- Lesson details
Join Ukrainian-born artist Iliya Mirochnik as he passes on a 250-year-old academic method preserved at the Repin Academy in Saint Petersburg, Russia and seldom taught outside of the Academy and never before on camera.
The Russian Academic drawing and painting approaches were uninterrupted by the modern art movements that transformed representational art in the West, and as a result, they provide a unique and clear lineage to the greater art traditions of the past. As a powerful approach that is both constructive and depictive, it combines the two methods that prevail in contemporary representational art.
In these three drawing Courses, we have set out to condense the entire program, spanning over eight years into a logical, step-by-step procedure. We have made improvements and added resources and exercises to explicitly drive home the concepts that are required to work in this approach.
We have also structured the course so that it is not only useful for professional and experienced artists but also artists with no drawing experience whatsoever.
The first course: the Fundamentals is our most comprehensive beginner-level course to date, including everything you need to get started.
In this lesson, you will learn the essential elements of light and shadow. You will learn the components of light theory including light, shadow, halftone, the terminator line, cast shadow, and highlight. You will learn how to group your values correctly and how to turn your forms with tone. You will also learn how to describe curved and planed surfaced, and you will also practice rendering techniques to describe structure clearly and efficiently.
The New Masters Academy Coaching Program directly supports this Course. If you enroll in the coaching program, you can request an artist trained in the Russian Academic Method including Iliya Mirochnik himself. Click here to enroll in the Coaching Program.
- Graphite pencils
- Kneaded and Hard Erasers
- Sanding Block
- Utility Knife
- Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
- Staple gun
- Light source
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Transcription not available.
at our objects, allow me to explain a few principles
that attune our eyes to the
things that we have to be looking out for.
a great example of the principles of
shadow we can show
on a cylinder. So we're already familiar with
a cylinder, so without adding
on too large an amount of construction
we're just going to place it on the paper.
the idea is that if we establish a point, which will be
our light source,
establish the plane of the
and see the point where, if we take our light
source and drop it to the
ground where that is,
then it's actually quite easy
to construct all our shadows from our
understanding of shadows. So all you need to do is take that point
extend a line from that point
onto a tangent on the ellipse at the bottom
the base of our
of our cylinder.
And you're going to do the same
on the closer side as well as on the back where you can't see it.
And then you're going to take it all the way
as far as possible, like so.
So then you're going to take that
point, that tangent, that line, and you're going to
take that line up all the way so you're just going to have
a vertical line that moves upwards.
And then you might even want to
connect the two points on opposite sides, kind of hint at where that line
would be on the other side and connect them here.
So that's what we have so far. So
the next thing you're going to do is from the actual source of our light,
you're going to connect the point
at the upper ellipse
with that point, aim, like we've practiced,
and take it all the way to that line.
You're going to do the same thing with the other
Almost, it's close enough, to the other line.
Okay, so what you're going to do now
you're going to take a line all the way
into the cylinder, going
through the center.
You're going to find that point right there and you're going to do the same thing, you're going to extend the line
from our light source into that point. It has to intersect
with that line right there. Now that's a little curved
but it's okay. It's actually a little bit further out.
And then, here, you're going to connect them.
So there is a way to explain this that will
get you a shape that's considerably more accurate but I think
this'll be enough for our purposes.
And then you
can clean this up. Okay so
here's what we have. So the important thing to understand
here that there are few parts of
what you can sort of overall consider a shadow.
The line here is one of the more important ones.
This line right here is the terminator line because it
signifies the termination of our light. Everything
behind that line is now in shadow.
the terminator line, you have an area that is
commonly referred to as the core shadow
and so I'm just going to shade it in a little bit.
I'm going to shade it in
just a bit.
That's our terminator line.
That is our core shadow.
The part that is behind
the core shadow is reflected light.
And so I'm going to shade that in also.
As you see, it's also a lighter value, a lighter tone.
I don't know how, like I've heard people use
the word tone and then I've heard people use the word
I'm actually going to just keep switching between them and I think that actually -
that's actually to some degree convenient
because you - like as you
interact with other people you can
to their particular usage of the term.
I prefer tone but
if you - it depends on what
your preference is really.
So the important distinction here -
so that's what we have
at the moment. This right here is
So the idea is that
there's ambient -
there's a lot of ambient light in
the environment. And so it
even - it even
goes to the point that the
light that's coming from our main
source of light is going to even hit here
and or a wall and
it will reflect back into our shadow, making it
it will reflect back into our shadow, making it
a bit lighter. This is not happening
to such a large extent in the core -
in our core shadow.
Then off of our terminator but on the ground, or on the table,
or on another object, is something called a cast shadow
because of being
cast from one object onto another.
And here we've even
have the idea of the -
we have the shape
of our cast shadow.
And we will be talking about
it as we go into this
and there are
things that are optional if you observe them and there are
others that are not.
But start off by saying that - oh I'll just write here that this is cast shadow -
What's most important is that all of these components, the terminator line,
core shadow, reflected light, and cast
shadows are -
they all have to be
on the piece of paper. If you -
you can't have an
illusion of a shadow
if you don't have all of those components. Okay so there are
if you don't have all of those components. Okay so there are
a few more important aspects to
I'm showing you here.
Something that always has to happen is that your terminator line,
your core - and your core
shadow, as well as your cast
shadow have to be a darker tone
than your reflected light.
So in essence, they have to -
like so even if - I know that we haven't covered
the patterns of
light on a
on a sphere yet
but the important thing is
that you establish your terminator, you establish
your core shadow, you establish your cast
and then you make sure that your
reflected light is a lighter value -
a lighter tone - than either of these
So you have a lighter area in between
a darker area.
there are elements
here that will become
clearer when we start talking about half tones,
which are the lightness or darkness of the tones that are
not in shadow.
one of the photos provided or set up a controlled lighting
situation in your house using a cylindrical solid. Try to minimize
the ambient light in the room. Draw the cylinder, making sure
to establish only the shadows and to distinguish between the
four main components: terminator line, core shadow,
reflected light, and cast shadow. Afterwards
place the cylinder on its side and try again.
and I used a cylindrical object to
explain them because I think it's easier
to calculate where you have your terminator, where you have your core
shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow, let's
begin by applying these principles to the objects that we
have some experience with. So
let's start with our old friend the cube.
So what we need to do - and
in the - and on the screen
you can see that
all that you have - that all that you can see
on the cube is the -
is a complete binary
lighting situation. So you have
your light on one side and your shadows on the other. And
this is exaggerated on the screen but the idea is that you
actually will have to exaggerate it when you're
working from observation. So I am not
taking angles, I am
doing this entirely by eye.
Of course, if you -
you can always see
what the angles actually are and correct yourself.
I think they're alright. So
as you recall, these are the only angles that need to
be taken from observation. And then
and of course there's -
there is a
diagonal that you also want to capture from
observation as much as possible. And then everything else can be constructed from your
understanding of a cube or a rectangular prism.
And so here
is where we are. This is actually a little bit
smaller I think.
Make sure that you're always aware
of the edge that's closest to you so that you're
able to pull away
lines that are parallel in reality and
pull them away so that they are appearing to converge
into a vanishing point on the horizon. So
what you can also - what you can do is
you can take the angle and the placement of
the edge of the table,
the edge that's
the box. That's
behind your cube. Okay, so
once that's in place, let's see if we can pinpoint
all those aspects of a shadow that
I spoke about.
So the interesting thing about
a terminator is that it is in fact
a line. And so
on a cube it is going to be the edge.
And that is all it is. So if your terminator
happens to fall on an edge, a sharp edge,
then your terminator is actually a line that you can
So that's the only thing that we have here. And so
what we have on -
so our light is coming from here, this
is our terminator. I would outline
your terminator and then pull out where you see
your cast - your cast shadow. In reality of course
this is also a terminator. So we
could construct the other side
of the cube and
establish the point of origin for our
cast - our cast shadow
behind the cube. You're not going to use it though.
