- Lesson details
In this lesson, you will follow along with Iliya as you draw the cast of the Cadaver. You will be introduced to the forms and anatomy of the head as it occurs in life. You will break down and analyze the complex forms of the features, combining your knowledge from the previous lessons.
Kneaded and Hard Erasers
Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
Used in video:
Long point sharpener
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We've already done all of the features of the face,
not to mention everything that we did before that. So why
don't we take what we've learned? I think we definitely
have learned how to take an organic
object and element of the head, in our case
think of it in terms of changes of plane, figure out what
is happening in terms of the light and
shadow and the principles of those elements and
then convert them
back into something organic. But because of having gone
through this process of analysis is now considerably more
structured, analyzed, and understood. Now what we're going to
do is take all of that and put it all together in
an exercise involving the entirety of human face.
And that of course this is a cast, but this is not on the
contrary to our previous casts,
a sculpture, in the sense of this is not an interpretation
of an eye or something like this, this is actually a cast just
taken off of a cadaver. So this is kind of as close as we're
going to get to a live model without it actually being a live
model at all. So I think that's exciting and let's get started.
thing I do want to add is that
the interesting part about this part of the course is that we
organized it in a way that I think would be quite
helpful for you in terms of going over these exercises
again and again.
What we have managed to do is I think
this is - basically this is an assignment that you can
practice before going into the anatomy portion where we really
break down the head and all that stuff
and then go into that or you can do it afterwards before we
do a portrait of a model from observation. So I am
going to talk a little bit about anatomy simply because
there are points on the head that
are called, you know, by their anatomical terminology. And the
thing is if you know what I'm talking about because you've
done the later part of the course, that's excellent. And
this is a fantastic way to practice this again and
internalize that terminology, these concepts and so on. But if
you haven't then just don't worry so much about this and
just follow along in thinking of a head as a head, changes of
plane and all this. Either way it'll be extremely helpful. And
in the end you'll probably be doing this multiple times it
after you've done subsequent parts of all of the subsequent parts of
the course as well as
even if you haven't yet. I recommend doing these multiple
times. So okay with that let's begin.
clearly this might be a little bit more intimidating, right?
So let's just figure out basic placement on the page just like
we did with the John Asaro planar head.
Right. At the same time, just like we did with the casts
of the features, we're thinking of the cast in its entirely, right.
So where the cuts are, where they've removed the cast,
is where we
and that we're not just working on the head or the part of the
head that we can see right because it's not the full head,
but we're trying to get all of it
within the context of the particular cast.
Now, of course, you can
essentially practice it any which way
You could practice the head as well just on its own but I
thinking of the cast of a whole. Hole.
Okay. So where are we now,
right, just angles, axes, things like this.
Sometimes it helps to get the particular
changes in the front plane
the nose right away because it helps establish how long it
appears. Not how long it is, but how long it appears on the
page, right? This is all an illusion after all.
I'm continuing with the approach that we had, right? I'm
thinking in straight lines a lot.
There are other times like down here, right, where I'm going to
think in curves.
But then go into them and make corrections to them.
So right we can clearly see
the zygomatic, right, the zygomatic right here, the angle
of the mandible.
We can see it on the other side as well.
Now because this is a cadaver and the thing about it is that
I've tilted this cast as in it's upright, right, this cast is
in the sort of the in the position we're accustomed to
seeing humans in but the cast was taken off of a cadaver that
at the time was probably on a table horizontal
and he lay horizontally and because
this person was no longer alive as well as the fact that
that he was horizontal you could see how the eyes have
sunken into the orbits.
This is wonderful to see because it gives us a little
more clarity about the -like we could see the orbits. We
can see a larger like a structure there we can imagine
the shape of
the skull underneath.
And if you're doing this right after the
the casts of the features
you're beginning to see elements
that we've already spoken about, right, the wing of the nostril,
the nose, this
inflated part on the side plane of the nose, right? All of that
is apparent. Remember - now here, of course, this man does not
his lips aren't as interesting of course as the ones from the
David cast obviously. They're not -
you can hardly see them in fact. But remember that lips
are not just the lips,
they're the entirety of this element here: the orbicularis oris,
the muscle of the mouth.
Right as we of course work proportion to proportion,
you know make adjustments. Like maybe the chin comes down a
little bit, we've got room. The neck is quite long.
So we're going to have some fun with that. We'll be able to go -
so we do
have a whole
segment on a neck and the anatomy of the neck.
This is pretty clear.
So this is either in preparation for that or a review.
Either one works, right?
See at times I'm just a little bit more kind of organic, a little
more abstract with these things are just a little bit like a
curvy squiggle of a line.
Okay with that. We're early, we're early in the process. No
need to to worry. Now here too, right? We see that side plane,
right, that we saw with our casts. We see that side plane
of the plaster of the cast that needs to exist. It needs to be
on the page.
It's important to see right where the mandible really is,
possibly even take an angle. We have this angle. You can see it
right from the zygomatic process into the masseter.
Taking it all the way back. The zygomatic arch as it
leans back into the ear. The ear is lovely here. It's going
to be - this
is reminding me of the ear from the Asaro head. We were able to
see all of the planes
and yet it is entirely in shadow. So we're going to have
a fun time
making it read correctly.
Okay, so more or less I think things are in place at the same
time I do feel like I need to go over it and make sure
everything's in place, but
we all by now kind of know
but if you don't I'll say it again that the thing that will
really push this towards completion
are the shadows. And by completion I mean it'll push
it towards the completion of the initial laying in, right, to
figuring out what the proportions are
essentially cannot be
accurate until the shadows are in place.
So I think why not?
Why not hint at some, right, and this will imitate the
process that we're going to take in the future with heads
and casts and all this stuff a little bit more. Now keep in
mind the advantage here is that this is not a stylized
head. By stylized I mean
has not gone through the interpretation of an artist
because all art is an interpretation. So
in the casts of the, you know, in the eye, for example,
that was Michelangelo's interpretation and emphasis of
and you know, of an eye. He focused on certain aspects of
it. He made it - he made some of the more prominent maybe made
others not as prominent and he was focused on you know, it's
in some ways an idealized idealized.
portrait of David from the
in this case,
we're encountering - of course I mean you can argue a few
things here, but in general we're encountering a person as
I'm going to start laying in that shadow, laying in those
Why I'm saying this by the way, well why I brought it up again,
right the fact that this is not idealized or stylized in any
way. I'm bringing this up because our next assignment
is going to be
the final cast that we do here
in this group of assignments and it's going to be
a sculpture again and of a sculpture that one would say
maybe is even more stylized than anything that we've encountered
up to this point. It's a beautiful piece
and the reason
that I think
we need to do it is because of how stylized it is. And
once you look at it, you'll see what I mean. Here this is a
great example because of the particular character of of this
It's very angular the fact that this is a mask taken off it's this is a mask taken off
of a cadaver is that you know, the skull is even more
making his face even more angular and all of that stuff.
So it's quite -
it's quite interesting in this way. Right? We have been
talking this whole time about angles and making something
organic into a plane, all that stuff.
So here I think this is a perfect thing to practice on
is a cast where those angles, you know, they existed in the
eye that we did and the ear, we saw those angles, we amplified
them, we found them, and we're going to find them here. Our
next assignment isn't going to be so easy because those angles
at times just won't exist. So we're going to be working with
much more organic
And that is
going to be a challenge but extremely important because
even within that curvature we're going to be trying to
find as many planes as we can. But at times we just won't be
See so, I'm not blocking in the shadow yet. I'm -
figuring out where the terminator is
but I'm also figuring out where all of the parts within that
shadow are, the anatomical parts. Right. I want to see
where they are.
And so I'm looking for these internal and by internal I mean
internal in the shadow outlines.
So I'm not thinking in planes. I'm just allowing these
areas of shadow to help me see what the proportions are, what
the particular tilts are,
because then we're going to
carve some planes into here. Now keep
in mind that some of these shadows just by being outlined -
we saw this in the nose -
are going to be
just the shape of the shadow is the plane, right? So
that might happen. Just be aware of when it's happening.
The sternocleidomastoid in there, I guess, you have
top of the sternocleidomastoid and here is the
levator scapulae coming in
and then the trapezius underneath that if we can see
any little bit of kind of
getting sucked into the area behind the head.
So there is a little tilt so we have to make sure
it's in place. Right? There's that tilt of the head there, tilts.
And you know keep in mind that as you're working on this and
you're getting your proportions more and more correct, things are
going to get larger, smaller, that's just what's going to happen. Duchess what's going to happen?
don't worry, like in my case I like that the
amount of the space this head is taking up. I don't
know what this stuff is above. Looks like a cap or something.
I don't think we need to worry about it.
This ear, let's figure it out,
figure out where that is
Too big. I don't know. It's hard to see. That's hard to tell
as well because I don't know
what's going on there. I don't know
how active it should be now. It's much more active because
it's just an outline right but then once this is all
and shadow, maybe that outline will be perfect.
Can't tell yet.
Angle of the mandible, extremely important. Let's move victim important. Let's move
shadow forward, right, to kind of signify a little bit more of that
side plane in the chin.
Now let's look at the larynx.
How long is this? I don't know.
It's gonna go proportionally, it goes up to the nostril I think.
To the nostril, to the top of the wing, right. I got it
from the sternal notch.
My apologies. From the sternal notch to the chin right
Move that distance up, should hit to pretty much right at the
top of the wing of the nostril. Am I right? Let's check it out.
I would go the other way though, right but this is fine. We're done
with that. Bring it down see. So the sternal notch is actually a
little bit low. I've exaggerated it because this neck is quite
long. So I felt like I'm going to just exaggerate it. I tend
to exaggerate the length of the neck, right all of us have
proportional biases. I talk about that
throughout the entirety of the course. We have -
we all have them as we're learning.
You know, there are times when we make the heads too big or
too small and they're consistent. Keep in mind that
all of us have - we repeat the same errors
and they never go away and at some point they just become - you
just own them.
You know there are times that you
you realize it's a mistake and you can you correct it and you
realize you have another proportional bias, you know,
after you've corrected the length of arms in general,
you've trained yourself to see those proportions him that those proportions
You realize that there's another proportional issue.
And so on and so forth that never ends and I have a couple,
you know, I elongate the torso a bit and I elongate the neck a
It could come from my own proportions, it could come from
proportions that I'm used to I'm used to seeing in maybe
some proportion that I find attractive, it's hard
to tell where exactly this comes from, but just be aware
that you have you have those too and
there's some which become a part of essentially who you are
as an artist and others that are
just, you know, they're just errors that you want to
remove as you
I see - I feel like the neck is too short.
I think it's a little bit above that.
proportionally it is what it is.
If anything I will change it later. It's not that big of a
deal but I'm going to sharpen my pencil little bit. I'm still
working with the softer ones and right start out with the softer
pencils. Not just because you can get a darker
but also because you can get
just a better line, a flow of a line, it doesn't get so
caught up. You can actually have a lighter hand with a
yes. That's something -take a plumb line if you will, except
a plumb line up, right, just put a pencil to the sternal notch
and move it, you know one side up to a point and see where it
ends up. I'm getting that this point right here should pretty
much hit here. All right.
Hmm. I might have to move it just that little bit.
That's kind of nice, that might help elongate the neck a little,
right. Take your time. Don't necessarily worry about things
being too clean.
All right, go switch to another
longer pencil of the same softness. I'm not a big
fan of the -
of a pencil when it gets too short. Now, so what do we have
here? We have to figure out what to do with this whole
side, right? Because it's not informative. It's not really
helping us, but we need to have it. So we will figure that out
as we go. Now from here
you can see
the clavicle, right, you can see the full clavicle and the
super clavicular fossa right here.
You can see the short flat head of the sternocleidomastoid
attaching to the - falling over the front of the clavicle. And
then you have the omohyoid
right here from a bone in here, the hyoid,
moving in and going and sweeping in under, attaching to
the scapula in there.
So don't -
that's what's happening there. Now. Look at this sweep. We're
getting this underside. We're getting this -
you can see the entirety of the clavicle and that's sort of the
inside and that's the outside, right? We're getting
that gap right there, that hole, that supraclavicular fossa and
we're getting a cast shadow falling from the clavicle into
Oh, it's great. It's really good. Now from here
the clavicle of course begins to turn out a little bit more
and I don't know if we see it all the way until the
end. I don't know if we see it until the acromion.
I'm not sure we see that much in general, right? So this is
And that is the pectoralis.
you know I always say don't use too many lines, but I tend to
in some cases and I don't know why, it just happens.
But it's a habit, right? So I always say that you should
avoid that one, that habit, and
here I am doing it myself.
We'll get this more precise as we as we work. It's not the
most important thing right now.
