- Lesson Details
In week three, you will learn the essential elements of light and shadow with instructor Iliya Mirochnik. You will explore the components of light theory such as light, shadow, half-tones, terminator line, cast shadow, and highlight. Iliya will teach you how to describe planed and curved surfaces on cylindrical objects.
Throughout this course, you’ll have access to the NMA community for feedback and critiques to improve your work as you progress.
Discuss this video in the forums!Discuss
Transcription not available.
We've learned to figure out proportions.
We have understood the structure of a cube, a cylinder, cone, a truncated cone,
and ellipse, it's time to think of the situation that we place these objects in.
Specifically, light and shadow.
So, let me tell you a little bit about how you'll be working
from your objects at home.
Now, what you need for this is a dark colored cloth, say a gray or a
black, like the one that you see here.
And most importantly, you're going to need a lamp with which you can
control the direction of the light.
Now you can purchase one of these lamps at pretty much any hardware
store, or you might already have one, say a reading lamp.
Now here I have a work light that will show you what I mean.
Now, the very important thing here is to try to minimize
the ambient light in the room.
Say you have a darker corner or even sort a separate room where
you can turn the lights off and you can sit away from it a bit.
The important thing is to still have a light on your piece of paper.
Now the dark cloth will help in this because it'll minimize the light
reflecting back into your shadows.
It's important to be able to clearly see the origin of the shadow, to see a clear
area of the core shadow and reflected light, and then to see the cast shadow
on the table or on another object.
Now, if you're having trouble minimizing all that ambient light
and there's still too much light reflecting back into the shadows,
all you have to do is move your object closer to your light source.
few principles that will attune, that will attune our eyes to the things
that we have to be looking out for.
So a great example of the principles of shadow, we can show on a cylinder.
So we're already familiar with the cylinder.
So without adding on too large and amount of construction, I'm just
going to place it on the paper.
So the idea is that if we establish a point, which will be our light source,
establish the plane of the ground
and see the point where if we take our light source and drop it to the ground,
where that is, then it's actually quite easy to construct all our shadows
from our understanding of shadows.
So, all you need to do is take that point and extend the line from that
point onto a tangent on the lips at the bottom of the base of our,
of our cylinder.
And you're go to do the same on the closer side, as well as in
the back where you can't see it,
and then you're going to take it all the way as far as possible.
So then you're going to take that point, that tangent, that line, and
you're going to take that line up.
All the way.
So you're just going to have a vertical line that moves upwards,
and then you might even want to connect the two points on opposite
sides, kind of hint at where that line would be on the others - on the
other side and connect them here.
So that's what we have so far.
So the next thing you're going to do is from the actual source of our
light, you're going to connect the point at the upper ellipse with that
point, aim like we've practiced and take it all the way to that line.
And you're going to do the same thing with the other point.
Almost, it's close enough to the other line.
So what you're going to do now
is you're going to take a line all the way into the cylinder
going through the center.
You're got to find that point right there, and you're going to do the same thing.
You're going to extend the line from our light source into that point.
It has to intersect with that line right there.
Now that's a little curved, but it's okay.
It's actually a little bit further out.
And then here, you're going to, you're going to connect them.
So there are, there is a way to explain this that will.
We'll get you a shape that's considerably more accurate, but I think
this'll be enough for our purposes.
And then you can clean this up.
So here's what we have.
So the important thing to understand here is that there are more, there
are a few parts of what you can sort of overall consider a shadow.
The line here is one of the more important ones.
This line right here is the terminator line because it signifies
the termination of our light.
Everything behind that line is now in shadow.
So, so after the terminator line, you have an area that is commonly
referred to as the core shadow.
And so I'm just going to, I'm going to shade it in a little bit.
I'm going to shade it in just a bit.
That's our terminator line.
That is our core shadow.
The part that is behind the core shadow is reflected light.
So I'm going to shake that in also, and as you see, it's actually a
lighter value, a lighter tone.
I - most people I don't know how, like I've heard people use the word tone and
then I've heard people use the word - the word value, but I'm actually going
to just keep switching between them.
And I think that actually and actually to some degree convenient, because
you like, as you interact with other people, you can you can adapt to
their particular usage of the term.
I prefer tone, but if you will, it depends on what your preference is really.
So the important distinction here.
So the - so that's what we have at the moment.
This right here is reflected light.
So the idea is that there is ambient, there's a lot of
ambient fight in the environment.
And so even, it even goes to the point that the light that's coming from our main
source of light is going to even hit here and it, or a wall and it will reflect back
into our shadow, making it a bit lighter.
This is not happening to such a large extent in the core and our core shadow.
Then off of our terminator, but on the ground or on the table or on
another object is something called a cast shadow because it's being
cast from one object onto another.
And here we even have the idea of the weave.
We have the shape of our cast shadow, and we will be talking
about it as we go into this.
And there are things that are optional if you observe them and there are
others that are not, but we can start off by saying that, Oh, just all
right here, that's just cast shadow.
