- Lesson details
In this video lesson series Glenn Vilppu will break down each area of the human figure to show you the essential construction for drawing. You will learn about the anatomy of each region in addition to learning useful ways to think about the structures three-dimensionally.
- Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine
- Drawing Paper
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to show you the essential construction for drawing. You will learn about the anatomy
of each region in addition to learning useful ways to think about the structures three-dimensionally.
Glenn will demonstrate for you over the live model as well as through clear diagrammatical
drawings. By the end of this series, you should have a much firmer grasp on the complexity
of the human figure that can be built upon even further.
In this lesson, Glenn will teach you how to draw the arm.
arms is the condyles, so the humerus here. In fact, you have three points. You have the
mediolateral and the end of the ulna. So these three points become landmarks. You notice
as I turn or bend the arm you can see that the ulna comes down. So now we get a triangle.
So these are very telling points. Straight line to a triangle. Then the minute you take
and turn this the symmetry across the point here is something that we use to take and
help us see what’s going on.
So let’s look at the arm here now. There you can see the points, the straight line
going across. Then as the arm bends this takes and comes out now. So we’re looking at these
three points through here. These are the landmarks that we look for. Also, at the same time now
at the end what we have is the squareness. This is a point that you should be really
clear about, that the clavicle as it comes around to the end of the scapula this is a
corner that is coming out. It’s a square corner. So we look here. You can see that
this line is going in this way. This is not a straight line across here. There’s a corner
that goes back in. Clavicle comes up. The point the clavicle, scapula coming across,
scapula, square corner. The muscles are going all the way around the sides.
So Tiffany, let’s take and—now you can see here. It’s really very, very obvious
when we’re looking at Tiffany, more so than even on Clay, that we get, this is a corner
out here that’s going back in. So let’s raise our arm here. Okay, the end of the arm
we can see the end of the corner. When the arm is straightened out you can see the dimple
that’s being created because what happens the muscle, your extenders take and attach
to a common tendon at this point here. The muscles are coming across much higher as they
come across through here. We sometimes refer to these as ridge muscles as they pull across.
Now, very square. This is going back in. So when you look we can see it goes in and turns
and comes out. What happens is you can see very—turn this way a little bit, right about
there. You can see that the curvature of the rib cage as we go around the figure is very
pronounced. This is a point, again, that you have to keep in mind. The muscles now are
pulling off, these pectoralis muscles are pulling off of the front of the chest and
then are coming across. This is a corner that’s going back in.
Clay, let’s take now and get across the idea. Clay is very muscular. He’s really
built. We can feel that this tends to feel like a flat line in contrast to Tiffany. With
Tiffany we saw the roundness of the rib cage. You don’t see the rib cage here. The only
place you really get much of an indication of the rib cage is where we start to see the
stuff going in. Watch what happens when we take the arm—now, take and push against
my arm, Clay. Okay, now you can see the muscles coming off of the clavicle, off of the chest.
What we do in drawing, we have to actually imagine now the rib cage underneath as we’re
doing the drawing. So we’re looking the whole thing. You can feel the pull of these
muscles coming across. Relax a little bit. Now, we can see—you want to turn this way—you
can see as I push in you can see now we’re getting a sense of the bit of the curvature
of the rib cage. This is pushing in. You see these forms coming out. So this is a triangular
shape that is coming off. When he takes and flexes, pushes against my arm. You can see
all this tightening up. You can see the muscles pulling across the surface. You can see the
deltoid coming from behind and building up.
So what we have then is the contrast here. You can really feel the roundness of the rib
cage. You feel the squareness of the corner. We look for the corners of the elbow. Now,
as we move down look at the wrist. The wrist is really quite square. You can feel this
corner flat here. And a very clear corner is here. Again, these are the landmarks that
we look for. We look for the end. This corner right here, the bone that’s sticking out,
that’s your ulna. That’s coming from here. This is the same bone here. Now, as we rotate
our hand, okay, this rotation is we’re talking about the radius. Okay, the radius, why we
call this the radius is that you can see it rotates around the ulna.
So the wrist is very square.
We’re going over and this is rotating around the surface. We’re going over that
surface. And so what we’re generally now with the way Clay and Tiffany are standing
now, the actual just relaxing here you see that most of the time we stand with the radius
going across. We don’t normally stand with our arms flat out. This rotation is probably
the most common even if you have your arm down by your side you will see that this coming
across. So this is a strong indicator. We look for the shape generally drawing the shape
of the wrist as an overall or a box form.
Now as we start going down through the figure, so now we’ve gone through basic landmarks.
There’s another point that we deal with, the ischial tuberosity here taking and coming
out off the scapula. Now, the shoulder muscles, the deltoids, take and have to go around over
that surface and attach right at this corner. In fact, go back to the clavicle here. Like
I said, this is not a straight line. There are three sections. There is a section right
here. That’s where we were showing how the muscles were pulling to the arm. Pectoralis
muscle were coming off of this section right here. Okay, this corner right here is where
the deltoid attaches. So when you’re looking at Clay you can see at that point the deltoid
is coming right to there. But it’s going over this coracoid process. And so that creates,
again, part of a corner. As we draw now, what we think about box forms, we think of the
corners of the pelvis. We even think of the corners of the thoracic arch, 10th rib. We
think of these as symmetrical points, corners of a box, that help us to understand and orientate
the figure one way or another. So we’re constantly looking.
Tiffany, let’s come around here a little bit. Now, you can see the corner here.
Here's the clavicle point here, here, here, here. Three sections. You can see that the shoulder
is coming forward, and it’s going back and attaching right there. Now, at the same time
that we’re looking at that corner the muscles that come from the back of the head are coming
around the trapezius muscles. If you look at your anatomy books you’ll see that the
trapezius muscle comes around and attaches just exactly opposite of your deltoid coming
around. So you’ve got this corner in here.
Now, turn over here, Clay. Now, the trapezius muscle is coming from the base of the skull.
It also takes and is coming, radiating out from as it comes down the spine, it attaches
all the way over. It comes around and attaches through here. It comes down and right at this
point here is taking and coming down. So this is a triangular shape. You can see there is
a triangle being created. Notice this bump right there. That’s the 7th cervical vertebra
coming down. That’s what we take, these are the points. These are the two points that
you can see where I’m putting on my finger here.
So there’s a triangle shape coming around here.
We have this ridge at the back of the skull. This is called a nuchal ridge coming through.
We have a nuchal ligaments that comes down through there. So the muscles now, we were
just talking about the trapezius. Without getting too technical, you actually have layers
of muscles. At this point we have a semispinalis capitus and the trapezius. Also, you’re
feeling coming from the back right behind the ear you have the sternocleidomastoid which
is pulling around to the pit of the neck. So those are the large muscles that come down
to that point. So these are what we’re dealing with now. These are the landmarks. Think of
them as landmarks.
In the animation industry for instance, when you’re drawing characters they have model
sheets that take and tell you what the character looks like. Well, if you can think of these
landmarks that we’re drawing or I’m talking about here on the model, think of this as
learning a model sheet. You’re learning the points that count that you have to know.
