- Lesson details
Expert animal draftsman and painter, Joe Weatherly, breaks down the complex subject of animal anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe explains the critical muscles and bones to analyze when dealing with animal anatomy and explains their relative importance. Joe will draw a horse, starting with the basic forms and skeleton working from the skeleton outwards.
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Joe Weatherly breaks down the complex subject of animal
anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will
learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you
will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal
with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe
analyzes the structure of cats and working from the profile
view. Joe will demonstrate the curves and overall structure of
the vertebral skeleton and teach you a strong methodology
to approaching animal anatomy.
really useful exercise but to do on your own, but also it
just it's nice to help with your knowledge of a skeleton to
be able to see, you know, where some of these bones hit on top
of photograph of a real animal. So
I'm going in real broad here with some simplified
brush shapes from Photoshop, just so we can take a look here
at where some of these things take and line up in the living cat.
So that is about where the rib cage is going to be and the
first strokes I put down was the spine. Here's some of those
thoracic vertebrae raising up into this, you know,
scapular area. Well the shoulder blades are going to cover that
soon but that is, you know, part of that wedge shape that
creates the outline of the back.
Okay, this is pretty much a side view. So there's the
pelvis in a side view and what's important here is seeing
where the ischium is, where it touches below, where the -below
the gluteus muscle. The sacral tail vertebrae right there,
and also where the hole is where the femur locks into the
sort of - well, the great trochanter of the femur.
Occipital ridge of the skull
and, you know, what is happening with this is we have
to be able to see the skull in order to draw a convincing head.
So that is why I want to see what this cheekbone lines up,
how sticks up and goes back,
where the eye sockets would be roughly. This is not an exact
science right here. This is just taking gestural lines
and creating a simplified skeleton. Skeleton.
The cutout for the nasal plane.
So the tiger has a lot of fur behind its
chin there all the way back to the edge below the ear.
So you got to think where is the jaw in there and what is not
necessarily the jaw? So again, some cats like the Jaguar has a
very tight muscular face, but some cats like the tiger, at
least some of the more mountainous region tigers,
colder region tigers like the Siberian tiger, they have a lot
of fur on the sides of their cheeks. So you got to be able
to differentiate that from the jaw.
Switching to a different color to show some of the other bones.
We have the scapula. That one was easy to see.
Goes right up into the shoulders
and comes down and terminates into the point of the shoulder.
The point of the shoulder is going to be,
as we've said before, the humerus, the junction of the
humerus and the bottom of the scapula.
So there's a bottom of the humerus.
Again, these bones are simplified right now. There is
the top of it, has a slight curve as it goes down.
Behind all this you get the elbow,
which is the ulna. Remember on a carnivore, especially a cat,
the radius and the ulna are separate and they are not fused
like they are with the ungulate, such as a horse or a bovine.
Front of that you get the radius and that drops down a
little bit lower.
Simplifying the toes, the wrist the carpal mass and how
the toes kind of fan out onto the bottom,
into the actual fat pads themselves.
Alright so I indicated that the kneecap.
Femur is buried inside the body, the upper leg bone,
fairly short, comes down
right about there and then below it you're going to get
And that gives the crest below the kneecap that sticks out on
so many of these animals as a landmark. Okay that comes into
the heel, the calcaneus sticks up, very prominent shape there.
So the tibia and the fibula, a group of bones there, which
would constitute the lower leg, the fibula being a skinny one
I just drew on the edge.
And then again the carpal mass, which is your ankle on a human,
and then down into the tarsal bones, which the animal's, you
know, then walking upon its feet - or excuse me its actual
toes. It becomes the feet.
Okay, just simplifying the directional shape here.
Few directional lines for the actual ribs themselves.
Anyways, this is a good exercise. I recommend that you
do it on top of photographs. You can print them out black
and white or you can do it on the computer like I've done it.
You can put tracing paper over photograph, lots of ways of doing
it, but you can't get enough of this stuff. It's you know, we
gotta draw the skeleton obviously with good
draftsmanship, but you also want to take and put a paper or
something over a photograph so you can actually see where
these things, you know, just like a mystery. Try to find out
where the bones kind of pop out.