But I like where we are. I like where we are. I
like some of the proportions. What needs to happen right now
though is some larger proportions
I need to see
how much of them
I can compare now. So I'm going from this point, the
widest point right here,
to here. I'm taking this distance across and seeing how
many times it fits into the height.
It should hit to exactly from the bottom to the lower
margin of the orbit of the eye. It's a good thing.
If we get that then we have the sort of the big proportions in
place. Notice I didn't take them at the beginning, I've
mentioned this before oh boy. Oh boy a long needle or brush
should be good, but we can do with this.
Let me do it. Boom. Take it.
Oh, it's perfect. Okay, so our large proportions are in place.
As I said notice I didn't take them at beginning and
work within them, I took them after I penciled everything in
by eye. That is important to learning about proportions.
Okay. So, of course we can perhaps begin talking about
changes in plane. I still would - I would
I'm still cautious about proportions. I still would like
them to be in place. So I think it'd be easier to move them
if we get a little bit more tone, right, so squint a lot.
This is important right now because by squinting
you're minimizing some of these issues, right, you're just
squinting and just knocking this back. Keep in
mind that you want to get a little bit lighter as you reach
the edge. You don't want to
push the values there too dark, right? That's the edge, it's
not that important. You're more concerned about the terminator.
So of course, as we always do,
begin to tone that shadow from the terminator.
It's gonna move that. It doesn't have to be a value
that's very heavy. It doesn't have to be a dark value at all.
It can actually be quite light.
And I notice I'm starting with a large shadow,
right, the big shadow of the head. I'm more concerned about
that shadow of the egg than I am about small shadows like in
the orbits and eyes and mouth and all that stuff. All that
stuff we covered and we're going to - we're going to
get those shadows but
keep in mind right the big mass of the head is more important
than anything on the head.
Okay. Okay. That's helping me see what these proportions are.
And don't worry too much about differentiating between cast
and core right now.
But do sharpen stuff up if you can, right, get things clean.
Move up from here. There's a little bit of light on this
part of the - we have this clavicle too by the way.
We don't see it as clearly, it's sort parallel,
right? It's flat in our line of sight.
Don't worry about too many distinctions within the shadows
and highlights, right, all the highlights and half-tones
regardless, right? They're all the same value and the shadows
are also all pretty much the same value.
We're getting a bit of clarity here. Now we're probably - I mean
chances are we might even like erase some of these afterwards.
We don't need them, perhaps don't know yet. But
then look at this, just squint at--look at this just squint
and look at everything here that's dark. that that's dark.
Now this is getting a little bit harder, right because we
have the cast as you can see is within you know, it's inside a
box and there's something really interesting happening
with the wall of the box casting a shadow onto this
shoulder. I think it's excellent. And of course is
something apart from the cast, right? It's not just the cast,
it is sort of a situation of the light around the cast but
in terms of bringing out what's most important,
which is the head, it's perfect.
Okay, excellent. Excellent.
Off to a good start. What we do there is a nice curvature here
this clavicle, but it's done half tones
not shadows, so we're going to leave it blank for now the
white of the page. Okay. So before we sort of take a break
because let our eyes rest, right, this restroom, right like dude, this
is where you - like you need to after you make some
that you establish something on the page it's
like important, right, and we're starting out with just getting
proportions in place and all this. That's you know, that's
kind of exhausting on the eyes. And so you need to
take a break, especially if the concern right now is to just
get the proportions of in place as much as possible.
To get them accurate you need to take a break so that you can
then come back and re-evaluate everything you've done in
these early early stages.
Okay, so I
think more or less we've laid in our shadows.
Maybe even hint at a couple of very light half tones, but it
would be good to take a moment to step good to take a moment to step
away and then come back and think about this all over
again, right? Think about those proportions again, make sure
they're in place. You won't get them a right a hundred percent,
but you can bring them closer every time you allow
your eyes to take a break and then come back so
I'll see you in a minute.
allowed our eyes to relax a little bit let's go back and
rethink these proportions. See how right we were
or rather going to see how right I was and you'll see how
right you are.
I can see that actually in terms of figuring out
proportions with shadows I can see that this shadow from the
nose is larger, but this is just a shape
but this makes a certain amount of sense right? It's not
random. It's not simply larger because it is, it's
larger because the nose is as large as it is in relation
to the direction and placement of the light source.
A then the shadow's as large as it
is based on the angle of the plane that it's falling
upon, right? So in a sense, you might just be copying a shape
but you are also
maybe not even always consciously thinking of why
something is happening. Why something is as large as it is
and so on right all that stuff.
Now because this mouth is
this is going to make a couple of things a little difficult.
The fact that it's
straight on the page doesn't mean that it straight
in real life. It's horizontally possibly. But if you look at it
from above or below you can really see that curvature, right,
that kind of that horseshoe of the mouth, that horseshoe of the
the alveolar ridge of the mandible. Both upper and lower
open like, you know the mandible and the two
maxilla has too, all that stuff, right?
It's like this from above and below.
I'm gonna have to think of that and find ways to show that
with our half tones, right?
So the height of the nose is interesting to me. I'm going to
take from this outer corner, which I'm taking from
the shadows and so outer corner of the wing of the nose to
point right there on the superciliary - on
supraorbital margin, right, under the superciliary arches. Don't
worry about that if you don't know it.
Just that point is what I'm talking about. I think it's
good, taking that. And then I'm just going to find somewhere
where it can go so from the zygomatic to the nose so
from here to here
is the same as from here to here, right?
Does that make sense, is that good?
See something is a little off.
look what it is, either this is too short - all right, this is
Maybe it's - I think it's little further back though.
Maybe not. Let's try that again.
From there to there,
turn it sideways. It's from there to there. Okay, so from
to here should be the same.
It is. Excellent. See so obviously go over the proportions
multiple times, go over them multiple times and see if
you're right. Like if you find the proportion and realize
don't rush to make changes.
Okay, just take your time, try it again, take another
proportion. Make sure you're wrong because
this holding up the pencil and all that is not a precise
It's nice. It's very helpful.
You improve with practice, but it's very imprecise or can be.
So don't ever rush to make any big changes.
Okay, so see I'm kind of beginning to lock in a form a
little bit, right? That's the end, not really, but sort of the
end of the frontal bone, right, the zygomatic process of the
frontal bone right there.
I heard it called something else recently.
External angular process. Maybe that's right, but
that seems like adding a word where we don't need an extra
word. We already have the zygomatic, right? So if a
process is named after the bone that it's
towards I think that's much clearer. So the zygomatic
process is reaching towards a zygomatic bone. The frontal
process is reaching towards the frontal bone,
not named after the bone that it's a part of, named after the
bone that is connecting to.
Just remember that.
Okay. So where were we?
I'm putting in these shadows trying to find this
you know still not to accurately, right? Just making
sure it's there, just trying to find it in relation to -
there's the orbit, just find the orbit.
A portrait is a skull and and I think you saw we were
working on the individual features, though the skull
wasn't maybe that prominent in them,
I tried to focus on that as much as possible, focus on the
fact that we're not worried about the
element itself, not the eye itself, but the area around the
That is more the eye. Now see like I did that right now
and that is a dangerous thing to do at this point because
clearly that's not shadow. That's a half tone. But I think
getting a little bit in there
can be helpful
because it makes
an edge there, it establishes a half tone
on a very important part. The
I guess infraorbital margin, right, I would imagine, right if the one
above is the supraorbital margin, that's the infraorbital
margin. So as you see I'm getting into a some of these
little half tones coming off of the shadows, right? Because
that's another thing and I mentioned it earlier, the other
thing is that, you know,
big shadows help with proportions
but then the dark half tones coming off of those
are going to help you with the
proportions of the shadows themselves, right, everything
like you're building on top of this but you aren't ever
satisfied. It's not like you've completed a step and you're never
think of it again. I know I've said that many times and I will
say it many times, but I'm just trying to make that just
automatically so that you understand that that's the
So, okay. So this already makes things a little bit clearer,
right? It shows us what this area is, how much light is there,
but I do think it won't hurt to get some
changes in plane, right, some placement. And we know from the
John Asaro planar head what is happening here, right? We know
that this is that lower ridge,
right, that tilt downwards of the superciliary arches. We
And then we move upwards to that front plane of the frontal
which is the frontal eminence.
Now what's happening here is also an interesting thing,
right, the top of the head is quickly falling away into a
dark half tone. You might even a say into shadow.
And that is of course happening for the same reason that this
shadow is happening is that the structure of the box
casting a shadow on the top of the head and I think that's
in terms of practicing a mood, practicing a feeling of light,
not only shadows where they helped the structure and the
anatomy and the changes of plane, but also where shadows
not part of the form itself are falling onto the form from afar.
Not even just the cast shadows that we use
but from afar is an excellent thing to practice. For emphasis,
for atmosphere, for
figuring out what the
real changes in the front and back planes are and
So we'll get there. Now this is a triangular plane leading
And what I'm interested in seeing here,
right, is this is the temporal line and we take it all the way
back to the to the parietal eminence.
Bringing this back here
and see I'm just breaking down,
still very structurally breaking down the frontal bone.
See it's already getting a little bit more. I'm not - I'm figuring
our planes but I'm also -
oh this is a fun part right here, right
wraps and then wraps around again, right? You could just
see the skull as I'm making this line just becomes a skull
and then of course there is the eye itself. We don't have to
worry about the eye in the same way that we did with the
eye on its own because this eye is closed and also it's sort of
fallen into the skull as I mentioned before due to the
fact that this guy was dead. And that's actually quite
convenient because we're able to see the form much more
without getting distracted by, you know, that psychological
quality, that effect that eyes have on us be they in a
sculpture or, you know, in life, painting, a photograph, anything.
Eyes don't have to be alive to have the effect on us that they
But as soon as they're closed
we kind of -
as soon as they're closed they just fall into the
background a little bit.
I actually have a thing, I don't know, the portraits that I paint,
a lot of times I divert the eyes away or turn them down. I
can't always explain why.
I can't - I don't know but I find it interesting and quite
interesting to try to express some sort of psychology without
I mean I still think of from a technical standpoint I still
think of orbits and placement and anatomy but I try not to -
but I don't know for the longest time I thought it was
maybe somewhat of a cop out, you know your kind of you're
relying on eyes to make things look human
because you know, you open up the eyes, you show a gaze and eyes
are very hard to do, it's true, but like you do this
but then, you just, you need to - I'm sharpening in case you
But then you need the eyes.
Yeah, I think you got to use them when you really need to,
like I think of them as like a detail
that is extremely important, but can be overused, At the same
time you should know how to draw them.
That hasn't gone away. You just need to know the stuff,
which is what we're doing here.
I'm still working the shadows. I'm putting in some some of the
half tones, right, some of them. Right, like I'm just trying to
get this eye out of here, as inside the head.
What's happening here is interesting. Right? We have all
these shadows on the nose, which
we sort of left - I left abruptly.
And let's do
what I did with the nose when we're working on it on its own.
Let's just place that side plane of the nose into some
Whether it's shadow or half tone, I don't
know yet. Clearly based on what we have here it's shadow, based
on what is going to happen I can't tell you because I think
the wing of the nose is in fact in light, a dark light, dark half
tone and the side plane does come out in light as well, but
we'll get there.
now the front plane of the head
coincides quite conveniently with what we have here, right?
We just have the - from the zygomatic, from these sort of
outer most point here
to - I mean you can actually go from the outer corner of the
eye as well
like to allow this to stand out from there as its own plane to
the corner of the mouth. And then you drop it straight down
It's pretty much all we need.
But a similar thing needs to happen right here that happened
right there. This is side plane.
See and right away
we're establishing a bit more form. This right here is an
intermediary plane between front and side. So let's start
with side and break that off, right, as long as you can still
pin point where those terminators are. Everything is
pretty light right now.
And then this intermediary plane, let's block that off,
too. I'm gonna just unify them with the top for now. It's not
entirely correct to do that but I think we should. I think
it's easy to do it now, it works. Now front and side of the
larynx, side. Look at that. You can see that bit of light on
the front plane of the flat small head of the
sternocleidomastoid and then it falls back into
Okay so already we're getting a lot of structure here.
Now, of course these planes are turning upwards towards our
light while some of these are not. These are pretty much flat,
curved with variations and so on of course but flat, so
I'm just gonna knock this back a little, not maybe that dark but
just not come back and we'll use an eraser to come in and
get things a little bit cleaner as we go.
just going to erase some of this. I know our brightest
lights are around the eye, the zygomatic a mattock.
on the frontal eminence and front plane there,
and I'm just - the ear's marvelous and I can't wait to get to it
but I feel like it's sticking out too much right now, and we
just need to knock it back.
We'll get there. We'll get there for sure.
What I would do now is
now is the time to follow procedure again,
it's time to work the terminator, work out from it into
the darker half tones.
