- Lesson details
Expert animal draftsman and painter, Joe Weatherly, breaks down the complex subject of animal anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal with confidence and force.
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Joe Weatherly breaks down the complex subject of animal
anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will
learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you
will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal
with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe
analyzes the structure of the canine and demonstrates how to
draw the muscles and skeleton. Joe also teaches you the
differences between carnivore and herbivore forelimbs by
diagramming the limbs.
for our canine demonstration and starting with very
scribble just to get something on the -
well, not the paper but the computer but you know what I
mean, just to get something down.
Thinking about ear placement, eye placement, nose placement, how
the neck fits in to the rib cage. So really it's just a
combination of uniting that spine as the main line of
action with several shapes, core masses, skull, ribcage, torso. Not
torso, pelvis. That you can drape from that and then getting your
All meant to be adjusted of course, but
I'm looking for a pose that has a little bit of spring in it.
So that is why I curve the back leg the way I did and stretch
one out further on the left.
Coming up towards the base of the skull I want to visualize
the dog's head as something that's very square. So I'm
building a cube for the
main part of the skull, the top of the skull, the cranium,
cheekbones, and then a sub box or more elongated rectangular
box will flow from that for the nasal plane. Now remember
carnivore has the eyes facing forward. So these eyes are in
the front of, not the side of, the cube that I made.
And as I make these shapes, I'm definitely going to make a more
organic as I go further into the drawing. So already that
box. I've already kind of added the I Ridge on the outside edge
of the other box - outside of the box.
So the boxes, the cubes, the cylinders, the spherical
forms are all meant to be, you know,
distorted, played with, brought together.
We're not trying to make a robot here. We're not trying to
make something that's very stereometric. We're making stuff metric we're making stuff in
But the basic geometric forms are going to give us the
corners that we need
for a to make a solid also for lighting and if we want to turn
this stuff from our imagination we've got volumes.
Okay, I mentioned before I like to do a little bit of work on
the head and the face before I work into the rest of
the body, but this is also considered the second pass. The
gesture was the first, the second is the basic forms on
top of that.
By doing some work on the head, and I don't mean any detail
whatsoever. Just some basics. To get the size down then you
have something to relate to the rest of the body for your
Now if you start dealing with dog breeds that are very
specific then you have to really take a take a look at
what you're doing and watch out for how long certain things are,
like the legs, how long are the ears, you know, what
kind of face is this? How short is the neck? But in the general
canine model that I'm using here I have more freedom to
stay away from the breed so to speak and this is just typical
Works good for the demonstration. It's not a
shaggy dog. You want something with short hair to study
Alright, so there we go. Neck was a column like shape,
modified cylinder, and that is coming down into the rib cage.
There's an opening there for the ribcage and that takes us
into the shoulders and the famous tombstone shape that is
going to give us the point of the shoulders,
the pectoralis area, and the scapula area.
Okay, note that arch and the loins. It's curved there, got a
slight S shape going on from the base of the skull down to
the tail. It's not a straight spine.
Okay, rib cage. I'm visually visualizing that as some sort
of egg shape that's going back.
And finding the center very important landmark. That is the
not only the pit of the neck but is going to be this the top
of the sternum.
Here thinking round, round. Like I said before on cats this is
even more pronounced, but you can see it on dogs too. The
loins, very cylindrical. Think about that as you know, a big
cylindrical mass uniting the pelvis with the rib cage and
there's a space in between that and that space is what is going
to allow movement, running, jumping, things that an elephant
can't do because there's with an elephant there's really no
space there hardly any at all.
Okay, I am going on the edges of the dog now and going with
some design, some straights, some curves, some stomachs and chest, curse some stomachs and chest
going beyond that ribcage, going above the lines a little bit
just to block it out. Fill it out.
Here drawing the the leg you'll notice that it's fleshier up at
the top and the very short for the tendon and then it's long
again for the metatarsals.
Okay work in the inner calf shape right there.
That muscle tapers
hits the next transitional shape, which is the ankles.
Notice how that leg was coming from underneath the tombstone
shape and to transition into the body we have to draw the
pectoralis muscle so that you have the top of the arm and
then the pectoralis muscle leads into the torso next to
All right, paws, notice how on the wrist the wrist is lower on
the outside, higher on the inside. That's a dynamic you
want to take note of.