The landmarks are the critical elements that tie everything, that give us the information
that we need to know in drawing the figure. So you’re looking at these landmarks. We’re
building the figure, constantly building the figure from these landmarks from the inside
out. We start with the skeleton.
of the heavy-duty muscle. It’s really much subtler. But at the same time you still need
to be able to take and construct those muscles. Now I’m just taking and blocking in the
very simple idea of the head, thinking of the gesture, pit of the neck, and coming through
now. When you’re drawing you’re literally drawing the flow of the clavicle. I’ll think
of the pull of the trapezius. The neck is a cylinder and here it’s coming out. Feeling
the arm moving out, coming up. Then as we move into the hand even here it’s the gesture
that we’re taking and dealing with and coming through. So now as I go from here I want to
take and diagram all of what we have inside here.
Now as we come through first we have to relate this to the head. Thinking of the ear, okay.
Skull. Through. Brown line. The eyes would be, the bottom of the nose, the corner of
the jaw coming forward, through. Cheeks coming out, around. Now, pit of the neck. Feeling
the underside a bit here. This is coming a little bit through so we’re visualizing
this cylinder of the neck. Cylinder of the neck fitting into the rib cage so I draw the
rib cage first. Come through. Visualizing this rib cage taking and coming through. Going
this way. Now, here I have to really modify what I started with. This is the point now,
we’re taking and thinking the clavicle is actually starting in here. It’s going from
here, turns, goes in. Then it’s going behind in here. Okay, so we visualize at that point.
The deltoid is coming all the way to this corner back here. So now if I pull from here
I want to think of the arm now. Now let’s go higher. I’m going to visualize the, it’s
a cylinder coming through and back. Fitting in.
Here now I need to really raise this up
considerably so as I feel my gesture go back again, lifting this up. You want to feel the
end. The wrist, as I’ve been mentioning, is a rectangular form, and in this case the
hand is pretty much coming out at me. So all I’m doing at this point is blocking in the
sense of the gesture, the way it’s going.
Now, here’s where we build the muscles. Here we have a clavicle going through, coming
back in, turning. Now, the shape that you’re seeing, remember the pectoralis pulls from
the clavicle here. This is coming across at this point. As that arm raises up the pecs
are taking and going up, over through here. So now I’m drawing the shape of these muscles
as they build up. This is coming off the front of the chest again. We can feel the shape
where we’re pulling from the center. The center is over here going this way. The rib
cage is going underneath. So what we’re actually seeing here also is then we’re
feeling the muscles coming off the scapula and the scapula pushing forward a little bit.
So we’re feeling all of those elements we just talked about, taking and pulling off
the back, and this is behind. So you can see now from here what we have is then the pull.
First we have the triceps.
Let’s go back over here to pick up the end of the condyle at this point. I’m going
to take and characterize the whole shape of the muscle here now. If you look at, if we
were to do a cross-section we would see the shape. They’d be doing something like this.
This is a cross-section. The deltoid is going around to the other side. We can see where
it starts all the way back in here so we have this strong triangular shape in here. As it
pulls from here and is taking, part of it is taking and attaching at the end of the
scapula, which is inside. So I’m going to clarify this now. If you can see this section
here is going down. This is coming in front. Then we’re taking and going through. We’re
feeling the overlapping now as this takes and goes behind, through to here. So you can
see that this is going behind.
The trapezius now is taking and coming through. First we can talk about the sternocleidomastoid,
which is pulling from in here and overlapping shape coming down. We feel the multiple muscles,
particular the levator of the scapula, taking and coming down, which is part of what creates
this sense of the cylinder. These are taking and pushing in here. Then we feel the trapezius
coming out from behind. At this point this is pulling from behind in here. I want to
feel this shape and we can feel the fullness of that muscle as it comes down and then goes
behind. We can feel here the deltoid is coming down, and it’s going down and attaching
to that corner point here where the trapezius from the back is taking and coming down around
and pulling into there.
So now I’m making her really look very muscular there. But you can see how this where all
this is coming from. You need to be able to understand these forms to be able to draw
the subtlety of it. So now this is coming through to the deltoid and taking and going
across and over, and what’s it’s going behind here is actually the biceps. The biceps
take and attach to the radius. Now, the biceps do not attach anywhere on the humerus. They’re
coming through and they attach—the muscle actually has a shape like a two-headed hot
dog. It comes through like this, and what you’re seeing here is there is a real corner
here. We can feel this corner shape here. So this is going down and coming through.
One head goes through a notch in the capsule in the bone of the humerus and attaches to
the scapula. The other section takes and goes across and attaches to the coracoid process
that’s underneath in here. So we’ve got these two heads going through, but the deltoid
or I should say the pectoralis muscle fits right, goes through here and is going over
those heads. Then the deltoid is coming across and going over that point.
So what we see then at this point then is just a very, very generalized sense that there
is a corner here. And we see the muscle taking and going through underneath. This shape right
here, that’s a coracobrachialis muscle. There are also all kinds of veins, arteries,
things that come through and is separated in the space in between that and your triceps,
which are going underneath. So as we look at the model you will see there is a shape,
there’s a shadow here that gives us a very clear sense of how these forms are going underneath.
We can feel this pull going through over here. We can feel this building up into there. Then
we’re picking up a teres major and latissimus dorsi coming from behind. Going through, right
here. And the pecs here then have a big fullness. There’s a volume that’s coming through
here. We can feel the base of that form coming here. So now that’s
giving us a really good sense of the pull.
Now, from this point here and talking about the space in between these series of muscles
here, this is an intramuscular septum. You can think of it sort of like a baggy for the
muscles. Coming through. We can feel the medial condyle here, and we can feel the triceps
from behind. Coming through. Triceps, there are three heads to the triceps, of course.
That’s where the name comes from. Coming through. But all this is taking and wrapping
around underneath. This goes under form as we’re taking and doing this. So we want
to feel a pull, just wrapping. It comes around, through.
Feel the pull. So now I’m drawing,
I’m literally drawing all of the forms in there. So now as we come across this now,
we take and the biceps is coming down and coming through into here. What happens here
now is that much of the shape that’s filling in here is the brachial muscle. Let me take
and for a second and just diagram a little bit up here. So what you’re seeing is the
deltoid. This is comes down and attaches to the bone right here. Then we’re coming around
and come through. Okay.
Now, right at that point where the deltoid stops is we have a brachial muscle. This is
a rather large muscle that takes and comes down and attaches to the ulna. Then you have
a biceps that’s coming through and here, and that is coming across the surface. That’s
attaching to the radius site. You probably see this brachial muscle that would be underneath
that. So what you’re seeing here is part of the brachial muscle in here. It’s really
totally undefined at this point, but we can feel the shape, the biceps has got a corner
or feeling the volume, and then we’ll start to pull into the muscles of the forearm.
Now, when you’re pulling into the forearm here, we want to take and be conscious of
the muscles that are coming from the condyles in here. All of your flexors, the things that
go to the palm of the hand, are essentially coming from this area right here, and there
are three layers of muscles. But first we just deal with this shape that is pulling
up and going up. You don’t see it so much from this angle. This is a volume. Then we
have your muscles that are coming for the extenders coming to the top side of your hand.