And let's start with the most prominent and most important
anatomical point from this angle in the face, the zygomatic bone,
is so clear because of the
the cheeks, right, and how they've fallen in a little bit.
sunken in cheeks -
I mean, it's kind of horrible, right, this guy
he wasn't alive, but he
will be remembered for a while
since he was made into this sculpture, if you will.
Made into a cast
to be used by us
all right look, so
the key is, right, is to have the darkest contrast on those
Remember that the zygomatic.
It's pretty much
in line with the
base of the nose. Pretty much.
I'm working - see I've switched to a slightly harder pencil and
I'm immediately beginning to sort of carve out some of those
darker half tones. I just think they're so important. I can't
leave them for later because see I'm already not too
in copying, right, I'm not copying the shadow shapes
anymore. We got them in place, they helped us establish some
areas, that's all good, but
the purpose of this, right, we're thinking now,
beginning to think in planes and form. That's the goal here.
Go with the masseter there, but also look at where the form of
the zygomatic ends. Try to see it.
Right, spend your time on this spot.
Take your time.
Just working on that zygomatic, working on those shadows, right, a
lot of small shadows there. So we're just pulling out from
them what's happening here. All right, we're getting
Excellent, the protrusion here.
Just figure out the front plane of it and the top.
And keep in mind I'm still focusing on proportions because right
now I'm going to go from here to here, see how wide this
orbital rim is,
so that I can place that eye even more clearly, even more
So yeah, so I'm not - keep in mind I've lost already - I could
already see how I've lost some larger plane changes.
I'm okay. I'm okay with it for now.
Hmm. I'm moving things around here already because
everything's a little bit organic.
But look at this. Look how flat this is. Just going to take
All right, we need this darker in general so that we can have
a light on the orbital rim.
We're not in a hurry here
for analyzing and notice I'm not worried about
the individual structures that we've already covered. Of
course, you might ask then why do we spend all that time on
we're not even worried about the nose and the eye and the
mouth and the ear.
And my answer is
one, is that we're going to do them for sure and spent a lot
of time on them.
but also is that the purpose in doing them was to learn about
making an organic structure and a form on a page that is
But attempting to
divide what seems like an even curvature on the outside
of the form into something
that has an order
and simply not even an order than just an angle.
Believe it or not, doing those small casts is actually
helping you with all of the stuff that we're doing now.
Right, but we're still kind of still at the proportions. We're
still taking proportions. At least I'm still trying to,
right, I'm modeling a little bit, but I'm moving
some stuff up and down a little bit.
This is - this is quite a volume right? You can see that volume.
You almost want to not forget to make it clear.
Just clean that up a little bit.
A lot going on in here.
A lot going on.
This mass of the masseter
Keep sharpening that pencil.
I kind of - I'm kind of switching between hard and soft right now
because I use the soft ones to push that terminator, that
shadow, but I'm using the hard pencil to
the kind of to move that terminator into the lights a
little bit. So I'm using them in a way. I'm kind of using
both in a similar way, but it's hard to explain the
difference in effect. So I recommend you just try it.
It's a tactile effect and also you can see
something happening on a page in a different way. But right
here, right, I'm not just focusing on terminator. I'm
seeing the little cash shadows are falling from these forms
onto the other forms of the cheek. You can see how
it's coming closer.
To make these things with like half-tones I'm going to need
this shadow right here.
Right and that shadow
it's sunken in, its the zygomatic not the bone but the
either the major or the minor. I don't think they're that
important to know but it's the muscle - it's
probably the major.
here right, that's creating that edge.
It's that muscle that comes down from the zygomatic itself,
the bone, and connects to the corner of the mouth.
And that pulls the corners of the mouth out and up.
Don't get too concerned with that.
In general, they're not that important, all those
the face and all of that stuff, expression.
Of course, they're important in life, right? Because without
them we wouldn't be able to make the expression but I don't
think they're helpful in as you know them, you wouldn't
necessarily know to
draw the head
Except for a couple, right, except for a couple.
I'll mention them as we get to them and if we see them.
But now I need to work off of that shadow and move it up into
large curve, right, that sweep right there.
On the cheek moving upward toward the nose.
Use the eraser little bit front plane of that form.
We need to get it there.
You can be a little imprecise the moment but
we'll get it.
See, everything is feeling a little bit more
locked in and
front plane here of the philtrum which you might not be
able to see as clearly as in the Michelangelo lips, but
let's break it down into that pyramid shape that we saw on
the Michelangelo lips.
Let's have that happen.
You can see the lips are slightly parted. We're going to
have to do that. Don't worry about it just yet, but we're
going to have to do that by
increasing that gap between the lips.
Just keep extent extending those half tones. Just
kind of a lock them into the shape of the area. Right?
That's what we know how to do now
and it's okay if it's a little bit blocky
right now, right? That's what we did with our other casts,
right? We block them off. They were maybe a little bit every
plane change was a sharp one
like maybe clearer than they need to be but then later to
just to soften that is -it's not just that it's not that
that difficult or it's not a lot of work because it can be
but it's so enjoyable because you know you have those
structures in there.
You're not like if you overstate them
earlier on you're not afraid to lose them.
Not afraid to lose them.
Okay. Okay. I think we got relatively far here right now.
I'm just gonna extend this some of these shadows there are
multiple shadows there. Once again interference of different
lights the stuff I'm going to minimize that a little bit,
couldn't combine them, right, that big shadow on the side
plane of the head as well as that sort of very clear almost
occlusion shadow from the
from the zygomatic process and the temporal line here.
And this is just from the temporal line.
This is our accent. That's our emphasis. Now
what we have here
alright more planes, more planes to break down but in general,
right, this whole part is side plane, so we get that
all into a darker value right off the bat get this away.
It's a little easier to do because I just, I pushed that
shadow, of course.
Just gonna knock this lower
ridge, right, that ridge of the superciliary arches. Just take
it all the way, knock that back, that triangle, also push it back
and then all of this
it is what it is. We don't need to worry about it that much
This is probably more shadow this like the cap that they put
on this guy.
That's fine. That's fine, too.
And just to clean stuff up, right? You can always carve a
nice organic outline later as you go.
I'm left-handed as you see so the left side is clean. I mean
maybe that's not
super professional and we just need to keep anchored but I
don't all the time.
Sometimes I do but then but then I anchor that and then I
still get those marks so I just say don't worry about it.
Let's get that
really protruding strong Adam's apple,
the thyroid cartilage.
Look at that. And then it has a
like all of this right? It's just
at this strong triangular sort of angle. the angle.
And then of course, there's the shadow itself. Let's make it a
little bit darker than the mandible, right, core shadow,
terminator, core shadow, reflected light, cast Shadow.
Casts shadow's darker and then we knock it back, right, knock it
Then we knock it back.
I'm solving it. I'll get into that more and more.
I think it's come a ways.
Little bit more clarity, a little bit more of a proper
tonality here and there.
Let's take a moment and see if we can begin to move
into some of those specifics like the eyes, nose, and mouth.
All of those things that we we just spent a
lot of time on, we can now
see how we can apply that
I looked at some things here and I
think there's still some proportional errors that I can
can work to correct, even though I've already moved
past them in a way. So let me just explain a very quick sort
of easy technique.
And a way to do it, right, is to take a break
and just keep your eyes on the object or the model or
whatever is in front of me, right, squint, keep your eyes
there until it becomes a little bit almost uncomfortable.
Right? It's hard to keep your eyes in one place for too long.
Keep them there, kind of squint again think of
large relationships, open them up, small relationships, and then
quickly transfer your eyes to the paper.
And you will be much easier to see
what jumps out as wrong?.And what I'm seeing here is that
the eyes are a little bit too big and I'm skeptical about the
amount of room I have from the mouth down to the chin. That's
what I'm concerned about right now. This angle too seems a
little bit too - it's almost a 45, I think in real life it's
much flatter and then it sort of it's not
simply a tilt upwards. It can be
broken up into a little bit more than that. So
before I continue
with all of this
I've been doing up to this point
I'm just going to go and make some corrections. So that's
what I was talking about up there, right, the bridge of the
nose a little more prominent. It's sort of exaggerated almost
but you know, that too can be a little bit more obvious
our model was not alive when when this happened. Now, I
think bringing down the eyes is the way to go. I think -
but let's check it, right. I'm going from essentially this
line to the
eye, right, to the
that occlusion shadow between the eyelids.
Okay. I'm moving it up, moving it down will work and I take it
It's actually from here to here,
from this point to this point should be about the same.
It's okay. It's not bad. It's pretty close actually.
But the height of the eye now, if the bottom is fine that I
go from the bottom to the top and I compare it to
something else. This is a little bit of a harder of a
proportion to compare I think though. One,
two, essentially the halfway point here right from the
to the bridge halfway is about the height of the eye.
Something like this, halfway. It's somewhere right there I
Keep in mind I'm going to the shadow. I'm not going to the
I'll find the ridge in that shadow eventually.
Right the proportions of the hunt for them never stops.
That's the thing to realize here.
I want to keep things consistent in technique, right?
I do kind of want to use the stump a little bit more than I
had been with the other casts, but I'm gonna -
like you can get a lot of information in there simply by
moving values around, modeling that way, which was an academic
technique for sure
in the 19th century, a hundred percent. And in some cases
But the hatch
I want to keep it consistent with the technique that we've
been practicing, right?
s=So I'm okay with this, but now, now the eye is a little bit
smaller. We can end the eye by the way, the ball of the eye,
let's end it.
have that bit of of light there as it comes off of the eyeball
and is clearly representative
Okay, but my other problem, right, I fixed some of those, not
to say that they're done but for now
and I'm just going to take from the chin to the mouth that
distance and moving it up again. It should be halfway
from here to here.
Seems okay. Could be a value thing, could be the shape of the
shadows. I think I'll just keep adjusting it. It possibly is that
the chin doesn't come out enough, makes it feel smaller.
There are lots of things here that affect it. Lots of like -
see I did that.
Oh, that's awesome. See it elongates the chin, but
diagonally without me changing any vertical proportions.
Cool. See you learn things every time you do it right
because you're learning from
alive, you will right, you are trying
to use what you know
to understand what you're seeing.
You're encountering some problems because there's just a
lot you don't know.
So you have to rely on - you know, it's a back and forth
kind of thing.
You observe and then you analyze the observe again and
it never stops.
I'm just laying in some large
tonal movement, right, I just explained some of these
changes in plane. Not being specific with it.
Is much more organic in real life, but just to have it on
the page. I think it's good. It's nice to have there.
It's getting into here a little bit though.
Like these little shadows on that side plane of the upper
and lower teeth, if you will. The upper and lower rows of teeth.
And then this is
a muscle of expression, the
depressor anguli oris.
Or I think it used to be called the triangularis as well
because it's sort of triangular.
I don't think it's called that anymore though.
It's an interesting - I don't know who changes the names
though. I mean, I think once you have it you kind of keep it,
nobody cares, but probably
yeah, no change them for artists doesn't matter maybe
matters for doctors,
anatomists and all that stuff.
that triangular muscle, right, goes in the corner of the mouth
and sort of establishes that intermediary plane to the chin.
So that's where that comes in to play, right, when it's helping
you structure the head then it's important. Like the
zygomatic here. In most people it won't help you structure the
head, you won't even see it.
Even if a person is smiling, which is what that muscle is
responsible for, it also you won't see it. You just see the
So if you don't know some of those don't really worry about
it. I mean, I learned them in school, but I just you know, I
don't think that I've ever thought of them.
Just hinting at the mouth there. Of course, we're going
to get into that. There's some - a lot more going on there
like getting into some of that light and how this form wraps
around the lower row of teeth. That's a big thing.
But I already see that there's a clear problem with some of
this stuff right here, right? There's
we're breaking it up into planes. This makes a lot of
let's knock this back more
into side plane.
Let's just kind of even out that shadow just a little bit more.
Not really working on the features yet, even though I
That's the thing, right, get as much done with the head as you
The large planes, the large changes. This is what
like if you've done the anatomy portions of the skull
and the anatomy of the head then you know that that's what
I'm about and what I've been trying to get across.If you
haven't then you definitely see it, you see more of it.
All right, that's the masseter.
But look at how clear we see these curvatures as they that these curvatures as they
wrap the zygomatic there. Zygomatic arch, not process.
But then look at that turn, the zygomatic arch. You can see it
the ear actually might need to come down a little bit.
But you can see that turning back.
Right, like more and more the skull begins to appear here.
Things are looking to still a little bit too angular.
I'm not overjoyed by this.
But what is happening here? I think this whole top part,
right? The cranium above is getting a little
flat, right, because
now it's a little bit better, not - it's not done. This needs to
come down a little bit, that value too.
