- Lesson details
Our Daily Life Drawing Sessions are free timed reference videos that allows artists to practice figure drawing from images of life models. Now, we’ve taken this popular resource and put a new twist on them — demonstrations from your New Masters Academy instructors! In this second installment in the series, master artist Glenn Vilppu draws along with you, working from Daily Life Drawing Sessions #6 through #10. Glenn shares his thoughts on these poses and shows how the fundamentals of gesture and structure apply equally from medium to medium. He demonstrates this by working in fountain pen, water color, and pencil. To maximize your learning experience, we encourage you to work from the drawings sessions yourself first so that you can compare your drawing decisions with those of Glenn.
- Namiki Falcon Fountain Pen
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine and Black
- Winsor & Newton Watercolor (Homemade Altoids Palette)
- Pentel Water Brush
- Drawing Paper
Discuss this video in the forums!Discuss
practice figure drawing from images of live models.
Now, we’ve taken this popular resource and put a new twist on them.
Demonstrations from your New Masters Academy instructors.
In this second installment in the series, master artist Glenn Vilppu draws along
with you working from daily life drawing sessions six through ten.
Glenn shares his thoughts on these poses and shows how the fundamentals
of gesture and structure apply equally from medium to medium.
He demonstrates this by working in fountain pen, watercolor, and pencil.
To maximize your learning experience, we encourage
you to work from the drawing sessions yourself first.
I hope you’re having fun doing this. If you don’t have fun you’re not going to learn it.
That’s one of the critical things for learning, having fun in the process of doing it. Keep it up.
Okay, I’m doing the drawing on the left. Now, a lot of the drawings I’ve been doing
with the pen. But, I’m taking and working with the pencil. Really feel the flow across,
going over the surface. Across where the pelvis, shifting; it’s really quick. Coming in, flow.
Now, I’m doing this exactly the same way I actually start long drawings, feeling
the action. Come through, across, arm lifting up, coming over. Then, if time permitting,
I will come back and do a little more emphasizing how the parts relate to each other. Feel the
stretch of the stomach. Feel the corner of the pelvis in the pubic area, the pinch. Go
over the surface of the form. Come through. It sort of interesting pose. It’s nice the
way the leg gets twisted, turned in the opposite direction here.
Okay. I’m doing the drawing on the right. Now, again, here we really take and indicating…
Notice I start every drawing pretty much the same way. Pull through, feel the action going
across the form and over. As I’m doing down taking the color of the pelvis. Pinch, through.
Lead the eye. Work with the natural rhythm of the figure, how one part flows into the
next. Back in. Shoulder, arm coming back, going in. Now back to the pit of the neck.
Indicate breasts. I want to feel the push of the rib cage, so I emphasize that a bit
more. Feel the pinch coming stronger. Pick up the navel. Come through. Go over the surface.
Little too over the surface there.
Okay. Here we go. Now, here she is turning away. Feel the pull. There’s a real twisting
taking place, so I want to actually come across. Now I draw, when I’m working with something
like I’m drawing stuff I don’t see. I really just want to feel the way that twist
is taking place, so I’m the twist, not the lines that I see. Coming through. Back. Shoulder
pushing up, coming back. Feel the pinching now that I’m drawing, actually trying to
feel a sense of the rib cage coming in and fitting in. Arm coming back and through, down.
I want to feel the pelvis going over the surface. In, over, and through. The other arm taking
stretching. Really push the neck.
Now in this reclining pose, even though it is reclining I will take and start with the
head. Really full the pull. Particularly now I want to feel that rib cage, feel the stretching
down. Come in to the pelvis. And the legs pulling back up, coming down. So it’s really
the feeling and come through. The arms stretching back going back over, now going over the surface
and through. We’re going to feel this fitting in. Push the corners of the thoracic arch
and navel. Hit the pelvis coming in. Feel the compression taking place. Follow around,
go over the surface. Around, across. I have students tell me that when they’re drawing
they hear my voice in the background.
Okay. Now, we’ve got this really strong stretch. Going back in. Really pull. Feel
the pull as she is coming forward this way and going over, going over the surface, feeling
the pull. Coming across. Feel the pelvis going over the surface. Coming through. Feel that
leg coming out. It’s a 3-dimensional form coming forward, coming through. Then we’re
going back in. Feel the pull. It’s the rhythm. The shoulder is lifting. Feel the lifting
up, coming across. Going over the other shoulder is really pushed in and figure it’s coming
down. So now as I come through I’m going to go over that, push in, through, indicate the breast.
Okay, drawing a little bit slower. Feel the pull. Really feeling the stretch. Lead the
eye across, through the form. Go over the surface, coming through. Think of the volume.
Pinch, pinching across the sacrum. Coming through. Indicate that she is seated on something.
Coming in. As that leg goes back it’s a series of overlapping cylinders going back
in, coming forward, through. The other foot, the same thing. It’s coming forward.
We're getting an overlapping.
Feel the wrist, the arm is coming through.
Now, I’ll go back and I really want to feel the pinch. We can feel the ear is much higher fitting in and
actually use something of the hair to give an indication of direction. Force the ribcage
out more. Come through, feel the pull. This is fitting in. We come over the surface, coming
through. Feel the compression. Then we’re wrapping around, adding that. I want to feel
the corner of the shoulder up here a bit more, which I really don’t see very much of. Hands
coming around. Pinch, coming through, over. Series of cylinders, one fitting into the other, down.
Alright, in this pose she’s taking—it’s a pretty strong. But again, the main issue
here is to feel that the ribcage is really pushing out, and the pelvis is taking and
going in the opposite direction. So we have the going across, pulling around, going through
this way. So we’re talking about a really pinching forms coming in, fitting in, going
over. Now, get across, we’ll feel the stretch coming in.
This is a good point.
You'll hear a lot of times artists would refer to this as the line of action, this long stretching pose.
Keep in mind the line of action is not the gesture.
Through, in. Now, cut back push.
Feel the compression taking place. The arm is coming back, and I’m going over. Feel
the pull. Feel the scapula shoving up. Compression coming in. Here we feel the pelvis pushing
out, going over, down, full form. Now, if this comes back it’s really compressing
against the pelvic area and buttocks through, back. Think of the lines going in. Good corners
back here. It’s coming back towards us through. Then I’ll come back in and indicate a little
bit of the arm. Although in a really quick pose I don’t really worry too much about
the limbs. Those can be always dealt with later one. It’s the overall sense of the torso.
