- Lesson details
In this video lesson series Glenn Vilppu will teach you how to draw the torso, demonstrating through diagrams and live models the anatomy of this region and how to think about the structures of the torso three-dimensionally.
- Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine
- Drawing Paper
Discuss this video in the forums!Discuss
to show you the essential construction for drawing. You will learn about the anatomy
of each region in addition to learning useful ways to think about the structures three-dimensionally.
Glenn will demonstrate for you over the live model as well as through clear diagrammatical
drawings. By the end of this series, you should have a much firmer grasp on the complexity
of the human figure that can be built upon even further.
In this lesson, Glenn will teach you how to draw the torso.
Transcription not available.
one superimposing over the other. I’m primarily just going to focus on the torso. Okay, so
now again, and what you do as you’re drawing you want to feel the sense of what’s going
on. She’s leaning back. I’m feeling the pull of the neck coming back. Then we’re
going down and in. She’s going back in. As I’m doing this I take and work, visualize
she’s going back. Notice that the lines that I’m using going around immediately
tell us that she’s leaning back. Then we’re feeling the pull into the pelvis. Here is
where, since I’m looking slightly down at her it’s still going around and through.
But the idea is that she is going this way. Pressure is coming across and going down through
here. The arms are going back in. In this case I will take and look at the two-dimensional.
The hands are very close to the face here, two dimensionally. The arm is coming back
this way and coming across, going back over into here. So now let’s take these parts.
As I go through I’m taking and thinking of the nuchal ridge. I’m almost getting
the head at almost a perfect angle so I can see both ears very clearly. I’m visualizing
the neck as a cylinder going around and going through. I’m going over, feeling the spine.
This is going down through. The rib cage is a volume now. I’m looking at the volume,
small at the top, and I want to see this as going down. And you want to feel this surface
coming around as we pull down fitting in. So it’s this shape fitting in. Then when
you come down you can see how clearly you can see the dimples coming across the back
here. We get the sacrum taking and coming down. Going over, reveal the pelvis now is
going back in, away. We can feel the buttocks coming down. It’s fairly symmetrical.
The idea here is she’s taking and leaning in or leaning back. The arms and everything are
going through. I want to feel this point here. Scapula. This is turned here. Scapula is pushing
away. The arm is turned away going back in this way. So the scapula is coming across
the surface here and pulling through. The other side is the same thing. It’s going
back away from me. And so we’re pulling back into here are the arms. At this point
I would just be thinking of the arm as a cylinder that’s taking and going in. We would have
a group we’d take and feel this volume and some fairly extreme foreshortening here, which
I’m not so really worried about right now.
Now, when you look at her we can see the muscles pulling on the base of the skull. You can
feel. Your trapezius muscle is coming down, and it’s coming across. It attaches all
the way across the scapula, all the way over here. So it just comes down. I’m pulling
through. Feel the pull coming across, over to the surface to the end of clavicle and the
scapula coming over here. It’s coming across this point here. Adjust for the scapula itself
coming through. This surface is turning away from me.
Now, at the same time here, as we’re pulling you can see now I’m moving the ear in a little bit.
We feel what we refer to as the cuff of the ear behind. You can see the pull
of the sternocleidomastoid in here coming down, and I can barely see a bit of the jaw here.
I take the shape now and come through. Simpler, feel the ear.
As I go through this I’m constantly adjusting. Feel the sternocleidomastoid behind.
So pay particular attention to forms that overlap.
So now this goes back in. We can feel the clavicle coming through, scapula,
the deltoid going around behind. So it’s overlapping while you’re feeling this surface,
moving around. And we’ve got the center of the spine coming through. This is a form
now that’s going in. Our whole thing here is going down and in. Drawing that I’m really
thinking this. This is pushing down and going around. The pelvis is going out. The female
pelvis is slightly wider, but what we want to focus on is seeing the rib cage coming
through here. We have this corner fitting in. This is coming through. We’re pulling,
overlapping. Essentially this is like just a simple volume that’s coming around, fitting
into another volume that’s coming through here. Then we’re feeling the change pushing
down. So now as I come through the pressure of that change is
creating a pinching coming through.
Now, this is not muscle right here. This is really sort of a fat pad. This is coming from
behind over to the edge. This is your external oblique here. This is a form that’s going
down. So I’m going over that surface, coming in. On the other side now we’re coming through.
We feel the overlapping coming through. It’s going around, through. Again, you can see
the diagram as I’m dealing with this. Then since she’s pulling back now I’m dropping
the sacrum a little bit shorter. Coming through. Buttocks. I’m adjusting the shape. Feel
this coming through. So we want to feel. Now, it’s importance to realize that there is
a corner here. This is a corner that’s pulling through here. We feel the pull coming around,
coming across. Pinch. And then we feel, and then we’re starting to work into the thigh
coming across. Again, here we’ll come around. Here we feel there, this is a corner coming
through. Pulling from where the trochanter is over here. The opposite side. We can feel,
your gluteus maximus is taking and pulling across. It comes off. It starts actually up
in here. We can actually, you can actually see from that dimple right there you can actually
see a line that’s taking and pulling through. So this is a point. This is your gluteus maximus.