We'll get there though, we'll get there. I'm more
concerned with some of these small changes, right, hatching
Now I'm getting into the orbit. This is an enjoyable
right, it has a shape, but I'm not too worried about it at the
If you're interested don't hesitate to really begin to
wrap these forms.
And now that I've got the actual
line of the orbit
I feel like I can get that cast shadow that's falling onto the
And then down here.
And then see the full end of the eye.
This is a tough, right? This is tough. In some cases it's going
to be a darker value. This is going to
up-close work. All right.
Keep it clean though.
But don't hesitate to make these dark accents, even if you
know, we are being constructive and stuff, but don't worry
about it. Make it read. Because this is of primary importance.
Right, go up to this little notch right there.
But then let's get more
modeling in there.
This is great.
really looking good. See I'm a little bit more tonal though.
A little bit more tonal. sorry.
I'm still thinking in form undoubtedly, there's
no alternative. There is but this isn't the class
I'm curving turning that form on the zygomatic really
making sure those half tones are dark enough because at
they're not that dark, you know.
I've heard it seemed as though they're not that they're not
that dark, but see already I'm getting a lot more already. I'm getting a lot more
How's a B pencil looking?
Something in between, that was just getting a little too hard,
but you know, there's more stuff to do there.
right, don't want to overstate
closed eye, right, that's not the larger fact that it's a
ball in there is more important.
The eyeball, the sphere. But do look up close and see that
there is the lid and the thickness of the upper lid
followed by the cast shadow, even, you know, even
eye, right the upper lid is above in a sense a little bit above
the lower one and casting a shadow onto it.
And then we're there.
Kind of carve into it.
All right, so that kind of
is getting us
thinking about the features again.
But I just would like to place them first with a little more
emphasis, of course, like I'm doing
before we get into some of these, you know, some of the
Of all the features and getting into there but
I think the side planes are reading quite well. This is a
very structured cast at the moment. It's not
feeling organic at all. So in that sense, it's sort of along
the lines of what
we were doing with the rest of the casts that
it's the polish that's going to be interesting, making these a
little bit more organic, really getting into the features, and
also establishing the necessary accents and all that all that
We'll get there. We'll get there
for sure. So
where it is right now, I after fixing some proportions
before getting too carried away
I would like to take another moment take my eyes off of this
so that I can come back
and give that head a good look
compared to what I have on the page.
Just to make sure everything's in the right place before
moving on and we're going to kind of get into the habit of
doing this over and over again.
So with that let's take another few.
Whenever you need it, take a break. The whole
point isn't to just keep at it until you pass out. The
whole idea is to try to concentrate as much as you can,
focus on the task at hand. After it's accomplished you can take
a break. Even halfway into it take a break if you
realize that after the break it'll improve your
productivity. So I'll see you in a few minutes.
we can do in these areas that we haven't yet really spent
was looking a little bit during the break
and I feel like this half tone, which I initially said is good,
right, because it kind of rounded off that
area is a little bit too much right now. So just gonna tone
that back and see how it opens up the space of the
zygomatic. However, I'm not lying to you.
I do in fact intend to get into
the features, right, those areas that we have not - I keep saying
we're going to do
and I don't do.
So the first part, right, is to make sure that the features are
sufficiently intense, the values need to be
clear because that's where we want the
attention to go, like the viewers attention.
Alright cast is
you know, I've heard a lot of opinions on cast and of course
there is the -
just taking that angle.
Yeah, I got to bring this down a little. You know, there's the opinion
not that exciting.
You know, it's clearly viewed as simply an exercise , there's also
the opposite opinion where the cast is the sort of the end all,
it's art in itself.
Both of those wrong. I think I mean it's - I think there are
definitely interesting things to pick up from from casts and
to learn from cast and even the cast itself
and I'm not saying that the image of the cast itself, the
exercise itself can be something quite enjoyable
to look at, right, like if you can think of the of quite
artistic interpretations of casts, even though they are
Some good examples are of course
He did some paintings of cast, but he kind of put them in an
interesting environment. You know, he
hung them on a wall with a light from underneath. It's
There's that but I think he actually also has just some
things that were cast right, but it's just the quality of
his execution that really brought them to a new level and
So it is possible to have a piece with a great deal of
that's sort of begins as an exercise.
At same time understand, right, that this is
in order to learn.
the principles of light and shadow, to analyze
a structure, to make something organic, not as organic,
and then organic again, you know, all that stuff we've
been talking about. It's an exercise. size.
So I apologize in advance right now for
all the contradictions.
But if there aren't any, right, no there aren't any right no car
contradictions in the practice here then
what's the fun at all?
okay. So the half tones are definitely becoming
here the hard part, right? The hard part is that we have to
make sure that we get those shadows on the side plane of the
nose but also those half tones, those half tones are dark dark
value. They're coming really close to the nose rather than
to the shadows right there. That's at times it's even
look at them just very briefly on. Is that shadow, was that
that's why we treat them a little bit more as one major
group, right, as
of darker values.
I think that's easier to do with the moment than anything
else and then we'll see.
Just trying to see where that is, where the corner of the nose is in
relation to the eye. A classic proportion.
Yeah, and then we're going to get into, you know, pulling them
apart a little bit.
Pulling them apart. Just a little.
Using the eraser to carve those shadows, right? So not
everything is structural.
Though everything ideally is in your head.
So but some things you just you find, you find in place.
And then we'll get into -
look at that wonderful down plane of the glabella.
You can really see it there.
We're not there yet. Right. We're not even at half tones
The lighter half tones, those we can play around with a little. I
just extend them into the front of the nose.
But don't worry too much about them yet.
What I do want to do is the lips, right, and I did mention
when we were working on the lips from
the cast, the lips cast,
that I said that I personally feel that
they are the key to likeness.
And I still think that
and I precisely kind of think that I'm lacking a likeness at
because of the lips, right, because they're not there yet.
They're not the right shape. They're not the right
Very particular overlaps there at the lower lip because lips
are parted remember that and what's really going to show
that of course is, cast shadow is that cast shadow from the
upper lip of the lower lip.
Look at that overlapping rotation there. whatever rotation there.
Feel free to push that occlusion shadow, right, and that
parting of the lips.
A little bit of a carving. I'm carving more than anything
else, but it's very hard to see how light certain parts are.
Plant that center line over and over again and knock back that
I think I'm going to actually switch to a pencil that's maybe
somewhere in between, right, not an F,
not an HB, but maybe just a B, right, so that I get soft enough
without the excessive darkness.
So that axis. Okay. So things to talk about right is that
alignments are very important. And we've gone over
that a little bit
and we're going to keep going over them.
But the thing is, right, that this in a sculpture,
especially of you know a more,
work of art, chances are the sculptor placed those
and made everything parallel and symmetrical and so
all these planes and so on.
This being a cast from a person who
was alive, a human being, not having undergone the
particular transformation, the interpretation, the translation if
you will into a work of art,
is much closer to what we actually can perceive in life
and that is of course these axes are not perfectly
So a times you want to
see that and make sure that you're not
aligning them all the way, right? So for example, the
mouth actually I think is at a slightly different tilt.
And the hard part is right when do you actually convert
the actual alignments into something a lot more structured
on the page and when do you
leave it? And that's hard to say. I think
it's sort of case by case
and I think essentially my answer, though not really
that helpful I think would be that you have to leave those
where they are essential to the character of the face.
So I think that's - and so now let's move move back a bit.
Right? And if I based on what I said earlier, I think that the
character of a model is entirely in the lower part
of the head, right,
in the chin and
all that and the mouth and the orbicularis oris and the
lips, all of that then clearly
means that maybe something that's off-axis,
chances are would appear,
more likely appear,
And there were artists who have commented on that as well, right,
that a portrait is
you know, there's always something wrong with
the mouth. I think that was a line by
by Sargent, yeah, I think it was Sergeant.
There's always some - it's a portrait of a head which
there's always something wrong with the mouth.
So he agrees in a sense. I think that's kind of
what I was talking about. He said it in fewer
words, made it a little more of an aphorism.
I am refining
the features but I'm not forgetting those half tones
that really really matter. Right like knocking back the
wing of the nose, the side plane, like making sure that this
whole area isn't a tone like to curve right the horseshoe of
the mouth we were talking about earlier.
So yeah. Yeah, I think we're getting
somewhere now. Clearly I'm losing some of these shadows
and that's okay for now. I feel like more structural
modeling is necessary, right? Keep things pretty planar.
We'll start inflating some of these areas, right, making them a
little bit more
organic. We will arrive at that point. That's not a big deal.
That part's easy.
And if you don't arrive at that
and that's hard to do,
if that doesn't work out that well, that's actually okay,
right because that's not the main point. That is something
that will come with practice as you complete more and more
assignments you learn to
polish them into something that is a little bit more
But yes, yes. Yes that's making sense to me. So that's the
interesting part. Right? So the mouth kind of horizontal. Still
not there, not a hundred percent, not a hundred percent,
but that's okay. Look at this corner, right, this corner, this
sort of area, this inflated part of the corner of the lips.
You'll encounter this a lot.
We sort of saw it in the Michelangelo Michelangelo lips,
but it's a little more obvious here
and I've just kind of knocked it back
because it shouldn't be that bright.
I feel like, yeah, that half tone I was putting in earlier,
it's very important now for me to look and see where some of
these intersections are.
Because I don't entirely know
where the head is on the other side there, right, how much of
the outer edge of the front plane of the nose stands out
against the background and how much of the other zygomatic do
and on the one hand you might ask isn't that something
I should have figured out earlier and
that's for sure. Sure, because it's you can see, it's all
pretty, it's pretty easy. Right? It's not -
there's not a lot of value there. Not a lot of structure
just figuring out a line and that means you could
pretty much move it around for as long as we need until you
get it right.
Okay, okay. Okay. I'm going to get back into the
superciliary arches. But
if you have done the
assignment on the skull, you know what those are.
Yeah, round that off. Right? Let's get a feeling of roundness.
I think it's maybe
over accentuating some of those values at the moment.
You know pushing maybe little bit too much.
I'm not actually defining them that clearly, I'm kind of
inching towards the under plane of the
superciliary arches with the value.
I think that's actually a little bit clearer.
All right, there's tilts make sure those tilts are in place.
I think the one thing that you definitely have to always
align is axes along in one structural area. So for one structural area. So for
the parts of the
frontal bone up here have to be aligned. So the
eyebrows and the eyebrow ridge rather
has to be aligned with the top of the frontal bone, right?
It's not - so it's the same structure now are they in same structure now are they in
reality? Not always I'm pretty sure
they're not in all cases aligned perfectly, but
we need them. We need them there. Now this right those
shadows and the orbit on the far side just make sure
they're just that tiny bit lighter than the ones up close.
So just outlining a little bit of the
Moving upwards on the -
kind of making the
frontal eminence just little bit more organic, right, just
like we started with just sharp points right, so we just need
carve them up a little bit.
I'm ignoring you guys again.
Sorry about that. This is right like this is just sort of
a crucial part of the process
I'm really establishing the particular turn of some of the
half tones, how quickly they fall into shadow. And that is
kind of the part that will make this come
alive. Everything after that is then just you know enhancing
contrast, reducing it, getting a little more of a detail in
there. But right now I just need
to get a little bit more.
information in there
in all these places right? Just just
getting all that stuff in there.
Stepping back, taking a look. Okay. Okay. Okay, okay.
Now what's happening here? What's happening here?
Let's kind of turn that form from the
temporal line, right? Just kind of get a little bit more
moving in. This is also - everything in the head right is
sort of along this curvature. So
at times you don't even need to look up there, just take a look
what is properly sort of curving away from us.
Clean this up a little bit,
getting a little too smudgy.
Which I think in terms of how soft this needs to be is
actually pretty good. I like how soft it has
become but you know, the other parts got smeared by my hands.
Okay. Yeah, just sort of make sure we have that side
plane and then we keep going.
I like what I'm seeing though - but before we go
into more refinement and more specifics,
it is good to get a little bit more information just on the
inside, right, inside here. Sort of the side plane of the
kinda that tubular curvature of the sternocleidomastoid.
But soft, don't overstate it.
You can find it later with a line if you need to.
It's not that big of a deal, but
I feel like we don't move this along
a little bit, right, if we don't kind of get a feeling for the
entirety of the cast, the full completion, right. Here now we
can begin to, you can see that
strong tapering off, right, strong tapering off into
the tendon, right the tendon of the sternocleidomastoid, the
thin point there.
And you can see it because of the cast shadow, too.
You just get it on the page, right, Just don't worry
How specific this is, I mean you can see it wrapping on the
clavicle and all that style, that stuff we'll get there and
then not the biggest deal but because deal but
right, but see I make that mark and already I'm
second thoughts. Right? I think it's too dark compared to
It's all about balancing those values, balancing those accents.
