll go ahead and - this compass tends to float so I'll try to
get clean with it. Okay.
There's our cone. Okay.
Now let's get going through some faster ones. I'll sharpen my pencil slightly, but again these are
just real rough, thumbnail ideas compositionally. So again, this is traditional behavior
putting the frame anywhere we want and then deciding depth and making some
references in our mind that eventually lead backwards to the set up. But they all
exist simultaneously the minute you start drawing. You're just not worrying about exactly
this until you've got your compositional desires fulfilled. Then you work backwards
to have the perspective help you. Okay. Alright, here we go.
What shall we do next? Hmm.
What's a good idea. Okay, maybe I'll do something like this.
So again, I'm specifically doing off center ones to make it
clear that of course you could be evenly centered in the cone, anywhere you want to be, but
I want to make asymmetrical decisions with the frames, as opposed to
the cone. So I'm deliberately making
decisions that are based on not wanting to, you know, have too much of a centered effect.
in the cone in our views. So, okay.
that'll be a little bit out - let's say, this far down. Okay, so that's a frame.
Stop saying okay so much. Okay. Alright.
Stop saying alright so much. I know, it's endless. There's our frame, let me make that
And, you know, now I'm still committed. Alright, I know I want
one point there, so I draw in the idea, again, of the horizon.
I already have committed to the idea, I want the one point there.
I know my center of vision now has to be there because I committed to the VP. All I need is the VP to know
that the eye level must be crossing here if I want to be in one point and the center of vision
must be crossing this way. And I know that I eventually
have to lead to an SP and a real cone of vision. Because that's part of our package when we
look into space anytime. It's always there, we just don't really think about it all the time.
Okay, what might I want? Maybe I want
again a river or a waterway coming
this way. And who knows? Maybe the shore
is this way, it's a canoe race or something. Maybe it's actually here.
I change my idea and go no that's not gonna work. And that's
what compositioning and thumbnailing's all about is making decisions and changing them.
Because you're allowing yourself to give yourself variables. Just like these frames are
variables, you're also sketching, erasing, changing. This whole idea of
getting perfection right away - there's nothing I enjoy more than roughing out a composition
knowing, because of my skill level as a painter and the perspective, I know I can just clean it up
and then carve into it more formally. But I love the sketching process, not because
it's necessarily the technique of beautiful sketching, it's getting
real sizing and real excited about what I can really do with the picture because of the
knowledge base that this has given me, as well as a lot of painting, you know, and drawing
and everything else as well and designing. Okay so let's say we have
a canoe shape or something carrying supplies of some kind
for some culture we're
not that familiar with let's say. Okay so I draw in the
idea of this canoe going to one point, let's say. And there's some cross
beams. And you happen to say, oh, one of the important design
factors of the cross beams is that they were actually perfect squares because that was part of the ceremony.
Okay, so no matter what, in the middle of these canoes - that one's tipping a little
bit. There's the water. You know, so
no matter what's happening, I'm gonna say there's gotta be a real square in the middle of these
canoes. That's just part of the deal. Okay. So
we'll do this one more. And let's say we start with a square here and draw around that and say okay
I think they're something like that. Starting to pull out of the cone a little bit, but
we'll keep going.
And then there's the center line, going up
This one's coming real close to us
right under our camera, or our view actually I should say.
Just a real quick sketch and say okay,
Kinda tip it under and exaggerate it. So, that kinda thing.
So, you know, this might be crossing the water because there's wind going across it, whatever you want.
You keep designing, designing. The idea here is though, oh yeah, but these things that are part of the ceremony
of squares. Okay, let's shoot over what I think is a basic depth of square
here. I haven't committed to the cone yet, I haven't committed to any of this.
I just mention the cone because that's where we have it because we put it here before. But all you have is your
eye level and vanishing point and center of vision idea because that's all you've committed to.
And this frame. So now, I'll walk
and I'll go oh okay, let's see. If I want to commit to
you know, a particular square you decide that that angle is what you want.
So that immediately, doing that one little canoe square, immediately
commits you to this measuring point. Already. The whole process starts because you already have an eye level,
you already have a vanishing point, which commits you to a center of vision that goes down
forever. You suddenly make that one diagonal commitment and
that lands on the eye level and becomes the 45 degree measuring point.
Then you know the process takes you backwards to find your SP, which then commits
you to the cone, which gives you a real cone marcation here.
Again, we did the sketch first, but we know we did the set up first but we're
pretending we did the sketch first and we're allowing the
compositional angles we want and feel out in our
sketch and want as an artist will lead us and subordinate the perspective to
us. But once we commit to what are those squares, then the second one has to come back
to like this. And say, oh that one got a little long. The actual one here
would be like this. Now, that's not saying you can't use a style where you simple exaggerate
everything. I am in no way saying that it might look great to exaggerate this one as it comes
down more. Or B, you could say if I want to be in correct perspective,
I could simply get this same exact horizon arrangement with a little bigger square
right at the same hugging of the horizon line at the center of vision and I could simply
draw this frame out larger and then you get more of that pull as you
got out of the cone more. So not only can I - I can draw more exaggerated but all
I'm implying by doing that is this frame is a little bigger and this is being tugged out of the cone
more. So it's both. It's drawing differently but it's also committing
you to being stretched out of the cone more. So maybe you like the idea of the
perspective able to control the idea that this is a normal square
and this one's pulled out more. That just means maybe compositionally you want to be down there and you simply enlarge
your frame, therefore enlarging the proportion of your composition
so this canoe is pulling out more here. That will give you that stretched look. So you can
use what you know about distortion outside the cone and in the cone being normal.
to your advantage. So if I wanted to, to make an exception here, I'd
maybe just draw down further, further over.