What's most important is that all of these components, a terminator line,
core shadow, reflected lighting, cast, and cast shadows are - they
all have to be on the piece of paper.
If you can't have an illusion of a shadow if you don't have all of those components.
So there are a few more important aspects to what
I'm showing you here.
Something that always has to happen is that your terminator line and your
core and your core shadow, as well as your cast shadow have to be a
darker, a darker tone then you're reflected - then your reflected light.
So in essence They have to like, so even if - I know that we haven't
covered the patterns of light on a sphere yet, but the important thing
is that you establish your terminator, you establish your core shadow,
you establish your cast shadow,
and then you make sure that your reflected light is a lighter value,
a lighter tone than either of these.
So you have a lighter area in between a darker area.
And so there are elements here that will become clear when
we start talking about half tones, which are the lightness or darkness
of the tones that are not in shadow.
So now that I explained some of these principles and I used a cylindrical
objects to explain them, because I think it's easier to calculate where you have
your Terminator, where you have your core shadow, reflected light and cast shadow.
Let's begin by applying these principles to the objects that
we have some experience with.
So let's start with our old friend, the cube.
So what we need to do, and on the screen,
you can see that all that you have, that all that you can see on the cube is the,
is a complete binary lighting situation.
So you have your light on one side and your shadows on the other, and this is
exaggerated on the screen, but the idea is that you actually will have to exaggerate
it when you're working from observation.
So I am not taking angles.
I'm doing this entirely by eye.
Of course, if you can always see what the angles actually are and correct yourself.
I think that all right.
So as you recall, these are the only angles that need to
be taken from observation.
And then, and of course, there's
- there is a diagonal that you also want to capture from observation as
possible, and then everything else can be constructed from your understanding
of a cube or a tangled, a prison.
And so here's where we are.
This is actually a little bit smaller I think.
Make sure that you're always aware of the edge that's closest to you so that
you're able to pull away the lines that are parallel in reality and pull them away
so that they are appearing to converge into a vanishing point on the horizon.
So what you can also, what you can do, is you can take the angle and the
placement of the edge of the table, the edge that's behind the box behind you.
That's behind your cube.
So once that's in place, let's see if we can pinpoint all those aspects
of a shadow that I spoke about.
So the interesting thing about, about a terminator is that it is in fact a line.
And so on a cube, it is going to be the edge and that is all it is.
So if your terminator happens to fall on an edge, a sharp edge,
then your terminator is actually a line that you can easily perceive.
So that's the only thing that we have here.
What we have on.
So our light is coming from here.
This is our terminator.
I would outline your Terminator and then pull out where you see your cast shadow.
In reality, of course, this is also a terminator.
So we could construct the other side of the cube and establish the point of origin
for our cast shadow behind the cube.
You're not going to use it though.
So the thing that's important is I would not continue - I actually am going to
slightly raise up the line of the table.
We don't need our needles anymore.
Slightly raised up the line of the table.
So what you're going to do right now is you're going to begin to place a
tone, a flat tone all over the shadow side of the cube that is easily
our reflected light.
So because it's - so the idea, it's the idea of your, of the terminator, as
I explained it is that it's the point where the object begins to turn away
or that point that is exactly parallel to the angle of our source of light.
As soon as the object essentially begins to turn up past that point, it's
already beginning to catch the ambient
- all the other ambient light in the room and even reflections
from our main light source.
So in this case, this is fairly easy to observe and then all you do
is shade it in.
And I know that if you do look.
Closely, you can see that there is what will essentially appear to be a core or
what, according to what I said is going to look like a core shadow off of the
terminator, mainly because it's a darker tone then what - then everything else
that's happening on that part of our cube.
And that isn't exactly what I would call a core shadow, but
you can slightly put that in.
It is simply that it is higher up than all the parts down here and not
catching as much reflected light, even though all of this is on
a single plane, but we could add that.
And then I would just slightly,
slightly simplify some of,
some of the lines that you made when placing your flatter
tone and maybe go back over it.
So now we have our terminator and our reflected light.
And we've kind of skipped a little bit, skipped past our core
shadow in this particular case.
So now it's time to start with our cast shadow and remember that the
cash shadow has, it has to be a dark girl value then your reflected light,
however, I'm not entirely going off of what I'm observing because obviously
the cube is on a piece of fabric.
That's that is a darker color than the cube itself, but I'm ignoring
the color and we're going to be ignoring color for quite some time.
So just apply the tone of the cast shadow according to some of
the principles that we covered
and keep in mind that the cast shadow always has a sharp edge that slightly
hazes out as you move away from it.
Now, there is - there is a term for what that's called, but we're
not going to concern ourselves.
All you need to think about is terminator, core shadow, reflected
light, and cast shadow, but I would haze it out a little bit.
And then also once again, just slightly combine some of the marks that you made
and then go over them again.
And so it's important, as I said, to keep that sharp edge right at the
origin of your cast shadow but it's not that important to take it all the way.
So that is all there is to our shadows.
