- Lesson details
In this series, master draftsman Glenn Vilppu shares with you his approach to figure drawing. In this fourth lesson of the series, Glenn covers cylinder forms. He begins with a lecture introducing the concept of cylinder forms in figure drawing, followed by an analysis of cylinder forms in Old Master works. Glenn will then illustrate these concepts in two figure drawing demonstrations.
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine and Black
- Drawing Paper
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the cylinder without talking about the cylinder all the way through from beginning with the
gesture. Let me take and go back over and show how the cylinder relates to what we’ve
already been discussing in my earlier lessons, plus carrying this whole idea a little bit further.
Okay, first of all, the first step we go through in taking and capturing a gesture. I feel
the flow, the way the figure goes. The leg is coming up. We’re going down. We’re
turning, we go through, the arm up, maybe even the hand and arm coming forward.
Just drop this down. So, the first point we’re talking about, actually a cylinder is when
we’re taking and say going in a line that goes through the ellipse toward the head.
What is a cylinder? A cylinder literally is two ellipses tied together by a line. Every
time I go over the surface of a form, I’m actually talking about an ellipse. Now, as
I go back into this, the line as I’m going over the surface, that is literally a fragment
of a cylinder, just another axis. So, as we start going through the figure, one of the
first things that we’re dealing with was using a line going across the form to take
and show the direction in space.
As I’m doing this, then, this is really still part of the cylinder. As we come through,
thinking of where the leg is coming forward. That’s a cylinder. I’m just taking and
going over the surface, but I’m imagining the whole form inside of that. So as we’re
building the figure, we’re going over. I’m thinking the sphere then was taking and containing
the rib cage, and we’re containing the pelvic area as we build on this gesture line underneath.
I draw very, very light to begin with because I’m building the drawing. I don’t come
back and erase. It’s a procedural approach to taking and doing the drawing. As I start
off very light, now here I can feel the shoulder lifting up. Well, in that process I’m also
thinking of the cylinder of the clavicle. It’s a series of cylinders going back. In
a sense, everything, every form that you draw is in a way is a fragment of a cylinder or
a cylinder. For instance, the neck is a cylinder. And it comes down. We’re taking and as I’m
working over the figure I’m constantly going around, over the figure so every element then,
it’s the way you draw that ellipse of the cylinder that takes and tells us the direction
of the cylinder. In other words, if I want to make this cylinder come more towards us,
I take and draw the ellipse so we start to get an overlapping. Now, again, it’s attaching
and building to it, the process of going across and over the form.
We have an arm here going up. I can feel this coming back, so I’m drawing the clavicle,
but I’m really imagining that clavicle. It’s three-dimensional. The arm as it goes
back, I’m going over that surface and visualizing it as something that’s going back. Even
though I’m eventually thinking of making something very realistic, I’m drawing this,
which basically becomes a procedure in constructing the figure. At this stage now it’s simply
a mannequin. So, now let’s just take and carry this mannequin little bit further.
Still, everything is dealing with the action, the flow of how the figure goes. So, as I
start to build the form, I’m thinking of construction. Here, as I’m building this
thing, and we did it with spheres, and we’ve been talking about cylinders, but we’ve
also talked about boxes. As I looked further to take and develop this form, I’m taking
and looking for the corner of the form. I’m looking for the angle. This really now becomes
a fragment of a box. The box is a tool like the sphere, and the cylinder is a tool to
help us explain more clearly the three-dimensional aspects of what we’re drawing.
I come through and I say, okay, now we’re taking and coming across. I’m thinking the
figure is mainly twisting. The box comes in across the rib cage, the corners of the 10th
rib coming down. There is a corner, section of a box. This is a tool, again, to take and
help explain. We don’t want to constantly look at just boxes. We want to take and develop
the whole form. Now, as I take this and the course along that line would be the line of
the pelvis. Thinking of where the corner of the pelvis is, the pubic arch. That’s just
taking and, these are landmarks that we use to take and see. The end of the knee comes,
going across the condyles as a box to help us show.
Now, combining the idea of the sphere and the box, what we do is we take and say if
I have a leg—let’s say in this case here we’ve got the leg coming down. I’m thinking
this is a cylinder coming through. I’ll go over the end of that leg, and I’m drawing
the foot. There is nothing in that cylinder that tells me that the leg is twisted. If
I have the leg going back in this direction, I would take and need to show somehow, so
here’s where the box becomes an element that we see within that cylinder, giving us
a corner. So the combination of spheres, boxes, cylinders, are all part of what we used to
make that action of that figure more clearer three-dimensionally. Let’s take and apply
this and carry this a little bit further so that we’ve got the form lifting up here.
We feel the trapezius coming from behind. We have the sternocleidomastoid coming in here.
Now, as I want to get this twist, I’m going to take that sphere, and I emphasize the corner
of the 10th rib, but I want to work with the forms in the interior that can make my eye,
I want to lead the eye from one side to the other. That’s composition, the forms that
we use. Okay, here we’re coming across. We want to feel the pull of these muscles.
While the muscle as it wraps around as they were coming from behind and this is fitting in.
That line that I’m drawing right there, that is nothing more than a fragment of a
cylinder, and it’s coming through so I can feel the stretching of these forms.
Everything now is let’s take and really make this into an extreme of a stretch here. Let’s say
we’re really pulling the skin here. As I start to do that I’m going over that surface.
Over the surface, again, is nothing more than a line going over a fragment of a cylinder.
So, they are pulling down and coming through, we can pull these forms pulling across, going
over. They come from behind, feeling a bit of compression in here.
Mentally, I’m seeing this as something that’s coming from behind. I’m drawing the cylinder.
Coming through. As we pull down through the stomach here, the feeling of going over the
surface of that form. Coming across. I’m always going over a volume. Now, we can see
this as we start pulling across the leg here. Feeling coming through. We’ve got the pelvis
as going back. The ridge of the pelvis, the iliac crest, that surface is the segment of
the cylinder. As they come through I feel the way the abductors are coming out of the
pubic area here. That’s fitting in. Again, I’m just going over the surface and feeling
this coming out and feeling the abductors going through. We feel the vastus medius coming
through here, so as I go over that surface, I’m really visualizing now. In this case,
we started out with a cylinder here, so I’m really going over that surface of that cylinder
as I’m doing the drawing. I can feel the, up here, let’s say a fairly athletic figure.
We’ve got the tensor. You can go over the surface.
Every line that I’m drawing now is I’m constantly going over the surface of the form.
I’m visualizing that cylinder underneath. I’m thinking of the condyles. I’m going
across the patella. I’m coming through. I’m going over the surface. It’s an analysis
of the form. It’s very similar to what you would do if you were taking and making a sculpture.
If we were taking and sculpting you would first have an armature, the gesture. You would
take and have large masses, spheres, boxes. Then as you start to render the surface you’re
going over these surfaces. You’re feeling the surface that you’re taking and drawing.
That’s part of the cylinder. In a sense I’m taking the box and I’m cutting off
the corners. I’m going over and I’m making it more three-dimensional. I’m going around
and over this surface constantly. So this is contrary to taking an approach where you
are starting an copying a contour and copying tones. It’s not what I do. I take and build
the surfaces, so even as I start to take and go further into a drawing working with tone,
it’s always going over the surface of the form.
We feel the pull of the lines coming across, so it’s a sphere. The way the sphere interacts.
Each one of these—as I draw that fold, that is really a cylinder that is wrapping around.
As we take and draw the pectoralis muscles as they pull off of the chest, the pecs are
really a series of cylinders that are taking and pulling across the form as are the latissimus
and teres major coming from behind. Those are just fragments of cylinders. The scapula
as it fits in here is like the corner of the bone. This is a rectangular shape. But the
deltoid that takes and comes from here, it’s coming all the way around. As I draw that,
we take and consider this as a corner. So, now I’m drawing over that surface and pulling
down. Feel the deltoid as it goes back. It’s not a sphere. You will find that almost every
anatomy book that you look at you will find that the lines are used to explain the form
by going across and around the surface.
I’ve broken it down to say cylinders. But the idea of the cylinder is really the issue.
Going over the surface, and the angle that you draw that cylinder—in other words, I
take and here actually you can start with just a straight line is nothing more than
a flat cylinder or ellipse. Then as I start to build this thing I’m going around and
over that surface. It’s like drawing a dryer vent or hose. But then a hose is nothing more
than a flexible cylinder. That’s the relationship. Everything I’m doing is gesture, sphere,
boxes, and cylinders. These are the basic tools of taking and describing three-dimensional
form with line since I haven’t really, I’m not really talking about tone.
That’s something we’ll discuss later.
what you’re seeing is a series of lines going over and around and around, defining
what’s underneath. The way he goes down and through we see the foreshortening of that
figure strictly by the fact the way he’s using the drapery, going over the surface.