They extend the fingers out. Pulling through, coming across. And so we can start to feel
this shape. Again, it’s the overlapping that we take into consideration. You want
to feel this corner so now as I come up to the wrist I’m taking and thinking of the
wrist as a rectangular strong shape of the bones. This will come through and feel the
corner coming around. Now we have this corner of the wrist coming through. So at this point
you’re seeing the volume coming through. We’ll have to look at this
again from a totally different angle.
Then as we go to the, what you have in wrist you have a—let’s take and look at this
again at a little bit different angle here. When you think of the wrist as a rectangular
shape coming through then you have your carpal bones and metacarpals. If you think of this
just the wrist and the wrist as being different than the hand or the arm, it’s the space
in between. There are two layers of bones in there. Then we come through. So this is
like we’re building into a ramp that the hand will then come out of. So we’re going
over that surface. This view, what I’m seeing is just a bit of the wrist, and then I’m
feeling a fullness of the hand or the muscles that come out through the knuckles. Now, the
classic way of treating drawing hands, and I’m just going to tell a little bit on this
right now. Later, we’ll deal with the hands in a separate thing.
It’s visualizing them as a series of boxes. This goes all the way back into the 1400s.
You can look at Albrecht Durer, Holbein, Piero della Francesca, everybody. It’s also the
way that’s it’s handled today in the animation industry. We visualize the limbs or the fingers
as a series of box forms that then allows us to take and construct the hand. So we can
see these volumes as a way of taking to build things. But again, like I said, we’ll be
talking about drawing the hands and the feet as a separate issue. So as I’m building
that. So you’re constructing, you’re always visualizing these as volumes that you’re
taking and working over and around. So we can see this fitting in.
Okay, now let’s take and give it a shot on the backside.
or the backside of it. First, again, starting out with the head. Blocking it in. I’m really
focusing on the gesture as I feel it. I feel the rib cage is going in. Feel the flow into
the pull. Feel the scapula on the far side and the way I can feel the shoulder. I need
to think of the neck coming down, shoulders coming up. Feel the scapula out on top, fitting
in. As the arm comes across, pulling over. Feel the pull. We’re lifting up to the wrist,
and it stops here. This gives me a beginning. Start to build on form. At this point first
I want to think of the top of the rib cage and back, 7th cervical vertebra right here.
We can see the basic sense of the cylinder. The neck gets high in back and coming through.
Now, what we’re seeing here is, also we’re seeing as we come down, see the corner of
the jaw coming across, coming here. We get to feel the pull. We feel the esophagus as
the point into the jaw. Feel the sternocleidomastoid. Get the ear where we need. Sternocleidomastoid
taking and coming from the mastoid process behind, coming down. We can feel the trapezius
pulling through. We can feel the groove that’s being created as this takes and comes through.
Now, I want to draw the rib cage. I want to feel where we’re pulling from back up here.
It’s coming down inside, rather slight shape. Remember the pit of the neck would be about
here. The distance from there to here would correspond roughly to where the bottom of
the 10th rib is down here. Now, we’ve talked about the rib cage having a, the muscles creating
a—this part goes in, and then here we’re seeing the actual part, the side is coming
out. The groove, the spine would be inside, and we’re seeing the other side taking and
pulling down through here. Now, the whole shape, the scapula is coming around. Her arm
is out so the scapula is pulled way over here, and it’s pulling out and it’s coming out
way past this point here. So on the scapula we’re seeing a profile shape of this going
across, coming off of here.
On the other side, the far side we can see the edge. This is taking and pulling out of
here this way. This really gives much of the sense of gesture, expression that we see.
We can feel the scapula out here. So now what I do is the overlapping. This is pulling in
over the trapezius. The trapezius is going in and up. So as I do this I go over that
surface pushing in, and we’re pulling. So with this is a curved surface. This is going
in and turning. At this point we want to feel where this is where the clavicle and scapula
are meeting at this point right here. So at this point this is going in, going over the
surface going in. It’s turning, going over that surface. It’s pulling in. This is going
back and in. Go through it. Feel the side, we can feel things come through. Here we’re
seeing the sternocleidomastoid so now we can feel the center here.
Now, the opposite side here, we can feel the fullness at that point. We can see the trapezius
is taking and coming through, coming down on both sides of the center line. Coming in.
Scapula then is on the far side is pulled over. I can feel the trapezius coming down.
Then we’re coming out to the edge or the end. We can feel the muscles pulling off that
surface, and we come down. So now we get really a sense of depth going through especially
as we start to come in and start to pull, these forms now are out in front. This is
building, coming down. This is coming through. Building on top of the rib cage. Everything
now is coming out from behind. We want to make this really strong going behind. This
is pulling in front. This as we take and we build the form.
So you’re working around through the form, coming across. Now we start to push. The rib
cage is being pushed down, coming through. We start to feel the sense of pinching taking
place, coming in. Working around the corner, through here. Now, as we build the arm into
this we have to think that this corner goes here. The deltoid is going all the way back
into here. So this is a surface. I’m going to draw this rather lightly to begin with
so we can see everything. Now, this arm is coming out towards us this way. This is, again,
a cylinder working this way, coming through, going in. It’s just as simple volume. We
have to place the muscles onto that simple volume. So as we pull from back here coming
over that surface, we feel the deltoid coming from way back here. Coming through. This is
coming around and it’s going over. It’s going over this surface here. We can feel
the end of the scapula. We can see there is a dimple right in here. The end of the scapula
is coming, it’s pulling through here. The muscle of the deltoid is coming all the way
from back over here, the other side. This is coming through, and we can feel the pull.
There are sections, different sections of the deltoid that we’ve talked about. It’s
taking and coming across and going down here.
Okay, now what we have here is we have the triceps. They come out from the condyles here.
The end of the ulna is at this point right here. We can feel the corners. We can feel
the condyle. This will be the lateral condyle and coming through here. So the muscles, you
can feel this line that I’m drawing. We can feel the pull. This comes off of that
point. Feel the pull coming through. Now we can take and deal with the muscles that are
coming off of the scapula surface. Here we have the sense of the end of the scapula right
here. We can feel here we have the infraspinatus pulling from here, going across this way up
to the head of the bone. We have the teres major which goes underneath. This is pulling
on the cross through here. Plus also the latissimus dorsi and much of the shape that we’re seeing
here would be the serratus anterior. These forms are taking and going down this way.
I would be pulling this, feeling the corner, pulling this out from behind as we’re going
down. Then you have, this is a plane that’s going down in. So the teres major and your
combination of your latissimus, these are the forms that are going underneath. So we
have the fullness of the form. This drops down, goes through. All of this now is pulling
up into the armpit as we’re building forms through here.
Now we can feel this is coming down.