Now, feel the pull of the neck. Moving into the torso. Feel the pull of that torso pushing
out and over the surface. Coming in, down. Building as I go back into that leg going
over the surface at the same time. Show the direction. Come in. Pull across, over the
surface. Coming out. Down. Really feel the stretch now that the arm is stretching like
crazy. Going up, the other has got the pressure. Push down, coming back. Now I want to emphasize
the ribcage pushing out. Feel the ribcage and come in and really feel the spine and
of course the relationship of the pelvis. We feel it coming in. Pull, down. Feel the
overlapping in the buttocks now. It’s going through. It’s going back in. Over the surface,
coming back down. The pinching of the shoulders. The scapula is built on top of the ribcage.
Muscles are pulling up. Pinch, going through, overlapping of the head. Come back. Condyles
come in. Feel the pinch of the shoulder down. Pull through the neck coming around over the
surface, pulling down, over, dropping.
A little clumsy there. Through, over.
Pinch as that leg comes back overlapping, pull, cylinder, through, cylinder, coming over and fitting
into the foot. We will pull it back more. This one is taking and turning and through.
The turn of the foot is sort of a nice take.
Okay, now here in this pose I’m moving up here. Come across.
A lot of these similar sort of stretching really strong action.
This is one of the—this is actually an advantage
of working with a photograph in that these are not poses that could be easily held for
very long. Feel the pull coming across. Compression. Come through. Legs going back in. They’re
going over the surface. Going back in. That arm is really stretching out. Through, lifting
up. Going down through. Now, I want to really force the compression of the ribcage, the
scapula. Feel the muscles pulling across and really push the line of the spine to help
show that and push out on the ribcage and then feel the stretch to the pelvis. Go across
the sacrum. Feel the buttocks coming around. Pull through. Going over the surface.
Going in, through. Foot coming out, through, in.
Okay, now we can feel the pull of the arm.
Actually, I need to take and indicate the head a little bit more clearly.
We can feel the turn, pull. Scapula.
Now, we come into the—feel the trapezius coming across.
Pull through. Indicate the deltoid coming in.
Now, I come through and I can use just a very simple
rhythm of the figure itself. Natural flow of all the forms. Travel, come through.
Don’t travel, how they react with one another. Okay, going to make that pelvis push out a
little bit more. Make that ribcage even stronger.
Okay, now here we have a—I’m just sort of shoving her into the corner here. Down,
turn, and through. Now, it’s the really, feel the flow.
Now it’s going, so we’re thinking of the whole form taking and coming around.
Going across the surface and pelvis coming in.
Great pose. I’d love to have an hour or so with this.
Pose, going back in, through.
I’m constantly just working over the surface to show the direction in space.
Feel the foot coming in, the arm lifting up.
I could take a drawing like this, even a gesture drawing, very quick.
This is could be the beginning point of a painting, actually.
Most of my paintings I don’t work from models. I get most of it from sketches and drawing
from imagination. Okay, coming in, through. Indicate the eyes a little bit, coming across.
Now, feel, want to push this ribcage a bit more. Giving more than I see.
Push, form, through.
Feel the pinching that’s taking place.
You can feel the spine, really feel that flow.
Round and then come across, and if we start to go over, feel the form going
back. Stretch, feel the coming into where the trapezius, and we go across. Okay.
a little larger. Still, it’s always analysis. I’m drawing a little bit slower. Feel the
pull. Now, as that figure comes forward. It’s coming out this way. I’m going across the
form, going over the surface. Also, indicate the arm at the same time.
Feel the shoulder going back.
Coming forward now. The big point here is that there is actually a twist in
the pelvis. She’s turning. Notice that I don’t—I’m not drawing the outside contours.
I’m creating forms that will eventually create a contour.
Coming through, thinking placement name, coming in.
This leg is coming forward and strong foreshortening.
I'm really going over the surface of the form.
Now, it changes direction. Going down, in.
Going across, through.
This leg is taking and curling and coming across, down.
Pulling foot here, and so the other foot is taking and coming out here.
Now, as I go back and also the placement—she’s on a higher level here,
and it’s coming through, arm down. Now, I’ll go back in.
I’m thinking pit of the neck. Thinking underneath the chin. We’re looking up, under. Form
come through. Feel the pit of the, the pit of the neck, the cylinder of the neck here
coming through. Now it’s the ribcage. I’m drawing the ribcage.
I’m thinking of the complete form.
Draw from one side of the form. I draw towards the other. Go though. Coming
across. The breasts are high. She’s going back, so we’re feeling—the breasts are
here. The pecs are coming off of the ribcage. We can feel this stretching up over the arm.
Clavicle, trapezius would behind. This is really coming towards us. Now they come in.
Really focus on the pinch. The pelvis is coming through. Really feel how the form is fitting
in, coming across. Feel the stretching behind, coming through. Now, when drawing that leg
I’m thinking across the condyles, through. This goes down. We’re talking about cylinders
behind. One form building into another. Going over surface. At the same time we get both
legs here. A cast shadow becomes a tool to help show the roundness. Feel the push now
and take and focus on the fact that we’re getting a compression. Feel the thigh pushing
out, coming through. The end of the knee. That one is coming in.
Work to the condyles and to the patella.
Feel the vastus medius coming across and then the pressure, the other leg against
that overlapping is the part that comes in front. Pick up.
Now, this is coming out from behind in here.
This is coming through. Feel the cylinder going down.
Feel the ankle, foot, coming through.
Again, don’t rush. Try to be clear with what you’re doing.
These drawings are timed as 5 minutes, but as you’re working on your own try to do it quickly.
Don’t be worrying about the clock.
Worry about how you take and communicate the forms that you’re seeing.
Understanding what the forms are. Coming through. Feel the stretch coming from behind the ear.
Now that that arm is taking and coming forward, and we’re then going over like a cylinder
and through and back down. It’s going down. Feel the pinch. Go through and down. Wrist.
Again, I pay very little attention to tone particularly in gesture drawings.
Well, I shouldn’t say that. Sometimes working with a wash I spend a lot of time with the tone.
At this point it’s analysis. I come through, going up, fitting in.
Cylinder the movements. Come through.
Okay, now here we go with this. Again, this model is doing great in terms of giving us
all kinds of feelings for tension. Okay. Come through and around. Feel the pull, turned.
Beautiful pose. Coming across, going through. Tend to stretch it out.