And proportionally come diagonally through and just make my sketch this much bigger.
Okay, that's gonna give me more pulling if I proportionately enlarge this composition
and do it that way. So you could just do another sketch assuming that.
Right over that. You could erase this and go okay, I got my bigger frame I'm gonna erase this
content in my mind right now and do another layer digitally, and just
do it so I get the right pull I want from that front canoe. Okay? And that's it, it's just -
it's thinking about what we can do in here as an artist to subordinate the
perspective the way we want it to affect and help us design and
keep helping us compose. Okay? Critical.
Center of vision.
Here we are and we'll play another composition game here.
Real quick. I'll finish these other ones up pretty fast here. I just happen
to have again an asymmetrical design that I want way out here.
Okay, this clearly puts us in our mind above the eye level. So
we're thinking about it being somewhere down here. I can draw in
a building, know it goes to here. Right, now there's a corner here.
Okay. I could do another building here in one point. Draw
it out. Also know that it goes down here
compositionally. Maybe I want a real long one here.
Draw it out differently.
Connects to that.
I'm just drawing
basically to the idea of where I want my vanishing point.
But again, the minute I'm drawing to it I realize that one point vanishing point, if
I know I want this in one point because all the verticals are straight up
and down. Therefore, I'm not looking up at three point I'm actually in a little frame
that's way at the top of the cone. So it gives the impression of looking up. Because
in a sense we are with our lines of sight but we're not technically raising our heads. That would be
three point and we're not in three point. We're in the higher part of the cone in one point.
Let me make that clear. So, okay. And then we could have little people here that
are like, I dunno, waiting for evil villains to show up. They're super heroes, whatever you want.
This person'll be a little smaller, a little bigger.
Really small, you know, again the idea is
they're waiting for somebody to show up. I can draw under them a bit.
Real heroic poses, whatever. We got windows - we'll have all this
it's just the idea of a composition that is, in itself, interesting, and
long and narrow for a painting. That might be an interesting composition. But you still have
to think about oh I like the composition. But don't be too in love with the frame only.
Be in love with the idea of where the frame fits around this because you know perspective.
Then you can be in love with your clever, long format horizontally and
your interesting arrangements of the front faces of the building, but now you actually
have a reason why that's behaving a certain way. And again, we can always think of oh that's
right. What would be a square, let's say, on this building, working
back from here. So if I know that this goes back
in space, as a transparent idea and I say okay
how deep would I want a square if it was critical that this building, I understood
why it's a square. And, you know, I could say oh okay
I want it to be - that to be a square for this building. That's
transparent. That's looking into the building's interior and realizing the square and then
okay that would be one square deep, or one
width wide, one width deep. Where does that leave
us? Well it leads about back to here, that's what I planned.
Alright, so again you thought of this first, this idea of wanting that
depth of square first, but then that lead you back to here. Or you could say I wanted
the cone here and again, you can take, it's very
simple, like with the compass. You can take, if you wanted the corner right
outside here or going right through here or going right through here and you wanted to design that you could simply take the
idea of that on your actual sketch. Okay, now that I'm committed to this
vanishing point, this eye level, and this center of vision, if I actually take the
cone down to where I know the eye level would be, oh I reverse back to the -
at 60 degrees like we talked about over here and I automatically get my SP. I could do it
that way from the relationship of where I want my cone, knowing where my eye level
center of vision is, know the SP is down there somewhere. I actually take the cone
here and then I reverse back at 60 to get this shape we're using
then I know where my SP is. Or I can reverse back from the 45 degree measuring point
coming back at 45. Either way, I get my committed SP on my center of vision
and I know how to use it to help me to draw the rest of the stuff, which might have two point elements
or measuring a whole bunch of other squares because I have my 45. You don't need
to fill in all this mechanical work but if you want to, it's there waiting for you.
You might just want a 45 degree measuring point on some basic idea that you're drawing
to over here and never do anything further. Great. It doesn't matter. But
we're learning perspective. So, instead of showing you some professional technique
where somebody's saying hey just do this, I'm a pro, I'm great, just do this. You don't need all that crap.
Bull. If you want to learn perspective like a lot of good professionals, they learn this stuff
in some sense and a lot of us learn it really well. And it really, you know, makes you
very, very flexible with kind of stuff. So it's critical that you learn this stuff along
with some of the more dry measuring we're gonna be doing too. All that
gives you that three dimensional platform to think about space.
It's important because it's simple, basic fundamentals of perspective. But it's gonna
help you have a real, new relationship with composition,
control over objects, getting these sketches down fast so you
can get up to size and really be more authoritative with the paint and the drawing because
you know you're placing your compositions and your basic, real movements of your
compositions are correct, or working let's say. Okay, so we've just done another
reversal from this one now. Or the idea, we could say I want the cone
here. I could come back down from here. That distance,
slam it down to the eye level, which commits me coming back to here to
meet my center of vision and suddenly I got all the rest. And then I automatically have a
45 by the way. If we did the cone of vision version and came down here
and reversed back to the SP, immediately we have to come up at a 45
over here because that's automatic if I already found my cone first.
Because the 45 behaves the same way as the cone from a particular station
point. And we reversed it all from this little, dinky sketch up here. Just
the idea of this square or where we wanted the cone. You got either choice, you know, either
one as your choice. In one point let's say. Okay, so
again we could have a really little sketch over here.
Again, not quite making it to the eye level
which is a little tiny bit. And then it could be a picture just committed to there and again, you'd just have the idea of a
building standing here, one point.
You know, another building coming out, we're not sure
what it's doing, maybe out here if you want to extend your
frame you could play with any idea you want. The idea is
you know, what, if this is transparent, what square am I working back to?
