- Lesson details
In this exciting in-depth drawing series, instructor Steve Huston shows you a step-by-step construction of the human head. He covers the basic forms and more detailed intermediate constructs of the head as well as the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. In this lesson, Steve covers how to construct the eye within the eye socket. He will also show you how the eye lids are placed around the eye as well as the brow ridges.
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that we can fit that into our greater head structure. So the structure of the eye. Now
we’re going to start putting features into this roadmap we’ve been developing. Those
secondary features we were picking up, the forehead breaking down in planes, the cheekbone,
all that kind of stuff. It’s really there so that we can build in our features on top
of that. It will feel like a more fully realized head rather than plotting out positions.
So what we need to realize and remember as we work is the head has a certain series of
shapes that move in space and orient together, and so do the features. The features cannot
be drawn contours stuck on a bigger structure. That happens quite often. When an artist gets
some structural information he or she gets the head placed, and then they’ll start
drawing the eyelids and eyelashes and nostrils, the line of the mouth, and the zigzags of
the lips and such like that.
What we need to do is think of the features as smaller structures set onto the bigger
structures. That means if we’re underneath and to the side or whatever facing dimension
of the head will be underneath and to the side with that feature too. So we need to
plot those out carefully. So let’s go ahead and look at some of the structure.
We will start with the eye.
What I want to remember about the eye is the eye is an eyeball. And so we’re just going
to draw a spherical shape. On that eyeball there is an iris which is the colored part,
the blue, green, brown, whatever it is. Yellow if you’re a science fiction monster or something.
Then there is the pupil which can change size. It can get very small or very big depending
on the lighting setup. White of the eye. Iris is the colored part of the eye. The pupil
is the black part of the eye. The eye is always wet. So we usually have a highlight in there.
It will be on the pupil or it will be
on the iris and the pupil, but it has a wet quality to it. So it often gets shiny. So
when you get into the rendering you’ll see the highlights. In artist’s lingo that’s
called the life light. You put that little dot of highlights just because it’s a watery
surface. It’s wet so that it’s lubricated so when your eyelids go up and down you’re
not scratching that sensitive eyeball. In fact, if you get the barest little bit of
dust in there or an eyelash slipping in there, it really hurts. It feels like it’s a
2 x 4 going at you because it’s very sensitive.
So it’s lubricated and protected. But that’s all it is. Now if we turn that ball we’ll
find that the pupil, the black part, and the iris, the blue or brown part, let’s say,
are just painted on. They don’t have any form. They’re just right on the surface.
So wherever it goes it will go from a circle and a circle on a ball. Then as it starts
going towards a direction off axis the pupil and the iris will start to become elliptical.
So this goes like this…and like this… and like this…and like this. And so it can
be quite a sliver at some point. So there is an evolution there that happens. We want
to pay attention to that. Then there is another part of the eye, and that’s called the cornea.
We don’t notice it as much from the front view, but we will need to notice it. But it’s
crucial on that side view. You see it there very clearly, and it’s going to have a very
particular effect that we’ll talk about in a little bit. The cornea is a natural contact
lens. It goes over the top. And that means since it’s a bulge, since it bulges out,
it’s going to affect the eyelids that go over it.
Now, for the most part in most situations on most people what you’ll find is the lower
lids come right up and stop against that cornea even when you’re squinting and then closing
your eyes, most of the movement in the lids, these lower lids can move a little bit, but
most of the movement is in the upper lid. It slams shut and opens up, and the lower
lid just does a little bit. So the lower lid tends to stay off the cornea. And the upper
lid tends to come down over the cornea like a garage door closing. So what happens when
the lid comes over, it’s going to come over that bulge. Depending on where that bulge
is, in other words depending on where the iris, pupil, with the cornea coming along
is looking, it will stretch and distort the skin of the upper lid.
It will make a very specific shape.
So one of the problems we have, and one of the problems you’ll see in art is you’ll
see the artist draw just an almond shape for the eye. Then they’ll put the eye here,
and it will look like a stylized cartoon or Egyptian primitive eye. It won’t ring true.
It might be beautifully rendered and sculpted in light and shadow, but they won’t track
well. And the conception of the form won’t explain the particularities of the shadow
shapes, and so the shadows will just kind of go on top of this and not make a lot of
sense together. So we’re going to have to watch that cornea a bit.
But before we get to lids and such, we need to take that ball and put it into a hole.
And that hole is called the eye socket or the orbit. So here would be the skull over
here. If we had the hair the eyebrow would be here. If we attach the nose it would come
off here. It sits in here. It fills that up somewhat. Let me take a moment to show you
exactly how that works.
Alright, so when we look at our skull here you can see what’s happening. The eyeball,
the eye sockets, the placement for the eyes, the orbits around the front of the face, of
course. But they also are fairly wide-spaced. Enough width so that they can triangulate.