That’s the way we draw. Let’s take and do a little bit more here, now.
If you look you’ve got the head back here. You go through. You can see that we have forearms
that are going back over the arms. Come down and go underneath the chin. Feel the lines.
The rib cage is this huge spherical form. And you can feel the lines of the rib cage
going over the surface. Everything is, even the idea of the box comes into play because
you can see as you’re coming across you’re going straight across, coming through. It’s
not just straight across. It’s got a little, this is a perfect example of contour drawing.
Contour drawing, the way I use it, is talking about going across the form, not around the
outside contour. As we look at these forms here underneath the drapery is drawn to show
the form underneath, not to necessarily draw the drapery. You can see how everything goes over.
One of the things in taking and doing a drawing is I’m talking about the combination of
doing cylinders, boxes, and spheres. What you’re seeing is obviously the sphere and
the cylinder. Notice how he takes in the leg. If I just take and draw, this is a simple
form going down, how we start feeling overlapping, how forms overlap. Going around and going
behind, going over. Everything is totally three-dimensional. But also, look at the wrist.
What you see going across the wrist, we can see that’s a box form. Both sides you can
see it’s a box form going back. It’s a combination now. We’re talking boxes, spheres.
These are all the three primary elements that I use to take and describe form. Those are
the essentials. Notice how he’s taking and also using the light source to take and give
us a feeling of directional light. He pulls, even uses the light, and we look at the foot
down there and you can see the light sneaking behind to separate the foot from the rest
of the leg, even adding a little bit of extra light contour down here to separate different
parts of the figure. It’s a marvelous example of using the basic tools and, of course, perspective.
Okay, let’s take a look at the next drawing. This is Leonardo. This is an interesting one
because most people don’t really look at Leonardo. We have this image of him in talking
about his drawings. We think muscles, anatomy. If you look at the drawings, look at the head,
for instance. What we see is a very, very simple volume. The neck is really nothing
more than a cylinder fitting on this large simple shape. There is no anatomy there. This
is just the mannequin and the way the drapery goes over. When you look at the arm underneath
that now you can see this is just, this is really just a cylinder. He’s going through.
Then the drapery going over the surface, like Cambiaso, it’s the drapery that’s taking
and defining the volume. In other words, the lines wrapping over the surface.
As we look at the children here, the same thing comes through. We can see that the head,
the arm, these are all built on very, very simple forms. There is nothing complicated
about it. In fact, da Vinci said don’t draw anatomy. Really, what he was saying was draw
form. So we’re building, you’re building these volumes. First they start very, very
simple. They build things. We’re taking and we add to the forms. You have to take
a fresh look at the artists of the past to see what they we’re actually doing and not
be so preoccupied with what the image we have in our mind, of what we think they were doing.
If you look of the drawing of the gal that’s coming down, you can see, the legs, there
is no anatomy. Everything is just a series of very, very simple volumes, very simple
rendering. The child on the side, look at that. Again, just simple, round forms. The
whole figure itself is nothing more than this. The fact that he was taking and using an atmospheric
quality—the Italians refer to it as smoke as they were taking and developing it—that
emphasizes even more the very, very basic of the forms that they’re using. There is
nothing really anatomically difficult about the drawings. It’s just the simplicity of
the volumes and the way we’re working with the tone.
Let’s take and do another step here. Now, as you look at this—one of the things I
was talking about in the lecture was the idea of using a line. Let’s take and first the
idea of saying, okay, let’s break this down particularly with the arm here to start with.
I’m drawing it as just a simple cylinder to start with. The lower arm is taking is
another cylinder. You can look and you can see where he is actually just drawing lines
around things. What I’m drawing first is very, very simplified form to begin with.
In fact, if you look at the whole torso, you’ll see that this is just a very, very basic type
of form. The leg is coming out, and this is just a very, very simple cylinder coming forward.
Now, if we take that and start breaking it down, one of the points I’ve been making
and doing the drawing when I was doing it was using the simple line like this to start
with. Then taking and diverging from that line and building up. You can look at this
drawing and that’s exactly what you’re doing. Look at the ends of the elbow. You
will see that we have these coming across, giving the corners of the condyles and the
end of the ulna, so this is taking and defining a box form. You can see the way the tone,
the way the tone is on there, you’ve very clearly got a box form.
From there, you’re taking and the straight line that we’re dealing with here goes back
up, and you can see it at the shoulder here. Then you’ll see a series of breaks in here
to here. From here, now we’re taking and going down and in. But we’re building on
that surface. We’re taking and going down in again. We’re coming in through. He’s
building this structure. Each one of these areas now if we were to take and render this
a little bit, you can see that there are corners building on top. You can feel this thing stepping
down. And so we get a series of forms building one on top of the other. So now, if you look
at the forearm you’ll see that building around his form is this and very clearly you
can see the line that he’s drawing. It’s just a simple cylinder.
If we take and look, the idea, so now I’m bringing in and combining spheres and boxes
and cylinders. As we take and look at this we can see that the overall sense is this.
But this is broken down and into a series. We’ve got the line coming through, coming
across. But there is a corner. The way we build the forms here we can see that we have
a light side and a shadow side, and it’s a series of steps going down through the form.
But the overall sense is very simple. But as we go back in and start looking a little
more carefully you see how we going over the surface. The next form is taking and going
over the surface, going across. There is a stretching now. Feel the folds. Notice how—I’m
going to exaggerate this now. At this point here, rib cage and coming out from behind,
we can feel the lines going over in the navel, so you’re getting all this overlapping form,
exactly what I was talking about now. We can feel, we’re coming up to the corner of the
thoracic arch and pushing that out. We can feel the muscles. They’re taking and coming
around from behind. We can feel the really tight tendering or folds going through. Feel
the stomach taking and coming out.
Now, if we take that leg, and again, if we just start with a simple, straight coming
through, what he’s done is the same thing. It’s just going over, goes around to the
other side. He’s building these volumes on this basic simple structure, and he’s
coming around and giving us a corner of the end of the form. This is a beginning. When
you look at the parts of the drawing that are unfinished you get a pretty good sense
of how he’s very simply, how he’s not giving a lesson on how to use form, but he’s
using the tools that are basically what we’re talking about. He’s giving it and going
over the surface, constantly going over and around and building everything up.
Let’s take a look at it a little more carefully and just point out some of the elements. First,
we’ve got the gesture. You’re looking at the head. This is a point you really feel
the turn. What he’s doing to get that turn is that he’s actually taking—well, he’s
using the cap going on. That’s helping to show the direction. We get the ear here.
We know where we’re going. You’re getting the stretching here. Then we start to feel
the folds wrapping around, wrapping around. These are going across the surface of the
form. As he’s doing this, though, again, this is just like Masaccio, except here Michelangelo
is using muscle folds to take and accomplish exactly the same thing.
If you can look now you can see the general sense. You take the pose—this is a twist
that’s taking place. He’s twisting and coming through. Now, you look at the rib cage.
We’re starting in here. Rib cage is here. Coming through. It’ll come clearer. The
shape of this ribcage is. You can’t get more round than that. The outside contour
is really quite simple. We’re seeing now these forms overlapping. One building on top
of the other. Particularly, this is important to note. It’s a little bit more than just
cylinders now. We see the fact that the scapula as it comes across, he pushes this out past
the line of the spine. That gives, again, a sense of dimension. What we’re taking,
you’re feeling the symmetry. It keeps coming forward. These are lines that are constantly
going over the surface of the form. This arm builds the scapula on top. But this is really
essentially just a straight to start with. This is really a cylinder. One of the things
I keep bringing out, when I’m drawing an arm and thinking this is round the angle is
defined by the condyles in the end of the ulna. That is telling us that we are turning
in that direction, and the cylinder is going.
When it gets into the wrist he actually does draw rectangles.
So, once we’ve got this line that’s created that’s a cylinder, this is carried all the
way back out. Then we build up from that, come down to that line. He’s constantly
coming down to that line. We pull a line coming through. He’s building off of that cylinder.
He’s adding volumes on to that cylinder, and he’s coming through.
That’s a critical part of the thing now.
So now, as we take and carry this down you’re seeing it out here at the corner of the rib
cage. This figure is twisting. He’s taking and coming across, so you’re pulling across
the form here. You feel the pull. You can see all of this is pushing down. We can feel
the compression against the pelvis. You can see where he’s come back and added white
to take and make us feel that surface that’s facing us. Then we’re going over. You’re
building and pulling across the form, through, coming around the corner. It’s always the
construction. As that leg comes forward. Again, it’s very clear. Very simple. Very, very
simple form first. By using the box here we can see that across the condyle or on the
knee here, we can see where the bone would be going this way. This way you can feel that
line. Then he’s drawing a corner. This is box form. You can see the pull, he’s pulling
the line, or he’s creating a line from here and going all the way back up into here. Now,
we take and we pull from that. You can feel the way he’s going over that surface, coming in.