Okay, thinking about the cylinders. Got to get that arm
so that it's a solid mass. It's not an outline. So to do - to
alleviate that for the construction, we wedge forms
And in this case, I'm building the arm out of a tube basically
and modifying it with the bony landmarks.
Really want to feel that this dog is standing upon its toes,
not flat-footed. Okay. Let's zoom in here a little bit.
Work some areas.
All right. So it's time for some landmarks. We're going to come
in now and draw part of the skull into the dog and be a
nice refresher for you guys. I just draw on the cheek bone,
which is the zygomatic arch, and I'm opening up the eyes from
the front. So the front of the skull eyesockets facing forward
and as I come up into the skull itself,
I'm drawing the brain case.
Very egg-like and there's the occipital Ridge back there that
creates that crest.
Okay, there's the opening for the nasal cavity.
Meaning the area above it is very fleshy.
And think about this when you're drawing if you do this, how is
that muzzle - what's underneath the muzzle? How does it - how do
the jaw and the teeth and everything fit into that?
Coming down the neck, vertebrae here, the top two axis and
are the biggest.
set in the right spot, but I want to go in and make sure
I'm going to put some some outside shapes cut out the
shapes a little bit so they're not even,
you know, rough them up a little bit.
So you got to think about the parts. It's not just about the
big areas, you know, eventually it comes down to drawing the
eyes, the nostrils and the ears, mouth, things like that that
take special study and a little more dedication to get them
right. So sometimes this is when reference comes in handy
or if you can't see something at the zoo, a feature on the
animal, you go to a museum, look at a stuffed animal, look at you
know, whatever you can do to find out what the structure is
of these smaller areas.
All right plane change here,
takes on tone.
So very simplified nose but you can see that it has the two
cut out shapes. Well, we can see mostly one of them but it's
got two in the front that are two comma shaped cartilages.
And as I come down from that, I'm into the nasal septum.
Okay, working the eye shape, that shape is based on
the orbicularis oculi muscle.
You don't want to leave it blank under the eyes always,
there's a bulge there.
All right, and then as a mouth pulls out,
it pulls out below the whisker bed. That's that shape above
it. We talked about the whisker bed before
with the head drawing,
how that mouth kind of comes out to the side, where the chin
is, chin is directly in front of that and underneath it.
And I'm going to go over the form right here that sticks out,
sinks in, and then we get more of the ovoid shape, the egg-like
structure of the whisker bed.
Okay transitional shape is the hyoid area in that muscle
throat muscle that goes into the neck so that way it's
not just a neck butting up against a head. We have a
shape there, that small triangular shape. It's going to
work for almost every animal you draw.
That takes you into the neck.
All right, the structure of this shape, landmarks we've talked
about them before. There's the head of the humerus, the
junction between the scapula and the humerus sticks out.
There is a landmark, pit of the neck gives us a center, which I
said is the actual sternum of the ribcage. Very important to
find your center that way you keep your perspective in check.
The apex of this shape, the top of the withers is another name
for this shape is the withers, especially on a horse. That is
the apex. That's the top of it and that is an area for the
thoracic vertebrae to stick up.
Okay, that indicates the humerus. Now I'm going to do a
little bit of plane changing here so that I'm drawing a
simplified version of the humerus as it comes down
from the point of the shoulder.
But also so you can see how this kind of
does a plane change
with the chest.
So it kind of comes in, back out, and then back in again.
What this indicates is humerus and pectoralis muscles with the
sternum, triceps right here behind that. So
this tombstone shape starts to become more organic now. We
got the back of the arm going, front of the arm going. It's
going beyond just super simple and it's getting more
subcategories within the shape.
Okay. Now I'm just cross hatching a little bit there to
get that ridge going for the trapezius
over the rib cage.
And taking that cylinder shape of the neck and making it more
and more lifelike.
Here is the thoracic vertebrae of the dorsal section of the
The processes that raise up and are actually good anchors for
these large neck muscles that come forward and help carry
that big head.
And there's the scapula, see scapula fits right into that
side plate of a tombstone.
Head of the humerus.
Humerus bone itself curving as it comes down towards the
And there's the ulna or the back of the forearm
in the front, the very stabilized radius.