This is the predator’s eye. The predator’s eye stays on the front of the skull to look
forward with two eyes, binocular vision, and triangulate. And by seeing that gazelle 100
yards away from this eye and this eye you can gauge the depth. And so someone who has
one eye damaged, covered, missing has trouble driving, for example, because the distance
you can adjust, the brain adjusts but the distance gauge is off. So I can track something
and now how far it is because of that. And so that’s the predator, the prey, the herbivore,
the gazelle that just wants to eat grass has the head down eating and the eyes are more
on the side so it can see the predator trying to sneak up on it. Even some things like chameleons,
the eyes can move around independently and such. And some comedians, probably.
But anyway, what we have then is a ball in a hole like so. Notice, this is a bit of a—
let's push it back in there. What then the skull is doing by creating that hole in that ball,
notice there is some bumpy stuff going on here. We’re going to have to deal with that
when we get into advanced structure. The brow ridge here is actually thicker bone than the
skull cap up here. It’s thicker to protect, so if we get something striking this it’s
going to hit the bone of the brow or the bone of the cheek or both and not hurt that precious eye.
And so the bone of the brow sticks out. The bone of the cheek pushes out. And the
bone of the cheek that wraps underneath presses out. And so you have this armor surrounding
and then the bone of the nose and the nose itself. It’s surrounded to protect it so
that it won’t get hurt. It can get poked, of course. But it can’t get hurt by blowing
across that, in theory. That protective armor is there for that reason.
Now, we have to be able to look out if we’re a predator or a prey to some degree, but we’re
looking out here. This is a predator set of eyes. Looking out here and seeing what we
want to attack, but still we’re probably not on top of the food chain. We need to also
watch what’s going to attack us. So if you’ll notice this cheekbone opens up out here and
lays back. If I turn it this way what you’ll see is the brow ridge goes this way, and this
cheekbone pushes out here but opens up here. So it’s laying that way. If I do this so
you can see notice how from my cheek out, notice how it lays back this way. And that
allows me to have peripheral vision to see stuff coming at me. And so it opens up. And
so that opening up makes it less armored. You’ll see Star Wars or Star Trek or some
fantasy film, they’ll have this alien with the big armored ridge because it looks cool.
But it’s not so good in terms of evolution, because if I’ve got this stuff coming out
like this I can’t see that attack coming. And so this lays back and open. What we’re
going to find when we get into really tricky dynamic positions of the head way up on top,
way underneath we’re going to see that the cheeks don’t come square out like our basic
and intermediate structures suggested. They actually lay back a little bit and we’ll
have to incorporate that in.
So there are some subtleties that need to be dealt with. A ball in a whole. Let’s
do this. Let’s go ahead and get our intermediate structure for the face.
That leaves the brow and cheek area.
character. Notice when we make things boxier we can get them to go into perspective. We
can plot them out in space. We can position and proportion them better. We can put it
in an environment then that will have that same angle change
from front to side and top to bottom and such.
So with the box here we can make a difficult form. Even when it doesn’t look very boxy
the better off we are. Here is that center line. This is going to be a key landmark,
and it’s going to allow us to build all the features except the ear off of it. The
hair of the eyebrow starts here we said and goes up. Here the eyebrow starts here we said
and goes up. What we’re interested in though is the structure here. So let’s go ahead
and draw the eye. So we have our bridge here and then we draw the eye socket or eyeball.
Now the first mistake or danger in drawing that is what I just did. I drew my little
wedge, which separates my eyebrows which kind of ends the forehead and begins the nose.
Then I push the eye socket, eyeball, eyelid, whatever I was drawing right up against it.
What you need to do, come down and look at the nose here. The nose has a wedge. That’s
why of all the features we drew it structurally and we drew a little bit of the ear as a basic
shape. Not so much any kind of big structure. We gave a little bit, but we did a little
bit here because the ear has to get us, and this should actually off the page. It should
be over here. But the ear has to get us around the box, and the nose has to help plot out
the rest of the features, and it moves off in its own perspective, in effect sticking
out and such. So we drew that nose. We need to understand the nose to get the eye.
So when we draw that wedge that’s the front plane of the nose. The wedge is a transition
between the front of the forehead into the front of the nose. So there you go, going
down. But we also need some of the side of the nose. We want to make sure that we’ve
got enough room for the side of the nose. Notice where that is. Right there. You can
basically use the wing of the nose where it meets the cheek. There straight up and then
right around the inside of the eye socket. So if you can get this correct that’s going
to give you the placement of the eye socket, eyeball eye. This would be down here—let’s
do it this way so you can see. Down here would be where the nose meets the barrel of the
mouth with the lips and such. And so the nostrils, the wing right here comes up here. Notice
right here, I’m going to stain this. Notice right there where the bump happens. This is
now and eye socket in here isn’t it? You can see that clear change. Eyeball stuff is
in there. That’s what we’re going to use give or take the fleshy attachments. That’s
going to be what we use down to the bottom of the nose. So the base of the nose, the
root of the nose comes up along the side plane and runs right into the inside. We can flow
all the way to the outside or the inside of the eye socket. There.