He’s building. He’s building on these very, very clear simple lines.
Even here where we’ve got a lot of shapes taking place, we can feel all these forms
coming out here, you’ll see that he’s creating a tone here and hitting the tone
in here. These are all creating and giving us a sense of structure underneath. On the
other leg you can see how he’s going over the surface. He’s using the cast shadow.
He’s building up over the muscle. He’s taking and pulling from behind. Those tones
are there to show the volume, to take and explain what is going on.
In fact, if I may be so bold as to criticize, he didn’t do quite that great of a job.
If you look at it and start saying, well, gee, that—and this is a point I’d like
to make. Artists are just people. We’re not geniuses. We just work very hard, and
we have to laugh at ourselves for the dumb things that we do. Looking at our drawings,
often we cringe that we put these things out in public. Michelangelo burned a lot of drawings
before he died, for the reason he didn’t want people to see how hard he had to work.
They wouldn’t think of him as such a genius if they knew how hard he had to struggle.
So, we all do. We’re all struggling. It’s part of the process. That’s what makes it
so interesting. It never ends.
Okay, this is Raphael Mengs, arch-classicist. The story goes that his father was an artist
as well as his sister. The father gave him a bottle of wine and a loaf of bread and made
them go sit in the Sistine Chapel and copy the Raphaels and the Michelangelos all day,
which he did a very good job of. But, if you look at it again, the forms are really quite
simple. The neck is really just a cylinder. There is not particularly any anatomy involved
there. This is just like the da Vinci now. Very, very simple.
If you look at the arm—maybe I’ll draw over this a bit, you can see that this is
all just a simple straight line. There is hardly any suggestion of anatomy in it. The
drapery is what is giving us a sense of the volume and then a very, very simple tone on
the forearm. Even here you can take and like I’ve been talking about—you take a line
and take it from here to the arm, and then let you see in front of here, it’s from
the elbow. You can pick up a condyle here. Then we’d take it to the wrist. You’d
get this building of the form here. But it’s incredibly simple, how we see just a hint
of the actual anatomy.
Okay, down here we have Peter Paul Rubens, a very different kind of artist. But, even
here, when we have these sort of really grotesque forms—this is Silenus, the God of Drink
and Wine. As you look at the forms that we’re drawing now, I’m just going to stick with
the leg a little bit here. First, we’ve got a belly coming down, going over, come
through, overlapping. Now, notice this is rather square even within this. As the leg
comes forward. The end of the knee—start with the idea that this is a cylinder. Now,
the point that I try to get across in my teaching is that we are learning basic tools that take
and describe how you describe form. If we look at this now, what we get is first starting
at the hip here, notice the way he’s using that tone from the hand taking and coming
across. It’s very square here. Look at this line now. The line from here goes into here.
That becomes really obvious.
From that we take and pull the flesh. As you’re doing that, just go to the other side, and
in the anterior here we’re revealing this. The large abductors are way over here. He’s
using whatever that is, grape leaves or something. But it creates this overlapping form. We’re
building, so they’re rendering now. The surface is going over the surface and pushing down.
This becomes a whole volume in here. We’re taking and feeling this pulling through.
We can feel the end of the knee, and we’re coming across the condyles. Come down and
feel the end of the ulna. Stepping down. Coming through. Build, build, build. It’s all about
the cylinders and spheres.
If we take a look at the arm that’s resting on here now, come through. Constructing.
See this thing as taking and coming down. Hand is turned behind here. Then we’re moving off.
As complex the forms that we’re looking at, you can see how they break down into really
quite simple forms. We have this whole shape of the rib cage coming down, coming through.
Feel the build. Look at the way the forms here overlap. Again, this becomes a cylinder
that we’re wrapping around. We’re building these volumes one on top of the other. You
can feel, it’s like a series of tires stacked one on top of the other. Again, you look at
the arm. We come across and feel straight. We go to the condyle. You can see here where
we’ve got a very squared off form. Clearly, he gives us where we’re fitting in. If you
look carefully now you’ll see that the wrist is simplified here. Then we pull from that.
This is coming down, and we feel this form fitting on top of that cylinder. He gives
us the corner in here. Again, simple.
The upper arm is the same way. We start with a point in here and here and here, and then
we drop the biceps. He uses the tone on the edge of the form as we’re working. It’s
constantly going over and around. As you can see, the way these forms go underneath the arm.
These are nothing more than cylinders taking and wrapping around over the figure.
You look at the shadow that’s he’s cast onto that. We feel this shape. He goes over.
Coming in. These are all just a series of cylinders that overlap one another, building
on top like coils of clay in making pottery. The building of simple volumes. So, as you’re
doing your drawing, then, don’t start with copying contours, but take and construct.
You’ve got your gesture. You build your simple volumes,
and then you start to add to that.
gesture. I go through my basic procedure. I picked a rather complicated pose because
it gives us more of an opportunity to take and analyze the use of the cylinder. Again,
I draw through. I’m drawing fairly lightly again. First, it’s the flow, and I’m taking
and thinking now we’ve talked cylinders. Thinking of the—I draw through. We’ve
got all these complicated hands and the head coming through. But, I’m trying to just
get a sense of which way the form is going. I’m going over and around, feeling the way
the leg is coming forward. Notice that I don’t start with drawing contours.
I create contours by taking and drawing form.
So now, building, coming through. Think of the arm coming across. This is just getting
a sense of where form is, what the action is. The next step in the drawing then is to
clarify where these forms are. Now I want them taking and thinking—like here, I just
put a dot for the top of the head. Coming through. It’s a cylinder coming down.
I try to imagine where the pit of the neck is and where the rib cage is. When I draw a fragment
of the rib cage I draw the whole thing. As I’m doing this now, I’m thinking around
the surface and coming down. Take my time and feel where the corner is. But even as
I draw this corner, that is just, I’m actually thinking around.
Now, as you look at the model, you will see the folds, a series of folds. These folds
we’re talking about are going through, so as I’m drawing these, these folds are really
nothing more than cylinders. They are round cylinders. You could take like pieces of dough
taking and wrapping around the finger. You can grab them in your hand. Now, as I come
through I’m thinking of this. Even my rough I’m taking and I come through, and I say,
well, start thinking of this. I’m just wrapping around, visualizing, trying to visualize where
the forms are. This is still preliminary. I go over the surface many times, taking and
trying to understand what the form is doing. Now, at this point I’m coming down. I’m
thinking, okay, the corner of the pelvis coming across. The box, we’ve discussed, so this
becomes like the corner of a box. Feel the surfaces going down.
Now, as I come through from there I will take the leg—and you can see even as I was blocking
this in, I was going over feeling that gesture. I was going across, so I was already doing
the cylinder. Coming through, wrapping around that surface. Come down. Think of where the
corners of the form are. The leg is slightly turned so I’ll take and be thinking of the
box as a way of taking and seeing which way it’s going. Coming across.
Now, I come back in. When I deal with the head, the rest of the figure here, I want
to take and get a sense of where the shoulder is—she’s tilted. So that was part of this
feeling where she’s going—keep in mind that when you draw an ellipse, part of the
cylinder, there is a cross-axis to this. As that cylinder comes down, you’re talking
about an axis of the center of that form as I’m coming through, so that as we do the
gesture, as I’m doing the gesture coming through I’m actually thinking of an axis
so that when I’m drawing this ellipse, this ellipse is at right angles to that central
axis of the form. I’m constantly feeling the flow, but as I’m doing it the ellipse
is at right angles to that central axis that I’m drawing.
Now, I think of the clavicle and where that would be coming through. I think of the shoulder
as out here, so as that arm comes forward, I’m going over that surface. I come out
to where the condyles of the arm here, and I look across the thing. Now, this is actually
going in this direction. Here I look to the condyles, the end of the ulna. This is like
drawing a box on that cylinder. I’m looking for corners that help to show the direction
of that cylinder twisting. Then I’m going through, so this is coming in, feeling, pulling
across. Then that hand is going up. The wrist is treated as a rectangular section of a box.
Then we’re building from that. I’m going up to that wrist, and the hand taking and
going up. The other shoulder is taking and—we have the arm coming through here. Now I’m
taking and building this volume that’s cutting across, and so I think of the—again, I’m
going over the surface. The using of the cylinder box and the sphere now, this is the fundamental
element that we use in taking and just simply construction the figure, particularly allowing
you to take and draw from imagination. If you can draw a sphere and a box and a cylinder,
and you have a rudimentary understanding of your anatomy that you can literally take and
construct the figure that you can then build on.
Now, at this point, we’re starting to get a fairly clear understanding of the three-dimensional
elements of the figure. Now, from up here I take and I start to build a little bit further.