So the thing that's important is I would not continue - I actually
am going to slightly raise up the line of the table.
need our needles any more. Slightly raise up
the line of the table
okay. So what you're going to do right now
is you're going to begin to
place a tone, a
flat tone, all over the shadow side of the cube that
the idea of your -
of the terminator as -
I explained it is that it's the point where the object begins to turn away
or that point that is exactly parallel
to the angle of our source
of light. As soon as the object essentially begins to
turn past that point, it's
already beginning to catch the ambient -
all the other ambient light in the room and even
reflections from our main light source. So
in this case, this is fairly easy to observe,
and then all you do
is shade it in. And I know that if you
do look closely
you can see that there is what
will essentially appear to be a core
or what according to what I said is going to look like
a core shadow off of the terminator, mainly because
it's a darker -
a darker tone
than what - than everything
else that's happening on that part
of our cube. And that isn't exactly
what I would call a core shadow, but you can slightly put that in.
It is simply that it is higher up
than all the parts down here and not catching
as much reflected
light, even though all of this
is on a single plane. But
we could add that. And then I would just slightly
simplify some of -
some of the
lines that you made when placing your
flatter tone and maybe go back over it.
so now we have our terminator
and our reflected
light. And we've kind of skipped
a little bit, skipped past our core shadow
in this particular case. So now it's time
to start with our cast shadow.
And remember that the cast shadow has to be a
darker value than your
However, I'm not entirely going off
of what I'm observing.
Because obviously the cube is on a
piece of fabric that is
a darker color than the cube itself. But I'm
ignoring the color and we're going to be ignoring
color for quite some time. So
just apply the tone of the cast
shadow according to some of the principles that
And keep in mind that the cast shadow always has a sharp edge
that slightly hazes out as you move away from it.
Now there is a
term for what that's called but
we're not going to concern ourselves. All you need to
think about is terminator, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow.
But I would haze it out a little bit.
And then also once again
just slightly combine some of the marks that you made.
go over them again.
And so it's
important, as I said, to keep that sharp edge right at the origin
of your cast shadow but it's not that
important to take it all the way. Okay
so that is all there is to
I would lock in
the outer edge of our cube
but keep in mind we aren't concerning ourselves with half tone.
We aren't concerning ourselves with anything that is here
to a great degree what you're actually probably seeing on your screens right now.
So now that we've established our shadows
now it's time to talk a little bit about
half tones on the cube.
tones. So I'm just going to remind you that
if your pencil is
no longer sharpened from all of the practicing that you have
been doing, now is time to -
now it's time to sharpen a little bit.
And, you know, you just keep sharpening it whenever it's
necessary, just keep in mind you don't really need a sharp
point for any of these assignments at the moment.
At some point we will have to sharpen it into a
sharp point but right now that's not
that important. Okay, so
before we observe the half tones on
the cube - and as you see on your screen we have
reduced the amount of light on it so that you are able
to see the half tones now. Let me explain
a little bit about them.
So let's go back to our standard object of
analysis which is the cylinder. I find it's the most
convenient for explaining these principles even though we haven't yet started
working on a cylinder from observation.
But we will soon. And
so here's our
cylinder. Let's say that's our terminator line.
core shadow, all you have to be concerned with at the moment. A
line for the terminator, an area for the core shadow,
an area for the reflected light,
then our cast shadow. Alright.
That is right.
I'm going to keep repeating myself but I think that's important.
Remember that your core shadow,
your cast shadow - and your cast shadow -
are a darker
value or tone than your reflected light.
So you have
a lighter area in between them.
still be able to read all of your
shadows as a single
group of shadows. Now at the moment this is
easy to do because that's the only tone that
we have on the paper. There isn't anything here.
That's where we're going to place our half tones. So
the important concept to keep in mind is
that you have to - that your
terminator line, core shadow, reflected light, and cast shadow has,
regardless of the tonal differences amongst them,
have to be perceived as a group that's in
a very particular tonal
only applies to the area of shadow. Now this is very easy
to do and to observe at the moment, simply
because everything else is the white tone
of the paper. So
for example, even if I exaggerate -
even if I exaggerate the
differences between core shadow and reflected light and then cast
and then the cast shadow, so for example if I
were to make a core shadow that's
as dark as this, then I was going to make
a reflected light that's considerably
lighter and then I was actually going to make
cast shadow that's extremely heavy,
you can still perceive
these as a group simply because there isn't anything to compare them to. Everything else
is white. So this of course becomes a little more complicated.
once you start talking about half tones. Okay
now let's add some half tones.
this entire area is in light.
we get anything in there,
the only terminology that you have to be aware of here is highlight
and half tone. Now of course, half
tone slightly oversimplifies it so there is a darker half tone as well as
a lighter half tone. But
that's fairly easy to manage. So here we have
an area for our highlights.
And we will be talking about highlight a lot.
And so here's the area of our highlight. And it
isn't ever - it's always
slightly in from the edge.
And what I mean by that is that essentially it can be anywhere depending on
the angle of our
light source but it can't even be essentially
on the edge because
the idea of a highlight is it's
the light that's coming from our
light source and
in our eye. So it has to be an angle
that continues this way and then at us.
Okay so everything else is half tone. So
obviously coming off of the highlight
you have a half tone that is
a light half tone. And then as you
approach the terminator
the half tones gradually get
And then the same thing is happening on the other
side of the highlight as you now approach the
edge away from it, you're gonna go slightly
darker. So the
most important concept is that your
darkest half tone has to be
a lighter value than
any part of your reflected
light. And it's easy to
understand that but it's very hard to observe it. So
part of it is that you almost don't have to observe it.
You have to just keep that concept in mind and implement it.
So for example here I'm actually thinking that the half tones
that I have are almost exactly the same
in terms of tonality as my reflected
And so the - so I'm actually going to go back
into my reflected light and tone it down.
The idea behind that is you
have to always perceive
the entirety of your shadow with all
of its components and all of the
differences in tone within a shadow as a single -
as a group apart from the area
So if I
were to put
to kind of disassociate it from any object
and you make a line and we call that line
your terminator and everything on that
side is shadow and everything on that side
is light, then here
you have core shadow,
here you have reflected light
you have your cast shadow. Which depending on the conditions of the light
that you have will either be a
lighter value or a darker value
than your core shadow. Here we have our core shadow again,
here we have our reflected
light, and here we have our cast shadow.
And then here
we have half tones
and so here we have
darkest half tone.
And see it's -
and the important thing is that now I have to tone down our reflected light again
the largest amount of confusion
is between the
reflected light and
the darkest half tone that's leading up
to your terminator and your group
of shadows. Everything else is easy to observe.
It's all there in front of you and it can - essentially
you can just observe it
and copy it. But here's where everyone tends
to run into problems. So this is just something to constantly keep in mind
and if you keep it in mind for long enough, it'll be
begin to essentially appear in front of you. But your
eye has to be attuned to that
I'm just going to clean this up a bit.
it's time to continue
to work on this cube and put in some of our half tones.
So on a cube
everything is relatively simple
because you don't have any curvatures. And
we are going to talk about curvature when
begin working on a cylinder -
a cylinder from
observation. And -
but until - but I think there are
certain things that we can cover in the cube that
will make that a little easier. So
all you have to do is
think about the plane that is the
darker half tone.
From where I am that happens to be the top plane.
And so I am just
going to tone it
evenly, it'll be completely flat.
And so now since this is
the darker half tone
and possibly the
darkest half tone that we have here, it's important to,
now after putting it in, to compare it to
our reflected light.
And so you step back, I'm looking at it
and I think that the tone here is kind of -
its coming a little close to
some of the tones that I have here that until I put that in
were alright. So before we move on I think
we need to go back into our shadows and make sure that they read
as a separate group in a
value range, if you will.
we're going to be doing this a lot. So
a way that you can not have to go back
into your shadows at all is if you establish them as
like a dark that's obvious
straightaway. I advise
against that because that tends to become -
because it tends to become
It tends to become a little formulaic.
And what I mean by that
is that you're not observing the value in front of you.
And you're not sort of comparing as much but you just start off
with a tone that you know will always apply to
a shadow. And I'm
a little against that.
very easy to then just - to go back into it
and make sure that you have a clear
distinction between your darkest half tone
and the lightest area of your reflected light.
Okay so now that we've -
I think we're alright with that.
And now it's time to move on to the plane
that we have here which is a lighter half tone. Now before you
get into it, it's time to
think of where a highlight is. And a highlight
in the case of a cube is going to act
in a way that's kind of equivalent to our
terminator. They're important
but - and a highlight is actually a little more helpful in giving you
the structure of an object because a highlight is always at the
outermost point of an object or at the intersection
of multiple planes.