I’m often asked about measuring as I’m doing drawings like this. I don’t.
I take and as Michelangelo said, “Use the eye.”
I feel the direction, I feel the length of the forms.
I look at the forms that I’m drawing and go from there.
Often, maybe there is going to be an idiosyncrasy, a change in proportions.
It’s a drawing. It’s not a photograph.
Coming through, feel the pressure pushing back. The scapula really shoving back in here.
So I want to feel the ribcage underneath and feel the spine coming down, pushing up. Going
over we can feel the pull of the trapezius coming across. The arms coming across, through.
Now, I draw through. I need to feel how these forms are fitting going down in, so I’m
taking and pushing down, feeling the forms pushing in. Going over the surface of the
form, through. Arms coming down, hands. Here, feel the wrist coming across the form.
Here's where it would be useful to use, for instance, the cast shadow is an indication of the change
in the direction of the forearm. It’s coming over. I want to feel a little bit more change
taking place, sensing the compression. Come through, hands coming in. Little indication
here. Now we’re going back over the surface. Around over the surface, pushing in. Leg is
coming over, going through. Coming across.
Here I would use the indication of a shadow-type thing to come across the form. Going through.
Notice that all of what I’m doing is trying to feel the action, feel the gesture, feel the pose coming through.
Feel the pinch building through. Push.
Though I’m very, very systematic on how I approach it. I’m not, it’s not
mechanical in a sense. It’s all based on a feeling of how the figure is going.
So now I can come in here, a bit more of a turn coming through. I changed how I’m holding
the pencil to be able to get a much sharper line as I come through. Over, over, feel that
trapezius come down. Push out the scapula. Sharper angle coming through. Feel the pushing
in these forms. Pushing in. Trapezius, sharp angle.
Come through over the surface. Pull through.
Feel the pinching. Actually need a bit more.
Actually, dealing with all kinds of muscles and stuff is actually more difficult,
so I don’t even worry about the muscles as far as just one minute.
All we’re focused on is the action so we feel a general sense of pull.
Go over the surface, coming in, sacrum.
Leg going back.
Okay, now figure on the right. So now we’re going back in.
With really quick poses what I do
is I get in sort of a rhythm of taking and doing the drawing then going
through working over and around at the same time quickly and through.
And if I have time I would go back in and carry it a little bit farther, but generally
with one minute don’t worry too much. It’s really the flow of the approach, and I rely
on just short of the natural rhythm.
Looking up through, again, feel the flow. He’s twisting.
I’m really thinking of the ribcage. Again, I’m just trying to feel the twist, pull. Come back.
I try to get into just a rhythm of taking and doing the drawing.
Paying particular attention to the pinching at the waist.
Feel the forms going across, going over.
So I go all the way through the drawing then come back and go through it again, time permitting.
Now, this pose I’ve changed my procedure a little bit because I didn’t start with the head.
Just in terms of the flow, the whole figure.
Then I’ll go back and I’ll feel the pinch, compression
try to feel even though I don’t see very clearly the thoracic arch I'm taking and coming back
and emphasizing it. Feel the compression, buttocks come over.
It’s coming out towards us. Feel the pull.
Okay, now as I start this. Same thing. I really try to feel the flow, and I’m thinking at
the same time I’m analyzing. I’m going over the surface of the forearm. Going through.
Feel the pull. As I go through I’m going over it at the same time. Feel the natural rhythm
going up the hand, pulling in here. Feel the shoulder coming across.
Build. In the case of these drawings, I’m not doing much of the construction.
I’m really just trying to feel the flow.
So now going back in, through, back and pit of the neck. I would vary according
to the kind of models I have now. Here take and feel the pull in the ribcage.
Feel the stomach. Feel the compression, waist. Feel the buttocks coming down. Now, come across
the knee. Pull through. The foot is being pulled back over the surface.
Arm, feel the pecs pulling back, coming around over the surface.
I can see where I can add more here.
Come through. Over.
Now, feeling a little bit more of the overall flow of things without starting with the head.
Going through. His head is coming down. Shoulders come through.
For a precedence of looking at the kind of drawing I’m doing, look at the Heinrich Kley and Honoré Daumier.
Very flowing, free approach to doing the drawing.
I go back. I really want to feel the stretch in the spine.
Feel the pull. We feel these really large latissimus coming through, across.
Feel the pull. Have to really make an effort at that waist and the buttocks.
Across the knee. Feel the stretching, across, come down how the ankle fits in.
It becomes a standard formula. The other foot is coming through, and feel the scapula.
Now, another really strong stretching pinch coming through. Feeling the twist.
Right away I’m going over the surface volume.
Okay, he’s seated. The other leg is coming up, coming down.
Foot is coming through. Feel the shoulder pushing up.
I go back in and push down.
I want to feel the ribcage underneath all this muscle and emphasizing the twist.
Pinch the waist. Compression.
Feel the pelvis pushing out.
Really large muscles. We can feel the bench pushing in.
Okay, now he’s really getting into a crunched-up pose here. Feeling the following through with
the neck and to the pelvis or ribcage. Feel the flow coming in. Keep going over the surface.
Pull back. Going over.
Notice as I’m doing this I’m constantly wrapping around
over the surface as I’m doing it. Feel the arm, shoulder lifting up. Going back up.
Now, I’ll go back in, and again, emphasizing the ribcage, pectoralis coming across, and
the compression that we’re getting at the waist. Pelvis, tenser muscle coming across,
buttocks. We can really feel the compression up here. Full vastus lateralis there. Biceps
of the femur coming in. Gastrocnemius soleus underneath. Come back.
Let’s take and get a little bit of the head here.
Now, I want to feel that scapula shoving up and back.
Neck coming through on both sides. The deltoid fitting in.
Okay. Now, here he’s taking and really going in. You see very little of the head. So I
have to be thinking of the neck all through. Going through and across at the same time
really turning so I can feel the scapula lifting up. Coming through on top. The other one is
coming down. Compression, feel the turn. Going over buttocks. Fitting in, really turning
that leg coming back at us so we get the foot coming out.
I’m drawing almost in a continuous line approach.
Direct drawing, well, it is very direct. Now, I went over the surface and back.
Emphasize, thinking of the pinch across the sacrum, get the buttocks coming
down. Feel that neck fitting in a bit more. Going to lift the shoulder, triceps.
I should say the trapezius, excuse me, pulling in.