Again, or where do I want this relationship to the cone. So if you take this distance
out to the cone and then slam it down, you've just committed backward
to your SP by going back at 60 degrees. 30, 60, with this
shape. And then you already know where your SP is if you want to relate any other
perspective in two point you at least have the station point committed. So again, work backwards
even from a simple, tiny little sketch that only has a frame this big in the cone. You
can do anything that you want. And again, the idea of the square would be
you know, where would I want this to land. And if I kinda say, oh okay,
about right here. I'd work backwards
and shoot it out here
if I wanted to. Same idea as that square gives me that 45 in this little sketch.
It commits me to this whole process basically. Knowing that's the eye level, I've had
a one point I've been working to which commits me to a center of vision, coming down, working
backwards at 45 gives me an SP automatically. And it automatically gives me
that size of a cone. So again, this stuff is all interconnected.
I do this first, it commits me to that and I can think about that. I do this first, it commits me to that,
that. It all works overlapped in different orders. Whatever helps, okay.
And yeah, again, we can have another composition down here
and we could have a road coming by, late at night or something.
Spooky. With woods and stuff right here. And
you know, it could be - it's a really conservative perspective, but if you wanted to measure again a car
on the ground and say, okay, for something this wide, what would be the
depth I'd want? And then, you know, the minute you make that commitment even in the thumbnail you're really
saying oh, you know, I'm committing to that
45 and saying that's the depth I want to measure in space if I'm doing
a car or something happening on the road. You could also say, oh yeah but I want the
cone to be coming through right here. You could take this distance again, slam it
up to here, that commits you to that angle back to the center of vision
because you were using a vanishing point and you knew you wanted your eye level way up there,
that already makes some commitments to the vanishing point. Then, once you decide
that, or where you want the cone brought up to here. Reverse, reverse,
you get the SP, you commit to the whole cone. It all works
hand in hand. Again, it's just what composition as an artist
drives the use of perspective. Make the perspective subordinate.
Okay. So I think we've said that enough. yeah, and that's about it. So these
are really crude but it makes the point that all these elements are intermeshed to
help you when you need it and to be thinking of them as you're drawing and then to
lead to them. They'll all kind of interplay as a very helpful,
controlled way to draw, and you can get all the exaggeration you want and put all the
gesture you want into your drawing. But that doesn't mean the perspective shouldn't be helping you.
Alright. That was a long but I think it's good to
discuss this stuff in a casual manner. So that's our cone of vision
over there. Okay. Okay.
We'll go onto the next one.
at Lecture 2, Diagram 18.
And this one I've already laid out a little bit on here so I can get
going and be accurate as to what I'm saying to you
on this big piece of paper. We're gonna start with a side view
and we're gonna be at a five foot eye level, seven feet away from a picture
plane. And then right up next to the picture plane, going behind the picture plane, will be a three by
three by three foot cube. And we're gonna do that in side view, top view,
and then in perspective from the top view of the station point.
person. So the idea is, we're gonna do the side view and the top view and
the perspective view so we can relate them over and over again. If you get confused by these concepts
you can relate to this very simple setup because we're going to show you all three.
Okay. So the first one we're gonna do is we're gonna have a
person standing here.
And there's the ground plane so I'm just gonna draw that in.
Having to draw past the picture plane
which I'll explain in a second.
Okay. So that's the ground. Abbreviate that
ground plane. That's a side view so that's
just the ground he's standing on.
Realize I have to draw it darker than normal because of that
camera, so okay. And again,
that distance line, right from the eyes at a five foot level,
goes on and also goes on to infinity. So we'll go ahead and
do that idea.
That's our distance line. Let me.
And that's our picture plane and I'm gonna put
that as, like a piece of glass. So a little bit of thickness to it. There's the front.
Alright, so that's our picture plane.
Alright. So let me count out seven feet.
three, four, five, six, seven to the picture
plane. Just the imaginary wall or flat surface, there it is.
Same distance to there. Five feet up. One,
two, three, four, five.
The goes up to six foot.
Alright, snap goes the little pencil.
Also, we're saying there is a three
by three by three cube right plush up against - or flush up against the
picture plane. So I'm gonna make that nice and dark.
One, two, three.
two, three. So I'll draw up about as far as we need to be.
And then we'll cast three feet from here. If we want
we'll double check it from our little T square ruler. Alright
one, two, three, so there's the mark.
So that cube is three feet high, three feet deep, three feet wide.
Alright, I wanted to make that nice and dark because that's our object
along with the figure. There's not any other object here, really, except
the cube, and the ground.
The ground is probably a floor so we'll put that
in nice and dark. And I'll go ahead and count.
Zero, one, two, three,
four, five, six, seven
foot for the picture plane. And we're going back one, two,
three for the cube, alright. So you're getting the idea, this is
absolute side view.
Elevation. Alright. Side view elevation.
Try to darken this in because I know
the camera makes things pretty light.
Alright. So we have our
distance line. We have a five foot - maybe a five foot four person. Five foot
eye level standing seven feet away from a standing picture plane.
And we have a three foot cube. Why do we know? There's our
true height line that we use - show in perspective. But now everything's flat
because it's a side view. No perspective. Alright, so
three by three by three cube.
Okay. We know that's the picture plane.
What else do we need to know? Let's see.
Obviously this is the depth of the cube, which is -
alright. So we know this is depth.
We can't see width. So in a side view elevation we can't see width.
We can only see depth and height. And of course in a plan view
we can only see width and depth and not height. So we need both
essentially. Alright. So there's a person
they're five foot. One, two, three, four, five.
One, two, three, four,
five. Okay. Same idea. Alright
so that's pretty much all we need for our elevation
side view. Then I'm gonna go ahead and show
the projection for the cone of vision in blue
for that person. And as we
know the head is 30 degrees. I'm gonna try and stay out of your way in some way here.