That’s the transition point.
I’m going to end up getting my face yellow here. But you can feel it in your own face.
Just go along the side right there. You can feel it before it becomes eyeball and eyelid
and roll right up, and you can feel that brow ridge just above the crease of the upper lid
or below the eyebrow in there you’ll find it.
So grab this, roll right over here, and it goes out here.
Remember this construction here is strongly stylized. And the eyeball
and eye socket for this bottom plane of the forehead. Just give it a little dusting here.
We want to see that whole bottom plane together. Then the nose goes on top of that. Feel that.
Feel this as it continuous plane from here to here. So that sits in there.
The other socket, let me show you that, in a three-quarter view here. The other socket
is going to round out here. Remember what we said the features lay down as it goes out
so we can see that peripheral vision. So the cheekbone and brow ridge come together on
the outside, so when we’re in a three-quarter view they have a little wobble there.
You can really almost draw these as bifocals kind of thing or glasses, you know, lenses for
your glasses like that. But what’ll happen is the brow is going to come down, and the
cheek is going to come up, and we’re going to see them wobble around that socket in there.
Then the eyeball sits in here. We want to make sure we come off the front of the nose,
side of the nose. Go along the cheek a little bit before you get the eyeball. It sits in here.
Sits in here. And then that brow ridge and cheekbone get simplified into—let me
keep that simpler for now, simplify it into that little idea. I’ll show you how that
works in a second. So that sits like that. Let’s go ahead and draw a little bit of
the anatomy here. Here is the brow ridge. The zygomatic arch. Then it creates a why
basically. It goes back to the ear. So this splits this way. It goes around that way.
It goes around that way. Builds this tubular protective structure. We can see it finish
all the way back up again. So we have this kind of whirlpool effect.
We come off the nose, come all the way around and come back into the nose. On this side
it would be a little less apparent, but this whole lumpy, bumpy bit ends up being, look
at lump, lump, lumps. It’s like a donut. Lump, lump, lump. This goes off past.
This here would be behind here. We wouldn’t see it at all, but look at how the lump and the
lump show off on the far side. Notice our construction lines lump…lump…lump…lump,
and then this gets lost into the barrel of the plane of the face coming down towards
the mouth like that. This would be that same construction that we see when we see the shading
do this. This comes through there. The nose is in here. Chin is in here. There is the
donut here and here. Coming all the way back up here with the nose in the way. The zygomatic
arch would come back here to the ear back in there. This tracks over the temple line
and goes up, and that’s basically where the bump of the eyebrow is.
Okay, so here would be the eyebrow here.
Notice that the eyebrow ends here, and it can crowd in, of course.
Notice how we always have to move away from the nose and beginning of the eyebrow to get
to the eye. Always stepping back in. The nose is over here, and this is that armor pushing
out to support. And so wherever that nose, forehead, eyebrow joint comes, that armor
comes and meets on the inside. We’ve got to step back to get to the actual eyeball
because it’s back into. You know this is pushing out. This is pushing in. So even if
you do a real simple cartoon like a Doonesbury, something like that really simplified, notice
that if you want to have a sense of truth, and it’s not going to be some bug-eyed stuffed
animal or something always away from the nose and away from the beginning of the eyebrow
to get back to the eyeball, always stepping back. You won’t necessarily have that step
back this way because they may way line up pretty well because of the foreshortening
as it turns away. But on a front view you’ll have that step back no matter simplified if
you want it to be realistic, you know, comic book or whatever, cartoons that have a sense
of realism, political cartoons and such. You’re going to step away, step away. So that’s
that. If this was looking straight ahead elliptical quality of the iris and the pupil like so. Okay, and then this
one in theory would be even more elliptical like so.
Alright, so what we’re going to end up doing then, let’s do it again with the head. You
can see there are so many things to think about. It’s like patting your head and rubbing
your stomach and stamping your feet all at once. You have to be careful. Eventually it
becomes intuitive, and it can stay intuitive all the way through. You can just say I’m
going to draw what feels right, and then I will come back on top of that if it seems
to be a problem. I will address that with some of my structural notes, my ideas. Okay,
here is that little wedge shape coming off this way. Here is the beginning of the eyebrow,
beginning of the eyebrow hair just so you know. We’re going to want to step back,
and that has created specifically through the side plane of the nose, rolling right
up and over into the socket, the eyeball sits in that. That is created by that heavy architecture,
the armor plating basically of our skull structure. It pulls on back that way. What we end up
getting then is following down that donut from the brow bulge to the cheek bulge, zygomatic
arch, and the easiest way to do that is to track the hair of the eyebrow. Whatever variations
it has from the individual it’ll be close enough to get a basic plane. You can see everything
truly rounds off so to make it perfectly square is an approximation anyway. So we will fine-tune
that as we refine these planes and stuff, but it’s good enough.