I would lock in the outer edge of our cube, but keep in mind, we aren't
concerning ourselves with halftones.
We aren't concerned with anything that is here and that's to a great
degree where you are actually probably seeing on your screens right now.
So now that we've established our shadows, now it's time to talk a little
bit about half tones on the cube.
tones. So I'm just going to remind you that
if your pencil is
no longer sharpened from all of the practicing that you have
been doing, now is time to -
now it's time to sharpen a little bit.
And, you know, you just keep sharpening it whenever it's
necessary, just keep in mind you don't really need a sharp
point for any of these assignments at the moment.
At some point we will have to sharpen it into a
sharp point but right now that's not
that important. Okay, so
before we observe the half tones on
the cube - and as you see on your screen we have
reduced the amount of light on it so that you are able
to see the half tones now. Let me explain
a little bit about them.
So let's go back to our standard object of
analysis which is the cylinder. I find it's the most
convenient for explaining these principles even though we haven't yet started
working on a cylinder from observation.
But we will soon. And
so here's our
cylinder. Let's say that's our terminator line.
core shadow, all you have to be concerned with at the moment. A
line for the terminator, an area for the core shadow,
an area for the reflected light,
then our cast shadow. Alright.
That is right.
I'm going to keep repeating myself but I think that's important.
Remember that your core shadow,
your cast shadow - and your cast shadow -
are a darker
value or tone than your reflected light.
So you have
a lighter area in between them.
still be able to read all of your
shadows as a single
group of shadows. Now at the moment this is
easy to do because that's the only tone that
we have on the paper. There isn't anything here.
That's where we're going to place our half tones. So
the important concept to keep in mind is
that you have to - that your
terminator line, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow has,
regardless of the tonal differences amongst them,
have to be perceived as a group that's in
a very particular tonal
only applies to the area of shadow. Now this is very easy
to do and to observe at the moment, simply
because everything else is the white tone
of the paper. So
for example, even if I exaggerate -
even if I exaggerate the
differences between core shadow and reflected light and then cast
and then the cast shadow, so for example if I
were to make a core shadow that's
as dark as this, then I was going to make
a reflected light that's considerably
lighter and then I was actually going to make
cast shadow that's extremely heavy,
you can still perceive
these as a group simply because there isn't anything to compare them to. Everything else
is white. So this of course becomes a little more complicated.
once you start talking about half tones. Okay
now let's add some half tones.
this entire area is in light.
we get anything in there,
the only terminology that you have to be aware of here is highlight
and half tone. Now of course, half
tone slightly oversimplifies it so there is a darker half tone as well as
a lighter half tone. But
that's fairly easy to manage. So here we have
an area for our highlights.
And we will be talking about highlight a lot.
And so here's the area of our highlight. And it
isn't ever - it's always
slightly in from the edge.
And what I mean by that is that essentially it can be anywhere depending on
the angle of our
light source but it can't even be essentially
on the edge because
the idea of a highlight is it's
the light that's coming from our
light source and
in our eye. So it has to be an angle
that continues this way and then at us.
Okay so everything else is half tone. So
obviously coming off of the highlight
you have a half tone that is
a light half tone. And then as you
approach the terminator
the half tones gradually get
And then the same thing is happening on the other
side of the highlight as you now approach the
edge away from it, you're gonna go slightly
darker. So the
most important concept is that your
darkest half tone has to be
a lighter value than
any part of your reflected
light. And it's easy to
understand that but it's very hard to observe it. So
part of it is that you almost don't have to observe it.
You have to just keep that concept in mind and implement it.
So for example here I'm actually thinking that the half tones
that I have are almost exactly the same
in terms of tonality as my reflected
And so the - so I'm actually going to go back
into my reflected light and tone it down.
The idea behind that is you
have to always perceive
the entirety of your shadow with all
of its components and all of the
differences in tone within a shadow as a single -
as a group apart from the area
So if I
were to put
to kind of disassociate it from any object
and you make a line and we call that line
your terminator and everything on that
side is shadow and everything on that side
is light, then here
you have core shadow,
here you have reflected light
you have your cast shadow. Which depending on the conditions of the light
that you have will either be a
lighter value or a darker value
than your core shadow. Here we have our core shadow again,
here we have our reflected
light, and here we have our cast shadow.
And then here
we have half tones
and so here we have
darkest half tone.
And see it's -
and the important thing is that now I have to tone down our reflected light again
the largest amount of confusion
is between the
reflected light and
the darkest half tone that's leading up
to your terminator and your group
of shadows. Everything else is easy to observe.
It's all there in front of you and it can - essentially
you can just observe it
and copy it. But here's where everyone tends
to run into problems. So this is just something to constantly keep in mind
and if you keep it in mind for long enough, it'll be
begin to essentially appear in front of you. But your
eye has to be attuned to that
I'm just going to clean this up a bit.
it's time to continue
to work on this cube and put in some of our half tones.