Remember that the skeleton is the life force inside the body
so knowing it
is going to what - is going to be the thing that helps to give it
life, makes it move, gives believability to the drawing
because you'll know - you'll understand where the landmarks
are, where they come to the surface. Then if you want to
learn muscles, well, you have to have something to anchor
those muscles on to. Okay spine in the lumbar area curving
slightly, arched at the loins, and then we're going into our
pelvis shape, just drew the iliac crest.
Top of the pelvis, how
the pelvis opens up in the middle.
There will be a opening there for the femur and then tapers
down to the ischium.
Okay, and I'm looking for the knee to come down and join this
femur to that section.
Tib-fib below that.
So it's just a nice way to put very gestural simplified
skeleton into the construction drawing. It's not meant to be
drawn very darkly or very accurately, it's supposed to be
fitting into the right spots to show you guys what the
skeleton's doing underneath the surface.
Okay, there's the kneecap, fine-tuning that. The knee cap
has a tendon below it that goes on to the tibia.
And then we get that tapering shape right there. So we get
some tone and that rises up over the iliac crest.
Tone in here as this turns over,
rolls over I should say.
All right. Let's do a little bit of work here now on the
paws, saying that the carpel mass is lower on the outside,
higher on the inside.
And with this roundness up here with the extensor muscles
and that gets very narrow as it comes down and terminates it to
tendons. There is the thumb. Here's the metacarpal,
And remember out of the toes, out of the four toes, the
two in the inside are pushing out slightly more than two on
the outside due to the fact that two of the metacarpals are
longer than the other ones.
Okay just adding some more refinements to the paws in the
That knees facing out towards us.
Here's an example of bone touching bone. And that's what
gives us that blocky look right there.
Tibia hitting the metatarsals.
Okay. So anyways
here we have the basic dog construction, the canine three quarter
with some inside anatomy, some skeleton, and some landmarks.
and compare a horse with a lion, starting with the muscles of
there's those two grooves in the scapula, those two areas that
have a couple of deep muscles in them, one on each side of the
spine of the scapula and we're going to go with those right
now. First one being the supraspinatus. That's the one
that's on top of the spine of the scapula. It originates on
the outer surface, the front portion of the scapula and on
the adjacent cartilage. So some of that cartilage on the on the
end there is also the origin point inserting into the inner
and outer corners of the top of the humerus. So basically this
deltoid - well not deltoid - the shoulder muscle is starting on
the scapula taking up most of the scapula and then coming down
into the upper arm bone, which is the humerus
and inserting. The action of the supraspinatus is to extend the
shoulder joint and advance the limb forward.
So a small piece of the - on the horses small piece of the
middle of the belly comes to the surface
actually, so part of that can be seen.
And that muscle along with the subclavius muscle create the
rounded edge of the shoulder, that form you see in a horse.
So even though it's a deeper muscle, it has a big influence
on the on the top because what covers it is very thin and it
just creates that bulk of the shoulder that we see when we're
drawing the front of the tombstone.
Okay now behind that
is the infraspinatus. And the infraspinatus
is going to originate on the outer surface of the rear
portion of the scapula and also the adjacent cartilage. So
basically it's just right behind the other one, including
a little bit of the cartilage and most of the bonus itself
inserting again onto the top side of the humerus just like
the other muscle in front of it. Now the action of the
rotating the arm outward and pulling the limb away from the
And its flat belly contributes to the plane our quality of the
shoulder region, so
that chiseled look you get, that plane hits right there
is due to this muscle. It's a big influence on the whole
Okay, a small portion of the infraspinatus does reach the
surface although the portion covered by the wide tendon of
the deltoid also directly creates - helps to create the
surface form in that area. So it's really kind of meager ,hard
to see, but it does
influence the surface form or come to the surface form a
little bit. Small part of it does.
So come over here to the lion now and do the same thing.
Origin is the same as the horse except there's no - obviously no
scapula or cartilage present.
And the insertion point is single area on top of the
But the thing is you can't see this from a side view but on
the horse what I forgot to mention was the on the
insertion point there's a split that happens and you can see it
from the front. So the the muscle comes down and splits on
to the side and the inside of the humerus but on the dog and
the feline, there's no split, it just attaches to or inserts
onto the -
well, the belly inserts onto the top edge of the humerus.
And though it's covered by a thin muscle, the supraspinatus
creates the form of the shoulder.