So you can see a highlight is actually along this
edge. So you can outline
and keep it the white of the paper, you could
of course erase it out afterwards. I would do a combination of both. You could outline it and
clean it up and see
where it is. And
begin to put in the half tone
of the front
plane or the plane that's in light, in the largest amount of light.
So it's not the edge that's in the largest amount of light, it's the plane that's in the largest amount of light.
And so I don't really - I'm not really concerned with a clean
tone, I'm trying to explain the concepts
and at the moment that's more important
than some kind of interesting handling of the medium.
We'll have plenty of time for that.
And I would clean this up a little bit. And
I'm gonna actually go over this with an eraser a little bit.
I'm using the flat
edge of the eraser that we cut to bring of the tone and also even out
the application of the
medium. And then I'm
going to go in and establish that highlight
which is our edge. I'm gonna go over
this again a little bit
and I keep my
pinky for smudging. In classes
where when I teach and
some of the people I teach are
working in charcoal and other people are working in
something else, I
have to keep in mind the
finger I use.
And so you can
step away and I'm beginning to think
that - so I needed to find a tone
on this part of the cube that is
a tone on the cube that is - and I keep
using the eraser to clean the paper - to find a tone
that is a dark enough tone to show the highlight and yet
a light enough tone to
read like the lightest plane of our cube.
I'm not sure that I'm going to
push this any more than I have
but because of that I have to
go back into the other parts of the cube
more specifically to tone that top
plane that's not catching as much light as
this plane, tone it down a little bit
but obviously I have to, after doing so, I have
to step back and make sure that it's not -
but that the tone of the
top plane is not
exactly like some of ones I have in my reflected light.
I think it's alright
Alright. I think we're good.
So we have worked on a cube
from observation, we have
gone into principles of half tones
and certain important concepts in terms of half tones
and shadow and now it's time to
work on cylindrical objects that will explain
these concepts even more
a single light source situation in your house and a
rectangular solid. Draw the box. Establish
only the shadow side and distinguish between the four main components:
terminator line, core shadow, reflected light, and
cast shadow. Light it again from a different side
and try again.
observe and apply the principles
that I have been talking about using
the forms that we have in front of us. What you see in front of you
is a cylinder and then that same cylinder
simplified first into a nonagonal
prism and then a hexagonal one. What
this allows us to perceive is that
we are essentially combining what we
realized entirely, conceptually
using a cylinder and then observed
in the cube. Okay so
begin with our hexagonal
this in. We're not going to concern ourselves
too much with the construction,
our purpose here is to see and explore the way
the light is falling on these
Now the point here has to
align with the point on the other side. So that's, I would say to some degree,
the extent of our construction.
And then we extend
it upwards. Keep in mind a lot of the same
principles apply and by that I mean
is going to be a little bit flatter, not as open
because it's closer
to our horizon line. So then we take this
we make a few connecting lines.
Remember these two points have to be.
along one line across and then here we are
with those two.
Some angles you can take and transfer -
actually this would be right there
This will be
right here and then you don't need the other one because you know that
that one has to be practically parallel but slightly converging, so actually I'm gonna slightly alter
the perspective that I had here.
So what we see now
shape of the hexagon on
top in perspective,
on the form of our hexagonal prism.
Okay but we're not so concerned with the construction.
What we're more concerned with is what is happening with our
light and shadow. So, as always, let's begin
with our shadows. So a lot
like the cube
we see that our terminator falls along this edge.
So, establish it, make it a darker
line. So then the plane
that comes afterwards is not exactly the plane of the core shadow, it's the plane of the
light that we see there. Because if you remember, the way it would be an ideal -
a hard - it's not exactly
perfect in terms of the angle. So like as I've mentioned,
as the angle begins to turn away from an exact parallel in relation to
the source of our - the source of our
a certain amount of degrees in which
the shadow in that area is a core shadow. And then when it begins to turn
away and it sort of becomes a bit -
it comes closer to being perpendicular, except
sort of not so much
towards that but about from it, then it begins to catch the ambient
light in the room as well as the
light that's reflecting back into it from other surfaces, even from our main source.
So here's what we have. So
we have a fairly even - and
that we're going to see very clearly on the nonagonal
what I'm going to do now is begin to place a tone
on our -
on the side of the hexagonal prism that
is in shadow. So this is
the side of the shadow. We are
not really making too much of a distinction between core and
And it's in there.
Okay. So now it's time to place our cast
it'll continue from our terminator and will be cast
away from our source of light. And you could
see it happening on the other side. Once again, I'm not so much interested in
establishing the point where the shadow is being cast from on the other side.
And then we have -
remember to keep in mind
that the cast shadow has to be a darker value
and then make sure that your terminator
also reads like a darker value in order to lock in
the lighter value of our reflected light.
The same thing is happening, as was happening with the
a side of the cube in which the upper parts
of the plane are
going to not be catching as
much reflected light as parts of the bottom. Okay
I'm gonna clean up some of these construction lines at the top, we don't need them
And we're going to continue -
we're going to continue with our half
Our light is coming from the right side.
Which means that the plane that we have here is
catching the largest amount of light. But keep in mind that there is a lighter area and
that lighter area is the highlight on the
intersection of the two planes that we can easily -
that we can perceive in our - that are in
the area of light. So
don't begin with the lighter plane,
the lighter half tone, begin with the darker one.
So it's going to be right here.
I'm going to start placing the tone. Now at
as I'm doing this, I keep comparing
it to the
lightest area of the reflected light.
And, chances are
that in some places it's going to hit and be quite close.
make sure before you move on
to establish a clear distinction between
the half - the darkest half tone.
It's easy to see here because it's just all over a single plane. Keep in mind
that if you do look closely, you will see lots of
variations even within the plane that we have here.
Ignore them. And sort of take a tone that's
the average tonality of
of the plane. You don't need any
variations within that plane at the moment.
I'm seeing that the tone I have here is a little too close. Everything else can maybe pass
but I'm just going to tone down some of
these reflected lights to make sure that we have a
clear separation between the
tonal range of our shadows
and the tonal range of our lights. I will be talking
about that the entire time on
all the assignments, no matter how complex.
This is a principle that has to be
completely internalized. It has to be automatic.
So there we have it. So we also have the plane on top
Now the plane on top is
the - is a darker half tone than
the plane that's catching most of our light but a lighter half tone
than the plane that we have here. So
what we're going to do is
now put in that half tone.
And compare. And see how
it works. See if they can compare.
They're a little on the closer side. So now we
step back and maybe we can slightly
tone down this plane.
Alright. And so now it's time -
now it's time to finally arrive
lightest plane that we have.
Now keep in mind that between these two planes and actually
between these two planes, there's a highlight.
Now this highlight is very small, it's just an edge,
the question is the amount of it that we need
but you can always exaggerate it, you can widen it a tiny
bit. So as we did with the cube,
just kind of outline it
a little bit. Just keep the area here
so that you're aware of it. And begin
to place the lightest half tone. And this is
one of the harder parts because you're really gonna have to
have a light touch.
keep in mind that you can only really see what's happening
once all the planes are in. Because once they're
once they're in then we can
adjust the rest of them.
So once that's in place
go over it, compare it, see if you
have your shadows reading as a group of shadows
with all of the distinctions that we need. So terminator,
this kind of plane that's sort of a combination of core shadow and reflected -
and reflected light and cast shadow as
well as the area of half tones that we have here. So
now it's time to move on to the nonagonal prism. So
here we're almost going to begin as if
we're working on a cylinder.
But we're going to break it up
into planes. Now the construction of a
nonagon can get a little more complex so
we're going to approach this a little more optically. In order
break this up into planes, it's important to establish
where this line is, essentially a terminator
this edge from your angle in relation
to the two sides.
So I'm just going to - it seems about
half way from where I am but I think it's actually
slightly off of halfway,
closer to the left edge that we have here. So that's all I need.
We're going to place this
and then we're
going to find the plane right here
and then the plane that we have on the other side.
They're about the same size.
About the same size. And
because we shifted this line over,
I'm gonna move this line over a little bit also - because we shifted that
line over, we have
this plane right here is actually a tiny bit smaller.
So - but we already have that edge and we already have that plane. So if we need
establish the angle of the plane, we
already know how to do that, we're experts at it.