So on a cube
everything is relatively simple
because you don't have any curvatures. And
we are going to talk about curvature when
begin working on a cylinder -
a cylinder from
observation. And -
but until - but I think there are
certain things that we can cover in the cube that
will make that a little easier. So
all you have to do is
think about the plane that is the
darker half tone.
From where I am that happens to be the top plane.
And so I am just
going to tone it
evenly, it'll be completely flat.
And so now since this is
the darker half tone
and possibly the
darkest half tone that we have here, it's important to,
now after putting it in, to compare it to
our reflected light.
And so you step back, I'm looking at it
and I think that the tone here is kind of -
its coming a little close to
some of the tones that I have here that until I put that in
were alright. So before we move on I think
we need to go back into our shadows and make sure that they read
as a separate group in a
value range, if you will.
we're going to be doing this a lot. So
a way that you can not have to go back
into your shadows at all is if you establish them as
like a dark that's obvious
straightaway. I advise
against that because that tends to become
a little formulaic.
And what I mean by that
is that you're not observing the value in front of you.
And you're not sort of comparing as much but you just start off
with a tone that you know will always apply to
a shadow. And I'm
a little against that.
very easy to then just - to go back into it
and make sure that you have a clear
distinction between your darkest half tone
and the lightest area of your reflected light.
Okay so now that we've -
I think we're alright with that.
And now it's time to move on to the plane
that we have here which is a lighter half tone. Now before you
get into it, it's time to
think of where a highlight is. And a highlight
in the case of a cube is going to act
in a way that's kind of equivalent to our
terminator. They're important
but - and a highlight is actually a little more helpful in giving you
the structure of an object because a highlight is always at the
outermost point of an object or at the intersection
of multiple planes.
So you can see a highlight is actually along this
edge. So you can outline
and keep it the white of the paper, you could
of course erase it out afterwards. I would do a combination of both. You could outline it and
clean it up and see
where it is. And
begin to put in the half tone
of the front
plane or the plane that's in light, in the largest amount of light.
So it's not the edge that's in the largest amount of light, it's the plane that's in the largest amount of light.
And so I don't really - I'm not really concerned with a clean
tone, I'm trying to explain the concepts
and at the moment that's more important
than some kind of interesting handling of the medium.
We'll have plenty of time for that.
And I would clean this up a little bit. And
I'm gonna actually go over this with an eraser a little bit.
I'm using the flat
edge of the eraser that we cut to bring of the tone and also even out
the application of the
medium. And then I'm
going to go in and establish that highlight
which is our edge. I'm gonna go over
this again a little bit
and I keep my
pinky for smudging. In classes
where when I teach and
some of the people I teach are
working in charcoal and other people are working in
something else, I
have to keep in mind the
finger I use.
And so you can
step away and I'm beginning to think
that - so I needed to find a tone
on this part of the cube that is
a tone on the cube that is - and I keep
using the eraser to clean the paper - to find a tone
that is a dark enough tone to show the highlight and yet
a light enough tone to
read like the lightest plane of our cube.
I'm not sure that I'm going to
push this any more than I have
but because of that I have to
go back into the other parts of the cube
more specifically to tone that top
plane that's not catching as much light as
this plane, tone it down a little bit
but obviously I have to, after doing so, I have
to step back and make sure that it's not -
but that the tone of the
top plane is not
exactly like some of ones I have in my reflected light.
I think it's alright
Alright. I think we're good.
So we have worked on a cube
from observation, we have
gone into principles of half tones
and certain important concepts in terms of half tones
and shadow and now it's time to
work on cylindrical objects that will explain
these concepts even more
observe and apply the principles
that I have been talking about using
the forms that we have in front of us. What you see in front of you
is a cylinder and then that same cylinder
simplified first into a nonagonal
prism and then a hexagonal one. What
this allows us to perceive is that
we are essentially combining what we
realized entirely, conceptually
using a cylinder and then observed
in the cube. Okay so
begin with our hexagonal
this in. We're not going to concern ourselves
too much with the construction,
our purpose here is to see and explore the way
the light is falling on these
Now the point here has to
align with the point on the other side. So that's, I would say to some degree,
the extent of our construction.
And then we extend
it upwards. Keep in mind a lot of the same
principles apply and by that I mean
is going to be a little bit flatter, not as open
because it's closer
to our horizon line. So then we take this
we make a few connecting lines.
Remember these two points have to be.
along one line across and then here we are
with those two.
Some angles you can take and transfer -
actually this would be right there
This will be
right here and then you don't need the other one because you know that
that one has to be practically parallel but slightly converging, so actually I'm gonna slightly alter
the perspective that I had here.
So what we see now
shape of the hexagon on
top in perspective,
on the form of our hexagonal prism.
Okay but we're not so concerned with the construction.
What we're more concerned with is what is happening with our
light and shadow. So, as always, let's begin
with our shadows. So a lot
like the cube
we see that our terminator falls along this edge.