The arm going back down. Feel the pull, stretch,
and really feel those sacrospinalis muscles going back up. Go over the surface and the
pinch, full thigh really coming in. Feel the knees straightening out into
these gastrocnemius soleus and fitting in.
Back over, get this coming in. Knees behind.
A bit more information as I’m going along.
There’s a natural sort of rhythm I’m taking in approaching doing the drawing.
Going over, around, through.
Feeling the forms as I’m doing the drawing.
Part of the difficulty with drawing with a pen is that it is very easy to get wrapped
into doing too much detail to start with and missing the sense of the whole. There is a certain
fear of the pen in that the marks stay there.
You don’t erase. In fact, during the Renaissance
a lot of the artists didn’t work with the pen because it was considered so difficult.
Now come through. Part of my skill in being able to draw with a pen was the realization that
as you take and develop form the random lines that you start with tends to start to just
become a texture of the drawing, and that I achieve through really studying the drawings
of Rubens and also looking at etchings. Not only looking at them, copying etchings particularly
by Rubens then looking at the many of the pen drawings by the artists like Michelangelo,
who would take and put in many, many lines.
So you can see slowly as I take and start to develop the form more I’m constantly
adjusting and changing, building through.
The primary tool is having a sense of, how can I put it—
Confidence in what you’re doing and at the same time being free of worrying
about whether it’s perfect or not. Never perfect. I don’t even know what that is.
But, we try to take and capture what’s in front of us although we all do it from a different
point of view. So as I’m doing a drawing you’ll find other artists who are doing
these series will be approaching it very differently than the way I do. It’s never a question
of one better or worse. It’s always a question of it’s a different artist.
Now, the more time I have the more of an opportunity to go back over.
In fact, often in a situation like this here’s where I would be taking and coming in and working
with the brush to start doing a lot of the drawing for me.
So the tone is being achieved just by the ink itself, taking and bleeding.
There is no color in this. This is just water. Then I go back into that.
I can take and achieve another layer of value as I started to build.
The pen, being an Namiki, has a broad range of line width.
Okay. Now, same thing. In the previous drawing I added wash all to the drawing.
Often I do that sometimes a day later, even a week later. There is no limitation on how you go back,
so the pen drawing and capturing a gesture, feeling the action of the pose. Then I can
come back in with the wash and work on defining spatial relationships, building the drawing.
But the primary reason I do it is that I like the look. I think the wash going back in on
top of the pen creates an interesting look to the drawing that I like. So that’s the
primary reason that I take and do it. So as I go back into this drawing then I can use
the wash now to take and define forms, create tones, values that help to show the action.
We’re coming in and feeling the pull, creating a side to the form. Now, as I go back into
that I have a whole range of values that I can take and work with.
Artists that you can look at that did this was Guercino. He really worked with the
leading line in a drawing. Coming through. If you’re not familiar with a lot of the
artists of the Renaissance you should look at them. They take and have really interesting
approaches and techniques of taking and doing drawings.
The subject matter doesn’t matter. You can take
and use these techniques to doing even fashion drawing. Through, feel the neck turning.
I can come back in and work into it. That’s a pretty big foot there.
One side constantly going over the surface to show the direction of the form in space.
Pick up a natural rhythm. How the leg is turned, going down.
Arm is coming forward.
Feel the stretch, breasts underneath.
Now, I’ll come back and push the ribcage. Come through.
I want to feel the compression and how we fit one form into another.
Now, the drawing is the pose on the right. So now I start from here.
Feel the pull and going through and go over, really pushing up high on one side.
Feel the ribcage inside.
Feel the pull coming across. Rhythm going over the surface, back of the sacrum.
Feel the dropping pressure. Down. Now, as I’m doing the drawing I’m constantly analyzing
fingers going in, through, coming back through.
Arms coming across. Here’s where the head is turned slightly. Pick up the shoulder.
Emphasize the spine.
Pull out a little bit more. Feel the ribcage.
Okay, the figure on the right. Notice that I don’t really move that hand very fast.
I’m just following from one part to the next, going over. Feel the twist across, down.
It’s following through, leading the eye from one part of the figure to the next.
Going over, around, back in, across, through. Arm coming back and coming out.
Now, I’ll take and I’ll push the ribcage a bit more. Emphasize the sacrum. I want to feel like—
changing in the angle of the buttocks to emphasize the pressure.
Feel the pelvis more across with the thigh.
Okay, now, she’s going through. It’s really all these round forms really taking and round,
over, through, around, pull. Back in, across, through, back.
Feel the pull, the stretch going up. Now, I can go back into this a little bit, and I want to look at the
sense of the real compression that’s taking place here again. Notice I’m always doing that.
I'm very consistent about focusing on the waist, the torso itself. Then we take
and we go back in and we can feel the compression, again going over, through.
Okay. Now the stretch. Really stretching out, through.
Feel the pull, the line I draw is feeling the stretch, lead the eye,
and I’ll come back over the surface. Then again, going
over the buttocks, coming through. Legs going back in, through, across.
Feel the shoulders lifting up. Feel the pull, lift. Arm is coming down.
I can push the spine. Take and feel
the ribcage pulling and come back at the sacrum. Come over, overlap, build, stretch, through.
Okay. Now, a little slower. Feel the pull, really stretching. Still taking and going
over. Feel the shoulders lifting. Notice the movement goes, corresponds to the action.
Going over the surface. Feel the pull, forms compressing, in, going over. Feel the spine
coming down, pushing out. Compression through.
The leg is going back in, through, coming back over
towards this foot. Come down. Okay, feel the stretch coming through.
Indicate a little bit more of the head and feel the arm. It’s a natural rhythm going through.
It will come down and pull through, lifting up.
Feel the pull through. I’ll carry that right around through.
Feel the pinch as the parts come together.
Pick up the condyle, and think of the ulna, the deltoid, triceps.
The foot needs to be clarified a bit.
A bit awkward. They’re stretched out a bit too much, but that’s life in the big factory here.
Now, here a little different. I’m going to start with a very, very simple volume for
the whole pelvic area. Then seeing this is a stretching form coming across. Really feel
this pulling in, fitting in. Feel the pelvis way over here. Now we’re coming across,
stretching and coming over. The arm is coming through.
Feel that breast pushing out so it becomes part of it.
Feel the neck now coming through the head. Now come down,
twisting, pull through over the form, going around.
Now, come around the buttocks and get that leg overlapping forms as it comes through.
Going back in, across.
Pull over the surface and the head.