So the eye line where the lids meet, eyebrow line where the lids meet; that’s going to
be our cheekbone. You can see again it’s somewhere on this donut shape of the zygomatic
arch. It’s shooting towards the base of the nose, wherever that is. This side will
come around there too. Wherever this bumps out here. Whoops, wherever this bumps out
here, this will bump out here and then pull back down again and go for that same spot.
It never reaches it. It pulls down into here, but it aims. There is a rhythm there.
Alright, so here is your eyeball in there. You’re iris, pupil stuff is in there more or less.
This is in here. Notice I can track this across. There is the eyeball in there more or less
like so. There is our partial constructed solids, or partial ghosted in anatomy, the
skull structure, that’s what we’ve got.
So I’m going to draw my eyeball and then I’m going to try and pick up the lids. We’re
going to have several key features and landmarks to the eye. The first one we’ve already
talked about a couple of them. We’ve got this little wedge, and then we’re going
to, off the wedge we’re attaching. Notice now what our strategy is going to be as we
work with constructed solids with structure and with gesture, for that matter. There are
going to be all the gestures in here too. We’re always trying to connect something
to something else. If they float, if I draw simply or carefully whatever I think the mask
of the face is, and then I draw the eyes and the eyebrows and the nose. The odds of that
being right are astronomically low unless I’ve just been doing it for years like some
of the cartoonists do, and they can just knock it out because they are stylizing and they
have their kind of stock poses. But if you’re trying to be faithful to life and faithful
to the variations of life, that’s not going to work too well. So what a better strategy
is, let me put it that way, is to start with landmarks. So I’ve got that gesture line
of the face. Then I’ll build the structure of the whole face and then the structure of
the eyebrow, eyebrow/cheek structure, ball in the socket, all that kind of stuff. It’s
all connecting. Notice I connected the wedge to the center line and eyebrow line. I connected
the eyebrow lines to the wedge. I connected the nose to the wedge and then brought the
side of the nose up off that connection. That allowed me to connect the socket. Having gotten
the socket I can now connect the eyeball in it. I can use a construction line through
it to find where the corners of the eyes or the pupils are aligned, all that kind of stuff.
Everything is touching something else in theory, and that’s going to make it easier to do.
And that’s no theory; it makes it easier to do. You might be so good that you can skip
that step, but if you’re not so good that you can skip that step, don’t skip that
step. So that sits in there. A little bit of eye socket would be showing in here actually like that.
Now, what we’ve got, let’s look at our—actually, I’m going to save that a little bit. Let’s
look at it anyway here. I’ve got that construction. Now, wherever your pupils and iris are we’re
going to build our eyelids over that in a very particular way because of that cornea.
I’m not going to show you that particular way for now. For now all we’re going to
do is block out a real simple shape for the lids. We’re going to ghost it in, and it’s
not going to be much more than that almond shape, but I’m not going to do this. I’m
just going to leave it open. All I want to do is create a little V, and typically what
we’ll see is that the top of V has a little bit different character than the bottom of
the V. The bottom of the V will sag and drift. The other one will rise and arc, or the other
one will be straighter. This will be more boxy. Let each side be a little curious in
character. The bottom will tend to track the construction line. The top one will tend to
rise above that. Just picking those up. That’s all we need for the moment, just to understand that.
So we’re going to stop there. We have the basic construction of this. I’ve given you
a solid way to draw very simple head construction. Then I’ve given you an intermediate level
of that head, getting some of the major planes. Now we’ve used that intermediate construction
to plot out the position of the basic architecture of the eye, the ball and the whole and the
basic anatomy of the eye, the ball in the orbit framed by that donut, that zygomatic
arch. And so understanding the anatomy a little bit and seeing how that affects the shapes,
like this bump here, like this series of bulges here. It’s going to lead us, we would hope,
into a better rendering. So let’s stop. Take a look at these basic ideas or really
intermediate ideas. They’re pretty sophisticated in our old masters. Then we also do a quick
sketch run of our timed poses to sketch them out of our model. Let’s do that. And then
we’ll take it farther and I’ll show you all the juicy stuff on the eye.
of the old masters here. We have our Hans Holbein.
In here. Here is the eye line. You can see
this pulling out and very wide brow so here would be the side planes. This comes down
here. The eye socket would come off the inside of the nose right here. Let me make this a
little smaller. There is the eye socket there. The eyeball would sit and fill in that with
her pupil and iris off the inside. You can see one of the interesting things about the
way the planes work is that each front planes into side planes, however you define them,
the side planes are actually slightly corner planes because you can see them from a perfect
front view. They don’t fall away from us as a true side plane. So you see a lot of
these front to side—it’s really front to corner. The side would be on the side that
you can’t see. It would be a sliver. So that fits there. So anyway, this comes around
here, fits in there, and you feel the eyeballs in there.
The nasal cavity would sit in here just so you know.
Alright, over on our Raphael, here we can see that structure a little better. Here is—let’s
switch to this and switch to that. You can feel the eyeball in this downward looking
position. The end of the lower lid is basically your eyeball. So here would be the eyeball
in the eye socket. Here would be the front cheekbone. There is a side of the cheekbone.