Making sure that light on the side leads more.
Let's move back up here.
Just gonna hatch straight out of that shadow into the
But that, right, this we know is the short head,
sternocleidomastoid, but look at this.
That's already, right, that extension that is this part
right here expanding there, that's levator scapulae.
I'm overstating it a little. I might though. No, at first I thought
it was and I looked and yeah, it's right there.
That's the weird part about about it sometimes that you're
sometimes you do things just based on what you remember
them to be
you end up being right, the right place.
Just going to continue with this the larger value here. I
don't know how dark to push this. Yes. That's why keep it
lighter for now.
Keep it lighter for now, step backwards. This is -
and let's get a little bit more out.
And once again, let's just get things a little bit softer, little more
refined, and a lot of times refinement right, it's just flatness if
you will, I just a flat edge that is kind of all the
refinement in it.
Where are we? Here good, this is good. This is interesting. All
of this is very very light half tone. So
we'll figure that out as we go, right? I just want to see how
Just knock that back a little bit more to make sure the neck
stands out and then this is one of those instances that
kind of go against
this structural principle, right, that's clearly a
shadow entirely happening because of the box, right? So
if you notice what I do
in explaining these things, right? Is essentially every
single part that I approach,
every single part that I sort of arrive at, have arrived at
I just find a name for it. That's pretty much what I'm
doing. I'm working here and then I just explain what that
and why that's happening. And now the question is is that
going to help you
draw it, right? If I just - if you know what it's called and I
truthfully think that it does make a difference. Like if you
know what it is and you just call
something by its name, by its proper name
you have a better understanding.
of that element in question, right? It's not just a value, a
certain kind of value, a lighter value than this but a darker
one than that becomes too confusing, that becomes
in a sense too repetitive but if you're naming things based on
the principles of light and shadow, just organizing a little
bit more where things are coming from
why they're doing that and so on
and I think you have a much better chance of putting them
on paper in a way that's really really convincing.
I'm still trying to keep this loose though.
All right, still keeping this loose, not overstating the
clavicles. Though I do think, right, the clavicle
has that large curvature, this way and then out. sweat and then out.
So that's that one. I'm just going to put that in here with
just a bit
Right just to get that curvature.
But make sure we align these things. Clavicles, clavicles,
Just looking across left to right, left to right,
Right so keep in mind also the fluctuations. I'm noticing
them as I'm working
because I'm also talking about them, right, if I was working on
them maybe without
talking as much I wouldn't notice them as clearly but
notice what keeps happening structurally. Alright, we get -
we go through these fluctuations, these
more optical -
and I'm not talking about like the the process, just a more
optical appearance like the way it looks
on the page, right more sort of
just observed placement of shadows, values,
angles and lines,
stuff like that,
to a more structured approach where everything clearly seems
to be a little bit more focused
on the planes of the head and the planes of each individual
right? Just kind of analysis not observed clearly the values
and are off, they're not that precise, things go a little
haywire in terms of that, but get a little more interesting
in terms of
anatomy and structure and so on, right, so
you kind of soften that and bring it back to what you're
looking at, right, just observable
contrasts and things like that. Maybe some small - like even from
a structural standpoint it's more observed, right? We're
going to get to something quite small and intricate
right, that just observed - and I don't like I'm not so sure we
can really ever pinpoint that area from our minds. Perhaps
you could you know, but I think it's a little bit too specific
to our model, right? So so you end up structuring something
from observation, right? So this is constantly moving -
It's hard to explain entirely right, but you're moving all
around like you're moving from one end of the technical
spectrum to the other
and you could see it
on the paper. That's the crazy part. This is why I brought it
up because I saw it like when
we came back after the break
I looked at it and I thought okay. It kind of it was a
little bit on the of a little bit on the
structural side of things but there were parts that were
clearly overpowering and that they were the observable
I think the parts from observe - like the observed parts, right,
just the values have gone away a little bit
and it's much more specific
to just analysis of
of angles and planes and things like that.
Yet at the same time some of the half tones are also
contributing to a feeling of a larger structure. So it's hard
to pinpoint but the that's the - just keep in mind like
that's something which comes with the approach. We're going to
these, like there is no one approach that will handle
everything and solve every problem
is what I'm trying to say.
Okay, so just going to lay in the ear, right?
Look at that really intense curve on the antihelix and you
can see the helix behind it and the weird earlobe that the weird here though,
right? Look at how that gets in and under, the ear has a lot of
and that is awesome.
There's some darker areas in there, right, the concha.
Just knock it back.
Right proportions, proportions. I think that's pushed too high,
that comes down a little bit more.
Comes down a little bit more. It comes down to here.
Look at how the lower crus of the antihelix
this perfectly continuing that line of the zygomatic arch.
Now, is that consistent? I don't know. I don't think so.
Is that going to happen in every head? I mean, I don't
think so, but it's happening here.
And that's a nice rhythmic thing that we need to pick up
right, and it's an element of the plasticity of the
head. This is a term
used a lot at the Repin Academy and it means pretty
It means gesture,
sort of the movement of lines on the two-dimensional plane,
but also into like - but also the movement of
sort of a movement around the head in the around the head in
three-dimensional space as well.
So I don't want to like confuse you with the terminology, but
that is pretty much the
word used to describe everything at the Repin
Academy. Is it plastic enough
is essentially a question that concerns the gestural
qualities of a drawing.
But it's not only just angles,
you know, angles of one thing in relation to angles or something
else even though it is that as well.
And interesting part is that these words definitely
exist in English, right? They definitely exist in English,
but it's not even so much
it's how common the word is right? How often it's used.
There are a few of these.
And some become a little bit more complicated
because they are dealing with what sort of more just
But there are words that are more common
in the language
so you can even - so for example, you can talk about them
not necessarily from the
like from an artisti - it's not the vocabulary that belongs
to the craft of an artist. This is something that you can tell
a person on the street who has nothing to do with art and they
pretty much understand what you're talking about. They
might not know the specifics or the intricacies of the
application of the term, but they will know what you're
talking about. And that's the interesting thing. Like if you
tell a person
who has nothing to do with art, right, that's not
their career, practice,
the word plasticity then
they kind of won't know what you're talking about for the
most part and I think also a lot of artists won't know what
you're talking about because that's just not the terminology
Nor is it used in everyday life.
This is the hard part of converting artistic education,
right, but I think something like that line continuing
is a pretty -
it's, you know, that's an internal rhythmic structure
that can be called
a gestural component of the head
I went on a big tangent just off of that, right, that
was a lot.
The interesting thing is is that there's nothing to find
out in the case of just contemporary
current art education that's
just, you know, think about you know, different
countries, different languages, explaining different things
different ways and so on but
what's interesting to think about is artists and terms that
we take for granted. Like the terminology of the
Italian art of the
the Cinquecento for example the sort of mid to high Renaissance
moving on too high,
what were the terms used? We have a lot of them, they've come
out of those,
a lot of the manuscripts and the texts about artists have
come down to us. But the question is do we know what
those terms actually mean?A lot of times you don't
but luckily there's a lot of excellent scholarship on those
Okay, so see I kind of laid the earring in a much more
painterly way, right? I just moved things around, got a value
in, knocked it back. So on, right? Just to get a placement. Of
course it's going to need a little bit more form, a little bit more
refinement and all that.
I think we're at a good spot right now and we're at a good spot,
things are already in this sort an even amount of
observable contrast observable tonality, but also,
more structural components. So let's
take a moment,
step back for a bit and then really get into the refining of
this cast and the -
we're still early but what you can already call the
stages of completion.
I'll see you in a minute.
here is the fun part. I think right now we're going to start
from the top, move our way down. That's pretty much how I think
we need to we need to think of this,
right, refinements, some sharper pencils.
Put the pencil in and turn, it'll kind of that it'll kind of
move it in as it sharpens.
This is the 2B.
This is a 2H, right? I'm alternating between the two.
And then I also have my -
I have a B pencil which I think is a good in between. Now
of course, you know, they're not exactly a certain kind that
because you know depends
on the brand also, right? Like a B from one isn't like
a B from another kind of like, you know,
that's always the case.
But that's not a big deal here. Just kind of
play around with it until you're comfortable. until you're comfortable.
All right, let's get that eye, right? Let's get that full
roundness in the eye. And you can see that there's that
little bit of a lip kind of like the one on the lip if you
on the upper eyelid,
right? You can see that little half tone come down to there.
We need some -
yeah, just dig into pretty much one pencil and
just getting this moving.
There we go.
Right working on the features, getting to turn a little more,
removing all that sharpness.
Right keeping in mind that there are tiny little
here and there
and tiny little highlights in between those half tones. Right
so the erasers will definitely be handy here.
Interesting, interesting, interesting. I think we need to
push this back a little bit.
Let's get that clarity of a cast shadow now. It's
maybe a little bit too clear.
It's going to hatch over that edge
just a little bit.
Look at how high this point is, how narrow it is. Now is
it actually narrow or does it just look narrow?
What I mean by that is that if the tonal structures
here, right if that halftone
is stronger, right? It's rounder, this whole thing is
rounder so we need the more of that tone
then you can see
we're perceiving the bridge of the nose based on the highlight
and if you're doing that based on the highlight
clearly the highlight is smaller and narrower. That's
the way to think of it, right? So.
this is going back to that principle, right, that everything
helps everything else. Right? So you get your outlines, you
need a shadow
to make sure those outlines are correct. You get your shadows,
you need those half tones to make sure those shadows as well
as those outlines are correct and so on right everything
corrects everything else.
Now this is sort of a, you know, slightly insane of a process. I
when I was explaining this to some people I was -
they told me it was mad and it's considerably easier to
a little bit more of a formula
but then the work looks like formula and there is nothing
worse than that.
And also teaching a formula is somewhat of a problem right?
Because then it's harder to break away from it.
The goal is to break away from it.
At some point, eventually, right? In your own way.
You keep what you can.
You take what you need, you move with it, you roll with it.
You need and you find other things along the way.
All right getting into that front plane of the nose. Nice.
Now, of course, I'm running into some problems here. Look
at how bright that side plane of the nose looks like. The
classic problem. We've encountered it before. Let's
knock it back.
Knocking it back, good.
Okay, there we go. Look at that.
That side plan is now
in side plane.
Now we got that little bit of a sharper edge, right? We can see
that sharp edge on the upper crus of the alar
cartilage. Remember that one?
Bringing that up a little bit more.
That's a little bit tough, right?
Move around so you can see that edge, right, you can see
against the dark background.
Alright, I like what I'm seeing, but just going to get a
little bit more
light down that front plane.
And this is, right, his is one of the most important parts, this is
the tip of the nose.
It's protruding. It needs to be sharp, needs to be clear.
I'm going to unify everything down there.
And begin to get this half tone
running into that.
Now my concern is, right, that I'm lacking a little bit of move acting a little bit of
light coming down the bridge of the nose.
There we go.
Begin to refine some of this. It's
little sharp, right? That's sharp that the tip
of the nose, a little bit too sharp.
We do need to define the nostril.
Hmm, tough stuff, right, small small stuff requires
This is when I get to this point I'm not talking as much,
just follow along.
Requires a bit more clarity in terms of observation, right just
getting into the specifics,
but come real close so you can see where the cast shadow
begins and ends from the nose of the side plane. Where is it,
there it is. All right, let's make sure it's a darker value
then the wing of the nose.
Regardless of what we're seeing, right, just make sure it's
crisp, it's clear, so that we get that
Interesting. Okay that nose is coming to life.
I'm liking it.
Strange saying it's coming to life on a
dead guy, right?
But it's kind of got that structural feeling.
All right, there stands out like see that structure, but at
the same time it's not overwhelming. I'm still feeling
that it's a real form.
It's interesting, I've spoken about this with the fastest with
friends of mine who are artists
and we do often use the
glamour talking about each other's artwork or when you
know, we ask each other to take a look and comment or
something, we often
talk about how, you know, I feel that this how you know, I feel that this
is wrong. I feel this could be the lighter, which is an
interesting - I don't know if that's sort of
evasive language on the one hand, right? I don't
know why it makes it more of an opinion
as opposed to
just, you know, making it sound more like a fact.
that really is how we interpret
our understanding of
our own, you know, our own pieces, a model, anything, right? Maybe
it is something - I mean, of course
in reality, you know, you could
think about it and say that it's not simply a feeling that
you have, it comes from from
a place but it's always made into something a little bit,
kind of ethereal.
It becomes important like this. It becomes important
to make it emotional, when it could be just a
question of proportions. I feel this is too long.
I kind of like it though. I kind of like that
you're focusing - oops, I dropped all that, almost dropped
all that - you're focusing on that immediate response and
you're making it clear that it's happening very
quickly and it's intuitive.
It's not analytical.