All we have to do is take that angle, bring it
over, I see it a little bit like so,
lock it in place, and then
you know, allow your eyes to take over for a bit.
Work by eye
and then use your
needles or your paintbrush or whatever you're using to
measure. So you - in a nonagonal
each side does not have a
corresponding parallel side on the other side
of the ellipse essentially because you
have an odd number of planes, of sides.
So we're just gonna have to use our
But keep in mind the point of this is to explain
some principles concerning
light. And I think we're going to arrive
at here will be
very helpful. There's a small plane that
we have right there. We're
gonna hit back to there. You could still take these angles
obviously. The angles from point to point,
angles of the sides, here we're going this
And then we can extend this out a little bit. I think this comes
forward. It doesn't have to be super perfect
but it just has to make sense.
Make sure they read as planes,
and so that's what we have.
Okay, so now that we've
gotten our line drawing,
let's move on to our light and shadows.
So here, obviously the planes are smaller so you're going to see greater
amounts of variation between
our shadows and our half tones. So as always
let's begin with our shadows. So here you might actually simplify a few things.
So here we actually can see
some of the distinctions in the shadows that I was talking about.
So let's start with our terminator
along that edge, that
edge. Always start with the terminator. Always start with the origin of the
core shadow. The place where it begins. Now
I wish there was a word - I might just not know it -
but there's a word for the origin of your
shadow as opposed to the termination of your
light. And then of course they are the same thing.
But I like to think of a shadow almost as an entity
as opposed to simply the absence of light
because it sort of is an entity. It takes up a
large amount of space in your work, in your - just on the paper.
Okay. So now
we have our shadow. Now here, because of the
amount of planes
that we have in the shadow, you can very clearly see the distinction
between our plane right here, essentially
the core shadow plane, and our plane right here which is already turned
far enough away to be catching ambient light, light reflecting off of
the tabletop and so on. So this would be the
plane of our reflected light. Keep in mind, everything is shadow.
So let's begin with our
I'm just putting a tone down.
And then I'm making sure -
I gotta hold the pencil closer, I know I said not to do that
but the rule is I guess
that you do what works
in order to get that line in there.
Clear, clear distinction. So we're going
to be doing this a lot and I'll be explaining a bit more of like the
reasons that I place
a tone with my pencil and then
essentially I smudge that tone and then I
go back into it. So right now
I'm going to actually -
to push a little harder
because this is a shadow. And perhaps if we - if it is a little
closer to the value that we need we might not have to go back into it as much.
Though this is rarely an issue with core shadow. This is, of course, always an issue
that pops up when, as I said, when we're comparing the darkest
half tones with the lightest reflected lights. But this has to
be automatic. It's almost as if every time you step away
that's the first thing you're thinking about. The first thing you're thinking about is are
my dark half tones lighter than my
lightest reflected lights. Okay so
here we are with this.
Now we have
our terminator. Right, that
in this case almost a line
that signifies, that
our light source.
Then we have our core shadow right behind it. So,
everything here is simplified for
our understanding. Now we have the plane of our reflected light.
just start placing a tone, work your way from
the top or from the bottom,
however it is easiest for you, just make sure that it's a lighter value
than your core shadow plane.
sort of integrate the medium into
the paper a little bit, then I go back over it.
You'll see that in this entire course
a lot is done with only your hands.
I'm going back over the core shadow plane to make sure that the clear distinction -
don't move off of your shadows until you get to the -
until you get them in place. Until you get all this -
I mean you're going to go back into the perhaps, I mean you probably are,
but make sure that your shadows are
in there before we move on to the half tones.
And of course, as with every rule, there are exceptions.
But not at this point. So now it's time to place our cast shadows
same as we have been doing. Make sure that there's a tangent between your
terminator and your cast shadow. It's fairly easy
to see here, but as you see in the cylinder
it gets a little more complex. And now
let's review. Your cast shadow
is a darker value than your reflected light.
Now, is it a darker value than your core shadow
is another question. And of course it
dependent on the reflected
light in the room, ambient light
and so on. Because cast shadows also catch
reflected light. So we're just gonna continue
with this cast shadow
and I'm gonna actually go back in and
tone down my reflected light because I feel like that will be
something you have to do sooner than later.
Alright. So there it is.
So now we have our area of shadows.
Let's move into half tones.
So, as we can see, the darkest half tone
is coming straight off of our shadow, along the
circumference, the sides of this nonagonal
So let's place that -
let's place this here.
And this is the one we really have to calibrate. This is that
dark half tone, the one that we really have to
make sure is,
on the one hand dark enough
to read as a dark half tone,
and yet lighter than our lightest reflected light.
I'm sorry to keep repeating myself but I'm just gonna keep doing it.
Because that's what education is.
Okay so I keep placing it.
I feel like I can go - I mean obviously I'm already
coming a little too close to our reflected light. I feel
they're about the same.
So what does that mean? Let's
tone these down.
Now I spoke earlier about how to can begin
a dark value for your shadows, but I
I'd rather you analyze and go back into them
and adjust because then you're spending
more time on
comparing your tones, your values.
And that is - in some ways
it's what it's all about.
Gotta clean this up because I
You can see on my hand, it's upsetting.
So here is what
we have but, you know, you are going to
be using your hands a lot so get used to it.
And here I'd like to clarify that plane change
a little more.
We're gonna go back over our core shadow.
And so right now I'm feeling alright about the distinction
between our reflected light
and our darkest half tone. Our reflected light still reads like
a reflected light, it's locked in between our core shadow plane and our cast
and yet it
is, for the most part, a
darker value - I think it is a darker value all in all
than our darkest half tone. Okay
so the next darkest half tone is this
top plane and as we can
see before the edge is highlight.
It is - so let's clean that up
a little bit because we're gonna be using it. It doesn't have to be - it seems
very precise now but I just want to get this principle across that the
is instrumental in
helping you depict form.
So just gonna get
into this. Now we have a
little bit of a highlight there. Let's clean up this edge because it's also highlight.
And our lightest half tone.
the technique, if you will,
that I have is that I hold my pencil in one hand and my eraser in the other.
I can kind of erase some parts at the same time that
I do others, but that's obviously
not that important.
All you need to do is put down your pencil and eraser.
And so now we
can get to the lightest
And here is where that practicing in the ruled notebook comes in handy.
Because you're sort of, you know you're
hatching or laying a flat tone at an
angle that's convenient but always within some sort of margins.
And obviously it doesn't have to be perfect straightaway because
you can always erase and clean it up, but you still want
as close as possible. So there you have it.
I think this line can come up a little bit. As in become lighter.
That is also some of the terminology that I tend
to use. If I say come up it means make it lighter, if I say
push it down then
I mean make it a bit
So it cleans up.
Okay. So - and also a way to get the highlight of course
is to, if you've lost it,
you can always use the eraser, And that's also one of the points
of cutting a sharp edge on your
eraser because then it almost has the same precision as a pencil
and you can just do
a little bit of that. So what we have here
is our - I still - so I'm looking at this and from -
and I kind of think that our shadow,
our group of shadows might need another pass.
I'm just gonna go over it.
Over the whole thing actually because then I toned it away evenly
and by -
in doing so I preserve the distinction between our
core shadow plane and reflected light plane, while at the same
bringing both - pushing both into
shadow at the same time.
now let's move on to the cylinder.
let's take this one step further and move on
to the cylinder itself
and see how these principles apply.
So you definitely have experience with
a cylinder. Now I'm going to move it into
the page to a place
where it's comfortable for me to work on it.
It's not important to view these objects
as part of one environment. I would -
advise making them pretty much the exact same size in order to
in order to -
it's just easier to establish a
continuity there in terms of the concepts, however
it is not
we aren't thinking of this as an environment with multiple objects in it
as of yet. That'll come eventually.
we went from a hexagon to nonagon to a cylinder
and of course, logically,
we would have to just keep increasing the amount of plein air
in - so
we can just keep adding them on and they'll keep getting smaller and smaller because if you
really think about, the amount of
planes in a cylinder,
well it's actually infinited.
But i think that we're ready to make that leap.
So here we are.
Here we have it. So of course it is
a little bit harder to establish where we have that
the - and obviously that is because
there are an infinite amount of planes. There's an even
circumference. It's not even so much that there are -
there's actually that each of those
planes is a
point in - is
actually a point and there are an infinite amount of points in
the circumference of a circle. However,
we're still going to establish a line
that will signify
our terminator. Now
I think that's where it is.