Here is our eye line coming across. Here is our brow coming up in here. This is what we
defined as all the bevel underside of the forehead even though it could bulge out a
little bit, and we’ll see why a little bit later. Here we have it here. Here is the orbit
eye socket in here. Here is that little wedge in here. Eyebrow comes up, comes over. There
is our construction line through. There is our—let’s get that. This is all corner
plane, corner plane, and corner plane way out here some place. Corner plane all the
way down right in there. Then the nose takes off in there.
Okay, this Piazetta. We can see our concept here of the eye socket protecting the eyeball.
Look at how back that lid is. I’m going to exaggerate it a little bit. Look at far
we step forward to the brow. Just doing those two things in your drawing, however much detail
you put in there. Just that step back, that’s crucial. The basic structure that we would
draw to explain that is that whistle notch and just come down the eyebrow. Here it is
a very flat perspective so we’re just taking a chunk out of the whistle basically out of
the tube idea or the sailboat triangle in this case. So just does that. Then the eyeball
sits in that in here. So that’s that structure. Notice that the eye line. We see a little
tone there and such. This is where that boxy structure is coming around. The way we’re
thinking of the structure now is it’s way over here. Notice it wasn’t following true
to that. We’ll figure out why a little bit later and come back to this drawing. There
is the cheekbone coming out. This is all front plane, although as we talked about it lays
back for that fuller vision. The nose is out here, of course, and then swings on down.
So front plane, side plane, eye line altogether. Scoot that in so it lines up a little bit
better. Cheekbone. Side plane, or as we saw it’s really corner plane. This would be
side plane. So corner plane, side plane, but you get the point. That goes down there, and
that’s the basic structure.
Alright, on our little Tiepolo here, here you can see—let me switch up here. Here
you can see that little wedge shape. It’s blown out because it’s a little sketch so
it’s not super accurate so we get that kind of snout. We can still see—let me correct
this a little bit. We can still see the cheekbone. Notice here—hang on a second. There is the
eyeball/eye socket in there. The actual socket would come in here to the nose. This would
be the side plane of the forehead. This would be the side plane of the cheek. That side
plane can go all the way back and cast that into shadow for the forehead.
Or that cheekbone can wrap around. We’ll see how that happens when we get to advanced structure. In any
case it sits in there. So even though it is stylized it’s a little inaccurate. It still
rings true. It still echoes the truth there. We buy into that.
Notice here we can feel the zygomatic arch go back, wrap around, that socket to protect.
There would be that eyeball, eye socket in there. The other socket would be over here.
Nasal cavity. Nasal cavity in here.
It’s kind of creepy actually, skeletal Madonna and child.
Here is our forehead.
Here is the forehead structure. Let me put this here. Grab a little bit here.
Here is our forehead structure. This comes down. Eye line goes across. Bring that down
a little more accurately. Eye line comes across. Where it meets he has nice, wide cheeks. See
where that little highlight is. That’s why it’s there. The eye line comes across. Eyebrow
comes down. That’s about where you want the corner of your cheek. Very close to that.
That’s where that is over here very close to that. This tucks on through.
Then everything else is side plane like so. Let’s come back one more time.
This would all be shaded in
for stylized, simplified structure. This would be the cheekbone coming out to protect.
Go down. You can see that step, which is at...
eyeball stuck in the hall. Ball in the hole.
There it is there.
Right in here. Kind of creepy again isn’t it? Let’s do that one more time.
Now, here is another way to see it. When you get these three-quarter on top of views and
interesting thing happens. Look at our simple structure coming down and notice how it rolls
right into the bottom of the lower lid which is the bottom of our eyeball, eye socket right
on down through, so it’s right here. So we’re really getting the eye socket. Let’s
give this and put this like this.
Here is that eye socket. I should use the dark, I guess. Right in there.
Here we go. I was having trouble finding a dark—so anyway, that socket
structure is doing that really up here a little bit more.
Whichever way this looks we’ll do it there.
The eyeballs. But notice this comes right down here and runs along the bottom of the eyeball.
Let’s take that out one more time and do it again and notice that, likewise, it comes
down into that. This comes up and goes into the top of the eye socket or eye ball.
Or we’ll ride around to the nose.
Here would be the equivalent on that side. That’s not
particularly useful though. You can see how those things align, and this would be the
upper lid here on our eyeball. This is the cheek facing up, catching light good like
that. It’s a very strong structure. One last time. Eyeball sitting in the eye socket.
There is that donut structure. There is that donut structure. Here is the donut structure
here going off into the zygomatic arch. There is the temple line. Here is that donut structure. There again is the eyeball
hiding up into the eye socket. This goes into here. That goes into there. All that good stuff.
Here is our center wedge. Here is a side line, side of the nose, let’s call it.
Here going up into that area here. We can even see it here. Again, the nose splays
out so we get those kind of corner plane idea like we’re doing there before it goes back.