Now, in our model’s case, of course, we have the breasts which are taking and coming
off here. They’d be fitting on the surface coming through. Now, we want to feel the rib
cage now. It’s coming out from underneath. This is a corner. We want to feel the pull
down from behind. We can feel the forms coming through. Eventually we would be building in
to the end of the belly. Now the triceps, it’s ever so subtle. The actual shape of
the triceps, there’s three. Of course, tri means three. You have the end of the ulna
common tendon. They have the horseshoe shape, the combination of the three gives it a horseshoe
shape. Then the long head going over to the scapula, and the other two heads attach to
the bone. Deltoid then going across and going over that.
Okay, from the other side we were seeing the biceps taking and coming around. So now as
we draw you want to feel this rather subtle play now. We can feel the deltoid coming down.
Feeling the pull. So as I’m drawing this now I’m just going over trying to experience
the surface of that muscle as it goes through and goes over. So the triceps now, there is
a boundary line. I mentioned the brachial muscle. The brachial muscle is starting right
here. But in her case we really don’t see it. All we see is sort of a fullness, the
deltoid, the brachial or sort of combine the deltoid or, excuse me, the biceps sort of
going—you can feel there is a slight dropping down inside there. Now, the condyle is here.
What you have is these muscles coming across at this point. This is your brachioradialis
long head, short head. Come through. These are attaching from here. These are, again,
I’m emphasizing this more than we actually can see. This is a pulling through in here,
and so the dimples that we start to see right here are coming from the common tendon of
all of the muscles that take and go up and extend the hand.
Now as I draw this shape I’m going to first go up to the wrist. The wrist is a rectangular
shape. I’ve said this many times now. We come through. Feel the corner of the wrist.
Go across the corner. Feel the end, the ulna, that’s on the little finger side. The tendons
coming down. This is going underneath, so we visualize this. These muscles out here
actually are rather short, and I’m going to exaggerate the shape here. These are just
going like this. The tendons continue going down through here into the carpal bones.
Go through. Feel coming from the underside. Now we’re taking and pulling from here, coming
through, going up. You want to feel the fullness. So at this point here I would be pushing,
going over the surface, feeling these forms. The hand then becomes something that we go
over, I mentioned about the wrist. So now we want to feel these surfaces taking and
pulling through and going across. As long as I take and look where that hand is going
then I would start to build this from that. Okay, let’s take and—first we need a little
bit more here with the neck. Feel the pull through here. We can take and get a little
definition to the side of the head. Going through.
an attach the arm to the head and the body. So let’s just block in. Simple volumes.
Basic gesture. Through. Pit of the neck. Visualizing the rib cage the inside right here.
Proportions—top of the head, pit of the neck, bottom of the 10th rib. Feel the sternum. Through.
Thoracic arch. Coming down. Pelvis. Now the arm is coming down from here. We want to feel that
what you’re dealing with is a special thing. So if this whole section of the torso can
almost be viewed as a rectangular box going back in space, maybe even more going through,
going back in. You’re visualizing, seeing that we’re seeing this
as a spatial plane going back.
What we’re talking about then is we have the front, pit of the neck here. The neck
is a cylinder fitting into the rib cage. The rib cage is really pulling from about in here
like this. Coming through. The neck is a cylinder that’s fitting into that. The neck is actually
wider at the top than it is at the bottom. Now, the scapula is out here. So I’m looking
at the placement where I’m going, coming across. Remember, the clavicle is going around
that neck. We’re taking it as a straight section, and it’s going in and then turning.
So we’ve got these points that are taking and going this way. We would feel the trapezius
from behind. I’m just blocking that in a little bit. So again, the pecs will be on
top of this, coming around the corner. Feel through here. Now I’m really, my whole point
now is really to work with the arm, but I still take and see this. We need to feel the
shape of the clavicle as it comes across, goes over and turns. The end that we see is
the bump here and then the scapula here.
Now, right here this distance from here to the neck is often the more difficult area
for a lot of people. He’s taking and turning slightly so what we’re seeing now is a twisting.
You feel the twisting as they’re coming across, pulling through. Feel the volume here.
Now, we’re coming from behind with the triceps. This is a broad space here. The scapula is
coming all the way over to here. I want to feel this area because we’re coming across
going over, over this surface, and you can see that, again, repeating this at the trapezius
is attaching to that corner in here. Just the opposite where we see the deltoid
starting at that point there.
So now let’s just take and block in the arm coming down, thinking this is a cylinder
first. Coming through. And we feel the pecs coming across, through, and going in.
So I’m just blocking in this shape now. And over on the other side we would see the deltoid
coming up, and that arm is just taking and coming down over here. You can think of where
the elbows are coming from the waist, coming out. Then we come down to the wrist. The wrist
now at this point is, remember it’s a rectangular shape coming through. So, I’m looking at
this is going back. We can feel the ridge muscles shape. The plane is coming across,
coming through. We can feel the medial condyle. We’re getting a twisting, pulling through.
Then we pull into the hands, coming through here. So you can see I’m blocking in a very,
very general shape. The pelvis will be a little bit higher here.
Now, the deltoid is coming all the way from the back here. It’s coming across, going
over, and attaching in here. So the shape, remember there are three sections going through.
There is a clavicle or I should say the front side, clavicle side coming around, going over.
We have the end and we can feel the end of the scapula right here. We can feel the muscle
coming from the backside. Coming around. This is coming and fitting in here. At that point
you’re dealing with the brachial muscle. The brachial muscle starts where the deltoid
ends. This now is taking, and this is underneath the biceps. This comes through and I’m drawing
it underneath. I’m not drawing the biceps now. I’m just drawing the brachial muscle.
So where it attaches is to the ulna. And this is taking, this is really a large muscle that’s
coming through. The biceps, now, is on top of that. And so the brachial muscle is an
area, the shape that we see right there. It’s what we take and is the brachial muscle. The
biceps is up on top of this. This comes down over the surface like this, and it is attaching
to the radius. This is going back up and in, and this is coming through underneath, coming
in. The biceps then is going over that surface and coming down. So you can see the diagramming
of the shape now when we’re getting going through here.
The triceps are in back. If we were to take this whole section and look at it as a cross-section
you would find that the triceps are much wider than the whole biceps and the brachial. In
other words, the cross-section of that section there would be something like this, a triangular
shape with the bone in here. And the triceps were on the back. The biceps and the brachial
muscle occupying something like that. So, what we see then is the deltoid coming down.
Feel the triceps behind coming through. He is taking, as they come down now are taking
and attaching to the end of the ulna, in this case on the backside. Now, the bone, these
muscles right here are actually attached to the shape, to the ridge of the humerus as
it comes down. This shape is going like this. Okay, so we feel the pull. And we can say
that the brachioradialis is coming down here. What we’re doing is the radius is the bone.
It’s coming across, twisting. And we talked about this when we’re dealing with the bones.
So this muscle on top here stops at about this point here. The tendon then comes down
and attaches right at the end of the radius. The other muscles here are taking and coming
down off that. Our pull part of the ridge muscle set is taking and coming across and
coming over and attaching to your carpal bones. So you can see the successive layers and then
the extenders coming on top of this. On this side over here you have all of the flexors
that are taking in on the other side.
Now, what you deal with here then is the overlapping of these forms taking and pulling through.