What I'm doing now is laying in some pivot points and that's
what the bones take and bend.
And that creates the movement.
Okay felines. This is the feline demonstration, the first
one. It's going to be
Side view of
well, the cat that I'm modeling this after is the jaguar.
So the proportions are going to be very
stocky and muscular. But the thing with the feline is it
doesn't matter if you're drawing a house cat or a
it's basically all the same thing. It's just a matter of
proportions to fit the particular breed
or a domestic or wild cat that you're talking about, you know,
so okay anyways,
jaguar serves as a good model for a big cat.
And what I'm doing now is laying it in like I always lay
it in with just a few simple skeletal lines getting the
gesture down so to speak. Spirit of the pose. And working
on a few simple shapes just to get, you know, get it
fleshed-out. I like to go in for the head fairly soon after
I get the pose I want. I got the arms how I wanted them, got
got the legs how I wanted them in a general sense. Everything is
ready to be moved around if it needs to be
but just, you know, overall what I'm looking for is some good
weight, you know, this is a diagram. It's very - it's gonna be an
informative drawing, didn't want to get too crazy. So keeping it
as a side view is great for learning tool.
But I don't like to twin the legs, that's a big
no no. Now so I push one leg back, push one leg forward,
give it a little bit of attitude and a little more
variety in the leg positions I guess you could say. Okay, so
just laid in a few basic deals here. Now I'm working on the
cheekbone area here and the -
some of the planes of the head. And there's eyes like a
triangle shape from the side. The nose is like a triangle
shape from the side. And the nasal plane as it goes down is
very straight. And then when you get down to the nose
itself is very fleshy and soft and it turns down again.
The ear - animal's ears can move,
obviously they can move a lot more. Well humans can't move
their ears, but they animals can move their ears in many different
directions. Cats too even though it's not as much as a the it's not as much as a
horse. So think about that as a very sort of elliptical shape
and the side view of the cats ear you got the
cartilage and you have to draw through. So that is like an
ellipse sitting on top of the side of the back of the skull.
Alright working my way down.
Little bit of the neck, now that triangular muscle right
there, the highlighted area is very nice transition. So it's
not just jaw and then you go into the neck. But yet you have
this small shape there that transitions. And you want to
look for transitions
all over the body. You have transitions in everything. So
we'll talk about more of those in the legs and so forth as we
Okay. Now when you're drawing a feline you got to think about
feline, you got to think how they -
well, you guys think what their habitat's like and that and how
they eat and that determines how they're built. So in this
particular case, we have an apex predator of its - of where
it lives and it's built for that. It's, you know, it's got
this narrow rib cage and that is one of the core masses we
talked about earlier.
One of the three core masses that joins the spine and then
I'm carving at the lumbar area, the lumbar area again on a
cat is very long. Hitting the elbow down here and
really what I'm trying to do now is to get my straight
against curves going. So I have - there's a transition right
there, that skin flap, and
this is going to pop a little bit for the loins. Remember like I said
carnivores their loins arch. So you get some vertebrae there
and then we get a little bit of an arch right there. It's more
curved than it would be on a horse or a bovine and keep in
mind that I'm making a diagram. I'm specifically constructing
so everything is going to be very diagrammatical. So it's
going to be hard edged. This is
not really doesn't stand out this much on a cat but to make
my point you need to know this. This area right here rolls over.
The loin's like a big cylinder, think of the sacral spinalis
muscles like these big tubes that run across the back and
then it sinks in and it catches tone. If you're sculpting that
you got to pop pop a plane in there and
and then it comes back out again. So that's how you get -
and if you look at a cat from the top or a lot of animals they're
very narrow. It's like - it's really narrow there. So,
okay coming down here. I'm working a little bit on that
tensor fascia shape. I have the pelvis tipping down and I want
to do a leg shape so to speak, so that kind of included the
knee, the quadriceps and the hamstrings in that move. The
gluteal area is going to be around across the top. So very around across the top. So
a lot of information here. Just
whatever you don't understand you could always research later.