Okay, it’s like you have some weird steampunk glasses on or something.
Here are the eyeballs and the eye socket. Eyeball and the eye socket.
If we took that, if he was looking straight ahead he’d be looking this way. If we were to let him look
through binoculars then, the binoculars would point that way where he is looking. He happens
to be looking off this way. We’ll address that in a second. So the laws of ellipses
would say whatever the long axis is, the ellipse is going to work at a perfect T off that.
So that means the long axis of the ellipse will be at perfect T to the long axis of the
tube itself. In other words, another way to look at is if you had an axle on a car and
the wheels were attached to the axle this would be the way you would do the wheels.
That’s how you can draw cars in perspective if you like to do that.
Okay, so that’s the law of ellipses. Always a perfect T. Not a perspective T like you’d
see where wall met wall or wall and ceiling came together, that kind of thing. Those are
right angles but they’re perspective right angles. This is an actual draw on your paper,
perfect T, perfect right angle. That would sit like that, and that means that if we were,
if we staring in that direction, the pupil and the iris would be that kind of ellipse
like so. Since he’s staring this way and we take it this way and it’s going to go
that way. Now if it was not looking down a lot, but looking down just a little bit it
would go like this. It would come up a little bit. So it would be doing that. So the pupil
and iris would be doing that way. Likewise, if this didn’t look quite so far away, not
as dramatic to make it less dramatic, which is probably actually truer. Be doing that.
Like so. That would be what it would be. You can see if you have it go in two different
directions you can make quite a character out of it. Okay, so laws of ellipses allow
you to get that pupil and iris plotted out correctly, and then
the lids go over it as they go over it.
Okay, so even in here. Here is our sweet little baby. There’s that donut. There’s the
eyeball. There is the eye socket. There is the protection going around. There is coming
off the inside down to the nose. Make it a little bit bigger so we can see it. So, coming
off the inside off the socket right on down through. Right on down through that connects
to that. Here would be the corner more or less, where we were turning from front to
corner, back to side that way. This ridge comes up here. You can see how the skull intrudes
into the forehead. That’ll be something interesting we’ll look at in a little more
advanced structure, but that’s that.
Oftentimes, you get a pretty good sense of where the eyeball, eye socket would be if you put round glasses,
kind of John Lennon glasses on. Let me do this.
So this shadow over here, that’s always a telltale sign.
That’s the eyeball in there.
Again, we come off the inside of the nose,
and that’s what we’re looping around there like so. Let’s do it on this side too. Just
make it a little stronger than it really is.
There is a socket. I’m sorry, there’s the ball.
Here’s the socket in there.
There is a zygomatic arch. Creepy eye. There is the eyebrow starting in. Notice that I cheated
it even more back to the eyeball. I want to make sure we feel that. As the head starts
to turn this way, though, these can start to line up where the eyebrow, hair of the
eyebrow starts. That can be where the eye socket also starts right there, let’s say.
Of course, if the growth pattern of that hair doesn’t start until it’s way out here
then you’re not going to have that effect. But whenever you can and whenever it does
keep that eyebrow area crowding the nose. You can see it makes here angry when we do
that, but that puts it inside. So you balance out the structural needs with the likeness
you’re trying to get.
We can come off that inside of the nose and that tracks again. Inside of the nose tracks
again to that snout structure. You can see the little tones here
and really that’s closer to the mark, to our zygomatic arch here. You can see she’s
pretty full-figured probably, but full features so the flesh of the cheek crowds up over the
top and diminishes. Like the tide coming in, it’s going to diminish the bulge of the
ball or the sand on the beach. Then, as always, this likes to move towards underneath here.
Alright, so here we have a Bernini sculpture, and you can see that front of the forehead.
There’s the eyebrow. Not really arching, but where it descends. That’s going to come
all the way down to the eye line. And you can see the cheekbones. And as wide and as
stylized, really super big, those eye socket, eyebrow, eyeballs are and the eyelids even.
You can see the thickness of those upper lids we’ll talk about, but that’s actually
exaggerated from reality. You can still see a little bit of this side and corner planes
of the face. And so we want to make the whole head basically.
We want to make sure we have room to show those beveling out planes there.
So that’s that. And then let’s take this back.
Here is the eyeball. Here is the eyeball with the eye sockets.
Get a little darker there. There we go. Again, coming off the inside. It should
actually be more there. Coming off the inside of the nose. You can see his nose pinches
in, but if you just drop straight on down from wherever the wings of the nose are up
to wherever the deepest hollow of the eye is basically. That’s where the eyeball ends
more or less, close enough. We’ll actually have a little space between where the eyeball
starts and that little side plane that we’ve created there. But anyway, that’s that.
Then you can see these forms can drop and do all sorts of interesting things. We’ll
talk about some of those when we get to expressions quite a bit later. Anyway, they are there.
This is that little wedge shape. You can see how carefully he’s created little corner planes.