This part all on the outside here, this is your gluteus medius in here.
Okay, so now we’re coming around, and I’m pulling over and we start to feel. Thigh,
come down. At this point we’re picking up a bit of the large abductors as they fit in.
Then we’re going down to the leg down through here. Let’s go back to this scapula here.
As we’re coming through, meeting the corner there. The deltoid is coming all the way around
the corner so I’m working. On the other side, again, it’s being very, very conscious
of the overlapping of these forms as we pull around the corner coming back. We feel the
muscles coming off of the scapula. Your teres major on the bottom, your infraspinatus in
between. We get a little bit of the sense of the serratus anterior over here. The trapezius
is to pull through here. It’s going all the way across the corners here, and it’s
pulling. So what we’re seeing here then is a fullness in here. We can feel. This would
be your trapezius coming off the corner. We can feel this pulling down. This is a form
that’s pulling down and in. Feel the scapula. The muscles coming off the underside, the
serratus anterior. Come through and feel this curvature of the rib cage itself. Coming in
as we pull around. The way the forms are pinching, I’m taking and coming in. I want to emphasize
these forms now coming down, pushing in, coming out. We’ve got a pinch taking place. We
can feel the fullness of these forms so we come through.
Again, on the other side I’m taking and thinking of the sacrospinalis, but I would
take and push making this stronger to show the pinch that’s taking place. We build.
And this is turning a little bit more away from me I want to feel the line, the scapula,
feel the corner. Right in here there’s actually a dimple. When we look at the male model you’ll
see this. It’ll be a little bit clearer. We can feel the pull, the muscles coming off,
go through. So all of the lines that I put down are built from muscles. I’m building
a contour focusing on overlapping and how the muscles take and pull.
Now, I’m going to take and—we’ll have the model take and lean in so we can see what
happens with all of the stuff as we start to go back in space. Okay, now what I’m
doing is we’re taking the same pose except she’s leaning in. I’m going to take and
move my drawing over slightly. I’m thinking of—now, I’m really going to take and jump
right into simpler shapes. This is when you’re taking and dealing with any kind of foreshortening.
It’s much simpler to take and deal with the simple volumes. So now I’m looking at
the overall sense of the rib cage again. Going through, coming across. She is going in. The
head, I’m looking at the way the muscles fit up into the base of the skull. Look at
where the ears are. Coming through. Feel the roundness of the rib cage. As we pull down
now we can see, I’m going back in. I’m seeing more, a slightly different angle here,
but is still basically the same thing. You can see how clearly these—I’m treating
these as very simple volumes. We’re focusing on the overlapping of how these forms overlap
one another as they build into this. Come through. Thinking of where the dimples on
the back of the pelvis are. Feel the sacrum coming down. The buttocks and now we’re
taking and going back down into the leg. We can see the shape coming through. Her knees
are pretty much together. We can feel.
Now, this is the type of angle where the female shapes really become more dominant. What shape
am I talking about? I’m talking about this shape here. Let me give you give you a characterization
of the typical shape of a female as we see this type of a breakdown from the rear.
This shape here. Now, as she’s going back in much of the action, or gesture I should say,
we feel the scapula lifting up. It’s going around, behind. This is going behind the shape
of the rib cage. On this side we can feel the pushing up. Feel the pushing up. It’s
going strong, going through. It’s coming down, across. The ridge is going through here.
The arm is a cylinder going back down and in. As you look you can see the rib cage going
through. Again, I’m drawing this. I want to feel the volume of this rib cage.
It's got volume going through. We can feel then the muscles, the spine itself. The spine,
we’ve talked a lot about the S-curve of a spine. But the minute you bend over that
S-curve becomes straightened out and becomes strictly a curve.
in and over. Now we start coming down. We feel this pull. We get the sacrospinalis muscles
that come up alongside the spine. We can feel the spine itself coming down. Feel the pull
of these muscles as they go up. This shape now, you can see how this is fitting in.
Much of this has to do with the kidney pads, which are more prominent on the female than they
are in the male. The male has them too depending on how much weight you have. We now come through.
We can see how I’m building this. I can feel the pelvis now as I come through here.
I’m looking to the corner, looking for the flat edge of the pelvis where we would have
the tensor muscle coming off. If you look carefully you can see that what we get now
is a slight building of the form as I go up, over the surface. We’re fitting into the
rib cage. So it’s the overlapping now. And so here maybe I’ll take and cut down on
the actual shape of the rib cage here. Then we start to feel the scapula coming across.
We can feel the muscles coming off of the scapula. The teres major going over and the
infraspinatus—excuse me, the latissimus dorsi coming out from underneath. It’s pulling
across. Of course, in this case we will be seeing the breast dropping down.
We want to feel the roundness now.
We’re seeing the trapezius as it goes off. Here I’m drawing the tone. I’m using,
as I’m drawing the rib cage we’re seeing the tone so the light that I’m applying
right here, that’s the edge of the muscle coming off of the scapula or coming through.