I’ll indicate the breast. There is a cross-axis to this. Now, as I take and add more to it
I’m constantly adjusting what I see. Now, I go back in, and I’m reinforcing now. I’m
constantly adjusting and changing it. I’ll see it coming through, thinking of the rib
cage again. This is the section, the bottom of the 10th rib, the corner of the thoracic
arch. Come through. We feel coming around. Now this sphere is pushing down. The rib cage
is in here. The breast is, we’ve got the volume here of the breast itself. But actually,
the fatty tissue actually comes from all the way around. It’s pulling from around the
corner. As I look at this, I want to feel I’m pulling from behind. Then we’re coming
through. We can see now as I’m doing this, you can feel that—see that line there? We
can feel the pull. Actually, we get up here into the way the muscles of the back are coming
underneath the arm. These are, again, these are just sections of cylinders pulling through.
Now, at this point, that rib cage is pushing down. Here is where we take and come into
feeling compression. This is pushing down. Right at this point here we’re getting a
compression. This is just another section of a cylinder. We can feel this dropping in.
Then this large fold that’s taking and wrapping around is literally coming around from behind.
This is pulling—in other words, this is what we’re talking about right here. This
is taking and coming around from behind. We feel the fold taking and coming through. As
I’m doing this, then, I take and I really think of this fold wrapping around. We’re
feeling the fragments, but we ought to feel these surfaces. This now is coming around.
This is actually pulling through into here. We’re getting the pinch. It’s coming around.
It’s pulling through. Everything now is an analysis of these volumes.
But, now what’s happening? We’ve got the rib cage taking and coming down like this.
We’ve got the pelvis taking and going in this direction. What we have is an accordion
going from here, coming across, going this way, and we’re going that way. Everything
is compressing. So, as I come in and I start to draw the forms in the interior here, I’m
taking and working across the surface. This really becomes a fragment of a box. In other
words, this surface is coming through. It’s going in here. We’re turning through here.
We’re fitting this stuff down. It’s coming in.
So, there is a progression that takes place. As I develop the drawing going through, and
I’m thinking—now, I’m drawing it fairly heavy here. I don’t normally draw quite
so hard. I’m taking and feeling that this, we have the compression on one side. We’re
coming around. On the opposite side we feel—okay, we started out with the idea of the rib cage
feeling that corner, pushing it. This is a stretching that’s taking place. We get that
corner pushing out. Then we can feel the stretching of these muscles as we come down. Skin, fat.
This is taking and coming down and fitting in. So now as I go across the figure, you
can see that the lines are accordion here. This is going across the surface this way.
We have the center line here.
So, as I’m drawing this, I’m really going over this. Like I said, everything you do
then becomes a fragment of a cylinder the way I’m working with it now. We can feel
the lines here taking and pulling from behind, coming around that surface. The pelvis is
behind this, so we’re focusing on overlapping. We can feel the overlapping behind in here.
This area here now, what we’re getting is, again, this is a compression that’s a cylinder
that’s taking and compressing the skin as being jammed up here. These forms now are
literally coming from behind. This whole area here now, as we lift up to the pelvis, coming
through, this is a surface, but it’s a subtle area right here. We’re getting a compression
right here where there is a pinching. What we have is a large form that’s taking and
going down, and we’re getting this round form coming up against it. It’s pinching.
In fact, this surface continues around the corner here, going over. Finally, you can
see as we go into the pubic fat here, you can see that there is a compression. You can
feel these surfaces taking and coming down.
Everything now, as I go over that corner of the pelvis, it’s a box but it’s also a
cylinder, pushing forms going back. You don’t see a lot of muscles, but the muscles
do affect what we do see.
as I’m going through, building, coming around. We look at that leg now. The first impulse
is to draw this as really just a very, very simple shape like that. But in reality, what
we have is a series of overlapping volumes coming around the corner. You have to learn
to be able to see these things. As I’m drawing, I’m going over the surface. Again, this
becomes just fragments of cylinders. And here, the abductors, we know that the abductors
are taking and pulling from here. We know that there is a sartorius muscle that comes
through here. So then to take and give a sense of volume to this form, and I notice that
now I dropped it down too low, so I need to bring this up a little bit.
Notice I don’t take and start the drawing by taking and drawing a lot of careful measuring.
I go by the feeling and building of the form. Here I would take and help give three-dimension
to this. I would take, because I know what the muscles are doing, I have an excuse to
take and start to build the forms that overlapping a little bit, pulling tones in, pushing this
thing back. Even as I go over the surface here now, it’s all sections of a cylinder.
Now, we work around and we come to the end of the knee here. Well, like I said, it started
out with the idea that this is a box going across the form, going over the surface of
that form. We feel this coming behind. I pull the patella out of that. This is a corner
now. This is coming out. This is a surface that’s turning underneath. So as I go over
those surfaces, the combination now, we’re talking boxes and cylinders. As this leg is
bent here, what we have then is a compression that’s taking place. This section, as that
leg is bent in here, we can feel the flesh coming around. That is really a very, very
tightly compressed fragment of a cylinder doing this. It doesn’t go all the way around.
We’re only seeing a fragment, but the fragment that we’re seeing is this. Compressing.
It’s all bent around. Then it comes through, and we feel the forms in here
are coming up against it.
As I draw this, I want to come down. I want to feel how these forms are coming down to
that surface. I draw this. I’m building. I’m thinking of these forms coming around.
We can feel this whole surface here now coming around, pulling through. Visualize that surface.
Now, I’m drawing a lot of lines here to take and try to explain. A lot of times this
is done a lot subtler and maybe with a little bit more artistry. Here, at this point, I’m
just trying to explain the process of analyzing the forms as we go through. In fact, you could
classify what I do, my approach to drawing, as an analytical construction. Now, that doesn’t
mean that I don’t consider shape and all the other elements, but I’m building the
drawing. I build my shapes.
Now, we’ve gotten the sense of how this works. Now, let’s just take and go back
here a little bit and deal with this compression. Also, we feel forms. We’re dropping down.
So now, at this point here as I draw the other leg here. Also, I don’t normally take and
carry any one part of the drawing to such a detailed fragment at a time. I normally
develop the whole drawing as a whole. But now we can see that these forms are coming
around. I pick up the pelvis behind. Then we start to see that these forms now, if we
look carefully you can start to sense that this section of a cylinder fitting in. We
then feel this is pulling into this. I come around the corner. Here, to make this feel
the roundness of this whole form, we have to visualize a series. In other words, foreshortening
is achieved through a series of forms overlapping each other. In other words, we get a sense
of things going back by how we take and go over that surface. So, as I pull in here now,
I’m taking and visualizing this whole volume as this goes back in. We feel now, you can
see that immediately we start to get more of a sense of depth just by the overlapping.
Come back in and we look at the end of the knee here. Again, we’re taking and visualizing
this as a box form. Now, we’re going to try to see where that is going. As I come
through, it’s not really clear here as you’re looking at the figure. This is one of the
disadvantages of working from a photograph. You often are forced into a situation of copying
something because you don’t understand the form itself, or you can’t see it. It’s
a matter of the analysis becoming more difficult because of the material that you’re taking
and working with. Your natural tendency is if you don’t know the form you will take
and start copying, but you have to take and learn to use material. Don’t copy.
Analyze it. Try to understand what the form is doing.
Now, let’s really deal with complicated stuff. Up here we start dealing with the arms.
We have a series of cylinders that are overlapping. We have this cylinder. We’re coming through
in here. It’s coming around. It’s coming out towards us and going back. Over here we
can feel the wrist. The wrist is the box form. Start saying it’s coming through. The other
arm is coming forward in here, and so we have these volumes taking and working with each other.
One of the values of using spheres and boxes and cylinders is that you get a clear sense
of where the forms are in space. You can’t have two cylinders occupying the same space
or a box. So now, as we come through we want to take and feel we have this arm going through.
I’m just going to focus really carefully here on this. First of all, I come around
and I see that back here I’m seeing the end of the clavicle. Again, I’m drawing
what I know because it’s very, very subtle. Thinking of the scapula coming across.
I'm taking and feeling the pull of that form coming through. I’m going over that surface. This
is going down. I need to feel this is going in. That shape of that deltoid comes through.
This is instead of just a line coming down, that deltoid is built on that cylinder. It
is taking and coming to the interior of that form. We’re taking and pulling this form
coming across. We pull the triceps out from behind.
Now, in doing this, I take and I’m very, very conscious of where the condyle, where
does that muscle take and attach. Also, I’m thinking of creating a line that is a visual
structure, even more so than an anatomical structure. But we pick up the condyles.
You can see the corner here, and we can feel the end of the ulna in here. Now, I take from
here and I can pull this out slightly. We’re coming to here.
At the same time, then, I was thinking this is a rounded surface that we’re going over.