And if you are at
a loss, you put a line in and you're not sure if it's right, all you have to do is take a measurement.
So the point of my needle is at the edge,
my hand is at the terminator, I move it
so that the point of the needle is now on the terminator and I see that it is
like we had that line over here. It is slightly
off of the halfway point, towards the left side.
So the issue here is that you won't have such a clear
separation as we have in the nonagon where we had a plane
for core shadow and then a plane for reflected
light. So I would actually begin
by kind of establishing
them in the exact same way
that we did on the nonagon.
So start with your core shadow.
Start with the core shadow.
only difference is that you're going to have to
sort of move out from your core
shadow into your reflected
light much more gradually.
There's a softer gradation there.
And you even have to move off of the terminator
into the core shadow
using a softer gradation as well. So everything is
very, very soft. As you move out towards the edge you get lighter and lighter
and lighter and lighter. Of course, keep in mind that
this is still all shadow. We have a terminator
up here that is an edge. It's the edge of our ellipse on top.
So we just, to some degree,
to start with we just want to get a tone for the shadow.
Just want to give it some placement.
And then begin.
So this is also
good place where you get to practice your shading and
placement of tones. Keep in mind we're not really
hatching just yet. I don't want to introduce that
right away but we'll be getting to that soon.
the hatch will be
instrumental in speeding up this
process and give you an -
and allow you to sort of establish a
terminator, core shadow, and your darkest half tone all in one go.
But I'm getting ahead of myself.
You just hang in there.
So, here something's beginning to happen and now it's time
to sort of integrate this a little bit, remove some of those
lines, some of those marks, use your hand,
get it a little bit softer, it's okay
if it gets everywhere. We always have an eraser to help clean up.
There's a lot of clean up in my process.
Not only of the paper but of the floor and the walls.
So now we kinda have
an area that's our terminator and we're
moving out from the terminator, sort of as softly as possible.
And I'm not - at the moment I'm not really concerned with the angle
or the placement of the tone or any of that stuff.
Just slowly, softly moving out from
to your core shadow to your reflected light. Alright.
We have something happening here already. Now I'm going
to clean up that edge.
Alright and I'm gonna clean up the top
a little bit also.
so now let's place our
cast shadow. Now
remember the cast shadow has to -
you have to find that tangent. We have a cast shadow
and our terminator. And
the idea with the terminator is that often you're gonna have to go back
and reinstate it. Remember
to differentiate between
cast shadow and
your core shadow.
And then kinda combine some stuff in order
to get a more even and softer
distribution along all of our infinite planes.
And I'm not going to take it all the way, I think
that's enough at the moment. And see here we have it.
Now let's move on to our half tones.
it's a lot like the ones that I was talking about
earlier. Mainly because here
it was still easier because we had a clear separation in terms of
planes. One for core shadow, one simply in
shadow, and then one that's in light,
albeit the darkest half tone. However, here
you will actually need to kind of continue
this soft gradient
out of your terminator
into your darkest half tone.
it's still possible to get a little bit lost
and confused in this
relationship between the darkest half tone and your...
So here I am - I've sort of
begun to pull out of the terminator.
I'm moving towards our highlight.
Remember the highlight will not be on the edge, it will be off of
that edge, it will be somewhere right there. So that's -
so we're gonna have to keep
moving towards it, getting lighter and lighter as we go. Our highlight will be left the tone of the paper
which is white or
perhaps if your paper's a little more cream colored
then it'll be that. Here just
softly simplify that and move it out
towards your highlight. Kinda clean up those lines.
And then I would
actually work some half tones from a dark one into
the highlight. I would just move them, get them lighter and lighter as you move
towards that highlight.
And lighter and lighter. Here I am
kind of just establishing an edge, it's a little more
precise, a little easier to see.
Little easier to see.
which hand am I smudging with?
I don't think smudging's a technical term. If you saw that,
you saw my paper move while I was erasing. That is the point
of stretching paper in the sense that that never happens
if paper is stretched. And you have plenty
of - and you could erase with all your
energy and that'll be -
and this will still stay in one place. And when I use the eraser to actually bring that highlight
back out a little bit - and I'm gonna
try to use the side of the eraser to get a little bit of softer gradation into
some of the slightly darker half tones. You might have to go in a few times but it's no big deal.
And then we're gonna pull
a little bit, put that together. Okay, so
where are we now? So that's a soft gradation.
What we have actually is - we
actually don't have this issue of a dark half tone sort of
falling into our reflected light. I think
this distinction, it's a little bit harsh. You don't really
see edges as clearly in the shadows so I'm gonna combine them a little bit more
Now I'm actually going to go over just this area
the terminator. And this is important that I called it an area.
On objects that are rounded
you will rarely see a clear terminator line.
It's nice to have an idea of where the
terminator is going to - like the actual line is
going but at the same time, it's very
hard to really see it. So essentially the terminator
more often becomes an area.
And the object that it's on, the structure
that it's on, you can tell
a lot about the angle of
the particular curvature based on the quality
of this terminator area. The softer it is,
rounded the form.
we're puling this out, softening it a little bit
and then we have of course our top plane.
Our top plane here is a little bit more complicated, it's going
to be a darker value than our
highlight here, but a lighter value than our
darker half tone there. And
so we actually - I'm gonna go back to this for a second - we actually have
a similar thing happening here.
So we can tone down the plane we have here of the darkest half tone
to make sure that the top plane is a lighter value than this but a darker value than
this. Here of course everything's considerably softer.
So let's find what that is.
Now this ellipse, you can always
keep coming back to your ellipses, make sure to
turn them, make sure to curve them so that you don't get that,
almost point at the end
of it. And so
I would say oh this happens all the time
if you smudge a lot. So you can clean that up. And the thing that
I would do right now is actually go back over
terminator here, applying a little bit of a hatch,
kinda make sure our terminator
is as dark as it needs to be
because it is
giving us a lot of information about the quality of the form,
about the angle of the light.
over this multiple times.
And then - see so now I've toned down the darkest
half tone a bit and I need to maybe soften
and make this gradation a little bit softer from the dark half tone to the lighter
half tones. I'm just gonna keep going over it, take your time.
So what we have here
is an application
of these principles of light and shadow. Now
let's move on to a sphere.
construct the hexagonal prism, the nonagonal prism, and
the cylinder and apply the shadows. Then
shade the half tones, making sure you have a clear value range for the shadows
that is separate from the lights.
the hexagonal prism, the nonagonal prism,
and the cylinder, let's move on to a sphere
and a similar kind of
separation of planes within the sphere
on what I will call a soccer ball.
So okay, so we're going to do the exact
same thing. So
begin by making a circle.
And the idea behind making a circle by hand is actually kind of -
it's close to what we were talking about with the ellipse. The
idea is that you just have to have sort of an mental image of what a circle
should look like, its proportions,
it's obviously - its height is equal to its width.
then after you put something on paper you make the corrections. There's a lot
of this in this approach. And there's a particularly large amount of it
when we move onto portraits
and the human figure. So
let's begin with our soccer ball. So
I would establish
as many of the angles
as we can. I would not
go so far as to construct it entirely.
So kind of just simplify
what you see, get as many angles as you can.
You could of course use your needles and transfer them
as much as possible. Or you can do them by hand and then
correct yourself using your needles. Or your paintbrush or
So here -
so the interesting about this is when you have a
the harder part is actually figuring out
our outlines. It's much easier to
shade it in, to analyze
the angles of our light and so on. Then
in the sphere, as we'll see,
all you have to do is put a circle on paper and begin your
shading. Of course the shading
is where it gets a little more complicated. So
I'm gonna start carving these shapes in
just a little bit. And I particularly refer to them as
a shape here in order - because you're sort of
simplifying everything into
something that is two dimensional. Now the hard part is
that all you have to do is just keep in mind that
some of the planes here,
some of these are hexagons, so they have six sides.
And some, like this one right here, is a pentagon.
For the purposes of construction,
this is a
headache. So we're just going to
connect point to point. But still, think of it as something
that's situated not just on a
page, it's not entirely two dimensional, it is in space. So for example there's a
hexagon right here that you can construct
because you know these points are across, you can see the angle - or you can take the angle even,
you can take them across. And here, for example, you can just continue it all the way down
to here and connect these points.