This stuff takes time.
All right. Now I want to throw some bones in this particular
drawing just because it's important to see how the
skeleton relates inside of the body and how it affects the
surface form. So I'm drawing the shoulder blade here, the
scapula, and how meets with the humerus. Now that upper arm
bone, the humerus, is curved as it comes down it hits the ulna.
Okay. We're going to go over the arms, the bones of the
skeleton of the arms and the back legs in separate sections, but
it never hurts to hear this stuff over and
over again. So the basis of the mechanics of this cat is
understanding how to make the skeleton look good.
All right, just give us some directional lines to the rib
Again, note the space between the last rib and where the
pelvis starts, which I haven't drawn in yet. But you get the
idea there in the hips. Getting that spine going through
all the way to the tail, continue - the sacrum is a
continuation of the spine. I've just drawn a circle there. That
is the great trochanter area of the femur. Now I'm drawing the
pelvis as it tips down.
Okay very simplified but it fits into that spot. The back end of
it's the ischium that's given that little push at the edge,
the femur. I've just drawn the indication of the gesture of
the femur coming down.
And in front of that obviously is going to be quadriceps,
behind it would be the hamstrings. Okay, bottom of the
tail are the sacral and tail vertebrae coming out there in
purple. Tibia, fibula
kind of group together right there and then we have the calcaneus.
That's the heel bone. So
that shows us how this animal is walking upon its toes.
Rhythm, very important, getting the rhythm in those feet before
I get into any kind of actual power. Okay, landmark here.
Zygomatic arch, cheekbone, very big on a carnivore, especially
a cat. Huge.
Little bit of the skull I'm putting in here just so you can
see, the fleshy part of the nose and nasal plane, some of the
the actual jaw itself 's tucked in nice right there. And the chin
on a cat juts out this a little bit.
So some of these demos we'll just do straight boxes,
cylinders, ovoid shape, spheres, things like that. And just keep
it that way and some of them I want to put skeleton in so you
guys get an idea of what's going on with the bony
Now, I'm just starting to refine a little bit. I'm going
to add some tone to these drawings. Again this area
is the area near the hyoid bone that's transition.
That's the masseter area that is - it juts out quite a bit and
has a tight little shape on a cat like that
that tucks underneath the zygomatic area. Plane change
from the inside of the eye,
down through the nasal plane.
I should say eye socket not eye.
make it a little more organic and flesh it out so it's not
completely diagrammatical. So that's why what I'm doing here
with a little bit of thick and thin
in this particular brush I have. Okay scapula, again I want to
make a note there. That's the spine of the scapula which is
That faces upward like that. Scapula is giving you that sort
of pop in the withers right there or the changes the
contour shape of the shoulder somewhat.
This a tricep shapes right there. And I'm doing them simple,
keeping them very easy going right now. We'll get into the
actual muscles later.
But that mass behind the humerus for the most part is
the tricep shape. And it really gets muscular on a big
cat. If you're looking at a lion walking,
which is easier to see than a jaguar because of the spots,
but you will know what I'm talking about when they put
pressure onto their leg, tricep flexes and it's quite muscular.
All right, the elbow area is very important and that sort of
happens right as the leg is leaving the body next to the
rib cage. The ulna creates that, so you want to have the elbow
shape there. That is - that's the latissimus dorsi shape. I said
I wasn't going to do too many muscles but I lied. Putting
some muscle shapes in here hard not to because we are dealing
with an animal that is very muscular.
restating the arch in the loins there.
And it's good to play that against the straight area
of the chest. So you have an offset straight against the
curved there. Curve being the loins arched as they are
and the straight being the rib cage, underneath the rib cage
sternum area, which is kind of hidden by the arm somewhat.
Alright again emphasizing the tonal aspects of the loins
there, how it rolls. It's rolling over the lumbar
vertebrae and the muscles that go over and through those
the actually that part of the spine.