It's not like you take the proportions and you compare
them and then say what you're thinking, you start with that
Something to that.
But that was something I noticed a little while back.
Knock that eye back a little bit.
Get a little bit softer
on this outside edge.
Gonna come back and get that terminator on the glabella, on
this super orbital margin.
Just making sure that works, right, make sure this this reads
like it's wrapping around.
And yet see, I have already made too much of a line.
Notice how there is a little bit of a lip here too. Now
you wouldn't necessarily see this in a human being.
A, because they're the eyebrow
and B because this is happening in part because
everything is kind of stretched over the face
because as we mentioned
before this guy was dead.
This lip you will see on the skull
very important part of the supraorbital
margin, the edge of the orbits of the eyes on top, right, it has
And if you can see it here then we do it.
It's almost a structural component.
Almost. Now I'm going to actually knock this back
because there's certain things I'd like to do with an eraser
right? Just going to
knock it back a little bit
and then I'm going to do it with an eraser. I'm going to
get that highlight on the superciliary arch, that margin,
and then I'm going to come in from above the superciliary
arch and get that slightly darker half tone and notice
what's happening, right? We're getting that full roundness
right here of that form just by doing that.
All right. We're just taking our time.
Calm piece by piece.
Learning as much as we can in the process.
I just check this out. Look at that
kind of -
I omitted the terminator there.
Oh look at that, that will bring this down.
I want this a little more. This is feeling too rounded right
now. I want this flatter.
Flatter and simpler.
Too much going on there.
See so sometimes you over -
the one thing you don't want to do is over round things, that to
me - we're going to encounter this in the next cast we do,
like the next cast that's going to be the challenge. You think
this was a challenge?
That one's going to be real tough.
But unbelievably informative.
It's going to be all very very very soft.
We're going to see how we can try to
planarize it, it's not the word. I'm not sure
that's a real word. I'm certain it isn't
a real word, but we're going to
own it. Gonna stick with that one.
Here at least you know, if you look hard enough
a lot of these forms already look like the planes which we
we're making them.
Not a big deal, not the hardest thing to do here.
Precisely why we're starting with this guy
and not the other one. I did something like
you know, it depends on the instructor that you have. So
I'm trying to bring everything that I can to you.
I had instructors who made us focus entirely on sort of
an anatomical interpretation of things, of a planar
interpretation of things. I had other instructors
who are out of sort of a just a general like, you know, it all
comes from their understanding of art, right? So who
wanted us to work in in forms that were
a lot more organic, a lot like with turns of the forms
that were considerably slower and gradual
because they believe that was the high point of
that's what it all had to come down to
so taking all that all the stuff that I got from many
all of whom were
extremely instrumental in helping me be the artist and
technician in a sense that I am today.
We're not talking too much about art here. So it's more
about the technique.
Though they are connected.
And that is the real challenge.
But you'll get there.
that is the -
and so I'm just going to take everything that I was that I
you know, a lot of is from the academy in St. Petersburg and
a lot of it is just
the stuff I learned before going to the anatomy - yes
exactly before going to the academy, before having any
knowledge of anatomy and studying with instructors who
had gone to a school that was akin to the Repin Academy, but
just in a different part of the country.
And it had its own, at times had its own particular
interpretation of some of these things. So, you know, every
single person is the entirety of their influences if you
will, right? It's the -
it's kind of a slightly deterministic point of view
there, but it's you know,
we are a composite of everything that has influenced
Along will the other things there too, right? But
so I'm not entirely just taking what I learned in
St. Petersburg and
transferring it onto you. I'm taking
everything I've learned and interpreted
on my own and explaining it, you know, all in all how I've
combined all of this information
and how I
understand it and that's what I'm -
what I'm what I'm trying to get across to you is that
it's more personal
than it seems at first.
All right that look at this whole part. It's coming
Because you have to understand that the academy in St. Petersburg
is a large school.
It's not sort of a - it's not a small
kind of - it's insular for sure, but it's not a small school that
a lot of people who teach there are - a lot of of the
people who arrive there have already had to some degree of
prior education. So there's a lot of influences, there's a
lot of stuff going on right? It's kind of a melting
it's not that easy to just sort of distill the the
into you know, a few key principles.
Into a technique, into a formula.
In part, that's why the education takes as long as it
tends to, right, because there isn't really a formula that can
speed up your learning.
But when you do come out the other side
you really know what you're talking about I think.
So now I'm moving down again to my favorite part, we already
know it and we'll know more about it. The zygomatic arch,
right, making sure that terminator reads, extending that
Oh look at that, nice. Extending that core shadow, making sure we get -
really getting this intense area here
to stand out.
And I'm lacking - I could see how I'm lacking
a little bit of these shadows, these terminators on the
side plane, right? We need to get that because this guy, his
cheeks are quite
in there, right,
they're following the forms of the skull underneath
even more than
just a regular person, right, because
everything is sort of proceeded back into the skull.
So we're seeing those forms of the skull
on the surface.
This is why this is such a good head. This is a great head to
practice both before and after you've done the course
assignments on the skull.
That's a wonderful part, this part right here, right? That's
the sinking in of the cheek from the zygomatic.
That whole part.
Excellent. Excellent, excellent. We're getting there. Man this is
It's crazy how much I enjoy this though, every time I tell
myself no casts, who cares about them at this point? I've done
enough of them and then I go back and I do it and
my God, it's always such good practice. It's so
enjoyable to just spend that time with some
not looking over that small stuff, I'm kind of learning again.
Now, I'm not simply
trying to convince you to like this.
I am truly enjoying this.
sort of traditionally
trained, academically trained, however, you want to call it.
Artists can kind of get over obsessed with the technical
aspect of things, with just the practice,
and some people say that that's good. You know, you are focusing on
And the craft is everything and you can just keep focusing on
the craft your whole life and maybe that is the case in other
times. Some people say, oh you got to move past this already.
I don't know what the right answer is.
That's kind of what I'm talking about when I do -
when I talk about the fact that this whole art education
thing it never gets easier, right, you learn these
or what not and then you apply them
But then the hard part actually begins
when you're trying to find out what you really want to do with
all of this,
But that's also kind of humbling because we're all in
this together regardless of the technique the
amount of technique, the amount of training
anyone's had, we're all in this sort of the process of the
creation of the art itself. We're all in it
together trying to
you know solve as many problems as they arise, at
the rate at which they arise.
So as you see I'm working on the masseter here, right? It's
muscle sort of behind the cheek if you will on the
sort of - it's the creation of the
side plane of the face.
And it's very nice. You can see it. We're getting some -it's
hard to get it to round off right? That's the secret right?
So this right here, is that terminator on it. So we're
going to really try hard to make it read that this is the
whole thing in its entirety. There's a lot going on there.
You can see all this coming down.
It's getting a little bit rounder.
Gonna knock this back right, make sure that we read that is
for what it is. So we get that terminator on it
and we turn it reflected light, cast shadow underneath.
Knock that back though, right? That zygomatic arch.
Lots of contrast around it means it'll appear lighter than
it actually is. Okay. I'm done with that. I'm tired of that
part. We're gonna get back there. But now
let's just get as much of this as possible in front. Right?
Don't leave - we've got the eye kind of a good spot, the
zygomatic in a good spot.
We've got all this here it's not bad.
We're just going to keep moving
down to the
Oh, look at that mouth. I think that's getting closer. And you
I'll bring this back in the future.
In the other of this course, but other parts of this course, but
what's really important, right, is that at times
I've always spoken about this, but at times you do just get
just this intuitive response to something being correct.
So I'm looking at this whole area and without even you know,
just without even like asking myself why
I see that it's closer
than it was. I see that it's kind of describing something in
a way that I like it.
Afterwards I go in and I asked well, why is it doing that and
how is it doing that and so on so forth. So all that comes
All right. There we go.
Wasn't kidding about that refinement. It's happening. Am
I actually sort of consciously thinking about refining things?
Sometimes, but not always, right. Sometimes I'm just moving along
the form, just describing things as I go down.
Small form stuff, you know,
that's what I'm really describing but
that's what I'm really thinking about. I'm not actually
thinking about -
Adam's apple, the thyroid cartilage out a little bit.
Knock back that side plane.
Excellent. Excellent. Excellent. A little bit too much of this
Not liking it.
Try to avoid those because that would - it just
it's not properly describing the changes of plane right
because there isn't anything that would stay the same
tonality as it swirls around the head
because it's not just moving across the two dimensional
plane, it's moving in and out. So that's the part to think
So just knock it back, go over it as many times as you need.
Hard part's always, right, the hard part is always the -
keep squinting, keep squinting because I'm still not
there with his cheek. You think this cheek my God
what's so important about this cheek?
And I would say is more important than anything else,
but it needs to read - we need to kill some of these like
strong outlines that we have had for quite some time,
right? We just need to get them to read like one tone coming up
against another tone.
Why not? Why not get a little bit of a darker value on that
zygomatic. You can never have too much on that zygomatic.
That and clavicles.
You get that part right and you're 90% there.
We can extend this a little bit, right? There's that sort of -
there are multiple shadows here, right, interference and all that
stuff we talked about but
it's not so much that you need to highlight the fact that
there are multiple shadows, but you can show that they are -
you can just push the values, you can kind of make them one
shadow with variations.
But with some parts that are darker some parts are lighter
and you know
so that you avoid those sharp edges within the shadow.
Hmm. Okay. Okay knocking that back. Good. Good. Good. Good.
Good. I do not - my hand as always you can see is a
disaster. So just gonna
clean this up a little bit.
Excellent. Let's keep moving.
Just gotta a clean off my hand a little bit
in a simple way.
That's if you don't have any soap or water.
Cleaning it out all the ways to some degree is pointless
right, because it's just going to get
covered in graphite again in a second. So
let me get back into here, right, getting into some of these
things. And you know, isn't this the weird part here, how
I'ma staying away from all this?
let's get that wrapping.
You know how I'm not - how I'm just hinting at every part of
the head here.
Just hinting at them.
Not getting too caught up with it.
We'll get there.
You arrive at this later. See, I'm exaggerating though. I am
exaggerating some of those forms in the lower lip, trying
to get that large curve across and along the form.
And yet, you know, also trying to get these planes
of the chin.
the form on the side as well as complete the form.
Let's see what we have here.
Going to get a sharpness, a sharpness in the dark value at
that core shadow on the chin,
which is a darker value
then this large sort of cast shadow falling on that side of Shadow falling on that side of
the cast. That's important because we do want
the chin and the head to stand out in front of this whole
spot. We haven't even gotten to that whole part, but you'll see that
it actually won't take that long.
It's not that hard to do all that
once the head is that its proper place.
When I talk about proper place I mean completed enough.
Okay. Okay. Okay.
I say let's get the ear down.
Because I feel like if we don't then it'll just keep bothering
We can't have that because then we can move
But let's do it with the zygomatic, right, the zygomatic
You can see really see it turning, you can see the skin
being pulled in these areas. It's nice, it's strong.
A softer pencil might solve some of these problems, a harder
one it's kind of already added
the dark value range in here. All righty getting in there and
getting in there
and then just knocking back right? Keep in mind what will
really help here
thinking of the ear as a form coming off of a pretty much a
plane that's kind of flat, right? Of course it's got a
curvature to it. But pretty much flat and we did this in
the cast of the ear, right, it was on this kind of oval
plane that wasn't even a head. That was just a flat
plane and there's an ear coming off of that. This is the
important thing here, right? Because it's these values, the
relationships of the ear to not the ear,
speaking in a
slightly cryptic way there
is what's going to make this work.
It's not the ear, parts of the ear in relation to each other.
It's the ear in relation to the ground.
Or the wall, in this case the wall of the head that it's
hanging off of.
If you think of it like that it'll help.
And remember it comes off of the head at an angle, right,
at an angle.
All right. All right. Okay getting that nice shadow, strong,
possibly to some degree occlusion shadow on that crease
between the antihelix and the helix. The lower crus, right, in
in between the crura.
The legs of the antihelix.
And bringing it down. Bring it down. Nice. Sweet. I'm liking it. Now
I'm just going to knock this back because you can see this
here is marvelous here because you get that bright -
it's not that light but you got a much lighter part on
the most protruding, most
on the curviest part of the antihelix,
we can break down, you can really see the changes in plane. If you
remember the Asaro, the John Asaro planar head sorrow planar head.
the ear is really broken down into very very basic wealth into very very basic.
angles, that's what that ear's really about. Now what nears really about know
those angles, all that swirly stuff yeah, you can take it or
Looks cool with all this other stuff,
but we had a whole conversation about
how looking cool as criteria. I just don't think
Alrighty, look at that. Let's get that cast shadow.
You're still looking like a lot like line,
right, a lot of lines still there. So.
But those lines are defining the forms a little
better than before.