Alright, take it from the very point of the eyes, the station point which I have to also marcate
that of course. Cannot forget about that.
This is an arrow. Okay.
We're not gonna be able to see next in the next part of the cone, obviously, we'll go right off camera.
But we'll overdraw it so it goes off camera
somewhere. We know that's 30 and 30. 30 degrees, 30
degrees, total of 60. Alright.
We know that from before. So we know the cone
in the diagram will be striking here and way up there
somewhere. So we're not gonna have the entire cube in the cone. The ground line, picture plane
measuring line, as we talked about in diagram one of the three
quarter view of the figure looking at the wall, we won't be able to see that unless we go out of the cone.
Which is fine for our purposes. Excuse me. So
obviously this is also the eye level.
No question about it. And, you know, in another sense the center of vision
too. The picture plane, even though it's in side view representing
the picture plane from the side is also the center of vision running up
and running down as well. But we can really only see the eye level, technically
and just the side of the picture plane, the side of the cube, the ground from the side like it's all
a cut away. So, you're getting the idea. Now let's just
replicate this. I have this person
aligned, you know,
so right there at the eyes, shoulders,
little feet coming out. Okay.
That's the idea of the same person from above now
And that person does also, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven
plus the cube. So I'll go ahead and darken in that line.
That will still be out distance line. Okay.
I'm gonna take our
time here so we get comprehensions of the conversions and or why we're looking at
space like this. Again, it's that three dimensional platform. Alright.
So, that's the ground and that's part of the side
view. Right next to that we're cutting away in our imagination to a top view
right next to it and there's not much space between but I had to fit it all into the camera frame
So, now, we're gonna also say that
the picture plane is also right here. I'm gonna make a little division and start this
picture plane a little further down and say there's division between the two views. They
happen to be lined up. The convenient part about this kind of work
is that you can always
draw an elevation, I mean, right next to, a plan
or a plan right next to an elevation because they share everything. If you just go
this is here, that is there, these distances all are shared. The cube
cube's depth is shared. So the difference is, obviously we can't see the side view
from here and we can't see width
here. But otherwise they share all their measurements. Okay, so
let's go ahead and measure
what would be our ground line measuring line from above on our picture plane, just make sure
we get those increments right. So we'll start from the center of
vision. One, two, and then we'll go
over this way.
Alright, so we've got this going now.
That's right there. And we've got this going. So now we can't
go that far into this picture, we're bumping into it, but you get the idea. Just happens I'm gonna set
the cube is not gonna be centered in the view. So let's draw the cube in now.
And that cube is gonna be two feet over to the
left and one foot there. That way it won't bump into our picture. So
I'll use my T square to be exact. Okay.
So the idea would be -
we'll count. One, two, three, foot cube, but it's
a foot over to the right if we're looking in view.
Okay. And there's the third mark for the back. So I'll go ahead and put that
in with my triangle. And we can just infer its depth by
our elevation above. We don't really need to count it out, it's right
there. So do that nice and dark to imply that that's an object.
Alright so that's also our three by three by
three cube. This is our distance line
as well as our
center of vision, right. This is still our picture plane.
From above. Oops.
E. So when I keep going on and on about
how the picture plane is just this thin piece of glass from above when we set up our normal
cone of vision, that's what I mean. There it is. And there's us, like our normal
station point from above, seven feet, seven feet, seven feet,
seven feet. Okay. So what else do we need?
Let me make sure I've got everything marked. That's the picture plane, obviously. From above
we have no height. We've got our cube. That's our distance line which keeps going.
We know this is our true height line. We won't make it, you know,
we'll just call it the picture plane, but we know our true height line is not actually set on the picture plane
or can be I should say. Okay, distance line - let's project
the cone of vision then. Or I should say the lines that hit the cone of
vision. And I'll go ahead and put a blue line in our elevation above just to marcate
that this is the live cone of vision area, right here.
Goes on up out of screen. Okay. Alright
and then I'll project the cone of vision from this person.
with my 30 degrees, right, right up to the old eyeballs.
And they should be right about there. So
And that hits and connected with the
picture plane and keeps going forever to vanishing points. But
we also take note that's where the cone of vision or the field of distortion is.
I'm also gonna do this but I have to stop short so I don't crunch into
our elevation above.
But I'll just lightly go and make it very clear that this projects on forever
at 30. And eventually, of course, hits the picture plane. I'll actually kind of
mark that in. I don't think it'll
make too many people go mad if I just kind of imply that this one crosses over to here.
Just very lightly. Alright so that will be that.
30 and 30 because this is all of our picture plane really, but we kinda
went and made a division between the top two. Which I should label, hello.
Make it clear. Top view.
Okay. So let me make our person a little more dark, because
of the film
making everything...Okay so there's our distance line
and we have that. Okay, so
what else am I missing here? I'll just think here, okay.
So now I'm hoping you can see a direct relationship from the
side, what's happening. The cube is pushed
right up against the picture plane, as we've talked about. The cube is obviously sitting on the ground as the person
is sitting on the ground. This person - now we're from above and we've decided to put the
cube off center, two foot to the right, one foot to the left
flush against the picture plane here. Picture plane - yup
okay. And we know this also represents the eye level
essentially too. Somewhere in there. We just can't see the difference between
ground line, measuring line. Which is also there, the eye level and the fact that it's a picture plane
because it's all from above, we have no height to be able to demonstrate that
but it's all there. You know it from our different views and different talks we've had.
Okay, so now I wanna make clear that this is all one,
two, and three feet deep. Just as this is all one, two, three.