That's a good transition right there that muscle, that
triangular shape muscle that leads from the torso to the
inside of the leg.
Very necessary transition on cats, especially mountain lions
that's huge. It's a very stretchy, flexible skin muscle.
Alright then sartorius shape.
Okay. Now what I'm doing is kind of going over that with a
line so you can see how the sculptural quality is of the sculptural quality is of
Rib cage pops out, sinks in for the
loins, comes back up for the sartorius and back down again
over the quadriceps.
Okay, that faces upward, that landmark would be the iliac
Hip bone on a human.
All right hitting some accents there. Now that was - that is the -
steps down right there for the glutes and then it goes into
the ischium, hamstrings fan out right there.
Hanging off of that backside of the ischium.
And then the leg, you know, leg is very long in the front,
very curved and shorter in the back
until it hits the heel on a feline.
Very important little circle I just drew there. That was
the Achilles tendon area. So there this little guy right
here is the gastrocnemius,
shape and then below that you see
how the muscle of the gastrocnemius
terminates into a tendon and hits the heel and then below
that you get that thin area.
Okay, patella, landmark of the kneecap, sticks out right there
and below that is the crest of the tibia and that is also a
That will create the second bump down. So you have the first
bump which is the patella and the second bump, very crucial as the
crest of the tibia because the tibia shin bone is very close
to the surface there as you can tell if you feel your leg.
You got to compare the stuff to the human anatomy, that's the best
way to learn.
Alright. So again, this animal is on its tarsal mass right
here. So the tarsal bone is coming down from the calcaneus,
the heel, and that puts the phalanges or the little toes
up on themselves, so they're not flat.
If it was flat
this cat could not walk or run or leap or do anything like it
normally would be able to, slow him down.
Okay, if you want to think flat on some animals, there aren't
too many that can do it, but the plantigrades would be
bears, they can walk flat but they also walk on their toes
quite a bit.
you know, primates are always the exception. They can walk
any way they want, flat-footed, on their toes, on all fours, on
Front of the forearm is more curved than the back. The back
is in design is where the straight would be. The flexor
muscles have a tendency to be straighter,
even though they round off a bit. Overall you got a
strong round shape at the top of the forearm, the front, and
then you have behind that's the elbow and then you have a lower
straight shape. So you got to think about your design, straight
against the curve.
Okay, simplified paws, but I'm thinking about the toes. The
pinky toe facing us and then you have the two toes in the
middle. That's all we can see
next to that and those stick out further.
Just want to indicate the actual contour shape of the
And sometimes it's easy to do that. Just give it some tone.
And I do this all the time at the zoo. the zoo.
Just knock in some tone and
get the shape right and it looks good.
Same thing for the back leg. Just going to get the basic
rhythm going first, rhythm's very important.
Coming along the bottom, getting the toes.
So the paws in the back are a little daintier than the pause
in the front. The paws in the front is the business end of
the cat. They they do the work.
The ripping and the tearing. The back legs they just help with
And another reason these paws look the way they do is that
they're, you know, heavily padded for quiet tread and
sneaking up and ambushing
So they may be heavily clawed, but they have pads underneath
Okay, so just refining,
again, refining some of the features, adding some accents,
punching some things up with the nose here.
The mouth on this cat is,
you know, it's sort of this thing where if you get it
looking - if you get the mouth too high up and looks like the
animal's smiling. So they sort of have this dragging
area here. There's a muscle that actually creates that so
the mouth stops right about where I'm drawing right now and
oftentimes that is left open or kind of sags down
on a cat. Does on a dog too, but even a bear but it's much it's even a bear but it's much
And there's - that's the plane change right there. So you see
there's the muscles leading to that. It's the zygomatic
muscle that is the big one that comes down and creates the end
of the mouth right there.
Shorter neck in the carnivores then with the than then with the
plant-eating varieties. Obviously, their food doesn't
have to be taken from trees or the ground so they don't
really need a long neck to get to their food. So they have a
shorter more compact neck, especially cats. Dogs can have a
longer neck, but it's still short compared to other
don't eat meat.