And make the correction as you
go. Maybe that's a little bit long.
I would erase the construction lines because this is gonna get filled up with lines
so we might as well keep it as clean as possible for our purposes.
And here you already have the side of the pentagon so we can connect
some stuff there. A couple of points. And bring them down
which gives us an edge of a few more hexagons. So you're still
thinking and you see that there are important elements here that
you see them curving around the form of the ball -
the soccer ball. We're gonna go with
soccer ball. Because I'm
not so sure this has a name.
I'm not even sure soccer ball is
accurate. But it looks like one so we're going with it.
Okay, we've gotten quite far already. Let's see
where we are right now.
And see here, these lines
are already telling you this form is turning under.
And the lines that come after are giving even more of that.
Here you even have the edge of that hexagon,. You can see
how angled it is. So you are observing,
but you're also thinking
about what you're putting down on paper.
You're thinking about the orientation
of these planes in space.
Now we're moving on. And see -
and even if you take that line, it's not an actual line on the
the object, but then you take this line, so you're connecting
those points and you can see it curving. This is extremely
important. It's extremely important to keep thinking about that.
And then we move up - oh here we go. We're right there.
Awesome. And then we take this line,
we take this line. Here's another hexagon.
We go down to there. We go down to there.
Here we need some edges because this is another pentagon, from this point to this
point we're connecting.
let's see where we are. Making some
corrections. For example, I think this line actually can come up
because it is has to line up with
our side right there. So after you get
them in I'm pretty sure there's gonna be some corrections to make. But that
is the fun part because -
that's actually the only part in this. You're
always correcting everything
that you put down on paper. But for
this you have to unafraid to put something down on paper. And you have to be
excited when its wrong because that just opens up
the opportunity to make these corrections, to analyze
them, to think of a -
to think of it as a problem that requires a solution. This
this is all about.
Okay, okay, okay. So I'm seeing that I'm
a little - that there's something happening here where my
sort of initial structure is a little too wide
for its height.
Gonna make a few more corrections here.
I think for our purposes this is ideal.
I might - that might be too much. However,
here it's okay. So as we did
cylinder and its planar variations, we are going
to establish our terminator. And this is -
this is quite exciting because you'll see how the general
angle of the terminator is going to be -
is going to appear on the sphere
when we start working on it. And I'm sure on the image
on the screen you can already see it.
I'm going to start
toning, like accenting a line
on our terminator. That is our terminator,
there we go. And then it sweeps around here. And thee
terminator itself will sort of sweep around the form.
we have - so we're going to
analyze each plane in the shadow
as we go. And overall you can see
this general area of the core shadow and you can see
that there are certain planes, especially the ones turned upwards,
that are catching some of the ambient
light in the room. The ones that are
turning away like this on top is already not catching it so much
and then as we go underneath
it's hardly catching any.
And then of course the planes here are already
the planes that we could say are
entirely in our reflected light. However, before
we move on, let's just place our
Okay, so let's start with the two darkest
planes that we have. We have one right here. So I did speak about
terminator lines. I spoke about core shadows,
I spoke about reflected light,
and cast shadows. There are
also occlusion shadows
which are within the range of shadows
and they are the areas, a lot like the one right here, that are not
catching any reflected light
and of course - of course they're catching some in reality, but the
idea is that they're catching a very minimal amount of it.
Now in this case we're going to pay attention to them,
however the idea behind understanding
these principles in shadows is that
you actually learn to manipulate them and use them to your advantage when you're working.
you can exaggerate a terminator, you can actually
even say that a cast shadow to some degree is optional
depending on if it helps
or actually take away from your idea. And so
on and so forth. This is not necessarily
the time to think about all of this, but just
keep it in mind that the whole point of understanding
these principles is so that you can make them work to your
here we are on one of - so that's
a plane I'm kind of happy with. It's
a darker plane on our soccer ball.
And then I'm gonna move up to this pentagonal
plane. It is also a dark plane but not as dark -
so this is a phenomenal assignment for just comparing your values.
Within the shadows and then within the
half tones and then comparing your half tones to your shadows.
The advantage of a
structure that clearly shows you the planes
is that as soon as you outline
them all you have to do is
establish the relationship -
the tonal relationship of each plane to each other
plane. Because essentially you already have
the form. The point of using
such objects is that
they give you an idea of how we analyze
more organic objects.
And so organic objects,
like the human form, were actually
doing the opposite. So here we're going from a soccer ball to
a sphere, but when we're looking at a human form we're actually simplifying
the form in front of us and establishing
essentially in reality might not even exist.
Or they exist but we
exaggerate that structure.
Either way, it's a construct.
And we are learning
about it as we speak.
Okay so now
I wasn't speaking about it but we did move on
to this hexagon right here,
which is also part of our core shadow but is a lighter value. It's already - it's
turned in such a way that it is catching some other light
and then we're gonna continue -
there's another hexagon right there, we're gonna continue -
we're gonna go a little - we're gonna tone this one a little
bit darker than the one underneath it.
It's already turned enough away not to catch
too much reflected light.
clean that edge up a little bit.
back, think about it, make some comparisons,
see where you are. I think - I would actually slightly -
so this whole idea of the occlusion shadow
I would - like I know that this plane in reality seems
like it's a lot darker than the rest of them,
but I wouldn't
make it as dark as I see it.
I think it'll
actually conflict with
what we're trying to do. And that is to show the form.
It's obviously - it's going to be
a darker value but not to the extent that you see it.
So now we go to our reflected light. And these
planes - there is a distinction between them.
All of these I forgot to remove
this line. It helped in terms of understanding its
placement and symmetry, however.
already see that in order to make this work,
we're going to need to actually to
So in reality,
we also have a - well actually let's take a look and
see where we do need to tone things down. So if you squint your eyes -
I haven't spoken that much about squinting, but of course squinting
compresses the value. I don't
know if that's of course but squinting compresses the values.
And we can see that this is actually a little bit darker.
And so now we're getting a
stronger read, we can really see
what's happening between our
core shadow and
our reflected light. You can really see a
move from dark to light there.
Before we move on to the half tones, I would say let's leave this for
now because we're gonna go into the half tones and then, as we know, we're going to
begin comparing them and we'll see that we'll probably have to go back into
our core shadows and
our reflected light and make sure that there is
clear, tonal separation between our
areas of shadow and our areas of light.
we don't need to concern ourselves too much with case shadows
they - we will see them again.
At the moment, let's
just find them in there. As long as we know that they're a tone that
is allowing our reflected light to to read as
reflected light in between the core shadow planes
reflected light planes.
so now we move on. Let's start,
as we always with the - with our
darkest half tones. I see that plane as dark half tone,
and this plane underneath as a dark half tone. If you
compare these two, the one underneath is the darker half tone.
So that's where we start.
Clean this up a little bit.
Okay so, step back and ask yourself
is it lighter
than - ask yourself is this relationship okay?
I think to some degree we can agree that that's fine.
But now is this relationship okay?
And even if it appears as though that's the case,
even if it appears as though your dark
half tone is a darker value than
this reflected light, we don't want this.
So even right now,
even before we move on to other half tones, we need to readjust.
So I'm just gonna go over
these things. Over - we'll start with our core
shadow planes and go over them. Okay,
that's feeling alright.
And now we'll start with the real - the real troublemakers, the
reflected light planes.
you see at this point I'm kind of anchoring,
this is a way to hold - you can hold your pencil,
you kind of anchor on your pinky
like so and -
and you move your hand
while keeping your pinky firmly on the paper.
I think we need a little more.
Not much more but a little more.
So I hope
that you're already beginning to understand a part of
this whole approach. And that is that everything
you do is going to be wrong and that's the greatest part of it.
Because then you get to go back in and
analyze and correct. So it's
a wonderful exercise in
analytical, critical thinking.
I think we can move on. I'll step back, I'll take a look.
I can go a little more. Just
a little bit. There it is. I think we got it now.
I think it's clearly a darker value than this. Squint
in order to see it. Squint not just at the objects in front of you
but squint at your drawing.
Okay. Let's move on to other half tones. And
of course as you're going, this whole process of making
corrections never stops. you can correct your lines. There are times when
you almost complete the whole thing, you realize some of these lines are off and
you just go back in, erase them, correct them, you do what you have to do.