This is the cube's depth. I can just measure it on the center line, it doesn't matter. We know it's three feet
deep by three feet wide by three feet high because that tells us so.
Okay. So let's go on to our perspective view set up.
We're still gonna do another plan view set up, exactly the same as this actually,
but over here so we can be more ready to understand it because we're
going to do it in normal view like we've been setting up over and over
with things reading this way. Okay. So I'll go ahead and draw in the idea of the head -
the face a little bit with the nose looking out.
There's our station point right there.
Alright, there's our person from above.
Our station point's right there. Let me make sure I
very clearly write station point, station point. That would be a good idea, hello.
And station point. Alright. SP, SP,
SP, obviously. We've been talking about that a lot.
I'll give myself my seven feet forward, right.
One, two, three, four, five,
six, seven. And of course I'm using one inch increments to represent
feet. And that's pretty easy. And again
if you're doing it on a much smaller piece of paper or you wanna do it on an 11x17 piece of xerox
paper, whatever you want, then you can make your one foot inch a half an inch. Whatever works for you
of course. You know, I would probably suggest you
just watch this whole thing and then draw it out after pausing it and then re-running it.
because, you know, this is really important connection that you're kinda having
to think through and watch through first I would say. Then, figure out what kind of paper could
I do this on to really, you know, as a permanent record and understanding and walking through the
idea of the elevation side view, the top view, and the top view going into perspective.
So we got our seven feet. And we'll keep going in depth then.
Because we can.
I'm not gonna put numbers by these because they represent two things. And I'll tell you why in a second.
Alright, but just know that this is seven feet to the picture plane. We know that so this
person is seven foot from the picture plane. So
from PP. Seven foot from the picture plane this person is.
There'll also five foot high eye level.
We know that. So, what else do we know? Well
we know the cube's gonna be coming. But we're gonna do that in a second. I'm gonna darken in this line
just so it's more visible on film.
And we know that's our
center of vision. So
and we know this is our eye level.
Alright so -
oh and then, go ahead and darken in this idea.
That will kind of bump into that one, like a lot of these things do.
That's our eye level. And I'm gonna hold off putting increments
on this because I'm gonna put increments on the ground plane measuring line
that you saw again on the physical walkthrough and on diagram
one in the three quarter view of the figure
looking at the wall and all those different definitions. Now
so I've got my man, or my person, I got the distance to the picture plane, I've
got my picture plane. And I'll go ahead and put in, before I draw the cube,
I wanna go ahead and put in my
cone of vision - the projection for the cone of vision. Actually
draw the cone of vision, as well as put in my 45 measuring
point. 45 degree measuring point. Okay so let me find my blue - here it is.
Once again, no surprise we're gonna go at 30 degrees and 30 degrees from the
actual station point. Coming very close
to that cube, that's alright. It's all one, big happy
diagram. So who cares if they overlap. They're
all family, who cares right? Okay, so here we go
That's where I'm gonna draw my compass so let me get my handy
This thing has seen better days but I keep it around
out of sentiment really. But, lame. Anyway
that is the cone. I apologize for its
terrible lack of stiffness and whatever. But you can see it.
There's the cone of vision. Okay.
So now, here's that part I was talking about a couple diagrams ago actually. We can count down
from the eye level, just like we did for our scaling in some of the first, earlier
diagrams. But now we can really get the idea of why we do it.
First of all we're gonna put in our one point VP.
VP one point. We know that. We're gonna put in our 45 degree measuring
point as well.
Okay, from the eyes right there it's gonna come
There we go, that's our 45 degree
measuring point. Put it over there for convenience, it won't get in the way.
Okay. And again, this is going to be a very simple diagram, or simple
drawing because it's not about the complexity of the object, certainly,
it's about the three dimensional platform in your mind making the connection
between why we're looking at the same information in elevation compared to
a plan from above with object included and
the figure in the distances, and why we also have the traditional setup with
the figure from above and us here, looking in,
like we know that's flatted SP person is really out here, us.
Okay, and the cone. So there we kinda have it. And I wanna -
I've go the center of vision listed, my eye level, station point, cone of
vision. So we're all set to go. So here's the trick. Because our eyes are
always attached here. So I'll draw those silly eyes on here again.
Our eyes are always stuck here, so if I want to go
down and, you know,
if I know the viewer and the ground line is
five feet down, the idea that we know
we are five feet in the air because we've declared this person's eyes
at five feet. But we can't count up, we have to count down from the eye level because
our eyes are always here. But since this is our true height line
and we want - the box is touching the very
picture plane at the true height line, all we have to do is count down five to put
our measuring line down five feet below, just like when we scale
the figures. By counting down from the eye level we're doing
the same thing now, imagining that scale. One inch equals one foot is only
true on this flat picture plane. Everywhere we can go one inch equals one foot. As soon as
we go back the scale gets smaller, come forward it gets larger. So I'm gonna count one, two, three,
four, five. Okay. So the idea is we're five feet
in the air. This person is five feet in the air from
ground line hitting the picture plane. So that's called the ground line measuring line.
So we have to make ours. One, two, three, four, five. So it's way down here below the cone.
Remember I mentioned that this let's us know that we're gonna
see, that's the reality of that same projection, there's our cone crossing
that exact increment. It crosses right below that fourth increment.
Alright. One, two, three, four, right below it's the cone.
One, two, three, four, there's the cone. Side view: proof.
Top view: proof.
And now one foot down. So I'm gonna go ahead and put my
ground line, measuring
line in, which represents the ruler I'm placing
exactly where this illusionary wall hits the
ground plane and comes forward toward us. Why do we know that? Because it goes down five
feet and then the floor comes toward the person. So the idea is, we know we're
standing on a flat, ground plane that runs into a wall seven feet in front of
us. How do we know we're seven feet away? Oh, that's right, our SP
distance is one, two, three, four, five, six, seven.