Here I would really make an issue out of this stretching and coming
around. Feel the ribcage pushing out. Pull out and over.
Now, it’s a feeling.
Remember when you’re doing a drawing you’re taking and creating an experience so the drawing
and especially here if you’re watching a video you’re taking and the whole act of
doing the drawing becomes an experience in itself.
Okay, here we have the head looking. Now, she is twisting in. So as I’m doing this
I’m really going down and in. This pose I really have to think about the gesture more.
The subtlety of the way she’s turning, the hand coming down, the shoulder lifting up.
Feel this coming around. The leg, arm is coming down to the knee. Once I’ve got that now
I can go back in. I want to feel the neck. Now really it’s the twist.
I want to pull the twist. Feel the belly coming through,
and the pelvis I draw through. I don’t see that line. The arm is coming in the way.
I want to feel the pull going over the surface then through, across. Pinch. Feel the shoulder
coming from behind. Feel this pull through. Pecs coming across the breasts then.
Here we need to feel a bit more to the head and move this up. Come across. Pull, pull, pull.
Lovely, lovely twist the figure takes and pulls through. Feel the shoulder.
Feel it coming across over the surface and keep going through. Shoulder and arm going down throughout.
Now, from here I would go back in and construct—I need a little bit more, drop the head a bit much.
Scapula. Feel the forms dropping down and push, feel the fitting and the ribcage
fitting in. We go to the pelvis across the sacrum. Feel the pelvis pushing over. Compression,
dropping and then wrapping around going back in space, through. The other foot coming through.
Feel the shoulder on the other side through the scapula going around.
Now, I can pull the arm back through and up in here.
Now, here I would take and start to build.
Feel the pull, push the tones. Going back, showing the figure, scapula changing.
In this next pose you have this reclining, so I’m going to take and—she’s looking.
Feel the pull. Feel the stretch.
Ribcage is going in. Shoulders up high, coming through.
Thinking of the way the figure is going back in.
Then there’s a turn up and through.
And we’re picking up feet, arms, hands by the face.
So already at this level in the drawing you can get
a pretty good sense of what the action is. I want to feel
the shoulders on top of the ribcage. Feel the
the compression going down. Go over that surface.
Coming in. Feel the breasts underneath, and I feel the ribcage, stomach.
We’re going the opposite direction now. Through, over.
Feel the fullness of the thigh, leg coming out.
Constantly going over the surface shortening up on the
new leg here. Coming in over the surface, going up.
The other foot back, feel the heel shape.
The other leg behind. Use the hair a little
bit to get across. Feel the hand turned, coming
through. Add a little bit more to the breast here.
The other one coming across, turning, coming in here.
Now in, stretch, come across. She is really going
in so I need to really feel this whole surface. The shoulder is high on one side, coming through.
This is a form that’s coming back in space this way going down and in. This is fitting
into the pelvis. Come through, so I’m thinking through the figure. Come through, compression.
Then we feel the leg coming out, so I’m going over the surface of the forms. It comes
forward. The other leg is pulling from her and going up. See where the knee is and through.
Building. Arm is coming across, so I’m going through and building this whole figure now.
It’s getting a feel, it’s a rough sense of where everything is at. Come through, foot underneath.
Now, I go back into this I’ll take—
even at this point I want to take and give a little bit of sense of the figure.
Feeling the stretch of the neck, chin coming through.
Feel this going down. Feel the compression that’s taking place in here. We have the arm coming
across, shoulder coming through. Now, I look to the end of the ulna. I can feel the triceps
pulling down. Going back over, feeling coming up to the wrist, going over the surface, coming
back. Feeling the hand going behind, going over the shoulder. Building on all of that
construction that I did to start with. We have this going over, come through.
Again, we need to really make an effort to get that roundness of the whole ribcage going
down in. Really a big pull on down. So we were pushing that.
Now I pull from out from behind, and we can feel the stomach.
We can feel these forms going through. All this stuff
coming from underneath now. We can feel this pull coming across.
Fitting in and we can feel the fullness of the thigh.
Go over that surface, feeling that thigh coming out.
Come out to the end of the knee. Cross the form, come down, through.
Okay, come across, over the surface, in.
Her leg is going back so I go over the surface going back in, through. Compression.
Now I’m going to feel, give a little bit more to the back of the head. Go over the
feeling of the face. Turn down. Get the underside of the chin. Indicate the mouth.
You can drop this down. Feel that corner a little bit more. Feel that stretching.
Go to the pit of the neck, the sternocleidomastoid. Now here, feel the pinch coming through.
Forms are wrapping around the corner and they’re coming in. We can drop areas going into tone. Get that
hand coming out over. This is an indication. You can get too wrapped up into drawing hands.
They become overdrawn. In terms of importance at this point in a short gesture pose, we’ll
just focus on getting the sense of what the hand is doing. I want to come back in and
emphasize more fitting in, overlapping.
Now, reclining figure. A lot of time we refer to these as the barroom nude. In the wild
west all the saloons used to have the big nude over the bar. Feel the flow go over.
Head is turning. Feel the arm back. Now, from here go back in. I’m really now hitting,
thinking of the corner and the side of the head. Thinking about the stretch. The hand
is coming up all the way in here so I can take and indicate this through the shoulders
lifting high. Think of the center. Now focus on the ribcage. Feel the ribcage. Pull through.
Think of the thoracic arch. Feel the navel coming in. I’m picking up the external oblique
at the corner of the pelvis. Then we start to pull in. Now we’re going to be going
over. Got to get the thickness of the waist, to the bottom side. Feel where the breasts
are here. Coming through. One leg is fitting in, going over that surface. Feel the stretch
across the pelvis. Pull across, through. Going over that surface taking and feeling the end
of the knee coming through. Go over the form going back in and picking up a bit of the
toe of the other foot. That could be something that could be very easily confused with that
foot. We will use the cast shadow as a way of taking and indicating volume. I’m going
to drop this sharpness up. I got a little bit carried away with the length of that.
Now here, I would change that. I would take and pull this leg further out so that we know
that the foot is actually attached to this leg and the other one is going underneath.
We would take and feel as we’re going that, take and pick up the heel to get that tucking
under. Come through. Overlapping. Come through, overlap, overlap.
Feel the pelvis corner coming through.
Really make this come through. Picking up lines that are going to show. Add rhythm.
Now, I can go back to the arm, end of the elbow. Pinch, come through. Through the shoulder.