Going back, we take and we pull, feel the pull through here. Again, we’re always dealing
with these overlapping shapes that are coming in and are coming from behind. I want to feel
the corner of the bone here coming through. Then we would be building into the hand from
that point. So now as I take and draw this out a little bit more here, so we’re feeling
the top of the surface as this is taking and going away, it’ll be going into tone. It’s
coming across. It’s going away. Come to the end here. The fibers of the deltoid. Take
and you can see very clearly now these are taking and coming in bunches. You can feel
the pull. Now, on the female that we were drawing, Tiffany, we did not see that bunching,
but Clay is very highly developed so we’re seeing the pull of these muscles. You’re
seeing all the fibers taking and coming through. We get a very clear sense of how these forms
overlap coming around from behind in the corner and here. Here’s where we would then have
to start seeing the pectoralis coming through. Coming in, across, through.
And the fingers that you see in here. Now, this is your serratus anterior. These attach
to the top edge of the bone. Generally you will rarely see more than four. In this case,
right now we’re only seeing maybe three. The ribs come around. The thoracic arch, of
course, is taking and coming through. Starts up here, comes down. Again, feel the corner.
And the rib cage then is, all of this is going down. Then feel the rectus abdominis taking
and coming through. The ribs on the other side you can really feel the pushing out.
We feel the muscles coming from in front, and we build form. Here I want to take and
make that sternocleidomastoid a little bit more obvious. This is pulling, the head is
twisted. Stuff is coming from behind the ear and then coming through.
and the hand. Particularly when you’re dealing with a female, the bones take on even a more,
a more important characteristic or need to understand them. And so you’re talking about
first the forearm. The big thing you have to keep in mind here is that generally speaking
is in a rotated position. So what you’re seeing here is the thumb side,
the radius and the ulna.
Generally when we’re standing we stand with our arms taking and turned. We’re not normally
standing with our arms straight out. So looking from the back what we look for constantly,
again, the bones; the condyle, the end of the ulna. When you’re looking at the person
the thing that shows us direction and a lot of times the gesture are the three points.
When your arm is straight these are in a straight line. When the arm is bent it’s at a triangle
shape. As we go through, when we’re looking at this we’re focus on the bones to start
with. The next thing is we’ve moved down into the hand. What we have to keep in mind
is that the wrist is really quite rectangular or we say oval. But you have very clear-cut
corners that you’re working with so we’re constantly taking and looking for the line
across the bones. Like I said, we’re working from the arm down into the hand. Then you
have to take and look at the rows of bones that you have, your carpal bones. You actually
have two rows of bones here. It’s important to keep in mind now that when we’re talking
about the arm to the hand. These are actually separate sections. We have the arm, the wrist,
and the hand. So keep in mind the wrist in itself. We refer to the carpal tunnel syndrome
where people with repetitive motion have difficulty with their fingers because of the tendons
going through this tunnel.
But even before, let’s just take a simple observation. First, we have one bone. We have
two bones. Then you have two rows, and you have a row of three, four, and five. Now,
medically we usually refer to two rows of four, but what they’re talking about is
this P-bone here, pisiform. This is actually a ball, like on the ball of your feet we have
these bones like on the big toe. This is not actually attached. It’s not a joint.
It's something like works almost like a lever the way the tendons take and go across. Now, when
we’re talking about the tendons that go through here you actually have the way the
tendons go through, or this is the way I’m taking and folding my fingers. These are going
through that and into the hand.
Now, I’ll talk more about that when we’re talking about the hand specifically. But we
have to keep in mind that we’re always working with a rotation that takes and does that,
and that makes a big difference. You also are taking and dealing with where the muscles
are attaching. The primary points of attachment are the—you have a common tendon coming
from the medial condyle. This is taking and going down—this is where your flexors now
on the inside of the hand, the one where you have the strength.
You have actually three different layers of muscles that are taking and going down to
the fingers. Two layers go all the way out into the fingers. The third layer actually
only goes to the palm of the hand. So these are elements that you have to take into consideration.
When we look at the other side, look at the backside here. Now you’re taking and dealing
with tendons that are taking and pulling to your extenders. In other words, those tendons
that take and lift your fingers up and open your hand. They’re coming from here, coming
down. These are going across. Also, we have the muscles that take and come from the thumb
going across. We have a separate section for the index fingers going across. So it seems
complicated. Once you take and spend a little bit of time on it it’s not all that complicated.
Starting with the female now.
Now, when you look at her wrist you can see that this is a very clear-cut corner going
across here and a corner going through here. Now, her arm is rotated. So you actually feel
as you look at it you feel there is a boxish shape that’s going back and fitting into
a rounded shape behind. So that’s essentially the thing you work from. What we have here,
this is the medial condyle. There is the corner of the bone. Now this is the radius. The radius
is coming from the other side. Your biceps muscles are going from over there over to
that. Now, as that arm turns, now when you look at that you can see that what you’re
getting is a very, very square corner. The bones are really sticking out. You have a
shaft going back in with the roundness of these forms back in there. Now, as we take
and carry this farther, now you can see again it’s a straight shaft going in with the
arm going up. We’re constantly looking at this from very, very simple forms.
Now, since we’ve got her here now you can take and look at the corner. We have this,
the corners of the bones here. As we look at the arm from a very sharp angle like this—come
forward—you can see the simple rectangular part of the wrist to the very round part of
the forearm. You can see the way the wrist bones. This is like ramp that’s coming down
over that surface, and you have corners. Now, since we’ve got the hand here now you can
take and see that—a lot of times people think that these knuckles are all in a straight
line. They’re not in a straight line. As you look at her you can see that we have a
corner here, and then you have a corner that’s going down that way. So it’s actually the
center knuckle is high. This is a ridge. If you look at my hand you can see the change
in the direction that we’re dealing with. So this is a major point. Also, the fact that
you have a clear-cut boundary going from the wrist down to the index finger to this plane
that’s going back down to the thumb. So these are really very, very basic elements
that you have to take into consideration.
One of the points is that when you’re looking at her you can see that the thumb is going
back over here. So, you’ll look and notice this change in here. When I start dealing
with the drawing this will become really obvious then. You’ll see that the thumb is at a
totally different angle than the rest of the hand, and in fact, it’s not possible—well,
it probably is but I don’t think you’d want your hand that way. You’re liable to
break a few things in the process. You can’t really rotate the thumb to be on the same
plane as the rest of your hand. So this is a strong point. So you’ve got this strong
shape that’s coming through here. And of course you have one less bone in the thumb.
But all this is for an opposed movement so you can take and grab a hold of something.
Also, there is a change, and again, when I go into the drawing I’ll clarify this a
little bit more. But you can see there is a progression of size that takes place with
the fingers as we take and move down. The size of this bone is say three units. The
next one would be two. If we take that and say that’s three units the next one will
be two. So it progressively is getting smaller. Generally, we just take and think in proportions.
We take and say for drawing purposes that this is the center from here to here. And
then we would break that in half again, and then you’re going to take and you know that
the next one is a little bit shorter. But that works fairly simple and straightforward.
Now, as you look at the model you can see the condyles here. You can point here, here.