Okay, there's the head of the humerus. That's a landmark,
that's pushing out right there. It's very useful in a three quarter front
view which we'll see in the horse.
And it's sort of the - a good way to measure that tombstone shape
when you find the top of the head of the humerus.
Spine of the scapula is a landmark.
So one of the things you might notice about the build of this
cat is how short and stocky it looks as compared to a leopard,
which is going to be a little more streamlined. Still small,
but more graceful looking, not as blocky, not as robust as the
Little arrow there to indicate again there's a step down or
a plane change from the gluteus muscles into the ischium.
Okay just tying down this paw.
Remember pressing those paws, fingers, onto the ground plane.
It's important to get good alignment in the feet too. You
want to make sure the legs are lined up but also the feet all
touch the same ground plane line.
A common mistake for beginners is to get the legs
or the feet lower or higher in different planes.
In other words one foot higher, one foot lower, and animal's not -
unless the animal's on an incline or decline.
Wouldn't make sense.
Okay. Well anyways, this has been the feline side view demo.
Jaguar has been the model and I hope you guys get your
first dose of this great carnivore and see what
attributes make it truly feline.
the vertebral skeleton. So remember the skeleton is by far
the most important part of the anatomy
from the artist point of view. It's the basis of everything.
It's really necessary to understand how the bones are
arranged, how they move, and before making a real big
attempt at understanding the muscular system. So having said
that we are going to go over the
bulk of the skeleton right now. We're going to go over
everything except what we refer to as the skeleton of the limbs,
which are the supports and means of propulsion to the
vertebral skeleton. So basically everything except
the arms and legs are going to happen right now and why this
is important is because it's going to teach us about the
three core masses that every mammal has and those being
the skull, the thorax, or the rib cage, and the pelvis. And what I'm
is laying in the framework of a carnivore. And a carnivore is
going to have
a framework that's more pliable or more flexible than a
So it might look a little different in that sense
but the thing is is that it's going to have, you know, similar
aspects to any mammal. So I'll point out a few of the
differences as we go but we - I'm drawing a lion at this point
and that is even more flexible in the framework than a canine,
so to speak. So anyways be a good subject to do it on. Okay
laying in the skull, skull is you know, one of the three core
masses I'm talking about. It needs a special study will talk
about the bones of the head again, but for now we got to
put a head on the spine. So I'm laying that in and you can
already see being a carnivore that I've thrown in. Very large
cheekbones there, eye sockets. Although it's not always easy
to see on a side view but the eye sockets are facing more
forward and you have a different kind of a brain case
with a larger wedge shape on top of it. We'll get to the
brain case in a little while. That's important. Okay. So now I'm
going into the cervical area. So the spine itself
has two bones in the neck that are little different than the
rest of them. The first one being the atlas which holds up
the head and the second one being the in the axis, the second
vertebrae, and that is actually
a bone that has the largest spinous process from the top
and the bottom -
excuse me from the top and the sides. Okay. So atlas is there,
head spins on that. Axis
is actually a landmark, you can see the wing of the atlas - or
excuse me the wing of the axis -
as a landmark on the side of the neck
on - especially on the horse. It's the wings. Obviously we got to
look at it from a top view to see what I'm really talking
about. You could also see that
how its profile changed. How we had that -
well, it's the longest and largest of the series. Okay, the series
So as I go down I'm laying in a simplification of a spine. The
spine is very round very cylindrical. It's, you know,
think about it as a modified cylinder, tubular round. Okay,
so we're looking at it from a side view. So it's not as
to see it that way but
for simplicity just - ant everything's going to be
simplified in this series, but for simplicity, I'm omitting a
lot of the chain of vertebrae that run from the top
to the bottom with the exception of the atlas and the
axis which I wanted to point out. Okay, so I'm just shading
this in. Now remember again, spine, life force within the
drawing, within the subject. The gesture really dependent the gesture really dependent
upon knowing this, the line of action, all that stuff. And
animals no exception. Very flexible spine. It moves around
quite a bit
when animals are walking, running, anything.
okay, so going down into the sacral area there into the
And above all this - so anyways, the neck has, like I said, seven
vertebrae but on the - behind that we have the thoracic
vertebrae and those
dorsal area, the dorsal spines sort of stick out of this. I'm
going to try to simplify it here into a more of a wedge shape
for the profile so you can see what I'm talking about. But each rib
sort of has - except for the last last two on certain carnivores -
has a dorsal spine that sticks up. And that whole area is going
to get simplified as blue.