And right now I am drawing the insertion point of the
infraspinatus and it's a very similar as the one we just drew
in the horse. The origin is the same the only difference is
there's no scapular cartilage to deal with in the scapula.
Okay, so just rendering the form a little bit to create the
And you can really see the acromion head of the - spine of
the scapula popping through there on the line. That's going
to come in handy for the deltoid.
Now there's a muscle called the teres major and that is more
prominent on the carnivore. The origin spot of this muscle is
the upper third or the rear edge of the shoulder blade so
Almost all the way to the top of the scapula.
And on the feline it's also adjacent to the surface of the
infraspinatus, which we're drawing right now. Okay
Mostly on the inner humerus, approximately one fourth of the way
down the bone.
So there's a big back muscle will get you later called the
latissimus dorsi and that along with the teres major insert
together with a common tendon on the humerus.
But that muscle does come to the surface only in the feline
and most other species it's covered by the lats and
Okay. Now this
on top of the supraspinatus area here
and the infraspinatus is the deltoid.
Okay. So on the horse, the outer portion or the spinal portion,
there's two parts,
the origin is on the spine of the scapula.
And the rear portion is the upper back corner of the
scapula, inserting onto the outside of the humerus about a
third of the way down the bone. So those two portions.
There's a wider spinal portion that's the front part which That's the front part which
arises from the spine of the scapula and the surface of the
infraspinatus as a wide flat sort of fleshy band. And the
more prominent rear portion is very muscular and it tapers on
Now this is a pretty buff muscle on a carnivore,
especially on the feline this case the lion. You can really
see this muscle when the lion's in action or where the lion is
just simply walking because every time they flex their arm,
this is one of the muscles that pops. So the origin there's
two portions, the acromion portion
at the lower end of the spine of the scapula
and then there's a spinal portion which is on the spine
of the scapula.
In the feline the spinal portions originate from the
lower two-thirds of the spine. So a lot of this stuff, you
you know, it's very exacting but when you - when you're
drawing it freely or construct - doing a construction drawing is
try to get the general idea or impression of where these
Anyways, this muscle
deltoid inserts about a third of the way down the humerus.
Okay, so you can definitely see the difference there between
the line and the horse with the deltoid much bigger and just
more massive on the carnivore.
Okay now for a muscle that's actually covered by
large neck muscles that - well muscles that originate from the
top of the neck come down into the chest for just the
covers the biceps. So usually what we see on a side view of
an animal's just the triceps in anatomical diagram, but still
this does take up a lot of space there. The biceps are in
front of the humerus as the triceps are in the back of the
humerus. So, yes animals do have the biceps. The biceps brachii
or brachii and the origin is the bony prominence on the
front of the lower end of the scapula.
And then the biceps inserts
a couple spots: the inner front corner of the top of the
And a ligament inside the elbow.
Action in the bicep is flexing the elbow joint and also
extending the shoulder joint.
So this is the muscle that locks the shoulder into
place when the animal is in a standing position.
Now in the feline the insertion is into the radius bone only.
you can clearly see how it goes onto the radius.
Just below the elbow joint.
And the action flexing the elbow joint, supinating the
forearm, rotating the palm forward.
Or up depending on the position of the forearm, so
helps with a little bit of that pronation and supination that
felines get when they walk.
All right now for the big one: the triceps.
origin. Okay well obviously tri meaning three, those three
heads. At the long head
is the - is most of or of the rear border of the scapula.
Lateral head on the horse. It's on the curved ridge on the
upper outer surface of the humerus, inserts onto the
well inserts onto the olecranon process, on process.
which is the ulna.
Otherwise known as the point of the elbow.
So I'm just like on a human, triceps. Has a tendon behind it
as it tapers and that locks onto the ulna or the olecranon
So the you know, the triceps extends the elbow joint, flexes
three or more heads and
you know only the long lateral heads are visible. The medial
heads lie deep into the - behind that.
So just think of flattened rectangular muscle. The long
head is triangular and when the muscle is tensed, the rear head,
the rear edge, straightens.
And a horse when this muscle is relaxed it's like a bulge
that kind of drops, the mass drops down
covering the olecranon or the elbow a little bit.