It's part of the process.
But now the question is,
do I go to this plane up there, which is the second darkest half tone,
or do I move off of the darkest half tone into the place right
there? And you can do either.
In some ways this is almost easier because it's an easier
comparison, it's just slightly lighter.
And I'm hardly -
I'm catching myself on the fact that I'm squinting to the point
where I'm hardly keeping my eyes open so that I really see the values.
Where do we go from here?
I would just
keep moving up. Now this plane is even
Make some corrections, but you can actually make corrections with
the next plane.
Let's get that in there.
Let's get this one in there too.
And I don't think that this enough
So let's separate them.
So here I think if we have that line, that line should be
pretty much parallel. We're good there.
that terminator, always a good plan. And then let's get this plane,
which is essentially the second darkest half tone that we have, so
we're gonna have to push that one. But as
you're working on it, keeping look at that one.
Keep looking at that one and comparing to see if you're
really - like the idea is to keep this one slightly lighter.
And then go
back to this one to reinforce it.
And so what we're practicing
here is we're
comparing our values. So it's not as if we're
taking the values exactly as we see them and trying to transfer them exactly to
our page. We're establishing that
that is the value in front of us
and we're comparing the other ones to establish
the proper relationship on the page, but not the exact
relationship. We are not copying, we are
Okay, I think we're making headway. So
I'm just gonna go back into those shadows. I feel like
they need a little more.
And now I'm going to go over all of them in the way
that we did before on the -
on one of the - I think it was the
nonagon, where you sort of just go over
the entire shadow in a tone that's relatively
even in order to
preserve the relationship
but sort of push them into
a shadow simultaneously.
I'm gonna reinforce some of these outlines,
I like to keep a little bit more clarity
on what the shapes are.
Gonna clean the page a little bit.
Okay. The next
plane that we have - chances are we're gonna have to go back into this.
The next plane that we have is the top plane.
It's the top plane and this plane right here, which are
the next half tones as
we move up towards our light.
Yeah, so the next planes
that we move onto are this one right here and the
plane on top. They are
the next half tones as we move towards
So just gonna put that in there.
Obviously this plane right here will actually have to tone down in relation to it.
But I think we're going all right.
And now it's time for
this plane right here.
This is one of the hexagonal ones.
This is quite enjoyable, I have to tell you.
Alright. Now I put that in I
see there is a distinction between these two but maybe not enough.
interesting thing is that you're always
introducing a new relationship that offsets your other relationships.
And so, of course,
you could, in a sense, establish a
tone and move out and establish that relationship
absolutely perfectly and then you move on and
you spend all the time getting that relationship as perfect as possible.
And that is of course a way
to approach this, but I think at that point
you're not considering everything. And so the idea is
when you put something else in, you're actually - it's more about
everything else that you already have put in than the new piece
that you have just added.
We need a little bit of clarity on some
of these planes, but remember that the most clear line
has to be our terminator. We're gonna go back to the terminator.
I wanna reinforce it, I wanna show that it's a line.
Alright where are we? Okay, excellent. So I like where this is
I'm gonna go back in there. So here
we encounter - I keep having to clean this off because I've been anchoring with my
pinky so it's -
I'm gonna clean this off a little bit. So
the next plane is this one up here.
The interesting thing about what's happening now is that we're getting into this territory
where the edges between the planes are no highlights. Because we're now
moving into our light. So
just keep that in mind. So that line, this line,
this line, even to some degree this one right here,
is a highlight. So
we have to keep that
Alright. So let's move on. Even a little bit here but
that's okay. We'll skip that for now.
I'm just gonna move into this plane
right now. And what I'm gonna do to get
a little more clarity on this highlight, I'm actually going to just place the plane
what we have
and carve it with the eraser,
which cleans up the plane
as well as establishes that highlight. It cleans off that line
but still gives you a sharp edge of the tone
and gives you room
for that - for the highlight.
So where are we now? I'm gonna go back into this one.
It caught my eye.
Now let's go to the top. Now this is a darker
plane than this one. But we're gonna -
and I'm gonna do the same thing. I'm just kinda go over it.
I can still see the lines I made, but I'm gonna
use the eraser to get a little more clarity
on that highlight.
Okay. And here
too. You're almost just aiming to
erase that line. And I'm sorry I'm gonna move in real closer to see it
get this. Alright so
I think it's heading in a good direction. Here I also want maybe a little bit of that
assignments, they do seem a little tedious, however I think there's a lot to be
learned here both from an analytical
perspective as well as a technical one. There's a lot to
be learned just in terms
of putting a hatch down,
erasing it, correcting it, and so on.
So I think it's beginning to
look alright and I think all the planes are in there.
So in order to
complete this, the first thing I want to do
is to go over some of our outlines and I'm gonna -
some of the outer edges rather.
Just to get a little bit of a clear...
And so - and
here I might - I got it in there but now I'm gonna erase it a little bit
because that's where our light is.
angle is fine but this one can actually go in
more. I think.
You always have your needles to compare -
angles and take them and
actually probably more so. I'm gonna go
in at a stronger angle and I think
that's good for the shape that it gives us
because it pulls the form underneath.
A similar thing -
no actually this one's quite right.
So I'm gonna go over some of these but I think we're -
I think we're almost there.
I'm gonna clean this up, I think that was just a slight error.
And then I'll flatten that tone.
And now to -
maybe to push some of these tones a little bit. We can make
these darker half tones. And by doing this I kind of -
I'm sort of creating a little bit more of
a logic according to the principles of shadows that we discussed.
I'm kind of almost grouping
them into the area of the
darker half tones.
And from this point on -
and now I'm just gonna go and extend that terminator into this
- into these planes a little bit more. Make sure we have a clear
distinction between our
lights and our shadows.
Make sure these lines read. In terms of angles there's some -
nope we're good. This is a confusing
object, it plays
some tricks on you.
All of these surfaces.
I feel like the reflected light here
that I sort of exaggerated was maybe a little too strong, it
was beginning to compete with some of our darker half tones. But now that I've done that
I have room. I have sort of a tonal room along
our tonal range to push that even darker.
Alright so here I - I'm just cleaning up a little bit.
Just cleaning this up just a little bit.
And I think for our purposes
this is an excellent understanding of -
of the way that
shadows and half tones function
Now let's move onto the sphere itself.
let's start on the sphere. As I said earlier,
the beginning of the sphere is
considerably easier. All we really need to do is make a circle.
I think that our sphere is actually quite - so
what I would do to establish the placement
of our terminator is I would just sort of,
just put one of your needles or a pencil
up perpendicularly to the terminator
and see that axis. And then -
and take this axis and
transfer it onto the sphere.
And then along that axis you can take the proportion.
And you can see the amount of space the shadow takes up, move it over
into the light and it slightly, as with our
cylinder, along this axis, it is slightly
to the left of halfway.
And so as you see in our soccer
ball, you do have a sort of general curvature
of the terminator. In this way.
And since the sphere is composed
of an infinite number
of planes, or points,
it is going to
be the same as our soccer
ball except obviously there will be a much sort of softer curve.
there you have that and now
the harder part is here in terms of finding our cast
shadow is that you don't - we can't really connect our terminator
with our cast shadow
because if our light's up here
off the page and we extend
you will see that it will hit
the ground so there is a lack of
connection there. So we're gonna have to just observe it,
understand, and then
we place it. Now you can see there's this enormous cast shadow.
We don't need all of it. But you can just put it in
we'll do as much with it as we need.
So there's your terminator
and just as we did with the cylinder,
by establishing a general tonality, while thinking
of course that you need to get a gradient, a soft
gradient from the
terminator into our core shadow and you see how it corresponds
to our soccer ball. This is the general area
of our core shadow. Here you have
a darker area which is part of this whole - that occlusion shadow
that we slightly
So we're going to - in terms of the
tonality, we're actually going to take a lot from what we already have
in the soccer ball.
And then of course you have your
largest amount of reflected -
largest amount of reflected light on
those planes that are turning away. As you see it right there.
So then we go over this, we kind of keep correcting
the contour of the
sphere, which now already moved on from being
simply a circle to a sphere.
And we have now gotten all of it, so
I'm going to use my hands to kind of - to fill in this area
a little bit more to get a tone in.