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven. One, two, three, four,
five, six, seven and the equivalent here. So the weird part
is - when we're looking in perspective with the true height line
and looking into perspective we can count down to get our measuring line height
on the ground, this actual ruler is on the ground which we'll put in increments
on in a second. The other part is, in the flat world where
this is the picture plane from above and this is all flat work including
looking down on our SP person, they're seven feet away. So it works both
ways. It's the same scale, it has to be. Because we're saying everything
at the point of the picture plane and everything in flat space is equal to
one inch equals one foot. So one, two, three, four, five, six, seven.
So that's how you both count back to the distance of your SP from the
flat idea of the top of the picture plane, as well as count down
from the eye level that our eyes are part of down to where you want your measuring
line. Just like we did with the scaling with the figures in - I don't remember which
diagram it was, one of the earliest ones. Like two, three, number three I think.
So let me put my increment scale on here now. If I can find
my little ruler. Okay, here we go.
I'll just count either side. One foot, which is one
inch, I'll just put it down and just keep going on, way, way longer than I need to do just to
make a point. Okay.
Okay. So that's that measuring line.
Ground, measuring line.
Why does that help me? Because that's where our cube starts. That's this
point here, so if you want to make it clear
that's our ground plane measuring line. The floor touching the wall.
This is our floor, coming in like this toward the one point vanishing point.
Like planks of wood touching the wall, which starts
here and going flat like a wall. Okay. We are just simply saying
the cube is right behind that cube of glass. Now, we said it was one foot to the
left, two feet to the right. So I'll go ahead and go oh
one foot to the left, two
feet to the right. Okay. So I start drawing up at that point.
Okay and how far do I go up?
One, two, three, because it's a three foot cube. So that's my true height line.
It also represents the distance of the SP, looking from above as the third person, but in this case
I'm going one, two, three in height.
I'll draw a little past my stick line.
Little past my stick line.
Make sure we make it a little thicker
down here. And then one, two, three.
There's my front face of my cube.
Okay. Alright, what do I need
to do next? Like we've been doing many times, we've got to draw our side planes back toward the
one point vanishing point. So there's my ground plane.
I'll just kinda have it disappear. I won't have it cling to the vanishing
point here. Dissapears.
Get out of the way here. Goes back, disappears.
Fourth corner, back, dissapears.
Alright, so now you guys can all tell me. How do we find
depth. We've rehearsed it a bit. Well, since we need a real 45 to
make the 45 degree measuring point, we now go kitty corner from
the 45 degree measuring point on our eye level and we strike across
at a perspective 45, which is represented to go to the 45 degree
measuring point. And we should be able to strike a real
depth of the square. Now it's getting a little distorted. We are pulled out of the cone, but the
idea is, the way it's been designed to kinda crunch into this tight
space but still be a big diagram, I decided to go ahead and have the measuring line
a little bit below the cone of vision. Just like with my physical lecture,
the wall was actually just off camera below the cone of vision. This wall's
a little bit below the cone of vision. In my diagram, my big real diagram
I draw on my studio wall, the floor was a good deal lower
than the cone of vision. So let's go ahead and go kitty corner
to the 45.
There it is.
So it's gonna look a little bit stretched on the ground plane but
not up here. Because this square that represents the top of the cube is well
within the cone of vision. But as we've been playing with the idea with the compositional sketch
as we did last time and a few other ideas with the cube's coming out of the cone
it's okay. If it doesn't look too stretched it should be okay. But the idea is as a learning tool
it's fine to be out of the cone because then we can see what happens
when you're out of it, you get a very clear example. So let's go ahead and draw back
that back plane on the ground to make the foot print
complete of our cube.
Okay let's go ahead and get up and get those side planes up.
in the back.
And they go ahead and connect with our front
perpendicular planes going back to the VP and we close off.
And there is our
three by three by three cube
in perspective from seven feet away.
So let's discuss again. If we were to look at this as a
flat plan from above, like we've spoken about many times now. There is the flat
thin top of the picture plane, the distance line from above to the
station point person and then that person standing straight below us.
Okay so that's one, two, three, four, five, six, seven.
We are, as a viewer we are seven feet away from the picture
plane at a five foot eye level. One, two, three,
four, five. Counting backwards from here, one, two, three, four,
five. That means that where our feet are is at the same
place as this measuring line back. That means that our feet are met up by the floor
down here somewhere when we're looking into the picture and that means we're
standing on the ground plane and our eye level is at five feet. Therefore
we can say we have a five foot eye level, plus the person's a little bit taller than that with the cranium
and all that. So five foot eye level, seven feet away and we are
standing one foot to the left
off center - no I'm sorry, one half foot from the center of
the cube over to the left. The actual center of the cube would be right here between these two.
Actually, right there. Okay, so we're standing -
you can say we are standing seven feet away from the front of a cube
at a five foot eye level and we are standing one half of a foot
to the left of the center of the cube. You could phone in those directions to someone
on Maya or a three dimensional program and simply
show them this and say that's, you know, that's my increment. And basically these drawings
are a plan just like everything else. And then they're grown into three dimensions and that's what of course
the 3D programs do so fantastically fast.
The interesting part though about when you draw this out, you really get the three dimensional
platform rehearsed in your mind because you suddenly realize, as a drawing in 2D
if you're working digitally as well on your computer screen, you can do these type of drawings pretty
quickly from real plans and stuff and really for your own purposes
really get a three dimensional scene going. And it really helps
again with sketching, as we've talked about in the compositionally cones of visions we did in
previously. So again, side view,
seven feet away, five foot high of a three by three by
three cube. On top of a top plan, same thing. Shows
the cone of vision projection and everything. The 45 would actually be going
out to here actually, but we don't need to show it because we're showing it here.