The hard part, right, is to keep that ear
in its proper context on the side plane of the face.
Don't forget that.
Oh, but look at that, we can just knock this whole part back.
Squinting helps of course. We need this front plane of the
to read clearly
and then we need this whole part
to begin to turn, this whole part to begin to turn even the
Squint and see which one is brighter and so on.
Okay. Okay. I'm not opposed to
what I'm seeing. Let's get that curvature there a little bit
Just knocking that back a little bit.
I'll get back to the ear in a second. Let's just resolve some
of this cranial area.
Right we're gonna get some light there, whatever. forever.
Take a more painterly approach to this.
There's that hat, whatever he's wearing.
Maybe it's a hair net.
Maybe it's just hair, you know, a lot of weird things can you a lot of weird things can
happen when you you just cast a person, right?
You're casting hair. So.
That might be just a hair. So obviously not that bright. We
just need to erase it to make it work.
We're going to keep it pretty simple though.
Keep it pretty simple. Knock it back. Make sure it's
over there somewhere.
Right, treat it as the planes that you see them, as you
see them, right, don't
invent too much,
but do kind of convert what you're seeing into planes.
Terminator, terminator, terminator. Sideplane, sideplane,
nice and then extend backwards, back back back.
That hairnet thing is still bothering me because I mean
it's so active. So we're just going to knock it back until it
stops doing that.
I'm not like - and that's the thing. I'm not sure how much
more we need up there like it. Otherwise, it'll just - I mean
you could spend all the time really defining the individual
you can just hint at them
or you can practice some of this by modeling them if you
really really want to. There's no way I will stop you because
all practice is good.
But do you really want to be doing that,
there's my question.
let's step back and think,
step back and think about what we have here. I'm kind of
satisfied with a lot of spots.
It needs even more refinement. However, I feel
like if we don't get to this whole part down here, the
the muscles of
the neck, the larynx, kind of figuring it out as a whole and
seeing how we can - how much we really need here to balance the
head. We can't really go back into the head and refine it even
further because I think there is still room, definitely room
and I want to take it there. But let's take a moment.
There's a lot that happened here. So let's take a moment to
just divert our eyes from this and then come back and see what
do with everything down here.
because now I did get a chance to step away to take a look and
I'm alright with what I'm seeing. So let's get to all
these parts now as we said.
So, as you noticed I do take
breaks and they are sort of timed rather randomly, right? It
just depends on when I feel like I need to step away. Of
course. If there's a model in front of me, then the times I
take a break are sort of controlled by when the model
needs to take a break.
And that - but on the one hand that's helpful and it all kind
of like I've noticed that I've become conditioned
a break at the same interval as
do the models. Even if I'm not working on a model. So if I'm
working on a cast I will sort of take a break every 20 or so.
There are times and you'll see them, where even though the
model's taking a break I still keep at it. Right? So
it's you know, there's a lot of
factors to take into
consideration. But the one thing I'm telling you is that
you don't need to just work without a break. There's no -
there isn't anything that comes of just you know,
working for hours and hours and hours.
Unless of course you feel like doing that, unless of course
that comes easy to you
and you're really excited about a thing and you're working at
it. Like that's awesome. If you can do that, that's great,
the goal is to have a clear
idea of what's happening on the paper, right, to
to just move along.
To to analyze to think about things, right? It's not about
All in all it's about hours. That's what I'm saying, like
obviously the amount of hours you put into practicing a
the better you will
be at it of course. There's no question about that.
But at the same time, I don't think it's amount of hours in a
So just keep that in mind.
If you're feeling
like you need to take that break, you should take that
break and not feel guilty about it. Now it sounds like I'm
telling myself this more than you,
so maybe I am.
Maybe I in fact feel quite guilty every time I take a
Because I should be
Putting in these hours.
See isn't that insane? Yeah, so
the point is have clarity in your mind about what is
happening on the page.
And any way you achieve this is fine.
And if you read about artists, the
habits of artists are,
that they sort of
a lot of outside the elements so, you know, so you
artists who would spend hours and hours
in the studio and they were incredible and there's a lot
that came of it and then there were others,
a good example is Korovin, K-O-R-O-V-I-N, was a great
landscape painter. Konstantin
Korovin, I'll say it with a more
who I think he worked about two hours a day.
That was like a lot. I think a lot of times
he didn't do anything. He just out at parties.
But all I'm saying is, you know, it's not about
doing either or it's about figuring out what is
At times the partying can really get in the way as we
know and at other times it might be exactly what you
need to take your mind off of the
what's happening in the studio.
you know, it could be anything.
Just depends on you.
Yeah, but Korovin was a great a great painter, a marvelous
landscape painter, kind of an the
impressionist if you want if
you want to
call them that.
But to definitely look into him.
Okay. So what's happening here?
Let's figure out what's happening with that
sternocleidomastoid on the side. I do want to take this
and bring it up and see where it lands. I'm a little bit
skeptical. Woah I'm off. I'm off.
It should fall right there. So let's bring this in.
Just a little bit more.
Going to bring that in, that works for me and then kind of
carve a little bit right here.
Good good, good good good. It kind of pushes the neck
that way in its entirety.
But at the same time I want to see what at this point is and
you think that that's a point you get earlier right? But I'm
just getting it now. No, that's fine. That's fine. But there's
a general direction there that I think I'm lacking by just
bringing this out to here.
Bringing this out to here.
Kind of getting that tapering out of the neck there.
Yes, so that's the
the thing right, so
getting some of these, right, I'm kind of beginning to jump
around a little bit because my eye
keeps moving around the head just to get
some things, you know, in line with others, right? So right
here, for example,
I need to get - I'm still here. I'm still focusing on
all this stuff down here.
This right here is a nice
area of, you know, form cast,
just ends a form, we can see the form ending right here
and everything past this line is already cast shadow. Cast
shadow, cast shadow, bring it down to here.
Don't overstate it though.
It's too close to the bottom. Not that important. So I'm just
rub this in a little bit.
Getting it a little bit softer with this -
whatever that is.
works quite well, actually.
Good, good good good. At the same time
right you can use the eraser even to kind of get a little
in an area while keeping all of the relationships a glaze but
in the other way.
Now it's time to get that side plane of the cast
without any of the specifics, right?
Just going to take it out there.
Take it out to there, take it out to here,
just so reads like a block.
Keeping it soft, keeping it soft. Now maybe traditionally,
maybe traditionally you shouldn't smudge with your
hands when working in graphite.
This was what
a professor of mine told me.
At the same time she let me smudge with my hands because the
results were all right.
Now that I think is the real answer, you know, in a way
saw that there was a technique which in a sense is
outlawed, if you want to go that far and
instead of just not allowing me to
practice it, she saw that some of the results I got from it
were okay and allowed me to move
on with it and see if I could refine it. Now
there are some problems with that of course, right, if you're
allowing one person
to use that technique you should allow everyone to
it means that it's possible for everyone to learn it. If
they're not practicing then how do they learn it? The fact that
I was able to do it could have come from the fact that I just
had done it a lot before it was something that I was more
comfortable with, maybe somebody else hadn't so it was sort of
unfair in a way on the other hand. I think it's important to
keep in mind and to be aware of kind of
certain qualities that a student and artist or you
yourself have that come easily to you
and to see if you can use them, refine them, and you know and
make them become a little bit more part of your technique. In
my case definitely became a part of my technique as you
as I'm going to demonstrate in future assignments.
when we switch to working in softer media.
Because in softer media, you're almost required to use your
hands. That's also hard thing, right? Like that's exactly the
exact same issue. Like are you really, like you can do anything
you want really but it's easier to work with softer media in
your hands. That's what I'm saying. And I tend to a lot
so that's become my technique in a way.
smudge if you have to.
It's all right.
But I like hatching too though.
It's hard for me to say what I like more. Straighten that out
a little bit.
Okay, okay. We're getting the block of everything at the
everything at the bottom here, really getting the block of
the thyroid cartilage.
I mean this kind of - it goes who tells you to not forever who tells you to not
use one of these either. Don't smudge with -
there are whole schools of thought that are very much against it.
But I -
there's no way I'm going to subscribe to any of going to subscribe to any of
And I'm going to move this little darker half tone across,
moving that across. Excellent
In order to define the sternal notch.
Nice. And then bring this down to here
just to tone down the larynx. You can see it's a darker
value. Is it little more precisely toned-down? Yes, of
we'll get there.
Find the outer edges of it here. I would like to establish
changes in plane, not with line already, but getting into the
highlight, right, changes from one to the other.
If anything is going to be accented in this area, it's the
sternal notch. All the stuff on the side, you know, you could
take it or leave it a little bit but the sternal notch, if
you don't have that you've got nothing.
What's happening right here? Nice, look at that, that core
cast shadow on the other sternocleidomastoid. And make
sure to really see that intersection of the
sternocleidomastoid and that flat top plane of the manubrium
of the sternum.
You can see it right there.
If you don't know yet what the manubrium of the sternum is as
I said, don't worry.
But now you've heard that word. So when it appears again
you'll know what I'm talking about.
I'm just moving from one point to the other at this this
Now from here
you can see there's a sort of center line, right?
the - these are the muscles from
down to the part of the manubrium to the sternum.
Let's not concern ourselves too much with those, they're a
little crazy. There's a lot of them.
then the ones that are just they're not even the hyoid. from there not even the hyoid.
They're kind of - I will talk about the ones that you need of all
of these in the future, that one for example the omohyoid is
one that I think is very important.
Some of these you can just think of as the shape of the
larynx without getting too caught up in the particular
stuff going on in the neck. They're a little bit ridiculous
Though of course if you're learning anatomy, you know, you might as
As my teacher said, the point of anatomy is to learn it and then
And of course that doesn't actually mean that you forget
it. It means instead that you learn it, but then you don't
necessarily spend time recalling it, you allow it to
become something understood, something that you can kind of
access on a level that's much more intuitive.
Yeah, this was a great
teacher of mine who passed away sadly but he was a marvelous
sculptor and I worked with him before.
And went to study at the Academy because I initially
wanted to practice
sculpture, not painting.
Maybe that's evident from the way that I draw.
But maybe it isn't either, right, because I mean there's write because I mean there's
like a structural component in the way that I draw for sure.
But there's also sort of a painterly component that I the component that I
wouldn't want to give up. It's quite nice.
parts, working on those small changes in between the
long head and the short head and all that stuff of the
sternocleidomastoid. ANd here the particular edge, right,
how soft or sharp it is really matters because it's the
only way we're going to get it to go from this like tender
this portion to the wider part then the flatter part of
the small head. A lot going on there.
A lot of it is it needs to happen, right, because
of all those
strong concavities and convexities that I have spoken about, these that I have spoken about
a lot of it is going to be treated
the highlights between the forms.
Extending that upwards a little bit.
Now let's get that cast shadow falling
Now, this part right here actually is probably all
omohyoid as well. Right like this. They go that way,
this part right? Here is the
I'm not sure it actually picks up the scapula or not. That's
what it means
and how much of that happens with that one, but
a little bit probably. Enough.
to call it that.
right, we can see that strong highlight on the clavicle, right
here. Meaning that we need to establish much clearer sense of
top plane, side plane.
Or top plane, front plane.
Right. We're getting that down there needs to happen.
Right because the clavicle also has to flatten as it goes
towards the shoulder.
So that highlight on the edge then becomes more and more
prominent as we go.
Jut gonna kind of move that over a little bit, push those darker half tones.
A little bit more.
What do we have here?
Now it's time to just knock this back, right, remember that
was our plan,
to really show that clavicle coming out from there. called coming out from there.
We're gonna have to work into the shadows but not too much.
Oh, there we go. Look at that. We can see that,
we can see the clavicle ending a little bit more so turning
And now, we had this at the beginning. game.
We can see that side plane the clavicle.
Squinting a lot we can exaggerate the curvature of the
cast shadow from the box onto the clavicle, right, so we can
push that turn on to it a little bit more.
But I also want the softer,
a little bit cleaner.
And the side of this cast again,
which we'll just knock back.
this right here is the infraclavicular fossa. clavicular Pasa
means that this part right here belongs to the pectoralis and
this part up here belongs to the shoulder, the deltoid, the
anterior part, the front.
Now how much of this anatomy do we need? I don't know.
Hard to tell.
Gonna knock that back a little bit, right, and then here too.
We're kind of working shadows within shadows here.
Right just to get a full form of that clavicle. But
it does seem a little
like extra round. Maybe more round than we need it.
Figure out how to do that later.
But at the same time right, I need to just make sure that
both clavicles are reading correctly.
We're getting a roundness there, there,
but we're going to get more form.
Get this front plane, front part, which already belongs to the
manubrium to the top of the sternum.
Just trying to simplify it at the moment, not overdoing it.