And we're there. Okay.
So now it's time to get and start
to work off of that terminator to
get a darker value for the core shadow.
Move out from there,
move out from there. There is this
occlusion shadow. It's not as dark as we see it - we're not gonna make it as dark as we see it
but we're still going to be a darker value than our
like strongest reflected light.
So what do we have then we just keep correcting
and keep adding more
Use your eraser to clean this up a little bit.
before we move on to half tones, as always, let's get
our cast shadow.
Make sure it reads and it gives you this
And locks in that reflected
light in between the core shadow and your cast shadow.
Okay. So we're aware that now
when we're going to begin to place those half tones, which are going to be in the same
area, even though there's still
a clear distinction between your terminator line and your -
and your -
between the terminator line and the rest of the shadows and your half tones,
the gradation outwards also has to be fairly smooth.
thing to remember is that it's not even so much a
terminator line any more but much more so a terminator area.
So I'm just going to extend that outwards
and then integrate a little bit more with the eraser right here.
To get a soft movement out of that.
I don't know what that was but - so our highlight.
If you remember our strongest highlight, it's not as clear
because we want to keep this still fairly light - but our highlight was right
along these edges. And if you look very closely, you can see that our highlight is
right here. It's in the same area as it was
on our soccer ball.
So the key
is to begin to
establish the half tones - the light half tones around it.
And so here I'm just sorta hatching them in at first.
I just want them - I just want to see where they're going to be. And then -
and now I'm gonna come back to
the terminator and core shadow and I just want this to be
the larger terminator area.
And you get a little bit
lighter as you go. But keep in mind that this whole area is
facing towards our
light source. And so that - so
these half tones have to be a lighter value than any of these.
So there's a lot to consider. But just - it's the
same principles but the gradations are softer.
And a lot of this is simply achieved by
going over them enough times. So now we
can integrate this into the paper. We're
going to be - I just wanna
find a placement for it. And then use the eraser
to carve out a little bit more of that highlight.
Now I'm gonna go back and here I'm doing a little bit of a hatch
along the terminator. We're gonna be talking about hatching along the terminator
in the next
And now I'm gonna get back
and make sure -
and see now I'm not talking as much. I'm not
about the clear distinction
between our reflected lights and our darkest half
tones. I think
this has to start becoming a little more intuitive.
A little more understood.
But I assure you there'll be plenty of times when I'll be coming back to it.
And we can correct some of these edges,
go back into some of the...
Get into some of this -
use your eraser to carve a more proper
shape to our cast shadow even though that's not of prime importance
at this moment. And here
I'm gonna keep going down to get that
sweeping arc of the terminator line.
And I'm just gonna keep going over it and as I hatch
along the terminator because I sort of make -
because I'm kind of integrating the
darkest parts of the core shadow and the darkest half tones
into this one area that all, to some degree,
make up this terminator area.
And then I clean.
now I'm gonna go over some of the -
some of the outlines. I
think that right here we actually can tone down this reflected light a little bit. It's
conflicting a tiny bit with our -
darker half tones. And then I'm just gonna do a little bit more to pull
out some of these darker half tones. Now
our highlight is rather
diffused. And I think that's
coming across but we can -
we can go into it and really
see once again, even with the graphite pencil
I'm using, I'm using my hands. But you
can hatch the whole thing away. That is entirely up to you.
But if you do want to use your hands and start to sort of
practice that, that's definitely going
to come in handy when we're working with
don't forget to step away from what you're working on.
Just to kind of get a larger picture. And if you're - if
you're working on the sphere on the same page as the soccer ball like I am,
it helps to compare the two and see
if you're arriving at the same relationships between the
tones, albeit with a softer gradation
Then I almost want to get a darker edge
to the sphere around where the terminator is to kind of
signify that it's wrapping.
Wrapping around the circumference of the entire sphere.
Make some corrections, a couple of outlines.
our analysis of the way light
and shadow behaves on a
spherical structure. Now
I'm going to explain a few techniques
that will, in a sense, speed up
everything that we were practicing here based
on your experience from having worked from
observation and your understanding of light and shadow.
construct the soccer ball and sphere and apply the shadows.
Then shade the half tones, making sure to have a clear
value range in the shadows that is separate from the lights.
we have observed and worked from objects in light and
shadow and understand a bit about the principles of
light and shadow, let's go back a bit and talk
about the terminator line.
So I'm not going to be working from objects in front of me
but I just want to go over a few principles
that we spoke about. So you can recall
that if we have -
if we're working on the terminator line on a sphere
or on a cylinder,
I initially told you
that you're going to actually have to
see where the terminator line is.
And that is important. However,
are now aware that
in order to integrate
a terminator into an object with a
continuous curvature, you have
to establish a tone but then move out of it
using a soft
gradient. So into our core shadow you're
pulling the terminator out very gradually as you move
towards the area of reflected light. But then
the exact same thing has to happen as you're pulling the terminator out
into the darkest half tones.
and then out into the light half tones and into
your highlight eventually. But as you saw that when we worked on it
for a longer period of time, I would then go back and hatch
a little bit over the terminator
and I'm sure you saw that
that only - it helped
make this a smoother and softer tonal
I'm now going to tell you that maybe
in this case, as you're starting
with an object and you've established your outlines and you
kind of have a terminator in
place, I would say that before you place any of the
half tones or
the core shadow, why don't we
begin by hatching a terminator.
And as you see,
it immediately accomplishes what we were talking about.
It is -
it allows you to, right away,
place not so much a terminator line but that terminator area
that we were talking about. And so you
immediately have the
area of the terminator, you have the -
you have the sort of the
core shadow moving out of the terminator and the dark half tones
moving out towards our highlight. And so
as you hatch,
I also recommend that you
cross hatch on top of it. And I know that this is harder to -
harder to keep in mind, but actually where your hatch marks
are going to intersect is pretty
much where the main part of the terminator
is. And so
we can take this as far as to not even have a
line for the terminator to begin with. So all you need to do
is actually begin to place
that terminator line with a hatch straightaway. And this
will speed up the
process, it will give you an idea of what the surface
is, in terms of its curvature, as well
start you off with a general tonality
and a hierarchy
of tone in between your
terminator, core shadow,
and the darkest half tones coming
off of that. So, now assume we take a shape
abstract. And now let's make it into a structure,
a form. So I'm going to
make some lines across this that will give you an
idea of what the form of this is.
So here you can
see a bit more of an edge
as the form begins to curve in. Here
this is happening at pretty much a right angle but it's a
soft curve up here and then it's -
and then it drops off back here. Here it's actually a smooth
curve all the way around, as it is here, and here it's something in between. So now
if we say our light is coming from above
and our terminator is going to be here,
now if you hatch here,
the hatch, the quality of the hatch, the amount of it that you use
can tell you quite a lot about the structure.
So obviously where you have a
sort of a large amplitude of the
curvature, you're going to have a larger terminator area.
And where that terminator moves closer to a
sharper edge, the terminator begins
to be - it becomes a bit more of a line.
And then here we have something in between
and then, as you move from a softer curve to a larger
curve, then your hatch increases and your terminator area
And then we can keep - and then here maybe
we can make it a little bit smaller in order to show that there is sort of more of an
edge there. And then
we can go over this - this is going to be a
softer area. You can still always of course
use your hand. So it's from a
larger area to almost a line, to larger area, larger area, and then slightly
more of a line.
And that's a principle that we have
to get accustomed to because this is going to be extremely important
when we're talking about human form.
observational and analytical skills as they apply to the terminator
line. Using the photos provided, lightly sketch in the
contours of the object and apply the terminator with hatching and cross hatching,
paying attention to the quality of the curvature
that the terminator describes.
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
12m 0s2. Introduction to Light & Shadow Instructor Lecture
39s3. Lighting a Cylinder Assignment Instructions
12m 9s4. Lighting a Box Instructor Demonstration
22m 10s5. Adding Half-tones to the Box Instructor Demonstration
32s6. Lighting the Box Assignment Instructions
53m 47s7. Prism Sequence Project Instructor Demonstration
25s8. Prism Sequence Project Assignment Instructions
58m 18s9. Sphere and Soccerball Project
23s10. Sphere & Soccerball Project Assignment Instructions
7m 53s11. The Terminator Line Instructor Demo
28s12. The Terminator Line Assignment Instructions