We can feel these are forms that are going back in. We can feel these forms. We can feel
the corner. So I’m pushing the tones back in. Feel the neck going back.
Feel the pull coming through.
So now as I was talking about in the previous drawing here, the sides, she’s
got a, the flank here, there is a corner here. The gluteus muscles take and there are actually
corners to them. As they come down we can feel there is an edge here. This is going
back, come through. We’ve got your gluteus medius coming down to the surface where the
trochanter is into here. Then we’re feeling the pads on the sides coming through, working
over the surface. Notice that I’m constantly going over the surface as I pull around and
come from behind. We can go over the surface and pulling the muscles off of the deltoid,
coming down. It’s fitting in. The deltoid would be coming off of the scapula. Come through.
Feel the deltoid going down. The rest of the stuff is coming out from behind.
Add a little bit more volume to the head.
Here you can see that what we’re getting is a stretching. On the other side here we
had this sacrospinalis muscles coming up. These large bands of muscles. Now we’re
going over so I’m drawing, feel the way these are pulling and coming off. With the
female things are a little bit simpler. We can feel—notice the way I’m going. I want
to feel the volume of these forms as I go over. I’m feeling the volume.
Feel the corner of the form.
These things drop down. So you’re building, so essentially you’re saying the
stretching as we’re going across, we’re fitting in. So these are simple volumes to
begin with. As I’m doing that I’m always thinking about the actual anatomy that’s
taking place as we’re doing that.
Okay, now in this drawing we’re going to start going into a little bit more detail
in terms of the muscles. I’m focusing primarily just on the torso. Actually just more of the
upper torso. I’m drawing a little bit larger here. Again, I don’t do it any differently.
As I start out quite simple, now I draw very lightly to begin with so that I have the opportunity
then to take and go back over forms and adjusting. So I’m constantly taking and correcting
myself as I’m working through the drawing. Coming in. The pit of the neck.
Coming through, around.
So, now as I come across I’m looking at landmarks. Slight shifting in here. We can
feel the pull of the gesture coming through. Regardless of how my detailed I plan to get,
the beginning is always very loose. Everything has to do with the feeling. Even though I’m
talking anatomy I’m taking and dealing with feeling. It’s a drawing. Okay, so the action.
You can look at this part of the drawing just as a laying-in. Just general—now, I’ll
go back in and correct myself as I’m going through doing the drawing. So first we can
start out, and we’re going back. I’m looking at the structure, the corners of the eye socket.
Coming through. Center section.
Pull up. Feeling the skull. Looking at the where the planes.
I’m not going to get really deeply involved at all with the
features, but just the primary points of structure.
Cheekbones, feel the eye socket going back in. The plane of the nose, face, eyes going down.
We can feel the shape of the face. We can feel the plane coming through.
The ear going back, coming out, through.
From here I can take and come through. I’m looking to the point of the pit of the neck.
Notice the distances from here. The top of the head here. Pretty much now, pit of the
neck still ties in. The neck is a cylinder first. Then from there we take and come down.
Sternum, same proportion now. Then we go to the bottom of the 10th rib down here. So I’m
looking at the symmetry coming across. The thoracic arch is going to be coming through.
Here, coming around. Feel the volume of the rib cage underneath. Coming through.
So I’m drawing the rib cage. Then we build on top. But let’s take this, carry the proportions
and stuff down here to the corners of the pelvis. Coming across. Same measurement now.
Going across the form. Feel the pelvis. This is to the end, but the top of the pelvis is
moving up. Half of that would take us to the pubic arch. As I come around now and go back
in. I’m looking at the clavicle going through. The clavicle is taking, and it’s this S-curve.
So even though two-dimensionally it looks like a straight line going out here. I know
that the clavicle is going out. It takes and turns, goes in. Then it takes and turns again
and comes out, so it’s an S-curve, although it’s in perspective. Now the cylinder of
the neck pulling through here. As we feel the underside of the chin, come again. Clavicle
on the other side again. It’s a little more obvious over here of the clavicle going across,
going in, through.
Then taking and coming across and is fitting into the scapula, which is on the outside.
We can see the, let’s just take and work our way through the muscles here now. From
here, coming to the inside edge of the clavicle is we have the sternocleidomastoid coming
from behind the ear. It’s important to keep in mind these are overlapping forms that are
coming through. It has two heads. One head is taking and coming over to the clavicle.
Pulling through. This will vary from individual to individual, the prominence of these forms.
On Clay here that’s very obvious and very prominent. We can really feel the pull of
that muscle. Coming through. We can see the thyroid cartilage underneath here. This is
an edge that’s sitting back. So we feel the pull. There is a pulling from behind so
you need to feel a curvature of that muscle as it pulls from behind coming through.
Coming around, behind. So we’ve got the muscles pulling from behind. We can feel the corner
of the jaw sticking out, coming through. In this case also I’ll just indicate. This
would be your masseter muscle that’s coming down. It’s part of a plane that we deal
with and the roundness of the muzzle as we come around.