These are the three. Notice that this is a triangular shape. As we look at that arm going
back down you can see how the shape of the muscles—again, emphasizing the fact that
these are small. These are clear, simple volumes that you’re working on. I decided to work
with the female model because, first of all, the forms are really simple. This is really
what you have to keep in mind. You have to understand what’s underneath, but it’s
the simplicity of the shape that counts. And so you’re going back. You can see how flat
that—as we take and we go back in even a bit farther you can see—can you drop the
elbow? See the thing here? Now, just take and put your arm down for a minute, just go
down. Okay, now see the dimple? Okay, this is being caused by these muscles that are
coming across and actually attaching to this ridge in here. We’ve got the dimple. These
are a straight line now. And you have the muscles from here that are going to the top
of the hand. These are your extenders. This actually here goes all the way across and
attaches over on the other side. Now these will become a little bit more obvious when
we have the male model, and you’ll be able to take and see them more clearly. But to
start with you’re always focused on the clear, simple volumes. And it’s progressive
steps that you go through in doing the drawing. So you do it by first needing to feel the
gesture and action of the figure. Then we take and think of the simple volumes. Then
we finally take and start elaborating on the muscles.
Okay, now you can see the difference now between the female model and the male model. You can
see how everything is much clearer. In other words, when we take and look you can see the
strands literally, the strands of the muscle coming through. Yet, these are still basic
simple volumes that you’re working with. Now, let’s take a look at the back of the
elbow here. Clay, if you just bend your arm. Now, the corners, here you can see this is
the condyle here. You can see what we’re talking about. This is the corner right here.
Here is the end of the ulna right here. This is a common tendon. Now what happens with
this is that when you straighten the arm you can see that this goes inside. So the muscles
are coming across over this. When the arm is bent now we have a completely separate
plane here. You’re really seeing this corner. What you’re seeing then is the side of this
bone right here. We’re picking up that condyle that’s coming out.
Then we’ve got the muscles going up. I just mentioned a little bit as he is flexing there
you can see that these are going up to this ridge of the humerus. So often we refer to
these as ridge muscles cause that’s where they’re coming off of that ridge. You have
a, there are actually three muscles there that are taking and—the top two are coming
off the ridge. The first one is going over and attaching to the corner of the thumb here.
It doesn’t go out to the thumb, but to actually the bone in here. Then what we have coming
across and going over and attaching in here, pulling down through in this point here. So
we’ve got these layers. You’ve got these layers of muscles that are taking and pulling.
Now you can see as he takes, really pull back, okay now you can take, okay now
you’re seeing what’s happening here.
So you can see as he pushes against my hand this really critical point, the way these
tendons are taking and coming through. So all of this stuff is to pull the hand back.
Now, if we take and let’s look at the fist side here you can see now he’s—Clay is
very developed so you can see the veins and arteries and stuff are really popping out.
You can see the biceps as it comes down. The biceps is actually attaching to the knob right
here on the radius. This is the radius, the one that turns, goes over, coming through.
So this is where we’re taking, the biceps is attaching to here. Underneath that biceps
then—I think we’ve mentioned this—you have your brachial muscle which attaches right
there just where the deltoid comes down. It’s underneath the biceps. Now that is actually
attaching to this whole rough area in here of the ulna.
of a basic now we were looking at our female model. You saw that we had this corner here.
You get the feeling, the ramping coming down from here and then coming out to the hand.
Again, notice that these are not a straight line across here. This is an angle that’s
going from this way to that way. The thumb is on the side. Since we’re looking here
you can see and this is something when I start drawing you’ll see
the corners, the corners of the bone.
The point to make here is that the triceps, we call it triceps because it has three heads
to the muscle. That one that is the really dominant one that we see is the medial one
that goes, the long head goes actually over then attaches to the scapula. You can see
this sort of horseshoe shape. Now we’ll see that same shape when we start taking and
looking at the back of the leg. Now all three of these muscles take and come through to
the common tendon. Bend your arm. That’s good. So now you can see the mass that’s
taking place here. This is coming down and it’s going over and attaching at the end
here. So that is very, very similar to what you’re dealing with. Your quadriceps to
the knee. So we get the feeling, the corners, the triangle created by this. This part is
not actually all that complicated. It’s fairly simple.
If we look to the outside here. Let’s take and this way. Where the biceps and the brachial
is on the other side and your triceps on this side. In fact, the triceps are much wider.
The arm is much wider in the back than it is in the front. It really gets narrow as
we take and go through this way. And so you can see where this fits in, this is fitting
into and working off of this triangle. So this is a seam. The deltoid comes in. The
brachial muscle underneath the biceps. Let’s take and, the brachial muscle is this shape
right here. This triangle area right there, that’s your brachial muscle, and it’s
underneath your biceps. And in some respects this is much stronger muscle.
The biceps or what everybody thinks about the bulging biceps is actually it doesn’t
even attach anywhere on the bone here, on your humerus. It’s attaching again. It attaches
to the radius. And the other head attaches to the ischial tuberosity that’s right here.
It doesn’t attach anywhere on the bone here. So this is where you’re getting all the
leverage. The big muscle here is the brachial because it’s shorter. It has a shorter distance
to go, and it really has where the strength is involved in the muscle.
Just taking a simple profile starting with the deltoid up here. If we take and look at
the arm. We can feel the shape of the deltoid, but your triceps take a large shape coming
down. The front tends to be rather straight where your biceps are. Now, I mention about
calling the ridge muscles. Well, that’s again pulling through the condyle, here ulna.
Now these are taking another curve. So we’re actually getting a typical S-curve as we take
and go through. Now, the muscles on the back side that are coming down to the wrist , they
take a subtle pull until finally they come down to the rather
squarish quality of the wrist itself.
So that’s a very, very simple pattern. You look at the outside pattern. The shape then
pulling into the hand. We think of the wrist coming through and thumb going out. Now, as
we move into the interior a little bit we start to see that we have these volumes coming
through. This is a volume. Underneath that I talked a lot about the brachial muscle.
You can see that the deltoid now is coming down and attaching that point. The brachial
muscle is underneath that, and so that’s a shape. It’s a shape that’s going behind
here and is coming through on the other side, and that’s attaching on the other side.
Here we’re seeing where all of these tendons now are pulling out.
So this is really, we’re talking about a pattern.
Now if we take and turn the arm, let’s look at it a little bit more from the back, sort
of a three-quarter. We’re starting out and thinking, well okay, here’s the scapula.
Feel the shape of the scapula coming down, coming through. Again, taking and thinking
of the deltoid. The deltoid is attaching literally all the way across here coming off the end
and coming down. I’m looking at pattern now coming through. All of the muscles that
are coming through here, your teres major going underneath, your infraspinatus here,
and here we would even be seeing the serratus anterior and part of the latissimus as it
cuts across and through here.
First thing is the long head of the triceps going in. You would feel the fullness. That’s
what we saw when we were looking at our model’s arm, this full shape. This is the roundness.