He steps carefully over so we’re constantly feeling the architectural changes
there. That’s one of the things that gives it such fidelity and such a romantic quality
because then he takes those shapes and redesigns them or smoothes them out. Or, as he did with
the eyes, he exaggerates them, those kinds of things. But that’s nicely done. You can
see again on the nose how close it gets there. We’re using the nose to separate the eye
so it crowds the eyes when we get underneath the head like that.
Alright, also a Bernini. You can see this Pieta idea here. Look at the great stylization.
This glorious idealization. This is very Roman, and you can see those lovely structures. Notice
always the great aesthetic artists are looking for symmetry. So it goes across, drops down
here. It goes across, drops down there. Here is the eyeball ending at the lower lid. You
can see the nose plane, the side plane of the nose. Right here you can see that little
space between. We want that there. Here is the socket and ball here. You’re not getting
to see much of the socket in this one, just a little bit here and a little bit here. Here
we would see it actually up in here a little bit more down in here. We’d also see it
in here like that. This also shows you how that peripheral vision idea, you know, it’s
really dropping, rolling over, curving over. We’ll see that when we get into advanced
structure. But that pulls here, and then there is that cheekbone. Here you can see how this
is moving towards that. That’s moving towards that.
Remember we talked about the brow dropping down into the bottom of the eyeball, eye socket,
the cheek rising up into the top of the eyeball, eye socket, and you get that criss-crossing
effect. It’s happening there nicely. You can’t really see the move this way on that,
but notice because of the perspective this is way down here. It can also idealize, certain
idealization. The mouth is reduced a little smaller. Eyes are maybe a little bigger. But
because we’re getting way underneath that head like that when we pick this out and that
nose gets shorter because we’re underneath it. The cheeks can start to aim down more
towards the mouth and miss that just under the nose connection.
Okay, so beautifully done Bernini. You can also see that donut shape idea kind of playing
up into the forehead because, again, of the lighting and the underneathness. There is
our zygomatic arch be pulling down this way.
I want you to go ahead and draw from the reference.
There will be a little clock that shows you where you’re at. Take your time. If you don’t finish up it’s okay.
If you go a little past the clock or finish a little early, don’t worry about it.
We’re just trying to apply some of this information, make sure it’s working not only here, but here.
Or for some of you over here. So I will see you on the other side.
Transcription not available.
on that. Alright, so I’m going to draw with a little fountain pen. This is Waterman Paris,
just a real basic one. It’s got a fine point, and it’s a brown or sepia ink you can use
just for something different. So we can start with that central landmark. It’s always
nice to have a nice point construction line corner to work off of. The more precise that
is the more assured you will be of success, more potential success, I guess. This is coming
down there. I’ll just put this shading in here just so you can see where we’re at.
Not that I need that at that point, but just so you get it. This drops down towards the
nostril wing area of the nose, wherever that’s at, and right in here. Right now we’ve got
our eyeball fitting up under our lid in here. You can notice the crease of the upper lid.
It sags over, but that gives you a sense of where the eye socket would be. Then the eyeball
is looking up and out so the binoculars would be this way. And so that means the iris and
pupil would be that way, slightly squished in there. But it sits in there. And you can
just lay in real basic position of the lid here. So a couple ways to do it.
Let me do another version of it here. Here is the eyebrow, hair of the eyebrow here.
And you can just pick out the upper lid. Roughly, just to place it roughly rolling over that
ball shape that it’s on. Cover it in again. It would be in here. But you could just pick
out that and that, so just pick out that. Notice what I’m doing here. I’m drawing
a straight line for the lower lid. Look at the reference. It’s not perfectly straight.
There is some subtle movements that we’ll have to deal with in our advanced section.
But for now we can simplify that subtlety into that simplicity. So when I get underneath
an eye, unless the eye is looking way down and the lid is lower, that lower lid can go
fairly flat. Then the upper lid gets extra arced as it’s curving over. So, just to
pick that up. Then you can get a fairly satisfying sketch of an eye in pretty quickly that way.
What that is doing again is suggesting the eyeball structure with the eye socket. Structure
like so. You can even get the cheek overlapping that a little bit to cut off that bottom of
the ball comes here. It can cut it off there.
Then notice how this swings down, drops down here, and you get this beautiful flow around
the forehead structure back along the temple. This is dropping down here. Our cheeks get
a little lower before they tuck in this way. And so this all becomes side plane here. In
this case you can see where the shadow shape. We’ll discuss that. A little bit picks up
there, and that’s the connectivity. If we did a little head I can get a nice intermediate
structure here, picking up that forehead to anchor. Notice I always set the feature up
with the structure surrounding it. That’s the real trick to this, getting a nice forehead.
Again, shaded just so you can see it. Nice forehead and cheek area, and it can be laid
in very carefully and lightly if you need to for rendering purposes. Ears get nice and
low down here some place, but just right set in that structure.
Okay, nice profile. We happen to be underneath it. We’re going to pull this up and over.
Where that comes up and over, that eyebrow creates our basic box structure for our face.