Maybe getting a little bit of
a light in places.
But also softening some of these clavicles, right? We
don't need them too prominent. That's the other part.
Now they're almost outlined and you will see that I do talk
Or you might have already seen.
I do believe that you should in fact try to outline should in fact try to outline
the clavicles a little bit more and allow - then kind of
remove them, right, because you need them to exist very very
very very clearly.
On the one hand, right, but on other you can't overstate them
because otherwise they just look -
they don't look as though there's skin covering them and
also, you know, muscles not just skin, but the muscular
structure is covering them.
And then of course that sharpness of some of those cast
shadows at their origins, let's say right here.
Sorry, I've gone quiet.
Just concentrating here a little bit and kind of got
enamored by you know, sometimes you get caught up in a little
bit of a shadow or something.
What's happening right here?
Maybe it's time to get back to this little piece, right,
because here we are focusing on an area that's not maybe that
at the same time is defining
the same area as here on the other side. So maybe just
purposefully sharper because that is a depression.
And allow that to fall in
and then you know the rest of the stuff.
I'm using the eraser to get out sort of movement of light
across the thing not really a structural
way to do it if you will.
But effective though, isn't it?
But as effective.
Here use the fact that this is ending in this whatever the, you
know, the side of that cast is to give us that form.
That neck, that
neck's looking good.
Okay. I'm going to clean up a little bit.
Just a little bit.
And reinforce some of this, right, I want this to turn more.
I don't know that was maybe a small accent or something,
right? We still want to make sure that our cast is on the
just hinting at a little bit of something there. us something there.
In this case, it's not that important, there's a lot going on,
we don't need to
overstate this. So this eraser feels like it needs to be
sharper. Right? I'm cutting them
little triangles as you know, I tend to do and I have taught
you to do.
And then I'm using the eraser to carve a little bit more.
Carve those shadows in the neck but look at that right? Look
at how curvy that is. Remember what I said about the about
You really shouldn't have them.
Really shouldn't have them and show them as a form in
space, not a movement on the two-dimensional plane of the
And what we have now, you know, I'm not opposed to two
dimensional form of the paper. I actually think in some ways
actually more important than the three-dimensional illusion.
That's kind of the the modernist in me, but
just knocking that back like keeping it loose but not going
too back so we don't compete with the head.
I do really want to get back into the head
but I'm going to prevent myself from doing this and I'm just going
to not go into it because I feel like there's a lot to do
here still, not a lot but a little bit to do here at least
that I can
before moving back up. Look how bright this whole thing is.
This whole pectoralis right here. Maybe that needs to
be cleaned up.
I'm liking what I'm seeing there.
Let's take this all the way right because that omohyoid
is going under.
Let's do a little bit of that.
And then we -
without overstating too much right there.
Now clearly, I mean it's not mandatory, but if we have this
right, if we have this cast shadow from the box from of from the from the box from
the frame onto the cast itself,
following with that logic we're going to need to get that cast
shadow or the, you know, that soft remnants of the
top of the head,
which wouldn't necessarily be logical but geological every last member of
this whole top plane would actually be rather light but I like what
it does, but I like how it
knocks that whole top of the head away a little bit. I mean
I'm interested in this, right, and this is just
just an option. I'm just observing this, I'm seeing it.
I still think - see I'm jumping around a little bit, still think
it's a little sharp for down here.
Just getting that that much softer.
I'll get back into there. I'm not fully satisfied with this
in general, I think we have all the necessary parts. There's a
structural quality to this that I'm really liking
and so I think what this needs
is just another pass.
Basically, you know either cross or top to bottom this
just needs one more pass and then we can call it completed.
let's take a moment to allow our eyes once again to relax a
bit and then to come back with the full intent of
completing this head.
you can comfortably call it and move on to a new project.
However, I think we do need just a little bit of time to go
over everything, clean things up, and see if they're maybe just
some small little tiny areas that can use just a
little bit more refinement. So with that let's have at it.
So, let's see.
Let's start by just cleaning up these edges, right? I might, you
know, I'll be working on this more so I might get them
So the thing that I'm not going to do here though is put in a
background. I thought about it in the break. I looked at this
and thought to myself maybe it does needs just like a
partial background right here to enhance
this quality of light. But as I said, the quality of light here
is not the most important thing that we're after, right, we're
after the form
that's a little bit of quality of light and that definitely
explains the cast shadows falling onto the top of the
head and the shoulder but that's you know, that's just a
cool effect and it's more of a compositional kind of idea. Oh
more of a compositional thing than anything else, so
if your paper is attached like mine, right, just by clips, be
careful when you're erasing right? Because when you erase
you can tend to hurt the paper a little bit and by that, I
mean just kind of crumples up. So this explains why I hold it.
I hold the paper down around the area I'm erasing to keep
it flatter. If you have a piece of paper that you've
onto a thing then you don't have to worry about that
and you can even erase as much as you want and it'll be great.
let's take a look around right? Let's take a look up here.
What is this pencil? I don't know, not a fan.
I'm gonna stick with actually kind of a hard pencil
right now, right because the effect that I can get from is a
nice sharp edge. A sort of not very intrusive half tone.
I was just looking because if you know, usually with sharpeners
like this the tip of the pencil breaks off and gets
lodged inside. But with this has not happened yet, and I've
been sharpening like a madman so
So, yes, look at this. I can just bring out some highlights.
Right? Just cleaning, bring out that big nice highlight on
frontal eminence, that protruding part
of the forehead.
The thing also that we
we're getting at here
is that there's a certain looseness right in areas that
aren't as important, right? And I'm not saying they're not
important objectively. I'm just saying I have decided that in
this image they're not going to be the most important.
I'm handling them by not refining them as much both in
terms of accent,
in terms of just the specific information within those areas, but
in terms of handling right? I'm not getting a nice hatch in
I'm not too worried about that here.
I'm more right now thinking about the shape of certain
highlights, kind of getting in with the eraser
but also but the edge of highlights right so I can use
the eraser to just soften some
value trying not to lean too much so that I don't smudge
more and have to clean up more. I'm gonna have to
but, you know.
kind of refinement.
Right so and I mean, I mean I said that we're going to come
back and complete this now.
You can keep doing this. You know this could you know in theory
You're going to find that a bit,
take a break, come back, refine it a bit more, you can
even put it away
for you know a month
and then come back and do a little bit more, work on top of
that. Now is that -
I think you with practice
will realize the best way
to engage with a piece , right, the amount of time it requires,
no piece is identical, you know, it doesn't have the -
yeah, it would just depend on the idea, depend on the on the idea of depend on
how you're working and depend on the amount of time you have.
A lot of things go into it. Just keep an open mind though.
That's all I'm saying. I've been saying that in lots of - in
as many different ways as possible this whole time. I
keep an open mind because there is no like
one way to proceed.
No one way to proceed.
That other eye though, right, maybe a hint
of the lid,
toning down the lid
So we get a little bit more light closer to the top of the
That's nice. I think that reads well.
Keep cleaning, keep cleaning so that we have our
highlights really really strong. Right? We want the -
this is sort of what the values we're thinking of.
All right, are
a little bit more conceptual than observed. The
brightest lights are pretty much as light as the paper,
right, and they could be a little repetitive like it's
okay if all of these highlights are the same, right,
because they're just going to give us the structure, not the
conditions of light right? So we're kind of in
between here. At times we've got the sort of the
conditions of the light coming from above, you know cast
shadows, larger shadows blah, blah, blah. And another times we're just
making sure we have enough value in a given area to get a
good read on the form.
There go those, I'm liking these changes so far. I mean there
are many changes there, just refinements, but I'm liking
them. I think they're adding something. I think they're
adding more clarity.
They're adding like tiny little changes
here and there.
They're adding tiny little highlights.
Now, of course, you know that's also it's weird right
because I'm adding them.
So it's weird for me to say that they're just being added
on their own
but that is how I think about it, right. I kind of like to
think of things just happening, right?
I'm making them happen, I'm aware of this obviously, but at
the same time
I'm an observer
of the changes that are happening on the page.
They're not - it's as if they're not always up to me.
Also, that's kind of - that's a nice thing to feel because I
don't have to be as concerned. I just kind of you
think about them and direct them in a different
way, but in the end, I'm not fully responsible
But it's always nice to, you know, to take that
responsibility away from yourself and relax a little.
While still getting work done.
And that's the thing that, right, a lot of
is kind of passive in the way that I'm talking about right
now, right, once it becomes intuitive. You don't really
think that much, right, you just allow things to happen. Then
you observe and you sort of monitor from afar almost right?
You control it from afar.
You don't get too carried away with it.
Look at that bright light right there, interesting.
Also the shape can be corrected.
Keep stepping away, keep looking.
The zygomatic got lost a little bit and I feel like come on
that's got to be there, right? We've had it there, we've talked
about that continuous movement from the zygomatic arch into
the lower crus of the antihelix, but you
end up losing stuff when you add value, that's fine. That's
Look, okay. Okay a little bit more, a little bit more, a
It's nice to have a person around
who can take stuff away from you.
There are artists who
whose partners would take away
the artwork at a certain point, right, because the artist
leave it alone. Right? They couldn't call it quits
because you gotta end it, right? This is the advantage of having
a commission assignment right? Because then you just have to
end it because somebody is expecting it in their house or
wherever in a given amount of time. So it ends not when you
want it to end, you do have to plan a little bit, but it'll
end, you know, when you run out of time.
It'll end when you run out of time.
I feel like that shouldn't be too much of a sharp edge,
right? It just needs to be kind of - I'm not now I'm
totally aware that the larynx is not totally defined
as a cylindrical form, but I'm not bothered by it
though. I have to say I think it's all right not defined.
I'm okay with it not being
overstated as a tubular form,
right. Alright s you do add information here or there just make sure
it is describing something like I just did right there, adding
into a plane.
It's got to describe something.
Okay, the head I'm liking.
I'm just going to get a little bit more clarity on the terminator
on the chin, right? You think all the terminators there should we've all become there should
be in place by now,
but they're not.
All this is the bottom is good enough for me
for what the head is doing, right? It's always a
I'm just some hints of general form, a general form, don't want
to overdo it
in this area I mean. we're gonna have plenty of time to
talk about clavicles and how they, you know,
how they move
along that line of the shoulder girdle. We'll get there for
sure. And this is a great opportunity to practice that
we also need to consider just compositional questions right,
importance of certain elements in relation to others.
Uh-huh. Okay. Okay, this is fine, but I'm seeing some
information there. I'm just gonna let it - I think we can't
Couple of accents on the neck here.
Accents and then also removing accents, right, more variation.
Some places softer, some places sharper. The neck is
fine for me, highlights on the head look good.
Just one little bit of that highlight between
the full mass of the lower lip and the chin.
A tiny bit higher that highlight between those forms.
I actually feel more of a curve here.
Oh, removing it might actually be the way to go.
Getting that even softer.
Let's clean up the top
with a softer pencil.
Just cleaning up edges.
The ear looks looks good to me where it is, but maybe this can
be knocked back. Right? I don't want to over model it because
it's in that shadow of the side of the head, of the side of the
whole cast really.
We can continue this past this.
Oops. Oh the worst thing, the dropping of the pencils.
And the cleaning up of the page one last time.
All right, I've decided
that I'm done
and you can too, you could have done it earlier. You could do
it at any point here,
right? There's something to be gained from reaching a certain
point, feeling like you've gotten to a certain
level of completion then starting again, starting in the
next assignment then coming back and seeing if you can sort
of push past that previous amount of completion of a an
exercise so there's no like - it's not all about just taking
everything from point A to point B,
so, but that does conclude
this particular cast assignment and we have one more that we're
going to do that takes everything we've learned and
makes it just a little bit harder.
I'll see you then.
provided with this course, you are going to be working on the
cadaver cast head.
Now the important thing about this head to keep in mind is
that the particular changes in plane are obvious and so
it's your job to work on emphasizing them as much as you
can. The medium here that I used is graphite and I
recommend that you use that as well due to the fact that it
allows you to take the time to slowly move around and analyze
each individual plane and form. Good luck.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview1m 54sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Establishing Structure of the Head & Blocking in the Shadows32m 9s
3. Observing the Anatomy of the Face36m 40s
4. Correcting Proportions and Applying Halftones19m 52s
5. Refining the Features of the Face23m 52s
6. Balancing the Halftones and Shadows of the Features20m 39s
7. Refining the Cast & Core Shadows and Adding Highlights30m 11s
8. Refining the Cast & Core Shadows and Adding Highlights pt. 223m 55s
9. Observing and Developing the Forms of the Neck19m 56s
10. Clarifying the Forms of the Neck20m 36s
11. Applying the Finishing Details and Resolving the Drawing19m 51s
12. Assignment Instructions55s