Like the deltoid the triceps has a different look, more of a
you know, I wouldn't say more massive because the triceps
massive on a horse but has just a different look on a feline
and another muscle that really pops, really flexes when you see
a big cat in action or just walking around.
So the origin on the feline is a lower third to one half rear
edge of the scapula.
And comes down and inserts onto the olecranon process of the
or the elbow.
So two forms, the higher more forward part
and it has a lower more posterior part.
And there's a furrow that separates those two.
So I'm drawing this. I'm trying to layer this, I'm drawing it
over some of those other muscles hoping it's not getting
too busy. So you can still see a little bit of the
transparency as these muscles go over one another.
But really trying to redesign the shape and that's what I'm
doing when I'm drawing with the black outline here. I'm taking
that shape that I've drawn with color and making a firm
statement thinking about very design-y angles and curves
while I'm doing it.
what we're gonna do now is group up the forearm muscles
and then we'll be more specific with them on a different
diagram. So you got to take this in baby steps. This is -
hopefully you've had some training with the human figure
in the same way
that there is the top of the forearm and there's the back of
the forearm. Okay, and these are specific masses.
Top of the forearm or the front, let's call it the front
of the forearm is the extensor muscles and I'm drawing that as
a group right now and on a horse these all - well on all
animals, but especially on say horses and bovines these
muscle stops above the wrist and then it's just
tendons that take and operate hooves so it gets very
narrow down there. Whereas with a lion right here same thing
except that the muscles are longer and they extend
a little bit further down into the carpal
And behind all of this is going to be a group called a flexors
so that would be the back of the forearm. So the extensors
originate at the external epicondyle
of the humerus.
And they are inserted on the back and front of the
metacarpus bones actually, so just think about that. It's all
starting up there in the upper arm bone, which is the humerus,
that's where their insertion is - or excuse me their origin
and then it goes all the way down to the metacarpal carpal
area and terminates there.
working my way up into the flexors.
Or will be, a few more strokes here.
Okay again flexors are useful in that they bring the
also known as a flexors of the elbow.
Okay the back of the arm, flexors, and the flexors originated at
the internal epicondyle of the humerus. So
they are also originating on the humerus just the back or
towards the back of it.
Again all the way down into the carpal and digits.
So that's what you're going to see a lot when you're drawing
the forearm of a cat. You're going to see that shape behind
the ulna so you can think okay the ulna is separating there's
a furrow there, a groove and in front of it is the extensors
and behind it is the flexors and extensors are starting a
little bit higher up on the humerus. So you start your arm
a little higher up and the flexors are starting a little
bit lower on the humerus below the ulna
So there are some design stuff.
Okay, a few ligaments completes that horse.
Okay, just redefining the shape, considering it as one big
Because the forearms can be very confusing. There's a lot of
individual muscle. So it's never a bad idea to group them
up into two sections in the beginning. You can do the same
thing with the legs. You could do the quadriceps and the
hamstrings as key muscle shapes or groups. And then as you get
further along your anatomical studies or if you want more
information, you can start breaking them down into
All right there a few highlights to
create some more dimension.
Once again flexors.
Okay now I want to go in and do a little more of the individual
aspects of some of the forearm muscles with the horse. So
we'll knock off the shoulder. We'll start with the humerus
and work our way down. So let me quickly lay in a humerus
the direction of the ulna, radius which is fused.
Carpus metacarpus down to the toes.
Okay, so this one is what I would consider,
you know it's the front, it's creating that bulge. It's
creating the strong curve we get in designing and this is a
very strong muscle on the human form as well. So this is your
extensor carpi radialis.
Okay origin is going to be the bony ridge on the outside third
of the humerus. So third of the way down, outside, inserting top
of the front surface of the metacarpal bone or the -what we
call the cannon bone
on the horse.
Okay, this one, this muscle fills up quite a bit of the
middle still in the extensor region. This is called the
extensor digitorum communis. Sometimes it's called and some
of the older books. They called the extensor pedis.
Okay, and this muscle originates
an extensive area in the outer front ridge of the lower end of
and inserting on the upper edge of the front of all three toes,
so it goes all the way down
and not only extends the wrist but operates the function of
all three toes. So on a carnivore this is going to
really fan out into
four tendons that for four fingers not counting the thumb.
But on the horse, no, just one.