So, establish it, make it a darker
line. So then the plane
that comes afterwards is not exactly the plane of the core shadow, it's the plane of the
light that we see there. Because if you remember, the way it would be an ideal -
a hard - it's not exactly
perfect in terms of the angle. So like as I've mentioned,
as the angle begins to turn away from an exact parallel in relation to
the source of our - the source of our
a certain amount of degrees in which
the shadow in that area is a core shadow. And then when it begins to turn
away and it sort of becomes a bit -
it comes closer to being perpendicular, except
sort of not so much
towards that but about from it, then it begins to catch the ambient
light in the room as well as the
light that's reflecting back into it from other surfaces, even from our main source.
So here's what we have. So
we have a fairly even - and
that we're going to see very clearly on the nonagonal
what I'm going to do now is begin to place a tone
on our -
on the side of the hexagonal prism that
is in shadow. So this is
the side of the shadow. We are
not really making too much of a distinction between core and
And it's in there.
Okay. So now it's time to place our cast
it'll continue from our terminator and will be cast
away from our source of light. And you could
see it happening on the other side. Once again, I'm not so much interested in
establishing the point where the shadow is being cast from on the other side.
And then we have -
remember to keep in mind
that the cast shadow has to be a darker value
and then make sure that your terminator
also reads like a darker value in order to lock in
the lighter value of our reflected light.
The same thing is happening, as was happening with the
a side of the cube in which the upper parts
of the plane are
going to not be catching as
much reflected light as parts of the bottom. Okay
I'm gonna clean up some of these construction lines at the top, we don't need them
And we're going to continue -
we're going to continue with our half
Our light is coming from the right side.
Which means that the plane that we have here is
catching the largest amount of light. But keep in mind that there is a lighter area and
that lighter area is the highlight on the
intersection of the two planes that we can easily -
that we can perceive in our - that are in
the area of light. So
don't begin with the lighter plane,
the lighter half tone, begin with the darker one.
So it's going to be right here.
I'm going to start placing the tone. Now at
as I'm doing this, I keep comparing
it to the
lightest area of the reflected light.
And, chances are
that in some places it's going to hit and be quite close.
make sure before you move on
to establish a clear distinction between
the half - the darkest half tone.
It's easy to see here because it's just all over a single plane. Keep in mind
that if you do look closely, you will see lots of
variations even within the plane that we have here.
Ignore them. And sort of take a tone that's
the average tonality of
of the plane. You don't need any
variations within that plane at the moment.
I'm seeing that the tone I have here is a little too close. Everything else can maybe pass
but I'm just going to tone down some of
these reflected lights to make sure that we have a
clear separation between the
tonal range of our shadows
and the tonal range of our lights. I will be talking
about that the entire time on
all the assignments, no matter how complex.
This is a principle that has to be
completely internalized. It has to be automatic.
So there we have it. So we also have the plane on top
Now the plane on top is
the - is a darker half tone than
the plane that's catching most of our light but a lighter half tone
than the plane that we have here. So
what we're going to do is
now put in that half tone.
And compare. And see how
it works. See if they can compare.
They're a little on the closer side. So now we
step back and maybe we can slightly
tone down this plane.
Alright. And so now it's time -
now it's time to finally arrive
lightest plane that we have.
Now keep in mind that between these two planes and actually
between these two planes, there's a highlight.
Now this highlight is very small, it's just an edge,
the question is the amount of it that we need
but you can always exaggerate it, you can widen it a tiny
bit. So as we did with the cube,
just kind of outline it
a little bit. Just keep the area here
so that you're aware of it. And begin
to place the lightest half tone. And this is
one of the harder parts because you're really gonna have to
have a light touch.
keep in mind that you can only really see what's happening
once all the planes are in. Because once they're
once they're in then we can
adjust the rest of them.
So once that's in place
go over it, compare it, see if you
have your shadows reading as a group of shadows
with all of the distinctions that we need. So terminator,
this kind of plane that's sort of a combination of core shadow and reflected -
and reflected light and cast shadow as
well as the area of half tones that we have here. So
now it's time to move on to the nonagonal prism. So
here we're almost going to begin as if
we're working on a cylinder.
But we're going to break it up
into planes. Now the construction of a
nonagon can get a little more complex so
we're going to approach this a little more optically. In order
break this up into planes, it's important to establish
where this line is, essentially a terminator
this edge from your angle in relation
to the two sides.
So I'm just going to - it seems about
half way from where I am but I think it's actually
slightly off of halfway,
closer to the left edge that we have here. So that's all I need.
We're going to place this
and then we're
going to find the plane right here
and then the plane that we have on the other side.
They're about the same size.
About the same size. And
because we shifted this line over,
I'm gonna move this line over a little bit also - because we shifted that
line over, we have
this plane right here is actually a tiny bit smaller.
So - but we already have that edge and we already have that plane. So if we need
establish the angle of the plane, we
already know how to do that, we're experts at it.
All we have to do is take that angle, bring it
over, I see it a little bit like so,
lock it in place, and then
you know, allow your eyes to take over for a bit.