So we’re getting a pattern. This is actually going behind. The deltoid is cutting across,
going behind the triceps. Little bit lower on one side. Then we can feel the common tendon
that’s coming down. The muscle is actually coming across. The arm is straight. You can
feel the medial condyle, lateral, and we can see these ridge muscles coming through. Again,
the pattern, we’re getting sort of a rhythm type of thing. You can think of straights
against curves. It’s the play. This is what gets you started in taking and drawing the
arm. Now, if I bend that arm, if we take from the back here—generally what we do, the
steps that you go through are to first capture a gesture.
Let’s take and I’m feeling the gesture of the arm coming back. Then I’m thinking
the arm is going in. As I’m going in immediately we’re taking and going over the surface
that’s going in. See how quickly that this is going over the surface indicates the direction
going in. And the same thing, if this is coming back, I would be going over that surface going
back. From that point on now I’m taking and visualizing, this is like a cylinder.
This is like a cylinder going in. I look to the condyles and take the end of the ulna.
I’m going through the condyles here. There is your triangle that I was talking about.
You can feel the pull. This takes, this is your ulna. That’s going to the outside.
This is where the corner is in here. I’m saying here the arm is rotated.
So now we’re pulling, these muscles here are taking and coming across from this point,
coming through. I was talking about how this simple volume that you’re working with,
and then pointing in to the squareness of the wrist. Here we would see a triceps, again,
taking and coming through. We have this common tendon coming down. This really ends up being
really quite square as we’re coming through. In this case we had the bracial muscle in
between, the biceps behind, the deltoid would be fitting in. Feel the pull that’s coming
across, pulling from the end of the scapula. In this case the arm is pulling back. We would
get a bulging, the way the muscles bulge as we come through. So we’re going over these
surfaces, constantly. You have to be consciously thinking about the pressure, tension, and
stress that’s being put on the muscles.
Now, from here if we take and we look at, we go more toward the front, and so as I’m
looking at the arm now I’m visualizing it, first of all, as a simple straight coming
down. The end of the scapula where the clavicle would be taking and fitting in, coming through,
coming across, going back. Again, it’s the first visualizing. In this case, I’m just
going to think of this as like a cylinder again. Coming through. You have to keep in
mind now that the forearm, if you bend your arm you will see that your wrist does come
to your shoulder, that your forearm, again, is short in comparison for taking and working
with. So again, if you look at the pattern, look at the pattern and feel the deltoid come down.
In this case the deltoid comes all the way back from the corner back in here, coming
across and over. It comes over the biceps. Now, I’m drawing this as if the wrist, the
thumb was out here. So it’s an open type of movement. I’m thinking where the condyle
are, feel the corner, medial, coming through. Now, remember the biceps attaches to the radius.
This is going to take at a diagonal coming through, coming in over here. Here now we
would feel the triceps underneath in back being a curved surface that’s coming through.
Your pectoralis muscle is going over the biceps. The deltoid would actually have a corner here.
As it would come around as it would have corners coming down. The brachial muscle is attaching
right there, and this is the brachial muscles underneath and fills in much of the area underneath
the biceps as it comes through. The biceps is attaching to the radius.
The brachial muscle is attaching to the ulna.
The biceps also, as a tendon that sort of comes over, goes over the muscles here, the
ridge muscles are taking and coming through, and we would probably pick up a little bit
of the shape of the triceps behind. This comes through. The pattern of these muscles now
as they come. Keep in mind now that these muscles here actually are fairly short as
far as the muscle part is, but the tendons are very long. So what we see then is a bulging
taking place in here, and we have all of your extenders that are coming from underneath
here. These are going to the fingers underneath. Coming across. Now, where the biggest changes
take place, particularly with the arm, are when you bend the arm. So here is where we
take and, and when we’re drawing the model you will see how clearly this becomes and
how important this becomes.
Now, when I was rotating our model’s arm notice how what we were talking about was
a shape. It was a volume that was coming forward. We were taking and seeing the wrist. As we
were working with the female model you noticed how I was asking her to constantly take and
rotate her hand. We can feel these volumes, the rectangle. Particularly if we look at
it from the top or where the wrist is out here. We saw that the wrist was a rather rectangular,
very sharp corner. You could see the shaft of the arm going in. Then we were seeing the
volume of the arm back in here. We feel the parts. This becomes the, again, the pattern.
Then the wrist taking and coming over, feeling the ramp of the wrist. Then as we take and
work into the arm. Now this will become very obvious when we’re
taking and drawing from the model.
sort of approach to doing this. I’m using a simple graphite pencil to start with and
blocking it in. Very simple and primarily just focusing with capturing—I’m going
to move this over a little bit—capturing the gesture. Coming down. Arm coming out,
through. Wrist, hand; basically very, very simple.
Okay, basic procedure here is to start out light, so if you’re having trouble seeing
this it’s about the right value. And actually I’m drawing a little darker than I would
normally do it. Okay, coming through. Blocking in. As I’m doing this I’m very conscious
of the fact that I was talking about pattern. Feeling the pull. You notice I’m not measuring.
What I’m doing is I’m taking, it’s sort of an eye-hand coordination. Going through
the feeling, going over the surface, around, coming through, in. Think of the wrist coming
across and going rectangular shape. I’m doing this. The pull, again.
From there pull into the hand. Go over that surface. Come down. Going over the knuckles.
In this angle they are looking like they take and all line up. They don’t actually. Look
carefully and you’ll see that here there is change in direction. Coming through. And
I’m just taking and getting a sense of where it is.
Now, when I go into drawing this farther, I’m going to go back, feeling the corner
of the scapula. You can feel where the clavicle is attaching. And I’m going back here now.
I’m actually taking and working into the corner. Coming around and at that point you’re
actually seeing a scapula—excuse me, the clavicle turns and comes up, and it will carry
all the way over to the pit of the neck.
Now, the pectoralis muscles pull from this point here coming across, but at this point
they are not flexing so we really don’t see very much them. What we get is the sense
of the pull of the pectoralis as it comes across. Just starting to indicate where these
forms are coming through. Now, the deltoid is going across and over and attaches on the
other side. The pecs are coming through and they are taking and doing a twisting that
takes and, you have to think of these now, it’s a cylinder that’s coming through.
So I’m visualizing how these forms—one overlaps the other as we take and go in. Also,
as I’m drawing the deltoid here I’m focusing on the fact that there is a corner here. I’m
coming down, over to the corner, through. We’re looking at the arm in a sense and
in sort of a, this section here is really like a section of a box that is taking and
coming forward, where we see the front we’re seeing the side. Keep in mind that the whole
section of the arm, if I would do a cross-section of the arm at that point we would see that
it’s very wide and back and rather narrow in front.
So as I’m drawing this I’m thinking, okay, the deltoid is coming down. Coming through.