Add to the hair. Feel the breasts. The hand is cutting across. Going through. Feel the
breasts, the arm coming through, going behind the hair.
Not a very pretty mouth.
Okay, across the hand and back.
I stretched this out a bit, but that’s okay. I don’t mind that.
Feel the pull. Feel the thoracic arch.
Feel the ribcage pushing up. The stretching, coming across.
Pull this all up. Come around underneath.
Come over and actually over here we need to feel the buttocks behind.
It is coming in front. This we can drop back down
around a bit more. The end of the knee.
These shadows can be changed to use them as I need
them to take and show the form. Or not so much the form as just the gesture itself.
Here I would probably be taking and using lines also in the background. That would help.
Here I’m thinking of the line of the spine but then pulling to the outside of the ribcage.
Through, going across, over the surface of the sacrum. Feel how it’s fitting in.
Very direct. I’m trying to lead the eye through the figure.
Go back add the scapula.
The elbow in, build the ribcage there coming across.
Okay, the pose on the left.
The figure is really stretching so I need to take and be
really conscious of the ribcage itself. A strong twisting is taking place going over
the surface. Feel the stomach being pushed out.
Stretching along, make the lines for the legs, arm coming back, down.
Lifting shoulder up. Indication of the breast to help to show the gesture.
Pinch, over. Arm coming in front.
Think of the pelvis, pelvis, pelvis. Ribcage.
Okay, now twisting. Feel the stretch, shoulders coming back. Arms coming out. Fitting in.
Go across the sacrum. Feel the leg now coming up, going in, coming back. Foot going down.
Arm pulling back, through. I came back in and hit the scapula and feel the trapezius
come down. Arm here, a little volume. Feel the pushing down, fitting in.
Feel the pull across the scapula pushing back.
Now, the figure is taking and the head looking down. She is stretching, pull through, across
the surface of the form. Coming in. Arm coming up in front. Back coming towards me.
Feel the ribcage pushing out. Pull the stretch coming across. Twist, through.
Leg coming up. Come down.
Leg coming forward over Leg coming the surface.
Again, some thickness, volume really seated down.
Push back on the pelvis again.
Okay. She really twists. I draw the twists. There are no lines in the figure that show that.
You have to create them. Over the leg, come through and across, behind. Pull through.
Shoulder coming forward.
Now, I want to feel the pull over. Pull the buttocks over.
Feel the pelvis behind. Pick up the ribcage. Indicate the breasts. Feel the stretching of the neck.
Alright a little bit longer, and again, feel the pull. Feel the flow.
The rhythm of the movements.
Feel the flow as you’re doing the drawing, stretching the leg coming through.
But now I go back. Feel the turn of the head. Feel the trapezius coming down.
Forms pulling off the ribcage. Lifting up, stretching through.
Really full the pull of the ribcage in. Going back in.
Feel the pushing back of the scapula. Now stretching, pinch.
Okay. Feel the pull of the neck.
Feel the shoulder being thrust, the arms going back, coming through.
Now, once I’ve got that I come back in and
actually indicate a little bit of the face and direction of the hair, pit of the neck.
Think of the ribcage coming through. Add breasts.
In this case here, really feel the pull of the pecs go back to the arm.
Then coming down, pelvis thrust going over. Feel the buttocks coming up. Feel the pressure.
Try to feel over the surface, going back in, through. Now, I can see where I need to move
that leg down a little bit. The other arm behind.
Here we go. Arm coming up in front. Really feel the pressure that she is going back,
leaning on that arm. There’s a twisting, leg lifting up.
Now, I’ll go back in. I want to feel the ribcage.
Feel the scapula on top. Add the breasts, through.
Pinch. Now I come down and draw the buttocks. I want to feel the compression down, going through.
Pelvis, legs going back and away. Coming towards us. Feel the turning of the neck, stretch.
Okay, the drawing on the right.
How the head is turned. Give it a little bit more of a focus of the face.
Going over. Feel the roundness and volume. Through and over the form.
Back up, constantly going over the surface.
Arm coming down to the floor.
The other one coming across.
Feel the scapula now, really think of the center pulling the ribcage over. Feeling
the scapula and adding a little bit of scapula for the other side. Pulling off. Add some
hair. The pinch, want to come around.
Feel the pull over the surface. The breasts up against the leg.
A little bit of play here with the arm. Pinch. Ribcage.
Feel the stretch of the neck. Pull of the shoulder. The arms coming down.
Really go for the whole flow.
Pelvis is turning up. Legs coming down, going through and going back in.
The leg is coming out towards us. The other leg is coming forward.
I can feel the pelvis going over.
I’ve got her actually coming up a little too much. I need to feel that up higher, puling through.
Ribcage, the whole thing should be dropped down a bit, but we’re not going
to worry about that now. Come through. Breasts, feel the scapula.
Feel the ribcage coming through.
Feel the pelvis coming around, coming across, through, over.
I want to really feel all this moving in.
Feel the ribcage dropping down.
Up, across, go over the surface.
Take out the toe. That leg comes back down, in, turned.
Chin would’ve been lower, through.
Here, this figure really, really going in. We’re really having to feel this form
going back down and in. So I’m thinking of this as going over and around.
Pelvis is really coming around, through. The leg is coming forward. Go back forward.
Then we’re going back in. So here I can feel the pelvis down behind here, coming across,
going over that surface, through.
When I’m drawing I’m having so much fun I have to remind myself I should be talking and explaining what
I'm doing. Sometimes it’s hard to.
Like I said, I’m having so much fun doing this stuff that’s it’s hard to remember
that I have an audience to deal with. Now, pit of the neck. It’s actually—the way
the shoulders go it’s really sort of an awkward look. The arm is turned and coming
forward and gives a very strange play to the forms. So now we can feel the breasts going
underneath. Here is where I have to draw right through. Think of the waist underneath there.
Then the pelvis is building out from here, and then we’re going over the surface of
the form. Coming through, so we’ve got this incredible amount of twisting taking place
within the form here now. The leg coming through, coming around from underneath,
pick up the end of the knee. We’re coming down.
So as I’m doing this I’m really already thinking
about how I can take and come back in with the wash to take and help make this a little
bit more understandable. So we’ll just take the wash here—in other words, get these
forms behind pushing down from underneath the chin. Coming through and even underneath
the eye sockets we give some tone to give some hair. Pull through. This is going behind so pull,
pull in front of the arm, behind the arm, come around. Go over the surface and around.