You can see that architecture there. You can see that the—here’s the hair in here that
is tracking along that side plane. But the plane starts up here in effect. Then, of course,
we have our whistle notch idea. There it is there. I’m very, very conscious. Let me
pick this up a little stronger. Rolling over, stepping back. Way back in here. Eyebrow stepping
back to the eyeball where the pupil and iris, the deep, dark part of the eye is, that’s
where the eyeball starts. The eyeball is there. Then the lids are there and so what I’m shooting
for in this kind of fairly strong perspective, underneath perspective, I’m looking for
where the lower lid meets the cheek. That’s what I’m shooting for. Let’s take that
back again here. This is the actual eye socket, something like that. Here is the pupil and
iris on the eyeball sitting in there. This is in shadow nice and deep, and the brow is
here and going over that donut structure. So this is in here, in here wrapping around
and protecting. Again, you can use that crease of the upper
lid as part of that. We’ll get into that more carefully. Make sure we step back to,
again, honor that eye socket structure going into the bottom plane of our forehead concept
before we take off and go out for the nose.
So let’s do this. When I do that see how unsatisfying that is? Now the shape of the
lids and the crease of the upper lid, the thickness of the lids are all similar. The
V’s are similar, but because I put the eyebrow back here. Happens all the time with—actually
very good artists will do that. Every once in a while you’ll find a model where that
happens, but the ideal is this because that is suggestive of the true structure and so
notice what happens, how much more pleasing it is when we can push that back in. The other
thing we’ll start to notice here, and we’ll see exactly why when we get into our advanced
structure, but you want to make sure that the—here is the eyebrow again. We want to
make sure that the lids are way forward. There is good thickness to the lid. Then you get
back to the pupil and iris that are on the ball. Then we actually have two steps. We
go from eyebrow back to lid, lid back to ball. And so look at how carefully—we have a double
set of protections to put that eyeball, that delicate critical eyeball back in where it
can be most protected.
Alright, now we have a similar view profile, but now we are on top of that profile rather
than underneath it. And so there is my whistle notch. Again, this is a concept like this.
We usually don’t need to do that because it’s going to be—let me show you the difference
here. We’re curving this, curving that, and then we have the eyeball in there like
that. And so this could be just the eyeball, but the cheekbone is going underneath the
nose, so we’re having that sense. So I usually just curve this nicely down. That is suggesting
that on-top-of-ness that we want. And then eyebrow steps back. Eyeball as suggested through
the lids is right here. Again, stepping back. Cheek is aiming for the nose and then falls
down towards the mouth. The nose is in here and the lids.
Notice what we’ve set up. Notice what happens with that eyebrow. It arches. But when you
get way on top of it it’s squishing that arch out. You can actually lose the arch completely.
Here we can just see it, just a little bit of that arch like so, but then notice how
that squished or lost movement of the brow is picked up again with the curve of the lid
in here. Then if we can see the pupil and iris, and oftentimes because of lashes all
we see is the pupil, just kind of draw the pupil, and it can be hidden in the wash of
lashes there so it’s just a darker dark inside. But you can that’s what I did for
the lid, and then I came—this was out here for the brow. So the brow came this way, repeated there.
If we’ve got a pupil or iris to see as we usually will, unless it’s closed, sits there,
and then the lower lid drops down. Again, that may or may not be covered by the lashes.
It usually is. There it is there. That’s that. So the eyeball, the actual anatomical
ball is way back here. Way back here the lids are pushing out to protect in their particular way.
As I said, in our advanced section we’ll get into that a little more carefully. But
that gives me that sense, and really that would have been a better lay in for my cheek,
getting that out of the way there. But it’s close enough. That’s the
eye socket if we had a skull idea. There’s the cheekbone, goes back. There is the brow
bone. Goes out, goes back. This is just a little sliver of an ellipse like so. Notice
this lower lid falls down. You can see this subtle nice line falling down and rolling
into the apple of the cheek there. So it tracks down. Notice if I play that up too much it
starts to age here. So especially if you’re doing a young woman, but if it’s a portrait
at all you’re going to want to play down those kind of lines because they’re going
to create age lines. It’s going to feel like gravity is pulling it down. It’s not
going to be flattering. Usually we want to be flattering. Then we can even make the hairline
follow that same movement and the step back to the sideburn area coming down here. So
you can see how this. Here is the bone but the flesh fills that over. Right here. This
structure fills that in quite nicely.
Transcription not available.
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12m 25s2. Structure of the Eye
10m 45s3. The Eye Socket
12m 0s4. Placement of the Eye
8m 46s5. Old Masters' Analysis; Holbein, Raphael, Piazetta, Tiepolo
10m 49s6. Old Masters' Analysis; Raphael
10m 40s7. Old Masters' Analysis; Manet, Bernini
16m 3s8. Assignment
15m 31s9. Assignment Cont.
14m 58s10. Steve's Approach to the Assignment
11m 57s11. Steve's Approach Cont.