Remember, the rib cage is tiny. It’s up I back here. What you’re seeing are the
muscles that are pulling through from behind. The trapezius is coming from behind over all
the way to the end of where the scapula is coming. We want to feel the pull. When I do
this I’m taking and thinking about where it is going. I feel the pull. It comes across
and it dives down and attaches. So with that little bit of a pull coming through this is
a rounded surface that’s going over the form, and this is coming forward and attaching
in that corner. So we have this hollow in between here now. So we can feel the tone
that’s coming through here. We’re indicating a tone. This is the clavicular head of the
sternocleidomastoid. These forms taking and coming down. I can feel the pull of that coming in.
On the other side, now remember, he’s turned. So we’re getting a bit of a pull. Wherever
you’re headed you look to where you’re going. Got the clavicle out here. The bump
that you see is right here, and the scapula is coming across the end of that point right
there. So we’re pulling that sternocleidomastoid—excuse me, the trapezius from behind. I’m looking
to where it goes. I can go both ways. I can start here. I’m picking up and coming through.
Back, fitting in. I’m going over. I want to feel the foreshortening coming through
here. Now, the sternum is taking and coming down to here. Thoracic arch, this is the thoracic
arch. We don’t really see that all that clearly. But we do feel the corners of the
ribs taking and sticking out over here. This is around the corner a little bit. He’s
slightly turned away from me so we’re getting a—I’m going to take and actually think
the form is coming down this way. Now, the pectoralis muscles are taking and coming off
the front. What happens here now is that we take, I’m going to take and go through and
diagram this out a little bit. The arm is actually coming down a little more this way.
The elbow is coming out of here. So we can see, and I’m taking this first as just a
simple cylinder form going down. Going around that form or pulling down.
On the other side the arm is actually going behind. We’re saying this is, again, we
visualize. This is a cylinder going down and behind. Now, the deltoid, visualize this corner
here. We’ve talked about this now. This is a box-type form that’s taking and coming
out. This is going and attaching exactly just opposite of where the trapezius is coming
around and fitting in at this point right here.
is pulling off of the surfaces here. Coming through. It has the corners coming off of
the deltoid, I mean off of the scapula there on the end and coming down. It’s important
to keep in mind that the pectoralis muscles are coming off the front of the chest.
Now you have two sets of pectoralis muscles. Inside here we looked at the skeleton. The bump that
you’re seeing at this point right here is the coracoid process sticking out, pushing
out. We can feel that the deltoid has to go over that. But we have the pectoralis minor
muscle which also attaches to that point. It is coming down from in here this way.
Okay, the pectoralis major is taking and coming off, is on top of that. The first part of
it is taking and actually pulling from the clavicle. So what you see, there is a hollow
that’s created. There’s a triangular space between where the deltoid and the pectoralis
muscles come out. As you look at him you’re going to see slight depression in here. This
is the point where the pectoralis is actually leaving the chest. Coming all the way, this
all builds up all the way over here. So if you look at this as a shape to begin with
we’re going down over that surface. This is going in. Coming through. We come across.
We come across that form. This is volume. What happens here is the pectoralis is coming
across from here, going over and attaching to the bone, to the humerus.
This goes under, it’s going underneath, but the muscle takes and does a pattern of going like this. From
the clavicle from up here, and then progressively as the muscle takes and pulls it’s an overlapping
effect that takes place going to the arm. So as we do this then, so you need to think
that this is a volume, what creates in a sense part of the shape that we see. It’s this
overlapping. This becomes a thick form in here. So as I pull across, and as you look
at the model you can see that this like a cylinder coming across in here. This is pulling
over. Then we feel this taking—so there is volume that’s taking place. You can feel
the surface of the form coming through. Part of this is probably a little bit of the minor
that takes and cuts across. So there are real corners that are taking place in here.
On the other side maybe it’s a little more obvious. When we think here we can see the
pull from the clavicle. We can see the shape that’s taking and coming down. The pecs
then are coming across, pulling through. We can see the rib cage going behind. So we’re
building these forms. So now I use a little bit of tone to take and define this volume
a little bit more. So you can feel the shape going over. Now, what we deal with is we have
to think, this is on top of the rib cage. So I’m really thinking of the thoracic arch
right here. You’re seeing this edge here. These forms are coming around from behind
as we pull through. We can feel the corner here. The shapes that you see are these finger
shapes in here. That’s the serratus anterior that are taking and coming down and fitting
into the ribs as we come around. Now, I suggest you look at the points, dig out your anatomy
books to see a little bit more, the diagrammatical part of this thing. But you notice as I’m
doing this drawing, everything is taking and being based on an understanding of how the
muscles work. What I did here, this is a little bit too long here. The arm is now coming through,
overlapping, and this point here. This should stop right about here. What’s happening
now is that your biceps, for instance, are coming down and going through here. The deltoid
is coming across. Since the arm is pulled back these forms are going back down and over
the surface. We feel this coming down and going in. So this is taking and coming over.