As we were dealing with the leg down here, we were talking with this compression. We
get the same kind of compression happening in the elbow area. First, we have the overlapping
here. This surface now is going down, pulling around the surface. Exactly the same thing
that we were dealing with here. I’m using lines. That’s fragment. That’s a fragment
of a cylinder. At the same time, I’m giving the—we have the corner condyle here. We
can feel the ulna coming behind that. We build these forms coming around, building, going
over that surface. You try to see everything you possibly can. Now, they’re taking and
drawing from here. I can see where I drew that hand way too far out there. Now, I’ll
have to come back and draw that wrist in here. We’re coming through. This is going to be
a bit tighter up in here now.
This arm, first it’s a cylinder. Now, as I draw this, I want to give you the feeling
that there is volume. Let me show you this as an example here. In other words, if I take
and do this. Coming through, this is just our basic cylinder coming through. To take
and make this feel more fleshy, I will take and swell that form. This is like a, think
of a snake swallowing something. Now we feel that volume more clearly as we go through.
As I’m drawing the arm here, first the one on top here, I will take and imagine where
because I can’t really see where this…I’m going back somewhere back in here to where
the shoulder would be. I’m taking and feeling that volume now. I’m going from one side
to the other as we’re coming around that surface. So, I’m going over, and then I’m
feeling the taper as we come to the wrist.
Now, the other arm is doing the same thing. We start with the idea of where we’re going
from here to where the wrist. I think first is straight. You’re going from a cylinder
to a box. Then I take and come back and I flesh this out. I’m going over that surface.
Here we can and actually, we don’t see it, but I imagine that it would be some kind of
compression taking place of these two shoving against each other, building up.
Now, go back here. We can take and say, okay, since I’m drawing here we could add that
breast. As you’re drawing the breast you have to be consciously thinking that it’s
not a bowling ball. The flesh is taking and pulling across and over. We’re going over
a surface and around, so I’m going across. Even though this lecture is talking about
cylinders, really the cylinder is a question of going over the surface of the form. As
I build these volumes now, we can feel and we carry though the rib cage here, we’re
actually seeing a bit of the behind in here that we feel the muscles coming off of the
rib cage. We’re picking up a fragment of the shoulder that’s been raised up in here.
That’s part of the arm that’s coming across. The breast is pulling through, coming off
of here. This is round, coming in.
So now, as I take and deal with the hands, it’s the same thing. We work with the corners.
As I look at this, I say first it’s where are the knuckles? In here. Again, I’m talking
about corners of boxes. This is a shape that we come through. This is a plane of the side
of the hand. The thumb is coming out, and we work with the corners of the box where
the knuckles would be. We feel the pull of the muscles as they come across. Often the
thumb or any of the fingers are treated as boxes or cylinders. You find that you can
take and you are constantly mean to take and be able to clearly define where something
is, what it’s doing. It’s the box and the cylinder that become the basic tools that
we take and work with.
Same thing here now. I’m going back in and correcting myself. The advantage is now I
normally take and carry through working with the sanguine. I’m drawing much lighter so
that I can take and adjust things without having to take and having all the lines showing,
particularly they want to feel the same thing. They build and look for the corners. I don’t
copy. I’m taking and analyzing, trying to see how things build and spheres, cylinders,
boxes. These are the basic tools that we use to take, as well as observation. It’s really
just turning down. Actually, in drawing the hair, I would use the hair as a way, again,
going over the surface of the form so that we use these as lines that are going over
to describe that volume. Even if we pull you feel the way you can take and build the drawing.
I start the same way. Through. Feel. I want to feel the form.
As I’m doing this, which way are we going in space?
Now, I start whether I’m doing a 20-minute, 30-minute, hour, five-hour;
I start every drawing exactly the same way. Ten-second drawing, the same thing.
I just go for the feeling of the flow. Down, through. Even as I’m doing this, I’m using
cylindrical tight forms as I’m doing the drawing.
These are fairly complicated forms as we get these overlapping legs and feet going through.
As I develop the drawing, I’m going to take and be slowly adjusting, feeling which way
the forms are going. This is one of the advantages of working from a photograph. A photograph
obviously can take a pose that nobody is going to hold for an hour or even 20 minutes. Now
I’m taking and building, slowly coming through. Thinking of the neck as a cylinder. Going back.
The whole torso is turned in such a way that it’s really, the upper part of the torso
is really like a box going in this way. Again, I’m drawing fairly light here so I can build
on this drawing. Then we’re going back. This is going back in so that the center of
the rib cage, the top in here, and it’s really turned away from us. And so I’m going
around, over, visualizing the surface going down and in. As I’m doing this, I’m thinking
now, okay, already I’m taking into consideration a clavicle where it’s coming through. I
think of the trapezius as coming across. I’m building these things. At this point, I’m
already starting to think about how these forms are taking and going. Feel the cylinder
going back in. Come through. Build here.
Now, I can see where my first impulse was pretty far off. That’s why I take and draw
so lightly. I would rather take and make corrections and changes than try to copy contours and
shapes that I see. I want to feel it. In the end there are actually distortions. I would
rather have the distortions than try to copy the photograph. Now, we can feel that leg
going back in. The foot is way back in here. It’s overlapping. It’s really awkward.
Coming through. Going back. Come down. We can start to visualize where we’re coming from in here.
We can see on the other side here, the pecs, the shoulder, the knee coming down. Arm down
to the ground. Round. Building into the fist. Drop the head a bit more. Over. This arm is
coming down. I look to where I’m at. So, you can slowly see the forms evolving as I
go through. I start drawing a little bit darker. I want to go back into this again. I’m taking
and I’m a little bit more concerned for the volumes, a little bit more. I’m adjusting
now. I can see them come through. Feel the corner of the eye socket, a bit of the cheek
coming out. We’re actually looking at the underside of the jaw. I’m really thinking
of going across, through, pulling in.
We can feel now as I’m drawing the pull of these muscles that are taking and going
through. I’m already going over the surface. Base of the skull, cylinder. Draw over the
surface of the head. Coming around and actually thinking of the head three-dimensionally,
so I’m just taking and going over the surface. Now, this goes back in, taking and going to
the 7th cervical vertebrae in the back. I pick up a bit of the rib cage on the other
side. This part here is going up and really turning, and so I’m thinking surface going
back in that way. So, you’re analyzing. Now, as I draw this I’m thinking of the
scapula on top of that rib cage. Through. Pushing down. Through. This is coming forward.
The end of the scapula is coming across the form here. Now, here we have to feel that
clavicle as taking and turning through. It’s buried in here. The deltoid is pulling from
that corner right there. You’re taking and really considering where the muscle is attached.
Come across the form. Here it’s coming around, and it’s going to be attaching down in here.
So, I’m going through. Build up over that surface.
The part that you have to be careful of now as you’re doing this is that you have to
think that these are three dimensional units. What we’re seeing here now is the deltoid
comes all the way from back here, although we don’t really see it that much. What we’re
seeing here, the muscle, the shape here that you’re seeing is the serratus anterior.
Infraspinatus taking and pulling up, and we see it over. It goes to the head of the bone.
It’s going over or underneath the deltoid. The deltoid is coming across on that.
Then we’re feeling the muscles coming off. We have a corner here, and the shape of this
is actually—keep in mind that this is a form that’s going underneath. You actually
have a corner that as I’m drawing it, I’m taking it and trying to feel the volumes,
and then as we go back in here you can see the rib cage is here, really stretching.
But what you’re seeing also is the latissimus dorsi coming down and going through. This
is really—you don’t normally see this shape like this going down. But what’s important
here is the fact, the pelvis is way down here. Here is the corner of the pelvis. What you’re
seeing is the compression here of the external oblique. With the model it’s very well built,
so you don’t really have a lot of fat. But what we’re seeing now is that this raises
up a bit more now. This is taking and coming across and fitting through, and attaches to
the pelvis. All of this is the external oblique and flesh coming through.
Now, as I’m doing this, you can see I’m going over the surface feeling where this
is going to be pulling around, behind. We don’t see the other side. We don’t see
very much at all actually of this. As that arm is going back in I’m taking and going
over, through, in. As in the previous drawing, I was talking about the straight, so now I’m
using it. Feel the biceps coming down. Feel the triceps coming through. The deltoid is
coming down and fitting in. Notice that I’m not copying the light. We can feel this is
the leg pushing up against. Here, again, this is in front, and we’re pulling out from
behind. Coming through. This is going over that surface. Then we’re taking and coming
out from behind. This is pushing back in here.
Now, this is where we’re talking about foreshortening and getting these forms overlapping. Now we’re
really feeling the compression that’s taking place. We’ve got the form fitting in. We’re
taking and the pinching of these forms. These are nothing more than a series of cylinders.