Pulling through. Cast shadow does a nice job of helping us see them. Coming down.
Now, come back in and see if I can make this a little bit more attractive.
Feel the stretch of the neck underneath the jaw.
Since this is a very sort of awkward looking, we’re pulling in.
Really get behind, feel the pinching going down, through. Focus on going over that leg
to get that to come out. Actually coming all the way down into the knee, patella, come through.
Feel the pinching as we come around, off that surface. The other hand is coming
all the way down. Feel the thumb through, over, and push that compression a bit more through.
Okay, the hand here looks rather awkward. I feel that that is where the foot
is going to be. Now it’s coming around a bit more. Pull through.
A bit hacked. Feel this pulling forward.
Take and pull the tone behind. Pull this back.
Get that leg to come out.
Often even with wash like this, with enough of it it’s almost like taking and
having an eraser or a stump. Take and push things down.
Alright. Really a lovely looking model here.
That little time there is spent—now I want
to feel the pull going back down, going over the surface. Turning and really think of the
pelvis going up this way. Leg is now coming around over. That surface is coming across
towards us. So you now you can see the lines. You can experience the pose as I’m doing
the lines. Coming through. That’s the lines that take and communicate what’s going on.
Notice I pay very little attention to particularly the tones. I’m not copying.
Okay. I think being able to sort of feel and express directly your experiencing of what you’re drawing
is much more important than trying to copy what you’re seeing, but that’s a personal opinion.
I have many that totally disagree with me. Going over, feel this dropping.
Coming over the surface. Going around and through.
Feel the flow as the hand moves through.
Go over and around. Going over the surface.
Feel the foot. The indication of the breasts there.
This is actually very awkward. When you look at her arm it has a tendency to look broken.
I would probably change that to more of a direct flow so that we don’t get that broken feeling.
Draw the clavicle. Feel the things coming up. And again, I would take and use
the brush as a way of showing more directly this as all this is behind.
You can feel the forms coming from behind,
and I would take this into the outside to help feel the gesture or movement coming through.
Bring tones in between forms. Go through.
Once I did that I saw that I really needed to do more, but the ends of the form thickening up a bit,
go over the surface. Push that underneath and across.
Bring the other leg and indicate something here.
Transition, scapula. Feel the trapezius end of the scapula coming in.
Here, since I changed the pose. Come through.
There I’m trying to give the sense that
we almost have the top of a box here coming through,
which again is a basic element to my approach.
All the tools, boxes, cylinders, spheres.
Since I changed this I could take and come back.
Feel the flow.
Beautiful pose, strong rhythm flowing through.
I’ve mentioned this before. It’s a question I always get.
How about proportions, measuring? Basically, I don’t.
Quoting Michelangelo again, he says, “Don’t measure. Use the eye."
But what I’m doing, my way of capturing proportions is that it’s an eye-hand coordination.
I’m moving my hand. My eye, the pencil is actually on the model so as I’m going through
the form I’m drawing volumes and forms, but I can take and it’s almost as if I was
tracing the form. Not copying. I’m feeling it,
but my hand is going the same amount of distance as my eye, my brain.
Now, the pose on the right. Now, really flowing over.
Feel the ribcage through. Pelvis come down.
Come across the sacrum. Really feel the stretching coming in. Going back.
Follow the natural rhythm of the body. Leg up. Legs going in. Now the pinch and the form is going down.
This is a very forced pose so I’m just going to take and, top of the head, this is really
requiring a strictly analysis. Going in. Really, right away it’s a simple spherical form,
cylinder coming across, overlapping, dramatically overlapping of forms. Coming across the pelvis, through.
Then the stretching going through. Then pulling, the leg is coming forward, going down.
As that shoulder comes forward we’re really feeling okay the breasts are here.
Shoulder is way high up here. The arm now is going back behind. I want to feel the pull
through, pushing up against the leg. Need a little bit more width to the leg coming in.
More volume coming through.
Okay, now this pose, again, it’s difficult to see. We don’t really see too much of
where her head is at when you’re just fast looking at them. She’s looking down and
we come through. Feel the body going back in. So again, it’s a pretty straightforward analysis.
Feel the forms wrapping through, going around,
coming in. Going across. Keep the flow as you’re drawing.
Don’t stop. Just keep moving. Don’t worry about getting correct.
Just feel it as you’re going through.
Then after I do that I will come back in and adjust.
Come through, add breasts. Feel the ribcage underneath. Really think about the
pinch coming in where the corner of the pelvis is coming across. I’m actually starting
to pick up a little bit of the buttocks on the other side. It helps really emphasize that twist.
This is a really stretched out pose. The shoulder is really pushing out. Pressure is down.
Arm is stretching out. Now, from here I want to feel the flow, the rhythm of the body coming
in, going over, feeling across the buttocks. The whole form is really turning this way,
coming through. Down, through, over. Now, she’s looking up. Flow, get that arm coming back.
Get the condyles, breasts underneath. Feel the pull.
Now here again the head is turned away so I’m using the neck to feel the pull, lifting up.
The shoulder is high. Falling back, there we go over the surface, around, through.
I'm going over feeling the volume, and then I’m coming down. Leg basically coming out at
us a bit. As we come down I see that it takes and turns away. So it’ll go over the surface,
pushing back, coming back, legs turned. Fairly awkward looking. Shoulder lifts up, through.
It’s very unique, sort of a disjointed type of pose. But still, go over the surface and through.
Think of the pelvis fitting in. Come around the leg, pulling through. Feel the breast.
I would really push the ribcage then the breast underneath. Feel the pull of the
muscles coming across the shoulder, going down. Then the figure is turned, coming across.
We can see back here where we’re really overlapping forms.
As I come back into that arm, I really want to feel the pinch as that arm comes through.
Here’s the head. She’s turned away.
Stretch. This really carries into the back now.
Really feel that back going down, coming across, through. Coming down over the surface.
Notice I’m drawing through the arm. I’m focusing on the pelvis coming across. Once I’ve got
this, got the leg going back in. Then I will come back in and add forms back on top.
We can feel breasts pushing out. Feel his arm coming down. The other one is turning away.
We need to feel the stretching of the neck. Go through. A little bit more with that leg.
Go over the surface.
Stretching the ribcage.
Feel the pinch, scapula coming up.
Little bit more. I can feel I need to push that spine a bit more. The dimples are also really nice
coming across the form. Now we go over the surface, coming through and pushing up a bit more.