The pecs are going underneath. A lot of this is just material created. Now, the deltoid
is coming down and attaching here. We can feel the pull coming over, coming down, fitting
in. The fibers are actually coming across. There is actually a corner. There are three
sections to the deltoid. There is a clavicular section. There is an end section. Then there
is a scapula section. So here if you look carefully you can see the pull off of the—I’m
making that corner very obvious right there. Then we can see the muscle pulling from that.
So there is an overlapping that takes place at that point. And then we’re coming down.
We want to feel the volume, the surface of these forms. There is a corner that is taking
and coming down. We can feel the fibers now taking and pulling all the way up. We have
a corner that just pulls and goes over the coracoid process. We can feel these muscles
building. Like I said, this original line here was a bit too long. We can feel the pull
of these muscles. There is an edge here. So now as I go to the other side you can see,
we’ve got the rib cage underneath. We can feel the edge of the thoracic arch going down,
pulling through. Okay, the rectus abdomis muscle. I’ve drawn this out this way, actually
as I look now I can see we’re going along more with the gesture. We have the shape of
the linea alba, white line of the center taking and coming down the navel. The rest of the
rectus abdomis going down. But let’s focus first here on the part here. The pecs, now
there is a strong plane there. That’s taking and going back around. Again, you can feel
the slight tone in here as we feel this is a bulging where the muscle is actually pulling
and leaving from. We feel the volume going over the surface, rolling through. Coming
around. We can feel there is a corner here. There is an edge that this pulls through.
The rib cage is round. Feel the corner, actually feel the ribs going through here. At this
point I can see a very subtle bit of playing here. We start to see the serratus anterior
coming from behind. The pecs going down. The pecs are going back.
Now the arm is going back away. So as I started out with the idea of either thinking of this
as a box or a cylinder that’s going back in. So I’m doing this then. We’re pulling
that from the corner here. We can feel the pinching that’s been taking place as the
muscles are pulled back. These are deltoids going over the pecs that are going underneath.
In other words, we’ve got a cylinder that’s going in, and we have muscles that are coming
down and going over that cylinder. We take and feel, and we do feel the corner of that
form on top, coming through and down. We work around that surface, pulling, coming off the
end of the scapula. Feel the pull. We can feel the muscles now taking and wrapping around,
coming through. This is pulling down. We have a corner that’s being created. Feel the
pull from this point. This now, I’m pushing that as we push back in, and we come around
that point. Going over and going through.
So everything here is anatomy plus basic mechanics, drawing mechanics as we take and go through.
As we start to add the rectus abdominis muscles, as you take and look at the, first we start
with the sternum here. Here is the base. This is halfway between here and here. This is
a common mistake people tend to make as they make this point here way to low.
Okay, so now we can feel the pull, thinking of the center. Now what you’re dealing with
is a series of shapes. Okay, but first of all, the overall big shape is that this is
coming down and giving a large simple pattern of this pulling down to the pubic arch. So
it’s a line divided in the center. Now we have the navel here. So from this point here
the muscles now are, starting at this point there are groups on the one side. They tend
to be—now it doesn’t necessarily have to be symmetrical. In fact, our model today
is not symmetrical. What we see is the shape here. We see another shape that is taking
and pulling up. Then we start to feel the pull coming through over here. On the other
side it’s a little different. It’s coming in and coming through. Then we start to pull
into the muscles coming down. There is also a series of—not everybody has the same muscles
all the time. Coming from the pubic arch there is some muscle that some people have and some
don’t. It’s called the pyramidal muscle. It fits right on top of your rectus abdominis.
Okay, so now I go through here. I’m going to take and push some of this stuff. We’ve
been taking the line, we can feel, taking this pull, we can feel the edge of the muscles.
We’re actually getting the tendon coming down the center here. Clay is very, very developed.
So we get a lot of shapes that are taking place now. Feel the corner here of the thoracic
arch coming. So I push the corner here. I’m going around. I want to—this is a form that’s
turning. It has an edge. We haven’t even talked yet about where the pelvis here and
external oblique which is behind here. What we need to think about is that this is a corner.
This is a corner. It has an edge coming down, going through. The external oblique at this
point is actually coming through. If we look at this is as a looking down at it. We would
see that the rectus abdominis would be going back to the navel here. Coming out and stepping
down. Then the external oblique, and then we would be going around. There are these
planes that we take and go through. So what we have at this point then is a form that’s
going back. We have the edge of the external oblique is here.
Then the external oblique is behind, going through.
So we’ve got these corners. So you’re building these things. And so as I work on
the forms here then I’m looking for a corner. That’s like what I was doing up here. We
have this surface taking and going back in, coming out, and going back. We have the same
thing applied here. Feel the pecs going over the surface. We feel the corner of the form
coming down or pulling around from behind. Pull through. Coming in. Looking for the corner
and feeling the volumes. We actually have a, we pull down to the center. We have a center
section coming through. Coming in we can see. Now, as I start to build these forms, each
time I come through now I’m defining these forms. In between the rectus abdominis and
the external oblique there is a section inside here that does not have any muscle.