You have to think of these as round forms as we’re taking and pushing behind and going
over the surface as I’m doing the drawing.
Here, where it continues to come off of here, we can see that we’re actually coming down
to the edge of the pelvis as we’re coming through. Then we’re pulling out from behind
that, and we’re coming down through here. Now, all of this is taking and we’re building
these volumes. As we come around here, now, this is pulling in front. You can see the
tones that you see in the photograph. You can feel these overlapping, but I’m taking
and building on what I see. You have to think of the buttocks as going underneath. This
is going behind. Through.
Everything now—let’s jump ahead here and go to the end of the knee and then work our
way back again. As we come across here, we actually think of the bone as coming through
in here. We’re coming over the common tendon of the quadriceps. It’s coming over to the
patella. Feel these forms now pushing up against the arm. Feel that compression coming through.
As this goes back, I’m going over the surface. It’s a cylinder. I’m actually feeling
the corner of the bone here. Then I’m coming down, so I’m thinking of the bone. Over
that surface, and we can feel the forms now. We’re taking and going behind, coming through.
It’s going over and we’re getting a compression as the leg is bent in here. We can feel at
this point right here that the forms are taking and compressing. These are coming around.
As we’ve talked about in the previous drawing, you can see we’re going around that surface.
We are building, we’re coming out from here. We can feel this, this goes back we’re seeing
that this, now we’re really picking up more compression, and we start to build forms one
on top of the other as we’re coming through. Now, this leg is going back in, so I need
to take and do a little trimming here on my drawing. Feel this is going underneath the
end of the knee coming out. We’re going under. Again, it’s rather difficult to see
what the forms are doing so now I’m doing a lot of drawing of what I know. What we see
here, we would feel the gastrocnemius. This is going back. We would take and work with
cylinders that are taking and building one on top of the other.
the other foot. This is like really extreme here. It needs to take and needs to go over
that surface. This is pushing down and building. We don’t really see that very clearly in
the material there. Let’s take and pull this down and come through. The arm is coming
forward. So, in doing this now I’m taking and looking first at fitting in. Coming through,
down. I got a little overly carried away with a fragment there. I don’t normally do that.
I want to take and block in a little bit more of the overall so we can feel these volumes,
one fitting into another. Come through. Feel the actual transition of the wrist into the hand.
Particularly, if I were drawing hands here, I would be really blowing up and looking.
That hand coming forward is such a good example of box form, that finger comes through. Very,
very strong. You can see the knuckles. Absolute square, box-type forms. Okay, let’s just
carry on here. Now, going through center. I want to feel the pecs coming down through.
The other side we can feel the pull over to the arm. Coming through. We can feel this
deltoid coming through. You have to analyze the actual form. Here I’m feeling a little
bit of the thyroid cartilage. It’s coming through. We have the sternocleidomastoid that
would be pulling from in here, which we don’t really see. This probably here is the levator.
Through. We’ve got the trapezius going across.
Now, at this point here, we can see and just get a hint of it, the way the arm, these forms
are coming up through, the way the pecs would be pulling. Here instead of just a straight
line. We can see the deltoid as coming through. But this is now, it’s fitting in and we
can feel the belly of the muscle going down. Then from that we can actually start feeling that.
Overlapping. We can actually down in here we can see the nipple on the pecs. We come
through. We feel this as going behind the knee now. So first I’m going to take and
think this is a straight of the cylinder. Coming through. Volume in here. I see the
thicknesses in here. This is first so I’m drawing this, the cylinder in here. Then I’m
coming back and we have the biceps are taking and added as a volume on top of that. Actually,
this could be a bit higher. Feel the pull. First this is a straight. Then I add—this
is like the snake I was talking about, taking and bulging.
Okay, we do the same thing with the forearm here. We’ve got the end of the ulna here,
medial condyle. Think of it straight coming across, across the wrist. Now, in the beginning
it’s this. Then we can see the flexors coming across. Through. Then as he’s turning then
we’re going over. If you look here’s the belly, the muscles of the thenar coming across, through.
Anatomy is one of those things—I think I’ve mentioned this many times. There are two things
that if you know them they’re totally unimportant. If you don’t know them they’re very important.
That’s anatomy and perspective. Fortunately, New Masters is giving you both opportunities
of studying perspective and anatomy. Okay, I’m just blocking those in there.
I want to go back here. I’ve pretty much ignored this leg. What we need to be conscious
of here is that this is going back in. It’s going this way. Again, you can see where I’m
dealing with the cylinder. As I come through here, if I take and also I’m dealing with the box.
Going back in that direction is actually. We’re going all the way back up in here.
The leg is taking and the ankle is in here. We’re coming across so we’re getting a
compression of these forms. They’ll be coming through. We see the overlapping in here. This
is coming all the way up. Going through. The more I take and go over the surface of the
form, the more clearly we can understand what the form is doing. As I go back in here now,
the foot is actually going up into here, and the heel is taking it way up here. Going through.
Ankle is in here. Very, very strong shape, taking and coming across. We’re building
into where the toe would be in here.
So, let’s see if we can carry this underneath and get the arm and start to work with the
way the chest folds underneath here at the same time. Dropping it all in tone is a convenient
thing. Often, that’s used more as a crutch. But here, when I go within the arm I want
to take and feel where that deltoid is going into, where it would be heading into the corner
of the clavicle, the end of the scapula here. We’re coming around. We can feel the forms
overlapping. Coming through. Over to the corner. Pushing the form down as I come around. We
can actually feel the head of the humerus in there come through.
Talking about feeling underneath the deltoid, the infraspinatus, and then we’re picking
up the teres major. Coming across. But this is a belly. We want to feel that this shape
is going underneath. The volume as we come through, this is going in. We get the triceps
going in between. The deltoid is coming down. I’m creating a little bit of space so we
can see the triceps as they go back behind. Here is now where I really push coming out
from underneath, pulling over that surface. Going through.
I don’t pay emphasis on the way the tones of the light are. I’m focusing primarily
on the form and, of course, in this lesson, the idea. Not the light, but the use of the
cylinder and, as I defined it, going over the surface of the form. So, we build. As
I work here I would be going underneath and feeling the corners as we go over that surface.
Even here we can start to feel the belly. Don’t see what’s going on. It’s all
pretty much hidden in tone. I want to take and at least think about what the form is doing.
Now, as I go into the leg, thinking now—we’re first thinking of the straight coming through
to where what doing here. Then we can see. If you look carefully you will see that there
is a bit of a swelling as this goes across and going over. As I come down here I’m
taking and going over the end. I feel the patella coming out. Here I’m going around
that corner, down, across the form. Think of where the condyles end. We have a strong
compression in here. Forms are coming around. Going over the surface. It’s pushing under,
and now we can feel a lot of the belly muscles in here coming through.
We push and we go over the surface. So again, repeating. I’m just taking and analyzing
form. I’m not copying, copying the light that we have here. So, if I come through I
can feel, and I can see where this is all stretched out a bit too much. That foot still
has to be moved in a bit. But if I think of the ankle and we’re coming in. So I’ll
cheat a little bit to see if I can make some sense out of this. Feel the pull of the toes.
Look at that. I don’t know if you can see that. What you have right here is the way
the knuckle of the big toe. This is a cylinder and box that’s coming out towards you. Come
through. Build. Feel the tendons. It’s very, very strong compression taking place. Feel the pull.
Now, this is fitting in. Going over the surface. Feeling these things dropping down.
Pull the arm out, behind. Go over the surface. Again, I’m using the cylinder to take and describe form.
Triceps. Even here we don’t see it, but I would be thinking of the brachial as
I come through. Wrist going over, going over the surface again. The constant, wrapping
a line over the surface going around, behind. You can think of it like a follow-through
whether you’re talking about baseball or golf. Follow through with things. Come through.
We already started here with the hand here a bit. Come through. One, two, three, four.
You’ll find that it’s a good idea to count. You can embarrass yourself very easily. Recently,
I critiqued a drawing by a pretty competent artist. He was copying another drawing, somebody
else, and he had the right foot on the left foot. He had them backwards. That happens
to the best of us. Anyway, come through. Feel the planes. I’ve spent too much time with that.
Let’s just go back up here. I want to feel as we go over the neck. Feeling the pull and
a bit of the compression coming around. So, now, these forms pull down. It’s coming
down and fitting into where the scapula is over here in the belly. Pushing up underneath
that you have the spine of the scapula on the interior, but we want to feel this surface
now, taking and building, and we need to going back over. We want to feel these forms coming
through. Have the rhomboids taking and coming out of here. Trapezius. We feel the base of
the spine of the scapula. We feel the edge come up against the rib cage. Back, going
over. Now, as I come around the head they come back over, through. I want to take and
really push this corner down. I want to feel these forms pushing in, coming through, pushing down.