Feel the hand.
Feel the flow. Really lovely pose.
Going over the surface.
Feel the flow.
As I’m drawing I’m going over the surface. There’s actually a rhythm to the drawing
as I’m doing it. Going through, over, around. Going across and around and going through.
There’s a flow to the way you put the lines down that will carry into the drawing.
Now I come back in and emphasize the ribcage. Think of the thoracic arch, the pushing down
and through into the navel. Feel a little pull down, going over the surface of the leg now.
Come through, over. Through. Feel the pull. Add breasts.
Feel that shoulder coming forward, high.
Need to add some more bulk to that head.
Now, really stretching out. The head is lifting up, so as I’m doing this I’m really focused
on the fact that there is a credible stretching of the neck. There is a pull right into the
figure then, pulling up, going out, coming across. The shoulder, the hand, the arm is
taking and going out. Pull through. Shoulder is coming forward, coming down.
So as I’m doing this I’m going over, feel the lifting up, going through. The leg is coming down.
Coming through. The other leg is coming across, coming down. Feel the hair.
Now, they go back into this. I want to feel the spine, digging in and down. Shoulder is lifting up.
The ribcage is going around. Pelvis is pulled through, coming around, going over the surface, in, across.
Feel the pull. Feel the arm going in. Indicate the breasts in here.
Feel the pull. Now, it’s way too long but it goes along with the stretching out.
The figure on the right.
She really is going down and in, so you draw through the figure.
Drawing the body behind the legs. Going over the surface.
Then the leg will come up out of that. The other leg is coming out,
the knee coming out—at little too far forward.
Now, pull this buttocks down a bit farther and really start to feel that stretching even more.
Pull the arm across, through.
Get a little bit of her hair here. Need to clarify this whole thing with the
leg that’s going on here. Go over these surfaces. Coming through. The other leg is
in front. We can feel the foot coming out from behind.
One of the things that so hard, and I’ve said this before,
is that with a pen you have to not be intimidated by the
fact that the lines are going to stay. There is no erasing, particularly with just a two-minute or
one-minute sketch, you are stuck with what you put down.
Going back into this now, I want to go back over the surface.
start with the pencil, with the sanguine. We can feel the flow. Then I’m going to
come back into that with a pen. It actually can be really a lovely combination of lines
that you create and tones. Also, at the same time be using the wash. We can feel the flow
going through. The leg is going back in. Going over the surface, around. All this becomes
a framework for me to take and work with the pen. Often it’s just a reverse of what I’m
doing, but I thought I would try this for a little bit. This is the beginning point.
Now, since I’ve got this started, now I can take and come in and emphasize, come through.
Feeling the pinch taking place. Going over the surface. The pen will tend to dominant
as you can see. Going over, feel the ribcage underneath. I don’t really see the line,
but I’m feeling the stretch coming across the form.
I would emphasize compression.
It's not that obvious when you look at the photograph, but you know that’s what would be happening.
Going over the surface, coming in, back. Feel the foot.
Going over, through.
Feel the shoulder lifting up, coming across. Feel the scapula coming in. I want to put down a little bit
of heavier ink as I’m doing this. So then I’ll come back in with the brush and come
through, across. Feel the hair as I’m getting a lot of ink down so that I can take and get a darker tone.
Now, we’ve got this going.
Again, I’m putting ink down until we get a base to take and feel.
So now I can pull. Notice how the color blends well with the ink.
Again, I’m not paying much attention to the actual shadows and stuff that we see on
the model. I’m more into taking and using the tones to create the action. Clarify it.
I’ve said I use the tone and the brush ink and even when what we’re doing just now
because it looks neat. That’s the primary thing. I like the way it looks. That’s an
important part of the drawing. It should look nice. At least to me it looks nice.
I like that. Come across and do a little bit more.
When I’m going back into what’s wet we
get a stronger tone. It’s not all that wet, but we still get a feeling of the flow.
I can push across. I’m going to pull the eye through, making the movement. In here often
what I will do is I would take the lines into the background so that we feel that that is
assisting the actual action of the figure. Feel the pull. This becomes another element.
As we start to play, coming through. So I’m picture making. Feel the pull.
Push, there we go.
Now, on this last drawing I’m taking and doing this with the brush, or at least starting
it with a brush. Feel the flow. We’re taking and the way the body is taking and going,
I’m actually creating and adding a little bit more than actually is going on. So I’m
going over the surface, pushing the tone through. Going over, down.
I actually can draw a lot faster with the brush than I do with a pencil.
We can feel the form so I can use a lot of
outside mass, flow to create the gesture and the action.
So I’m pulling in. Now, going through. Now we can see I’m building this here.
I would really go out of my way to use lines and tones outside of the figure.
Now I can take and go back into this with the brush or the pen.
Dimples coming in. Feeling the stretch coming across, through.
So you can see right away how the pen becomes like an accent, but what it does more is that it
leads the eye through the movement because the lines are so much stronger so that you’re
feeling the actual gesture or the movement of the gesture is much stronger
when you’re adding in the pen.
So the brush is a great way to take and start a drawing.
If you haven’t drawn with a pen or haven’t drawn with a brush, I really suggest you do it.
Don’t get stuck in just one way of taking and doing things.
Remember there are no rules. As my mantra is, “No rules, just tools.”
That’s a quotable. In fact, I’ve had people ask if
they can take and use that on banners. Take and build it up.
If people ask where did that come from, just say Vilppu.
Now, go to my “Vilppu Drawing Manual.” You’ll see it all over the place.
“No rules, just tools.”
That foot is not too good there.
Need to have a more defined shape. This one is not too bad.
Once I’ve gotten that I can go back in with the brush and push points.
The wash and pen work very well when you’re using
colors that are compatible. You can take and have a form—
there’s a certain homogenous quality about it.
So often the drawings done this way—
rather than being a preliminary or something—
they really stand alone.
Free to try
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
16m 43s2. Session 6: Jean Part 1
10m 23s3. Session 6: Jean Part 2
16m 36s4. Session 7: Kwas Part 1
10m 20s5. Session 7: Kwas Part 2
16m 0s6. Session 8: Lillias Part 1
10m 28s7. Session 8: Lillias Part 2
16m 30s8. Session 9: Julia Part 1
10m 32s9. Session 9: Julia Part 2
16m 50s10. Session 10: Sara Part 1
10m 27s11. Session 10: Sara Part 2