And then here's our perspective here of being five feet in the air, eye level
seven feet away from a three by three by three cube. And we're standing
one half of a foot to the left of the center of the cube. Okay.
And that's pretty much it. If there's anything - I
forgot to label. So there
you go. So elevation, top view,
build up and view in perspective
of that idea. Okay.
going to draw a ten by ten by ten
room from 12 feet away, at a
six foot eye level. Alright. So now that we've kinda talked about this kinda thing we'll put it into
action. And after that we'll do one more diagram about working backwards from
a sketched composition with some thoughts of a building
scene and a couple figures in sketch form and then work backwards into formal one
point after that. But right now we're gonna do a gridded room that's
showing how to measure more and be more
comfortable with measuring and the concept of measuring in one point. Okay.
So I'm gonna use three quarter inch increments to represent a foot
this time so let me get in my center of vision. I got my eye level in
here obviously. So let me darken up my center of vision idea
So the idea is, I'll still put in my station point
right here, so I'll put my little man's head,
body, feet. That's my SP,
that's supposed to be twelve feet away. It's eye level is supposed to be at six foot
and we're gonna be doing a ten by ten by ten room with some objects
in it. I'll go ahead and draw in my cone of vision just for
We'll keep doing this even though when you sketch, again as I've mentioned many times
the idea is, get used to these elements being underneath in your
idea of sketching or very lightly put in, just enough that you understand what the cone's
doing and where your distortion field is when you're drawing. It doesn't have to be all heavy
and formal. It can be cobweb thin, just little marks, and then keep sketching.
As long as you have an idea of where distortion starts by placing your SP,
even below a sketch, it's easy. Okay. Alright so
we're gonna keep doing this. We'll do this one more rapidly now so we
know what we're doing, right? I'll still mark everything
30 degrees, 30 degrees, total
of 60. Okay.
Get our compass out here.
Seen better days
on this thing. So
I'm gonna have to pull out an old trick. We don't have
a compass that big so what I'm gonna do is use a cord
and I'm simply gonna plant the cord like this, right there.
And draw it like that.
Because my compass isn't big enough, so
excuse my black cord but I must do this because I don't
wanna stop. Alright.
Alright there's my cone, sorry about that.
My compass, I forgot I don't have my large one. Okay, so there's my cone.
And let's mark everything carefully.
VP one point still.
Alright. Got our eye level at six foot
Center of vision.
I'll put that right there. Center of vision.
Got our SP down here, it's all ready to go. There's our
set up. So, I'm gonna put my increments in now.
One foot, two foot, three foot. These are three quarter inch increments
I'm using. I'm gonna count back twelve.
There we go. And I'll keep going up.
Because remember we're twelve feet from the picture plane, but then the
idea of height needs to keep going up.
We'll explain why. You can even go one off the picture, it doesn't matter. Okay.
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
eleven, twelve. We count down from the eye level, remember. This is where
our eyeballs are. Okay.
And we have to count down from the eye level.
Or I should say, I'm sorry, back from the picture plane, excuse me, the picture plane.
This is the top of the picture plane, distance line, our SP person from above. Remember
the same distance would be our real SP, as if you were, and we have
collapsed it into the flat SP viewer.
So that is now our viewer, or us, we are twelve feet away
from the six foot eye level. So, what does that mean? Oh that's
right, when we're looking in view, into perspective, that's our true height line.
So I have to count down from my eyeballs and say six feet. One, two, three,
four, five, six. There's the threshold of my ten by ten by
ten room. We're gonna pretend that there's a pretend measuring line
threshold before we go into the space of the room which is behind the picture plane.
So essentially, we'll do a sketch of it in a second
actually, it's quite simple.
But I'll go ahead and put in my measuring line.
And that represents again the
ground hitting the
flat wall. Okay. And
I'll go ahead and put in my 45 degree measuring point. I'm gonna do mine off, because it's more
convenient to the left. Okay.
There we are.
Right up to the eyeballs of my SP person. My collapsed SP person.
45 degree MP.
Alright. That's a real 45.
Okay. Projected. All these
are from above, projected in real angles from our station point viewer. Then we're
gonna realize those same angles in perspective to help us measure.
As before. Okay. So
here's my measuring line. So I'll just make that clear. I'll also put increments now
on my measuring line, ground line.
I'm just gonna keep
going here. Also put increments to the left.
On that line. Again
you can - when you sketch you can think like this but you're not actually doing this. It's the thinking
and the visualization of space in the 3D manner that we're trying
get good at. So this greatly helps. Even though you might not do technical drawings very often.
But actually they help if you're really doing something
clean and thoroughly. It can build stuff very quickly this way as well.
So. But there's a relationship between the technical and sketching.
It can be both. So there's a lot of gray area in between. Okay.
figure out here, and let's number some stuff across. Okay, so let's go ahead and do that.
But first of all we want to figure out where the threshold of our room is.
And why do I say that? Let's see we've got some room over here.
This is our figure let's say, it's six foot.
There's our figure standing there.
There's the ground.
The picture plane's about twelve feet away, he's about six foot. So twelve
feet away let's say. It's a ten foot room. So he's
six foot tall, about there would be a threshold. If we're looking at a
ten foot by ten foot room, something like that.
Room's ten feet high. We're at the threshold, so there's the picture plane.
Picture plane, ten foot room.
And we're gonna put some stuff in this ten foot room. We're in front of the room
at a six foot eye level.
And we're twelve feet away. So our station point
is twelve feet from here to here.
So, that's the deal.