Work by eye
and then use your
needles or your paintbrush or whatever you're using to
measure. So you - in a nonagonal
each side does not have a
corresponding parallel side on the other side
of the ellipse essentially because you
have an odd number of planes, of sides.
So we're just gonna have to use our
But keep in mind the point of this is to explain
some principles concerning
light. And I think we're going to arrive
at here will be
very helpful. There's a small plane that
we have right there. We're
gonna hit back to there. You could still take these angles
obviously. The angles from point to point,
angles of the sides, here we're going this
And then we can extend this out a little bit. I think this comes
forward. It doesn't have to be super perfect
but it just has to make sense.
Make sure they read as planes,
and so that's what we have.
Okay, so now that we've
gotten our line drawing,
let's move on to our light and shadows.
So here, obviously the planes are smaller so you're going to see greater
amounts of variation between
our shadows and our half tones. So as always
let's begin with our shadows. So here you might actually simplify a few things.
So here we actually can see
some of the distinctions in the shadows that I was talking about.
So let's start with our terminator
along that edge, that
edge. Always start with the terminator. Always start with the origin of the
core shadow. The place where it begins. Now
I wish there was a word - I might just not know it -
but there's a word for the origin of your
shadow as opposed to the termination of your
light. And then of course they are the same thing.
But I like to think of a shadow almost as an entity
as opposed to simply the absence of light
because it sort of is an entity. It takes up a
large amount of space in your work, in your - just on the paper.
Okay. So now
we have our shadow. Now here, because of the
amount of planes
that we have in the shadow, you can very clearly see the distinction
between our plane right here, essentially
the core shadow plane, and our plane right here which is already turned
far enough away to be catching ambient light, light reflecting off of
the tabletop and so on. So this would be the
plane of our reflected light. Keep in mind, everything is shadow.
So let's begin with our
I'm just putting a tone down.
And then I'm making sure -
I gotta hold the pencil closer, I know I said not to do that
but the rule is I guess
that you do what works
in order to get that line in there.
Clear, clear distinction. So we're going
to be doing this a lot and I'll be explaining a bit more of like the
reasons that I place
a tone with my pencil and then
essentially I smudge that tone and then I
go back into it. So right now
I'm going to actually -
to push a little harder
because this is a shadow. And perhaps if we - if it is a little
closer to the value that we need we might not have to go back into it as much.
Though this is rarely an issue with core shadow. This is, of course, always an issue
that pops up when, as I said, when we're comparing the darkest
half tones with the lightest reflected lights. But this has to
be automatic. It's almost as if every time you step away
that's the first thing you're thinking about. The first thing you're thinking about is are
my dark half tones lighter than my
lightest reflected lights. Okay so
here we are with this.
Now we have
our terminator. Right, that
in this case almost a line
that signifies, that
our light source.
Then we have our core shadow right behind it. So,
everything here is simplified for
our understanding. Now we have the plane of our reflected light.
just start placing a tone, work your way from
the top or from the bottom,
however it is easiest for you, just make sure that it's a lighter value
than your core shadow plane.
sort of integrate the medium into
the paper a little bit, then I go back over it.
You'll see that in this entire course
a lot is done with only your hands.
I'm going back over the core shadow plane to make sure that the clear distinction -
don't move off of your shadows until you get to the -
until you get them in place. Until you get all this -
I mean you're going to go back into the perhaps, I mean you probably are,
but make sure that your shadows are
in there before we move on to the half tones.
And of course, as with every rule, there are exceptions.
But not at this point. So now it's time to place our cast shadows
same as we have been doing. Make sure that there's a tangent between your
terminator and your cast shadow. It's fairly easy
to see here, but as you see in the cylinder
it gets a little more complex. And now
let's review. Your cast shadow
is a darker value than your reflected light.
Now, is it a darker value than your core shadow
is another question. And of course it
dependent on the reflected
light in the room, ambient light
and so on. Because cast shadows also catch
reflected light. So we're just gonna continue
with this cast shadow
and I'm gonna actually go back in and
tone down my reflected light because I feel like that will be
something you have to do sooner than later.
Alright. So there it is.
So now we have our area of shadows.
Let's move into half tones.
So, as we can see, the darkest half tone
is coming straight off of our shadow, along the
circumference, the sides of this nonagonal
So let's place that -
let's place this here.
And this is the one we really have to calibrate. This is that
dark half tone, the one that we really have to
make sure is,
on the one hand dark enough
to read as a dark half tone,
and yet lighter than our lightest reflected light.
I'm sorry to keep repeating myself but I'm just gonna keep doing it.
Because that's what education is.
Okay so I keep placing it.
I feel like I can go - I mean obviously I'm already
coming a little too close to our reflected light. I feel
they're about the same.
So what does that mean? Let's
tone these down.
Now I spoke earlier about how to can begin
a dark value for your shadows, but I
I'd rather you analyze and go back into them
and adjust because then you're spending
more time on
comparing your tones, your values.