Cat has 13 of these. I'll mark this but so every animal is a
little different. Obviously a horse is a much bigger animal,
much longer. They have actually an 18 dorsal vertebrae. The
Lumbar vertebrae changes a little bit too.
As does the sacral, remember the cervical vertebrae in the neck
stays pretty consistent for almost every mammal, giraffe to
mouse, horse, ox, goat, pig, camel, whatever, seven. And it's just a
matter of how long they are. For example giraffe's going to have
very long vertebrae, very massive vertebrae. There's
still only seven. Okay, so that's the cervical area. We
got to know that that's the neck.
Seven in there.
Now with the dorsal vertebrae,
on the carnivore
we see a slightly less number.
Now scapulas on a lot of animals will meet that line at
the top of the dorsal vertebrae. And so the line
you see in the back, the outline is actually caused by
the dorsal vertebrae, but in other animals, for example,
some animals like the cat the scapula actually raises above
the dorsal or thoracic vertebrae and it's the scapula
the creates the outline or the hump shape we see in the
withers. Now my next set here is
behind the dorsal vertebrae
is the lumbar area. So this is the lumbar vertebrae
I'm working on you can see how they change direction a little
bit there. They're kind of going the opposite direction
slightly of the thoracic.
And those are simplified as well.
Only seven lumbar vertebrae going to take place in the carnivora.
So we actually have a wider longer process in the bones,
which don't interfere with all the action
that they have.
Also you'll note and I'll go over this again when we get
into more of the form drawing is that
the lumbar area of the carnivores are typically arched,
whereas on a horse or a cow for the most part they're very
level. So we'll see that arch a lot. So I think about like a
greyhound dog or something, how the back's fairly straight and
when it gets to the lumbar area, it really pops into an
arch and that's created partly from those seven vertebrae in
there. Okay, laying in another core mass here of the pelvis and
the pelvis is the hip bones and that is tipping down on animals.
Very important bone, very narrow in a carnivore. The carnivore
has the narrow hips for design for maneuvering, leaping, running,
that sort of thing as opposed to the herbivore or the
ungulates that have
need of running long distances, they have a much wider pelvis.
Different kind of a deal. We're talking about apex predator
here, the lion, so the pelvis has to be very snug.
Okay, and then the yellow shape above and between the pelvis is
sacrum area. So that's the sacral vertebrae. Tail, the tail
area, starting to the tail.
And this area on a horse is called the croup. Maybe some of
you know that.
area very, you know, well as I saying before - I think I've seen
this before - the tail is not, maybe not in this video, but I
said it. The tail is not just popped onto the edge there. The
tail is a continuation of the spine, spine starting at the
base of the skull coming all the way down to the tip of the
tail. So, you know, the tail is the most flexible part of the
spine. It's composed of the custodial vertebrae so it can
be very short or very long in the carnivores. Typically
there's 18 little bones in a horse's tail but
no one's going to really measure those.
However, you know, like I was saying before in certain forms of
sculpture when measuring is important this stuff takes and
becomes useful. So, you know, maybe not in a gesture drawing
or a painting where the tail could be like doing something
different, you know, going away from us or something like that.
We can hide certain things.
Okay, so those sections you want to know of the spine.
Cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and tail.
The biggest core mass, the rib cage, I'm laying this in right
now, on a cat or a carnivore is very narrow at the front and it
sort of fans out as it gets
towards the - well towards the pelvis and also keep in mind
that beats the area between the pelvis and the ribcage,
that space in the lumbar area, the loins, is longer and roomier
in a carnivore, especially a cat, than it is in a hoofed
animal or an herbivore.