So, all of this is fitting into, it actually fits into the top of the rib cage. We can
feel the volumes, and we can feel the sternocleidomastoid coming through here.
We’re seeing the underside of the chin.
The way he’s shaved his beard helps to emphasize that shape. We’re seeing
the underside. We’re fitting in, coming though. The corner of the eye socket, but
what we’re picking up with the cheekbone here is the zygomatic arch. The pads come
down, heading down. We’re just picking up a bit of an eyelash here.
The other arm we can feel—now here I’m going to go back in and emphasize. We’re
coming around a corner. Clavicle is wrapping around from behind. Here we can feel the way
the tone is overlapping. Feel the pull come through over the surface of the form. Coming
through. Pull over. Coming through. Build. So you’re seeing the biceps volume. Coming
through. Triceps behind. Seeing the shape as it fits in. Then you would have the brachial
muscle underneath with the biceps attaching to the thumb side of the radius. Now we’re
picking up condyles a bit here. All of your flexors.
with tone to take and help a little bit of what you’re seeing. But, I want to take—first
the obvious part here. This is, if you think of the tone, you have a ball. You have a highlight.
The half-tones in between. You have the core. Reflected light and then cast shadow. You
can see very clearly on the head here that we have the core coming through. The hair
also has a core highlight, reflected light. We can feel from here, coming around the corner,
so as I’m drawing the core I’m really working partially with a cylinder idea of
getting a cast shadow. I’m going to emphasize some of these contrast. Cast shadow is going
over that form. We would have a core here although you don’t see that in the photograph.
I’m taking and creating a core coming down.
The next form here has a core on it, and to emphasize that I would take and use the cast
shadow coming through. I’m building up, coming down, picking up the forms through
here. You can use the cast shadow. It helps going over and defining some of these volumes
in here. We can feel depth coming down. Cast shadow goes over the surface. Now, I’m not
against taking and changing. I hear the core coming across the clavicle. We feel the cast
shadow. Part of the deltoid is sticking out. So, here we could take this. Right now you
can see where we can drop down. I’m using the idea that the light is a tool to take
and help show the form more clearly. In this case, I’m not particularly dealing with
it as a design element.
So, adding a bit more. Feel the core coming across, another little element here that we’re
dealing with the core; the reflected light. Reflected light, these are elements that we
can play with. In other words, I can make this seem a bit brighter by how I take and
work with the accents within the core. So it’s a contrast thing here. As I come through,
I’m thinking of the reflected light. As I come through with the core, and I’m going
over the surface the same way I was doing before, but now I’m going to take and draw.
Let’s take, for instance, I’ll do it in stages here. You have this deltoid in shadow.
I want to take and show, bring a luminosity into here, so I can use—and I’m just picking
up what I’m seeing on the photograph there now. Coming over the cast shadow, sharp.
Now, the contrast of the cast shadow with the core creates the reflected light. I start
to pull forms out from underneath. Then I’m going over the surface, coming through. Accents
coming through. Now, all of this, which is really a very nice play we see here, would
come through. You can see the way the tones with the combination of using the core and
the modeling tone. These work together. This form is turning away. Then I’m taking and
I’ll pick up this form as we’re going down. Core coming through. As the form is
broad, it will have a broad core. In here it’s—as we take that core, the shape of
that core as it pulls down, remember the core has to have a transition to it. Otherwise,
it becomes a cast shadow. But here, I’m going to take—in the photograph there is
a rather soft cast shadow. I will take and make this stronger and emphasize the curve
more. Now, in doing that what I want to do is take and use the light turning away from
reflected light. That’s what’s giving us the luminosity underneath that latissimus.
We can take and build. We work with these forms. Constantly playing with the core. Cast
shadow. Take and start to build these forms. Of course, areas like here where we then are
taking and dropping whole areas into tone.
Now, go back in. As I’m adding two different colors here now—I should say adding black,
not two different colors. We can draw into that and sort of build. We come back up and
start to emphasize then feeling the gesture. Picking up things coming through. Coming under
here and build over. Reinforcing now the actual anatomy.
Here in broad forms is where I really work with the broad side of the pencil, but I’m
working as a series of tones going over the surface. Going back and looking at this now,
I’m starting to see more variations. Here we have the condyle. Now we can start picking
up tone a little bit more in here. I can use it now. Creates more subtle overlapping. Feeling
the pull. We feel this coming through. So, my cross-hatch is really just dealing with
fragments of cylinders. Push the overlapping more clearly. Build.
Notice what I’m doing is I’m giving a little bit more freer rein to the lines that
I’m putting down as I’m doing the drawing. They need to loosen up. In effect what I’m
doing is I’m taking and letting the drawing give the appearance that I didn’t have to
work so hard. I’m taking and coming through. It’s a little looser. Often, you have to
work very hard to make it look like you did it effortlessly. I cheat. I make cast shadows
where there really isn’t.
Here is where I would take and cheat a little bit. There is no light showing on
that knee, but just to give a sense of this thing coming forward a bit more, I would take
and throw a little bit of light on there. In the end it may not be a good idea, but
it’s worth trying to see.
That’s going to take and, of course, compound the difficulties here.
Now I’m taking and throwing in some more light and then changing the shape
a little bit here. Coming through.
Okay, I guess that’s enough. No point in beating a dead horse here.
I’ve picked up a couple of poses, a couple of five-minute poses.
Again, gesture, sphere, boxes, and then the cylinder.
These are tools that we build on when taking and creating the drawing.
It’s an analytical tool. Don’t worry about the time, but again, don’t spend all night doing it.
lessons. Do it again. Maybe do it three or four times and start figuring out maybe some
of your own poses and what have you. Let’s see how I do the cylinder form.
What I’m focusing on this time is the use of the cylinder. So again, we go through the
whole process. As I’m doing the drawing I start with the gesture. Don’t skip. Don’t
skip and don’t copy. Analyze. Come through. What I’m been doing in all of the lessons.
Notice I have been actually taking and drawing cylinders in a way. A cylinder is just going
across the form and around it. I’m already taking and coming through. As I’m doing
the gesture I’m thinking of the volume coming up. Feeling the action where the leg is coming
through. I’m already going through over the surface. Coming through. These are in
a sense already cylinders. I just haven’t taken and made them that obvious, but I’m
already using it. These are tools that we actually use simultaneously. We do all of
these things all at the same time.
As I’m building, feeling the action. Going up. Now I’m coming back in and I’m dealing
with spherical forms. At the same time I’m dealing with the spherical form coming through.
I’m very, very consciously now thinking, okay, here is the box. This is the box. Going
back, going that way. The box is already a part of the drawing. Come in. Across the pelvis.
Thinking about the box. Pelvis is going down, coming through.
Now, as I come out the end of the knee, that’s a box. AT the same time, I’m going back
in and I’m focusing on this is a round spherical form. It’s a cylinder. As that leg comes
through I’m taking and thinking of a sphere. I’m going across over that surface, giving
us the sense of the cylinder. So it’s going around over the surface. It takes and really
tells us what directions forms are going in space. Let me just clarify it again. If I
draw that, if I draw an ellipse, these are just the ends of a cylinder. It’s the direction
that I draw that ellipse that creates which way the cylinder is going.
That’s all I’m really doing.
I’m taking and saying that using the cylinder to take and define these forms. As we take
and come around, if you look at me when I’m doing way more developed drawings, you’ll
see I’m always going across the form, around. It’s the cylinder that’s going over that
surface. Now, it’s important to realize that even the fragments of forms. In other
words, for instance, in here we see the pectoralis muscle taking and pulling up and going over
the arm. That’s really just a cylinder that’s taking and wrapping around. It’s coming
out and these are cylinders. I’m doing exactly the same thing in the fragment that I’m
doing in the large form.
As we look at these forms now, we can feel the external oblique here. Well, that fold
is just part of a cylinder. We feel these masses coming down. This becomes a constant.
The most obvious is right here, the pecs. That’s a cylinder going and coming off of
the rib cage. We have these cylinders of the mastoid and clavicle. This is pulling through.
It’s a cylinder. The neck is a cylinder. The trapezius is coming from the back here,
that’s the cylinder coming through. So all of this stuff, it’s drawing and thinking
of the cylinder. Every time I draw that line it’s going over that surface. Now, we’re
going over and around. We’re building. We’re constructing. We’re thinking box, condyles,
cylinders. Constantly going over and around the surface. In other words, the cylinder
is typified by the fact that you’re drawing completely through the form to take and show it.
Building. You’re going through, around. Even here I would be taking and feeling the
tendon from the biceps of the femur. That’s the section of a cylinder. Everything builds.
It’s a matter of clarifying these forms, and it’s formed with creating how these
forms overlap on another. We build. It’s going over and around the surface of the form.