So we are looking at the ground plane, or the ground plane
measuring line being right there. That's this line here from the side, where our
ground meets our invisible, pretend front wall. But then
it's really a threshold because it allows us to come into the room. So we're going from this
point into the room. So we're measuring and saying the picture plane
is the very front face of the cubicle room. Ten feet deep,
ten feet high, ten feet wide. And that's us twelve feet away
at six foot eye level. Okay. Just like before.
Okay. Now we gotta decide okay I don't want to be standing right in the center, so
I have to decide, do I want to be standing a little bit to the - which side?
It will be one, two, three, four, five. Why don't we
say we're standing six feet - we're gonna be standing one foot to the left
So to skip over with this center of vision, one foot to the left from center of the room
would mean there'd be a little more on the right than the left. So we'll count over one, two, three, four.
And then six. One, two,
three, four, five, six. So here. That gives me -
we're one foot over to the left, so it gives me one, two
three, four to the threshold corner of the room.
One, two, three, four, five, six. So there's
six foot. Four over here from center. And that
gives me ten. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. And we're left
one foot over to the left. Okay. Let's draw up the verticals of the front
entrance or threshold of the room from the ground plane
And I'll draw higher than I need
to. That's the actual side plane of our little
box room. There's the other one.
Okay. And then we've gotta count ten feet up.
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight,
nine, ten. That's ten foot.
And of course, one, two, three, four, five, six. Or one, two, three, four,
five, six feet down. So our feet are down here somewhere, looking into the room.
Our SP - never ends. Our SP is this far away
but actually tipped up here is the real position. We have simply
compressed it or collapsed it. Okay.
So let me go ahead and - so now we have the increments we need width
wise. I'm gonna go ahead and close off the top of the room.
at ten feet. And I'll go ahead and count our increments as well. So that's the top -
beginning of the room. So that's just the front face of the cube of the room,
facing us. And we'll count it out. But let's count it out, so if anybody's confused we're ten up.
But we're gonna go ahead and we're gonna go ahead and count it
on the right side wall as well. Okay. So
let's actually make it over here. Let's go. One, two,
three, four, five, six at eye level. Seven
eight, nine, ten. Okay. I'll go ahead and label those.
One, two, three, four, five, six
foot, seven, eight, nine,
that's ten. Okay. Okay. And we
also have, from here, we'll call this, let's say, zero.
One, two, three, four, five,
six, seven, eight,
nine, and then ten.
There's the corner of the room. Corner
of the room. Alright. Top corner, top corner.
Now we have to draw our side planes of our room. Meaning
that our floor meeting our walls, as a floor line,
wall line, and that would go back to the one point.
vanishing point. And I'll kinda make it disappear.
Also, this will go in
disappear. Okay. Also our
wall line turning into our ceiling would also go back.
Okay. And yet again the other one.
We don't have depth yet but that's what we have to measure with our good old 45 degree measuring point because
it comes off at a real 45 from our station point, which is really up here and then
collapsed is here. And we're going to understand
depth that way. Okay. So what I'm gonna do
is I'm gonna first count
and the counting will help me understand how we're moving, how we're moving
in space. So, let me go ahead and do that.
If I wanna go ten feet
back in space, I can count over. One, two, three, four,
five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. And kitty corner, just like before,
we go back over to our 45 degree measuring point and that will give me
the entire ten feet of the depth of the room. Because I've counted over one,
two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten in flat
space to then cut across and go over and get the
equal depth as this space is. And that gives me ten feet back. Then we're
gonna count back and understand how we got each increment and how it relates. Okay.
So let me first get the big one, and the big one is taken all the whole
ten feet across, going to our kitty corner and lining up
with the 45 degree measuring point. I go ahead and cast
through and continue on.
And there we are, and this point gives me my ten feet of depth I need.
So - and this is 45 degrees and then this is 45
degrees in perspective. Though remember, that's in perspective.
PER, perspective. Okay, I'm gonna take my
T square then
and I'm gonna go ahead and officially
draw across that back wall and I'm gonna
connect that to the other four walls, other three.
Planes I should say. Alright.
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19m 20s4. Diagram 14 : Measured Cubes with Distortion Outside the Cone of Vision
15m 22s5. Diagram 15 : Measuring a Box and Optional Station Point Positions (1)
16m 17s6. Diagram 15 : Measuring a Box and Optional Station Point Positions (2)
9m 14s7. Diagram 16 : Plotting 3 SP Set Ups, Each Closer to the Picture Plane
17m 17s8. Diagram 17 : Traditional Frames Created within/around the Cone of Vision (1)
16m 22s9. Diagram 17 : Traditional Frames Created within/around the Cone of Vision (2)
16m 42s10. Diagram 17 : Traditional Frames Created within/around the Cone of Vision (3)
16m 36s11. Diagram 18 : Drawing a Side View, Top View, and Perspective View Together (1)
17m 0s12. Diagram 18 : Drawing a Side View, Top View, and Perspective View Together (2)
15m 43s13. Diagram 19 : Setting Up and Creating a 1 point Perspective Gridded Room (1)
15m 9s14. Diagram 19 : Setting Up and Creating a 1 point Perspective Gridded Room (2)
15m 36s15. Diagram 19 : Setting Up and Creating a 1 point Perspective Gridded Room (3)
17m 30s16. Diagram 20 : Reversing from a 1 point Perspective Sketch back to the Formal
16m 49s17. Diagram 21 : Drawing Perspective Over a Pieter de Hooch Painting (1)
15m 15s18. Diagram 21 : Drawing Perspective Over a Pieter de Hooch Painting (2)
19m 28s19. Diagram 21 : Drawing Perspective Over a Pieter de Hooch Painting (3)