And that is - in some ways
it's what it's all about.
Gotta clean this up because I
You can see on my hand, it's upsetting.
So here is what
we have but, you know, you are going to
be using your hands a lot so get used to it.
And here I'd like to clarify that plane change
a little more.
We're gonna go back over our core shadow.
And so right now I'm feeling alright about the distinction
between our reflected light
and our darkest half tone. Our reflected light still reads like
a reflected light, it's locked in between our core shadow plane and our cast
and yet it
is, for the most part, a
darker value - I think it is a darker value all in all
than our darkest half tone. Okay
so the next darkest half tone is this
top plane and as we can
see before the edge is highlight.
It is - so let's clean that up
a little bit because we're gonna be using it. It doesn't have to be - it seems
very precise now but I just want to get this principle across that the
is instrumental in
helping you depict form.
So just gonna get
into this. Now we have a
little bit of a highlight there. Let's clean up this edge because it's also highlight.
And our lightest half tone.
the technique, if you will,
that I have is that I hold my pencil in one hand and my eraser in the other.
I can kind of erase some parts at the same time that
I do others, but that's obviously
not that important.
All you need to do is put down your pencil and eraser.
And so now we
can get to the lightest
And here is where that practicing in the ruled notebook comes in handy.
Because you're sort of, you know you're
hatching or laying a flat tone at an
angle that's convenient but always within some sort of margins.
And obviously it doesn't have to be perfect straightaway because
you can always erase and clean it up, but you still want
as close as possible. So there you have it.
I think this line can come up a little bit. As in become lighter.
That is also some of the terminology that I tend
to use. If I say come up it means make it lighter, if I say
push it down then
I mean make it a bit
So it cleans up.
Okay. So - and also a way to get the highlight of course
is to, if you've lost it,
you can always use the eraser, And that's also one of the points
of cutting a sharp edge on your
eraser because then it almost has the same precision as a pencil
and you can just do
a little bit of that. So what we have here
is our - I still - so I'm looking at this and from -
and I kind of think that our shadow,
our group of shadows might need another pass.
I'm just gonna go over it.
Over the whole thing actually because then I toned it away evenly
and by -
in doing so I preserve the distinction between our
core shadow plane and reflected light plane, while at the same
bringing both - pushing both into
shadow at the same time.
let's take this one step further and move on
to the cylinder itself
and see how these principles apply.
So you definitely have experience with
a cylinder. Now I'm going to move it into
the page to a place
where it's comfortable for me to work on it.
It's not important to view these objects
as part of one environment. I would -
advise making them pretty much the exact same size in order to
in order to -
it's just easier to establish a
continuity there in terms of the concepts, however
it is not
we aren't thinking of this as an environment with multiple objects in it
as of yet. That'll come eventually.
we went from a hexagon to nonagon to a cylinder
and of course, logically,
we would have to just keep increasing the amount of plein air
in - so
we can just keep adding them on and they'll keep getting smaller and smaller because if you
really think about, the amount of
planes in a cylinder,
well it's actually infinited.
But i think that we're ready to make that leap.
So here we are.
Here we have it. So of course it is
a little bit harder to establish where we have that
the - and obviously that is because
there are an infinite amount of planes. There's an even
circumference. It's not even so much that there are -
there's actually that each of those
planes is a
point in - is
actually a point and there are an infinite amount of points in
the circumference of a circle. However,
we're still going to establish a line
that will signify
our terminator. Now
I think that's where it is.
And if you are at
a loss, you put a line in and you're not sure if it's right, all you have to do is take a measurement.
So the point of my needle is at the edge,
my hand is at the terminator, I move it
so that the point of the needle is now on the terminator and I see that it is
like we had that line over here. It is slightly
off of the halfway point, towards the left side.
So the issue here is that you won't have such a clear
separation as we have in the nonagon where we had a plane
for core shadow and then a plane for reflected
light. So I would actually begin
by kind of establishing
them in the exact same way
that we did on the nonagon.
So start with your core shadow.
Start with the core shadow.
only difference is that you're going to have to
sort of move out from your core
shadow into your reflected
light much more gradually.
There's a softer gradation there.
And you even have to move off of the terminator
into the core shadow
using a softer gradation as well. So everything is
very, very soft. As you move out towards the edge you get lighter and lighter
and lighter and lighter. Of course, keep in mind that
this is still all shadow. We have a terminator
up here that is an edge. It's the edge of our ellipse on top.
So we just, to some degree,
to start with we just want to get a tone for the shadow.
Just want to give it some placement.
And then begin.
So this is also
good place where you get to practice your shading and
placement of tones. Keep in mind we're not really
hatching just yet. I don't want to introduce that
right away but we'll be getting to that soon.
the hatch will be
instrumental in speeding up this
process and give you an -
and allow you to sort of establish a
terminator, core shadow, and your darkest half tone all in one go.
But I'm getting ahead of myself.
You just hang in there.