So think about this muscle as traveling from the elbow to the
So right about there it's becoming tendinous. That little
red mark was called the super genus. That was just a little
teeny external or an internal muscle I had to put in there.
Don't worry too much about it's very small, but it fills in
Okay, now we're the flexor region here.
This is the ulnaris lateralis known more commonly lateralis known more commonly
in some of the older books as flexor metacarpal externus.
outer surface is the - outer surface of the lower end of the
humerus is where it originates.
Behind the elbow joint ligament and it inserts on the top and
outer surface of the carpal mass, the pisiform bone.
Well, not the carpal mass but the - behind the carpal mass
which is the bone that sticks out of the pisiform bone of the
What it does is it flexes the wrist joint, also extends the
And is it even though it's
really considered a part of the extensor group of the forearm,
the muscle functions like a flexor of the wrist. So that's
why it has the name ulna or flexor associated with it.
Okay small muscle here.
It's actually a ligament of the peripheral muscle right up
underneath the ulna.
And that little muscle peeping through right there is called
the abductor digiti. Also known as the extensor carpi
So as peeping through but if it was to be just by itself, it
originates in the middle section of the outer part of
the radius and inserts onto the head of the inner splint bone.
Action is to extend the carpal joint.
Think of it as a flat triangular muscle
curving outside of the forearms down into the wrist ending in a
which wraps behind the carpal mass here.
Okay. Next up on the list is the brachialis.
Sort of wrapping around the humerus up there.
So this is just tendon and bone right here. I'm just filling it
in to create the lower edge below the wrist of the forearm.
Okay, so adding a few highlights just to make things
volumetric and greying in the area that is tendon and bone.
Lightening some of those tendons.
Okay. Now let's go over the front view of the
foreleg of a lion
get a different view of some of these carnivore forearm
So I kind of start with a little bit of the humerus as it
meets the radius and the ulna, working my way down into a
slight three quarter front, but mostly front,
view of the paw. General to specific here. Just giving
myself a volume so I can have something to hang these muscles
on top of and insert them into.
Okay again starting with the bicep right from the front,
right on top of the humerus, inserting into the radius only
just below the elbow joint.
You really see the ovoid shape of the fleshy muscle
you know the head is present there, but the rest of it is a
tendon that works its way down.
Going over the humerus and the radius there.
Okay responsible for a lot of the supination and pronation
rotating of the palms that you see with the big cat. with the big cat?
Okay supinator longus.
The supinator longus originates -
it's a short line on the outer edge of the humerus, about
halfway down, and insertion is going to be
a little bit further down the dog. It's going to be on top of
the bony prominence of the inside area and the radius.
Lower end of the radius obviously. It's action is to
flex the elbow joint.
Supinate the forearm, rotate the palm inward and forward.
Obviously on a cat because a dog's forearm does not supinate.
Okay, that's a long thin flat muscle, very developed in felines,
also in primates actually.
Very reduced or absent in dogs and completely absent in the
horse and the ox so it's a special, almost a special feline
muscle. Okay. Next up on the list is the extensor
Talked about this one on the horse.
Extensor digitorum communis.
You can really see how on the the feline here. The outer - the
origin is the outer side of the lower end of the humerus, coming
down and inserting on to the last bone of the four outer
And that one in red there is the as well is the extensor
So when you're drawing a lion's foot, when you fan out for those
tendons that right in front of the toes,
you know, it's coming from the extensor digitorum communis.
All right, in here
we're dealing with the flexors.
Two muscles here.
So one of these muscles
is the pronator teres and that is the green one, the triangular
one, that comes from the edge of the inside of the arm.
Okay. So anyways as I
complete a little bit of this paw you can see how
I'm going over the form here now with some cross contour
lines, you see how it sinks in right here and it goes down on
the outside edge. So remember there's that groove, that furrow,
that's in there. And then that is - it has a lot to do with the
way these cats walk with the radius and ulna rotating over
one another the way they do, creates that furrow.
Okay, just going to come in and
rough in some very basic
That muscle that I just drew is called the extensor of the
first metacarpal bone.
It's a thin muscle.
Okay, so a few tendons here to wrap things up.
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1. Lesson Overview48sNow playing...
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2. Canine Side View10m 18s
3. Canine 3/4 front Continued13m 5s
4. Forelimbs18m 0s
5. Forelimbs Continued20m 35s