In fact, the external oblique is attached to connective tissue that goes completely
over the rectus abdominis. There are different layers. As I come through now you can feel
the pull coming through. We come to the corner. We want to come to the corner of the pelvis
at this point. We can feel now that we’re overlapping the tension that’s being created
as we come through. So it’s the overlapping of the form, constantly dealing with the overlapping
of the form as we come through. I’m building these surfaces. As we build we come through,
and we can see that this external oblique comes through. The shape of the external oblique
gives rise to its name as the flank pad, as the impression of being a pad that’s come
through. So now I am drawing this as a pad that’s coming through.
Okay, the end of the pelvis here. Coming through. So then we would be pulling from that, and
we start to feel the connective ligaments that come through. This shape of that ligament
is actually the edge of the sheet that covers the whole rectus abdominis that the external
oblique is part of. As we build these forms, taking and going around, so you know what
I’m doing is I’m thinking that this is a corner pushing back and going down.
So we come out from behind. Again, it’s the overlapping. Feel through. I can feel
the rectus abdominis in front, and we can feel the external oblique behind that surface.
This is rough diagramming. In my way of diagramming this form is I’m doing a drawing. But I’m
applying the anatomy, so learn to recognize what it is that you’re seeing. Now, I haven’t
carried. I haven’t done anything really with the head. So we would eventually start
to build. Keep going through the figure one step at a time. Each time I go through the
figure. This is applied as I do every drawing. I go through it many times, building the drawing
up from the gesture to the simple volume to applying the anatomy. Depending on the point
of the drawing here, we’re taking and diagramming and talking about anatomy. So I’m being
a little bit more focused on the anatomy than I am on the expression. The expression is
really the end result that you’re going for.
turn and the twisting taking place. Feel the body going in. Feel the flow. Pull down where
the sacrum. The arm is going in. This stage is placement and primarily in general what
I’m drawing as I focus on the gestures. I want to feel the pull coming across, in.
I’m already thinking of all my volumes and everything as I’m going through the drawing.
I’m primarily just trying to feel in terms of measuring I go more of a sight. Eye-hand
coordination type of thing. We’re building the form. From here I’m going to take and
start to add, so I’ve gone through this part of the figure once. Now I go back again,
and I’m taking and first I’m going to hit the rib cage itself. I’m hitting the
point right here, 7th cervical vertebra. The landmarks we’ve talked about. So I want
to feel. Right here I’m essentially drawing the spine coming down. I hit the dimples of
the back, the sacrum. Pulling through. Drawing the rib cage then. Feeling the volume of the
rib cage. This comes through, over the surface. I’m going to feel this old form coming out,
going down. So now when I’m doing this I’m really seeing this as a curved, rounded surface.
I’m going to be building on it. Pull from there. From here I add the scapula. The arm
is slightly up on this side, so I’m taking and feeling the scapula is tilted in turn,
coming down, coming through.
Remember that the bottom of the scapula corresponds basically to the pit of the neck. The scapula
going back. So I’m just looking at the placement. We’re going around a corner here now. I’m
looking at where this edge is. This is going back in this way. And we’re pulling down.
I’ll add to that. First I take and feel the cylinder of the neck. Up ahead is really
tilted, turned, so I’m going over the surface. It’s a cylinder, thinking of the angle.
I’m looking at the ears the way the pull, coming through. Ear is going up. And feel
the shape. Now as I progressively go through the drawing, I’m continually taking and
getting a little bit darker and clarifying a little bit more. So now here we can see
there is a twist. First we can feel the sternocleidomastoid coming from behind the ear going behind. I’m
feeling the trapezius coming across and pulling from the nuchal ridge, the base of the skull.
You can feel there is this center line to it coming through. Feel the muscles building
from that. Coming down. You can feel the stretching of this as it comes across.
Now, as we come into the center here, and I’m going to make this a little bit more
obvious than we actually are seeing. There is an anatomic—if you look at your anatomy
books you will see there is a big white triangular shape in the center. This is where the connection
tissue, part of the nuchal ligament coming through, which goes down the spine. So then
as you’re drawing the trapezius I’m constantly taking and looking at how these forms overlap
each other. It’s going in. We can feel the trapezius as it comes down. Feeling the pull
coming through. Going over. I’m going over the surface, taking and defining that. I want
to come out to where it’s coming out to the scapula. As the scapula comes out here
to the end we’re actually feeling the clavicle. The bump that you see there is the clavicle.
And as we feel the overlapping of these forms as we come down to that point, and as we look
here you can see this very, very strong shape in here. In your anatomy book this corner
right here usually is a white shape. At the end of the scapula there is a connection tissue
in here. This surface now, there is a corner here. The arm is coming back. So what we feel
is a pull coming through. You can see the trapezius coming down the edge of the scapula
and leaving at this point. It actually takes and comes across over to the center. At this
point we’re feeling the pull. This is the surface that’s turning away so I’m going.
There is volume here. This is going across and over even farther than I’ve got it here
to start with. Feel the spine. Not quite so extreme over there. This is going down. There
is an edge. This turns away.