So, here something's beginning to happen and now it's time
to sort of integrate this a little bit, remove some of those
lines, some of those marks, use your hand,
get it a little bit softer, it's okay
if it gets everywhere. We always have an eraser to help clean up.
There's a lot of clean up in my process.
Not only of the paper but of the floor and the walls.
So now we kinda have
an area that's our terminator and we're
moving out from the terminator, sort of as softly as possible.
And I'm not - at the moment I'm not really concerned with the angle
or the placement of the tone or any of that stuff.
Just slowly, softly moving out from
to your core shadow to your reflected light. Alright.
We have something happening here already. Now I'm going
to clean up that edge.
Alright and I'm gonna clean up the top
a little bit also.
so now let's place our
cast shadow. Now
remember the cast shadow has to -
you have to find that tangent. We have a cast shadow
and our terminator. And
the idea with the terminator is that often you're gonna have to go back
and reinstate it. Remember
to differentiate between
cast shadow and
your core shadow.
And then kinda combine some stuff in order
to get a more even and softer
distribution along all of our infinite planes.
And I'm not going to take it all the way, I think
that's enough at the moment. And see here we have it.
Now let's move on to our half tones.
it's a lot like the ones that I was talking about
earlier. Mainly because here
it was still easier because we had a clear separation in terms of
planes. One for core shadow, one simply in
shadow, and then one that's in light,
albeit the darkest half tone. However, here
you will actually need to kind of continue
this soft gradient
out of your terminator
into your darkest half tone.
it's still possible to get a little bit lost
and confused in this
relationship between the darkest half tone and your...
So here I am - I've sort of
begun to pull out of the terminator.
I'm moving towards our highlight.
Remember the highlight will not be on the edge, it will be off of
that edge, it will be somewhere right there. So that's -
so we're gonna have to keep
moving towards it, getting lighter and lighter as we go. Our highlight will be left the tone of the paper
which is white or
perhaps if your paper's a little more cream colored
then it'll be that. Here just
softly simplify that and move it out
towards your highlight. Kinda clean up those lines.
And then I would
actually work some half tones from a dark one into
the highlight. I would just move them, get them lighter and lighter as you move
towards that highlight.
And lighter and lighter. Here I am
kind of just establishing an edge, it's a little more
precise, a little easier to see.
Little easier to see.
which hand am I smudging with?
I don't think smudging's a technical term. If you saw that,
you saw my paper move while I was erasing. That is the point
of stretching paper in the sense that that never happens
if paper is stretched. And you have plenty
of - and you could erase with all your
energy and that'll be -
and this will still stay in one place. And when I use the eraser to actually bring that highlight
back out a little bit - and I'm gonna
try to use the side of the eraser to get a little bit of softer gradation into
some of the slightly darker half tones. You might have to go in a few times but it's no big deal.
And then we're gonna pull
a little bit, put that together. Okay, so
where are we now? So that's a soft gradation.
What we have actually is - we
actually don't have this issue of a dark half tone sort of
falling into our reflected light. I think
this distinction, it's a little bit harsh. You don't really
see edges as clearly in the shadows so I'm gonna combine them a little bit more
Now I'm actually going to go over just this area
the terminator. And this is important that I called it an area.
On objects that are rounded
you will rarely see a clear terminator line.
It's nice to have an idea of where the
terminator is going to - like the actual line is
going but at the same time, it's very
hard to really see it. So essentially the terminator
more often becomes an area.
And the object that it's on, the structure
that it's on, you can tell
a lot about the angle of
the particular curvature based on the quality
of this terminator area. The softer it is,
rounded the form.
we're puling this out, softening it a little bit
and then we have of course our top plane.
Our top plane here is a little bit more complicated, it's going
to be a darker value than our
highlight here, but a lighter value than our
darker half tone there. And
so we actually - I'm gonna go back to this for a second - we actually have
a similar thing happening here.
So we can tone down the plane we have here of the darkest half tone
to make sure that the top plane is a lighter value than this but a darker value than
this. Here of course everything's considerably softer.
So let's find what that is.
Now this ellipse, you can always
keep coming back to your ellipses, make sure to
turn them, make sure to curve them so that you don't get that,
almost point at the end
of it. And so
I would say oh this happens all the time
if you smudge a lot. So you can clean that up. And the thing that
I would do right now is actually go back over
terminator here, applying a little bit of a hatch,
kinda make sure our terminator
is as dark as it needs to be
because it is
giving us a lot of information about the quality of the form,
about the angle of the light.
over this multiple times.
And then - see so now I've toned down the darkest
half tone a bit and I need to maybe soften
and make this gradation a little bit softer from the dark half tone to the lighter
half tones. I'm just gonna keep going over it, take your time.
So what we have here
is an application
of these principles of light and shadow.
Transcription not available.
Free to try
1. Learning Recommendation24sNow playing...
1. Light and Shadow Overview2m 4sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Developing Light and Shadow23m 56s
3. Developing Half-Tones21m 52s
4. Prism Sequence Project Demonstration53m 27s