Okay, in this drawing the one ambiguity, and this is where all of the tools that we’ve
talked about come into play. Feeling the flow. As I’m doing this, I’m going over the
surface. Through. Feel the pull. Going over the surface of the form. As I’m doing this
you can see that really now become the essence of the spherical form. Coming across, down.
Going across. The pelvis becomes more of a box. I’m really thinking of what is the
angle that we’ve got going here. I’m thinking of the box. The gesture is coming through here. It’s the rhythm
of that leg coming down.
Now, in this part of the pose here, I would actually change the pose a bit. It’s a very
awkward looking angle of what we’re seeing. This is a point. You have the ability as you’re
drawing to look at things. In other words, I’m pulling the knee out a little bit so
that we can see the gesture a little bit more. It’s a little more interesting. If you’re
copying that contour that just becomes a straight line, which really would be very boring and
Part of this pose is—I chose this pose because it requires you to take and think a little
bit more about how you’re take and represent the action. Okay, now as I start to pull up
into this further, okay, she’s looking up. I didn’t that very clear to start with.
Okay, so now I’m looking across where the corner of the eye socket. Now I need to lift
the head up a little bit. Feel the chin coming down. Now, I’m feeling the twisting of the
neck. That twisting is a cylinder now. Coming through. We want to feel it coming across
the shoulder. I’m building, thinking of the scapula on top. The sphere.
General sense, now. All of this as we come down and feel these, these are constantly,
I’m using the fragment of the cylinder and going over the surface of the form. I want
to feel the way the pelvis is fitting in. Notice that in doing these drawings now I
have very little tone. Everything is line right now. I’m not dealing with tone. I’m
just dealing with lines that are going over the surface. We look at the, see the sacrospinalis
muscles here. Those are really just, these are cylinders. In fact, the way I’m drawing
is you’ll see that if you look at your anatomy books, that’s usually the way they draw.
They go over the surface. It’s like a contour map going over the surface, defining that
form. So the cylinder in the broadest sense, is a sequence of lines that go over the surface,
taking and defining what that is doing. So now I come through. I’m feeling the buttocks
doing down. When I begin this, I draw the cylinder to have a clear idea of which way
that is going, particularly now in the other leg. We can see that as I draw this we’re
coming down. You’re going over that surface. We’re going through. We’re going around
over that surface as we’re going back. So, I changed the angle.
Being able to draw the idea of a simple cylinder and to also be able to look at these forms
as simple forms—notice now I’ve moved this angle pulling across. It’s got more
movement to it. It’s not what you see on the model. Now I come through and I’m using
the idea of the box of the back. It can mean where the tendons are coming down. Then we
would think of the gastrocnemius coming in. We’re going over. We’re looking at—again,
it’s boxes, spheres, and cylinders. Everything comes into play.
Now, I can take and maybe this needs to be fuller. Come back in. As I’m drawing I’m
constantly going over the surface. You can see that the cylinder is not just a cylinder
it’s the lines that go over to take and describe the cylinder. That’s really the
lesson. Over these surfaces. Coming through. Even the thing on her hair is going in sections
of a cylinder. As we’re building, we’re building these forms now. As we come across
we can think that, well, this is a buttocks going down. The box is giving us that information.
We take and we’re going over that surface. Coming down. I’m taking in and I draw the
buttocks. I’m thinking this is a cylinder going back. We can feel these surfaces fitting
one into another.
So, now I’m constantly, as I’m drawing this I’m going over and around that surface.
I suggest you look at many of the da Vinci drawings and the Michelangelos. You’ll see
that this is a constant element in the drawing, constantly wrapping lines and going over the
surface. Notice, I spend very little time on the outside contour. It’s created by
the forms. And the forms are created by analyzing them and using spheres, cylinders and boxes
to explain them.
So, as we come through, we go over. That’s a section of cylinders. We’re building this
form. We can take and we can work over and around that form. Going through. Now, in these
drawings here I’m taking and demonstrating. Later on we will focus on the actual rendering
where this becomes more of an integrated element in the drawing and maybe not quite so obvious
all the time. If you look carefully that it is a major element in the drawing, as are
all of the things that I’ve been talking about. The action, the gesture, of course,
is the most important thing. Without that you have nothing. The next element becomes
the simple spherical forms. At that point, we’re talking about how we go over and how
forms fit in. The box helps us to clarify and to understand what that form is doing.
These are all analytical tools. At the same time they’re tools that explain how things
are taking and drawn. Drawing is your ability to take and describe form and action, of course.
But, what’s important here is to note that changing something, being able to change a
pose, to take and make it more interesting and a little bit more understandable.
Okay, now in this pose we’ve got a lot of opportunities to take and deal with the idea
of the cylinder. I’m taking the head, a little bit, come through. Feel the pull of
the neck, torso. Cylinder. Sphere. I’m already going across. I’m looking at the breast
as the symmetry, help us see the angle. Stretching. That leg pulls across. Here, really this becomes
where I really focus. It’s really a cylinder going in. Around, through. So you can see
now that the cylinder becomes an integral part of taking and showing the gesture.
Now I’m going to particular focus—I want this leg to go back. That has to be made clearer.
I’m going through, now I’m taking and there is a sphere. At the same time we’re
going over that surface. I’m always using the cylinder. Coming across. We go overlapping
form here now. So, it’s working and going over, around. As I’m doing this, I’m really
making, it’s like little exercises. Taking and doing this. Okay, that’s what I’m
doing. I’m going over the surface, pulling in.
Again, it’s very, very conscious of the direction that the form is going in. Which
way is it turning? Now I come back in and I’m thinking of the rib cage coming through.
We’re getting a compression. We can feel where the ribs would be coming across out
of the box. You can see the way the light is giving us a side of the form. I’m thinking
of coming through. We can feel the pull so we’re going over and we’re getting a compression
in here as we’re building. You can see that the box, the cylinder, the sphere all work
together. We can see the way the pectoralis or the combination now. We’re talking about
all of these tools including the anatomy. You’ll understand which way the forms are
going, what the forms are.
I’m going over the surface. Going over the surface you feel the breasts sitting on the
surface. Coming through. Trapezius is pushing up and back and going over the cylinder. The
end of the shoulder is a box and spherical cylinder forms as we go through. You’re
constantly going over these volumes. Think about where the condyles are. Going over.
We’re fitting in. As you’re drawing, and you can see the way I’m talking about it.
I’m analyzing what the forms are doing. And in your own drawing you should just take
and be lecturing to yourself. Just take and hear my voice in the background what to do.
As we go through, going around, constantly overlapping forms. The hair, for instance,
is really just like a section of a cylinder or a hat that’s sitting on top. Now, as
that leg comes through we go over. I want to feel things fitting in. A box at the end
is showing us the direction to go behind. It tells us overlapping. Going over the surface,
through, across, over. You lecture to yourself. I’ve told students in a classroom situation
to take turns to each other and demonstrating how to take and do the drawing. So, what I
suggest you do is you take some convenient victim and tell them you have to take and
demonstrate to somebody, but you have to seriously talk and explain what it is that you’re
doing. You’re going over the surfaces. Explain why you’re putting a certain line down.
It’s not because you see it on the model.
Like for instance, here it’s the compression. This is a section of a cylinder that’s coming
through. If I start to take and go anywhere further with this drawing, it’s like taking
and refining the use of the cylinder. I’m taking and—for instance, it’s hard to
show a little bit more, but now I’m controlling the value. I’m going over the surface of
the form. That line that I’m creating is just a fragment of a cylinder that goes over
the form. This is the beginning. These are your basic tools. We’ve gone through a whole
series now with gesture. We’ve done spheres, boxes, cylinders. These are all integral elements
within the process, and it’s just being able to take and use these tools.
Well, now that we’ve gone through cylinders, you can see why I think it’s so important,
and you can see how it relates to everything we’ve already been doing, whether we’re
working and going into tone. Now matter what we’re doing, almost rendering any object
you are always dealing with going across and around the form. Again, like everything else,
you practice. You go over it and over it and over it again. Then we will build on that.
Have fun. I always do. A drawing a day every day, almost every hour. Take care.
Free to try
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15m 39s2. Introduction to Cylindrical Forms
11m 43s3. Old Master Analysis: Cambiaso, Leonardo, Michelangelo
13m 46s4. Old Master Analysis: Michelangelo, Mengs, Rubens
14m 40s5. Demonstration: Seated Female Figure (Model: Maude)
18m 1s6. Demonstration: Seated Female Figure (Model: Maude), continued
16m 4s7. Demonstration: Crouched-Over Side View of Male (Model: Barry)
19m 49s8. Demonstration: Crouched-Over Side View of Male (Model: Barry), continued
14m 35s9. Demonstration: Crouched-Over Side View of Male (Model: Barry), continued
16m 8s10. Timed Figure Drawing Assignment
24m 36s11. Glenn's Approach to the Assignment