Cat's going to need some space there
in the area I'm talking about to maneuver, leap, run,
twist, all the things we we're talking about before with the
predatory habits of this animal. Whereas some animals
like the horse, bovines, the pelvis is very close to the
last rib. Last rib here is a floating rib. That's why it's
kind of hanging off like that.
Just indicating the direction here of the ribs, I'm not going
to - I'm not laying an individual ribs I think for our tutorials
here. We going to keep things very simplified and sculptural.
So you can just give the direction here, the directional
ideas how the planes change. Okay some planes facing
up and it hits a core shadow and things start to turn a
And that way we can see, again
we can start to see this stuff like we're thinking
sculpturally like it's the beginning of something.
Sternum is very keel shaped like a boat or you know, it
reminds people of the you know, the keel of a boat.
It's the middle of the rib cage, it definitely
useful to know in a front view, three quarter front view because that's
the middle and that's how we measure things.
It sticks out a little bit, has this zyphoid process on the
This shape is called the brain case and
it's essentially like an egg shape, very ovoid. It's much
smaller in animals than is in humans and it's really
elongated so that is important because when you're
constructing a skull you can kind of get that,
the backside going like that, like an egg and you can hang like an egg and you can hang
the face on top of it and you see how the face kind of juts
out in front of that.
Whereas on a human profile to face kind of go straight down.
Animal not the case, the nasal plane, the mouth, everything,
you can almost think about the skull like a pair of tongs on
an animal. The top and the bottom part, the jaw part. Very
And I want to do another quick view, very simplified of the rib
Just to show you that you know, it's good to draw it with the
spine. And also it's really important to draw the rib cage
from different angles. You can draw, you know, three quarter front, three quarter
back, side views, front views, you know, list goes on.
Simplified. When I see students going to the
museum and drawing these
and they have drawn every rib, I think that's a nice still life
you are, you know, a lot of them do it and I just go up
there and I tell them, you know, just draw this as a mass, draw
it as a shape, you know, it's not what's important is how
it's going to influence the surface form -
excuse me - of the animal.
No need to draw the all the shapes of the ribs unless you
like doing that. But what is important is you understand the
shape of this thorax, you know, and how it looks when it hits
the edges of animal. Helps fill in the animal's torso.
Go for a really quick simplified view of the pelvis of
And you'll notice how the
crest of the ilium there
kind of tips out a little bit. You get the hole in the middle
that is, you know, well not really a hole but as the two
bones are coming together and create that cavity there and
the sacrum goes in between that.
There's the ischial arch.
And how the leg comes out, then the femur kind of hits - the head
of the femur hits this area called the cotyloid cavity
and you get the ball and socket joint there. Ball and socket
similar to a human though not as
much range of motion, especially not in horses, which
have - horses have a very scissor-like motion as do a lot
of animals, but the carnivores have a little more rotary
motion. Now this
faces outward, that's the crest of the ilium, whereas on a horse or
a cow that sort of faces upward.
All right, just a few strokes here just to sort of semi
fill in the lion or lioness, whatever it's going to be to
show you, you know, how some of these bones look inside the
Never a bad idea to draw skeletons in your drawings and
vice versa. Draw skeletons and then put the animals around
Okay. Well, I'm just writing this down now. Carnivore
is what our demonstration was on. Lion.
And the carnivore has a pliable frame.
Much more pliable than the herbivore.
All right then. So this was the three core masses of the
vertebral skeleton, joined by the spine.
Get to know them.
Other than this it's just the arms and the legs and that
would complete the skeleton, the forearms, and the hind legs. So
three core masses, you get skull or head,
And then you have the pelvis.
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1. Lesson overview48sNow playing...
1. Tiger Skeleton and Cat Construction16m 40sNow playing...
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2. Continuing Large Cat Construction16m 3s
3. Skeleton Construction15m 29s
4. Skeleton Construction Continued5m 15s