We’re not seeing anything of the brachial muscle; it’s not flexing. And we start coming
through with the biceps that’s coming from underneath. The biggest problem that students
generally have is seeing thickness. What I’m doing is I’m coming through and I’m feeling
the corner of the form as I’m coming through. We’re feeling the forms, and I’m giving
a bit of the sense of the twist of the pectoralis as it comes through. This is a volume. We’re
going over that surface. As I’m doing the drawing you can see that everything is working
on the dimension of how these muscles go. The biceps now are pulling underneath so there
is an overlapping. This is coming down, through. Turns in. Picking up a bit of the triceps,
so instead of just taking and coming down on the outside and drawing a line like this,
I’m taking and visualizing how these various components are actually overlapping. We feel
the deltoid coming in. We can feel the triceps behind that. It’s an overlapping form. I
can feel the volume as I start to pull down through here. At that point then I’m taking
into consideration we have the side, the common tendon that’s coming through, and I’m
actually working to the condyle.
So I’m visualizing these volumes as I’m doing the drawing. I’m going over the surface
of the form. The brachial muscle is underneath here. Even though I don’t really see very
much of it I’m going to take and draw what I know. Now I’m taking and sort of giving
a sense of where the brachial would be. Then I’m going to come over, hitting the corner,
the side of the box, that is the biceps. You can feel it going underneath.
Corner, going over the edge of the corners of the biceps. This is taking and pulling in.
Feel the forms going down heading inside. That is attaching to the end of the radius. Now, the radius
actually starts over on this side. It’s turned. It’s going across and over the other
side of where the wrist is. What we’re seeing here is the bump on the wrist at this point.
This is the ulna right at that point, in other words, your point of your elbow. We can feel
this shape underneath and back in here.
So I’m hitting these landmarks. We can see how clearly we have this pulling coming across.
The muscle is now taking it from here, and these are going over to the ridge of the humerus.
Coming through, going over, pushing over that surface. So as this is a mass that’s coming
across it’s turning and going over the surface I’m taking and pushing the lines going over
that surface as I’m doing the drawing. So you’re going over.
Now, as we come from here we can see that we’ve actually got a groove. We can feel
that this is pulling in front. We can feel this coming through. We can feel these muscles
now are taking and wrapping and coming out from behind. We’re going over that surface.
We can feel a slight folding as we start pulling in. I’ll take and pull, adding tone to get
the feeling with the biceps going behind.
As I come around off that ridge, with that ridge being where we end up with a common
condyle there where we start to—now we’re getting our extenders. These are coming across
and we feel the pull of the muscles now coming over, coming through. These will actually
come down and go over the wrist down to the fingers. We get a fullness now. These are
all building. This is where we start to feel some of the volume. As we pull around now
I’m going over the surface forms. Coming through. We can feel the edge of the tibia—pardon me, the ulna. The surface
of that as we go over this, as we go over that wrist I’m taking and using lines going
over that surface of the ball to get the wrist to go back in.
As I come into the wrist I want to take right away, I mentioned this is like a ramp taking
and coming down. So I’m taking into consideration those carpal bones. Feel the volume inside.
I drew the distinction that there are three different parts. We have the arm. We have
the wrist, and then we have the hand. So there is a gap in here. We can feel there is a side
to this one creating a side through here. And I would actually feel the pull in between.
So now I’m making an effort to get the sense of the way that ramp comes through.
Now, as we’re taking and—figure the arm is resting so you’re getting on a flat surface
here. We can feel now that we come through; there is an anconeus muscle coming from the
condyle going over to the ulna there. Pull through. We can feel more now of these extenders
coming across, building up. So I’m going over, thinking, constantly going around. Over
this surface, coming through. This is lifting up. And so at this point as I’m drawing
this now I really push, notice I’m really forcing this overlap, and we come through.
This is coming through. When I get the corner of the bone at that point, and now we’re
seeing the starting out of the actual hand proper. I would take and make a point now
of dropping all of this down in tone so I’m really working and pushing these tones underneath
as we go through.
Now, we work into the hand. What I focus on first is the essential proportions. Remember,
the proportions of the hand from the end of the knuckle to the wrist are equal. Now we’re
getting a little bit of foreshortening, so I’m going to take it in consideration. This
will be slightly off. I’m taking and looking to where we see the knuckle coming in. It’s
at an angle. Going through here where the bones are going back in.
Now, if that is roughly halfway, the end of the middle finger then would be about here.
Now, take in mind that the palm of the hand is larger than the top of the hand. So when
you’re working you can see—put a pencil up in between your fingers, and you’ll see
that it comes up halfway between your first joints there. In doing that, so now I’m
first just going to take and putting in a very, very, very simple line coming down indicating
where the fingers are taking and going. As I do this I’m going to take and be very
conscious that I see the underside. That’s what is going to give me depth to the hand.
So as the little finger comes out you can see the pattern that we have going here and
going to the knuckles.
The classic way of taking and dealing fingers is to take and, of course, use the idea of
the box. As you look at the diagrams that I’ve been doing of the hand you will see
that I’m building a box as a way of taking and approaching. This goes all the way back
to Albrecht Durer and Holbein, and it’s also the same way that’s it’s done today
in the animation industry. So I focus on the corners of the bone. I’m looking at where
the corners are. As I draw this I’m thinking, okay, the corner of the bone. Feel the bone.
Feeling the tendon coming across that bone. I feel the fullness. This is again overlapping.
What I’m doing here is I’m pulling this in, making that, I’m over exaggerating a
little bit to take and make the point. You can feel the meaty part behind that. We’re
pulling back and so you can see that’s behind, and then that’s where we’re actually part
of the thumb that’s taking and coming off here. You can feel the overlap so you’ll
find one of the very common frames that continually happening and when I’m talking about the
drawing is pushing, overlapping. Everything here now has been working with overlapping forms.
Now, we come through and we can see the fullness now. And again, the bone is going through
here. I’m taking and looking at the corners of the actual corners of the bone. We can
feel the side of hand, but they pull through so we’re seeing the fleshy part here. But
this actually extends past. So as I’m taking and drawing this little finger here I’m
thinking bone, corner. Essentially, it’s a box coming through
but I’m looking at how far underneath.
through. You can feel that there is a plane here that comes back and feel the tendon pulling
to the knuckle. We can feel the corners coming around and going over the corners. What we
have at that point, and I’m going to diagram this a little bit here. When you look at the
joint you have the corners of the bone here.
As we come through, the tendon is going over that surface.
The actual way the bone works is that you have this corner
and there is a rounded end here. Then the
next joint fits into that. This is slightly turned this way.
The tendon is going over that surface.
But we also have in between each finger, you can see we have muscles
that are coming across on both hands.
As you get older, as you look at my hand you can see how I move the finger. You can see
the tendon going across and sliding over the corners of that bone. You can see the triangle
shape that’s being created as we go through. Also, the muscles in between each of the fingers
is the same kind of muscle that we have pulling from here going back over to the thumb.
As you can see there is a clear corner here.
As we draw the forms then we take and are focusing on very, very clear cut, box-type
form coming through. It’s gotta have thickness to it. Coming through, coming down.
We're going to take and draw these as a series of boxes as we’re going through. We can feel
the pull, you can see the triangular shape that is being created as we build. So you’re
constantly working to show the depth in the hand. I would work giving the tone to the
side going through. So you build, you’re building this hand up. So as I’m coming
across now it looks like I have made a classic error here in not getting all the fingers
down, but you want to feel your build.
You build these fingers and you’re taking and constructing.