Now, so on the other side we’re getting a stretch. So at the end of the scapula is
taking and coming in over here. Feel that same corresponding dip in here. The bone is,
actually we can see the ridge of the bone as it goes back over. I should say really
the spine of the scapula here. The trapezius is pulling and coming down and attaching in
here. This is pulling. So we start from this point. Go through. And as it comes up we have
a series that twisting, so we’re getting a series of overlapping forms as this is twisting
and pulling through, going behind. So you can see the pull. The surface here is taking
and coming down, through. I’m going over that surface. We can feel the edge of the
form that’s coming around to the corner here. We can feel it coming down the edge
of the scapula just like on the other side, and then the trapezius is pulling from here,
coming across headed towards the spine. So we’ve got these forms now that are coming
As we go through you want to feel the spine. We can feel the vertebra. I want to emphasize
these points in here as we come down. Coming through. The sacrospinalis muscle, the large
muscles that are coming off them, there are actually two layers. You have one layer that
is really at the base here coming off of the surface of the sacrum. This is usually seen
as fairly clear cylinders that are taking and going, it’s a combination of a series
of muscle that’s not just one muscle. It’s a bunch of muscles that take.
We see it as a cylinder in here.
Now, what happens at that point: It’s on top of that with the muscles attached all
the way around the edges here. The connective tissue comes through here, and it builds into
a larger form that’s taking and coming up and fitting into this area here. This can
be really quite prominent and also have to deal with whether the model is flexing or
what the action of the figure is.
So we can start to feel these extra volumes now that I’m building up, coming through.
What happens now, what we have is the, the dominant shape, of course, is still the rib
cage. So as we have these forms coming through, feel the volume, coming in here the rib cage
is really the shape that you focus on. I’m taking and really focusing on the rib cage.
You can see the edge as we come through. Then you can feel the muscles that are pulling
to that. Coming through, come down. Now, unless you want to take and block in a bit of the
external oblique so that we can see, the pelvis is going from here.
This dimple in here. That’s the end—I’ve exaggerated that now. But the pelvis actually goes in and turns and
comes around. We’re going to have to take and discuss the pelvis as a whole separate issue.
Now, external oblique as it comes down, fits in, and through. Coming across. Again, see
the overlapping. Feel this is pushing down and fitting into that. Then we can feel the
edge of that coming around. It’d be the same on the other side. The other side now,
he has his thumb in here so we’re getting a pressure in here, but you can still, you
can see this shape, and we can see the edge of the muscles as we’re taking and building
through here. All of this as it fits into the curvature of the rib cage, all of this roundness.
Now, as I add the muscles of the scapula we can hear this corner, that’s the edge of
the trapezius as it takes and pulls down. This is taking and coming down and attaching
across here. We actually have a corner. Feel the spine in here. This is coming down. The
volume as we pull through in here. Now, what you have is the scapula comes down to here.
You have the series of muscles that’ll pull through. First, let’s just take and diagram
this on the side here. Scapula is coming across, coming down this way. Going down and we have
the glenoid cavity in here in coming through. In this case, we’ve got the
humerus coming back in this direction.
First, you have the infraspinatus pulling from this surface in here. The primary function
here is to maintain the integrity of the joint. It is holding the arm in place.
Then you have the triceps coming off of the arm,
which is taking and going over and attaching in here
this way. Then you have the teres minor which is taking and going from here, and that’s
cutting across. So we have this going underneath, and then you have the teres major, which pulls
off of this surface here, going underneath that way. Then you have the deltoid that starts
all the way on the end here. This is coming across and going over this surface, going
over and pulling down here.
So these are your major elements that you’re working with. So now they change shape according
to what the action actually is. So as I take and draw this arm, it’s slightly coming
back, so what we find that the teres infraspinatus is being pushed in here. We got the corner.
You can see the edge here. Or if your trapezius is coming down, we can feel this
volume pulling down to that spine.
Then there is a flat area in here because the arm is slightly coming back. So as we’re
pushing up we’re getting a bulging of the infraspinatus coming through. Then the teres
major is … seeing the edge of the scapula going through here. The teres major now is
taking and—this would be a rather large muscle.
the latissimus dorsi which is another muscle that comes through. It is actually coming
from underneath your trapezius. It’s coming from underneath that. It just clips the base
of the scapula and goes up underneath and often we can see a sharp
edge of this as we’re coming down.
What we get is a volume in here. Also, from
the back edge of the scapula on the bottom
is the infraspinatus—excuse me, the serratus anterior muscle, which takes and creates those
shapes that we see, all the finger shapes on the front side of the rib cage coming through.
Here we’re actually, we are feeling a bit of a fullness here of this trapezius, I mean
the latissimus dorsi as it comes around underneath. Feeling the volume of this pushing down, through.
So you can see as I’m building, I keep building the anatomy. I’m building from the inside.
I’m adding. Then we can feel the stretching of the external oblique as it starts to come
through here. We need to feel this coming through. So now at this point with the arm
coming back this is a cylinder coming back this way. So what is happening is that the
deltoid, which pulls all the way from back here, has a top edge that’s coming around.
The pull from here is going around and over. Arm coming through.
Coming in. Then the whole triceps is, this is taking and coming through.
We actually take and pull out to thinking
of the end of the ulna. Then we’re talking about the condyles, medial and lateral. So
we try to see how these forms then are taking and pulling from that. The triceps has a common
tendon going over the end of the ulna. Then we would be seeing underneath. Feel the pull
and possibly a little bit of the biceps as we come through here. Now on the other side
what we’re getting here is a pull. This is all going back in away. And so we feel
the end of the scapula over here. The clavicle, the bump was coming out, and then we feel
the deltoid as building. I’m not going to really deal with the arm here so much. We’ll
deal with that in a separate issue here. We can feel the pull. We’re focusing on the
muscles of the back here. Here we’re actually feeling the, coming from underneath here.
Now, you also have in here, which we are not really seeing, is you have the rhomboid muscles.
In other words, you have muscles that are coming, the scapula is taking and coming down
like this. Going through. We have this rhomboid muscle coming off the edge of the scapula,
going back. These are underneath taking and going back this way. So what we have is the
muscles are working together in sort of the counter or isometric sense of how things pull
against and stabilize the elements. So what we see here now is that this is going away.
We can feel the infraspinatus. It comes in large form but has a corner. This is going
back in, around. We can feel the pull. The teres major at this point is just a—we see
the bulge behind here. Then we’re picking up the latissimus dorsi.
Okay, now as I, going back to the shoulder, you’ve got to keep in mind that what you’re
dealing with is forms that are going away from you. So when you’re dealing with the
anatomy then you’re always talking about three-dimensional forms. As I’m just blocking
in the shape, I see the shape as a cylinder that’s going in this way. We feel these
are overlapping forms that are going back in. We actually have a corner. In other words,
when I’m drawing that deltoid this is a corner that I’m taking and going around
that the trapezius or the triceps are a cylinder that’s coming towards me. The deltoid is
taking and coming down and going over. The deltoid actually comes all the way around
here. At this point it just becomes a form that is turning away, and the triceps are
down here. This is a cylinder that’s being overlapped, being fitted into by the deltoid
that’s going back in. I pick up a line here that’s going to carry me down to the ulna
as we’re coming in. So we can see the connection.
We can feel these forms. It’s a form first based on the knowledge of the anatomy.
Then we’re coming down through here. Feel this going back. We have the arm. I know we’ve
talked about the condyles. That arm is the condyle. They’re going this way into the
ulna as in here. So we’re looking at the corners of the bone here. The end of the ulna
here, and I can feel this is fitting into that. Again, a lot of this stuff we’ll have
to go back over again and deal with specific parts. But we keep focusing on, these are
volumes that are building. One volume is building on top of another volume. And go back to the
wrist. It’s a rectangular form going back. So we can feel these forms. Then we would
be building the hand going from there.
So you can see what we’re building here. Now, even here in the deltoid I try to see
the corner. Now I’m going to go back over what I’ve done here. I want to strengthen
the overall shape of these muscles. Feel the pull going through. Feel the pull of the muscle
to that spine, scapula. Feel these things coming down. Push. See I’m building now.
I’m building on what I had. Now I want to feel the muscle pulling down. Feel it going
over the corner. I want to feel this going back. I want to feel the roundness, so I’m
making that even a little bit rounder. Pulling in. I want this to fit in. So we’re feeling
these forms coming around. Feel the pelvis going around. Build the tension. We’re coming
up the sacrospinalis here. I want to feel the pull. As we come down into here we want
to feel the edge where this is coming through. Across. This is building and coming down too.
So I’m looking at volumes. I’m describing form here. That’s then how you describe
form while I’m using the rendering as a process. I’m not copying the light now.
What I’m doing is describing form. Pushing the final volume as I’m going through. We
can feel this is going up, making this stronger. Coming through. Coming right in. Want to pull,
the muscle is coming over. Surface tension. You can see now I’m really pushing the overlapping.
I want to get the feeling of the twisting coming through, around, through.
Feeling that nuchal ridge.
So, now as I’m doing this I keep going back over the drawing and reinforcing the points
that I’m making. We go pulling, over the surface, going over the surface, coming through.
Pull, tension. Go through. Trapezius pulling. Through. Here now I want to take and really
push this going down. The tension that is being created as this comes up, flatness in
the air. Feeling this coming around. Pull out. Now I’m going to make this even a little
bit more than what I see. I want to pull this coming around stronger. Going through. Build.
Okay, so this is a, we can see now how I’m building the anatomy or building the figure
using the anatomy that we’re taking and talking about. So you constantly are analyzing
the form, recognizing the form that you’re dealing with, and then building the anatomy
or building the drawing around that anatomy.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview48sNow playing...
1. Intro to the torso21m 33sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Anatomy of the torso14m 49s
3. Anatomy of the torso continued15m 38s
4. Neck and shoulders18m 1s
5. Understanding flow and form15m 15s
6. Neck, shoulder and back anatomy of the torso11m 36s