- Lesson Details
In this lesson, you will learn from master illustrator Mark Westermoe the techniques for creating texture in a drawing. You will also study how master draughtspeople such as Charles Danna Gibson and Fortunino Matania utilize different rendering techniques in their work.
This lesson belongs to the course Beginner’s Guide to Drawing. It is a 12-week course designed to empower new students with a structured approach for learning how to draw. Join instructors Steve Huston, Chris Legaspi, Heather Lenefsky, Bill Perkins, and Mark Westermoe as you learn the fundamentals of perspective, rendering, and composition. After completing this course, you will develop a solid foundation in drawing.
Throughout this course, you’ll have access to the NMA community for feedback and critiques to improve your work as you progress.
Transcription not available.
So we're going to go over ways to apply an even tone of one
value or a gradated value.
I'll use a wax pencil to start and also go over charcoal and a pen
and ink wash and graphite pencil.
So for starters, let's go ahead with this, this is a wax pencil, and we're
going to start here just by, I don't care if you overlap your stroke beyond
the rectangle, that's not important.
The rectangle is just a device to contain things.
Notice I'm going parallel strokes like this.
let me show you something interesting.
The pencil comes to a point after I've sharpened it, but now I'll
create what we call a chisel point.
I'll take tip of the pencil and angle it.
It's about 30 degrees.
And now if we look closely at that pencil, you'll see, it has a fine tip.
It has a flat facet at an angle and it has a heel.
Where the angle meets the cone of the lead.
Now, if you watch what I do with that pencil here, this
is where I use the flat facet.
Just like that.
I can create something that sweeps up or something that's blocky like this.
If I turn the pencil now, 90, 180 degrees, I find the tip and that gives
me a fine line where I want it now, by doing that, I've blunted the tip.
So to sharpen, and again, I merely pressed down the flat
facet leaning toward the tip.
The heel of the pencil beneath the flat facet, but on the same side, allows me to
push down on the bottom of the shape and keep the top of the shape relatively soft.
So that's important where I have an overlapping form.
Because it leaves a hard edge at the base, hard edges imply overlaps.
So now I've done that.
Let me go ahead and use the flat facet as I described to paint a tone like this, and
I'm going to gradate that tone like this.
Just means I put less pressure on it.
I can also go back and darken it so I get a gradation that is even stronger.
Let me take a graphite pencil and this, which is what most
people call a lead pencil.
This is made by generals.
Oh, actually this is Barrel manufacturer, Barrel turquoise 4B,
4B, 6B is their softest and darkest.
So 4B is in that neighborhood.
Eight or nine H is the hardest and you can't really use it effectively
on top of Bristol plate, which is what I have here right in the
middle is an F or an H or an HB.
And then you go softer to a 2B, 3B, 4B, 5b, 6B.
Same basic idea.
But you'll notice the line stands out.
It's a little more obvious you still go over your stroke like that.
I usually gradate just by using less pressure on the pencil, but
you can also switch over from a 4B pencil to a 2B graphite pencil and
that's harder and therefore lighter.
In the meantime, I'll put down a really dark
using 4B pencil and just pushing harder.
I'll Find that pencil in a moment.
But in the meantime, Let's do something we call crosshatching.
With a 2B pencil
if you push correspondingly the same, but you will see that the pencil itself is
harder and it yields a a lighter value.
So that's one way you can do it.
Or like I said, you can just press harder on your or lighter rather on
your four B led and you can still get the same nice even gradient.
One of the differences is this will give you less graininess.
That is to say the 2B will.
You can go all the way down to an HB
or not so far down as in, just use a B and in every case,
it will give you less grain,
but some of them, after you go down to like a HB or rather a B
after that is very hard to put down a black or a really dark gray.
So I like graphite.
Graphite's fantastic for detail.
Now let's switch over to a ballpoint pen.
Here everything we do, any tonality any values or planes,
they have to be expressed in line.
It doesn't matter what direction let's go this way.
We actually still see for the most part, our linear strokes.
Don't push hard.
Just kind of separate them ever farther.
I'm going with diagonal strokes.
I use parallel strokes, that is parallel to the top of our frame or
to the side for specific purposes.
So that's called cross hatching.
I can cross hatch across this if I like or let's do this.
Let's go parallel to the side of the frame.
If I put strokes that run diagonally, like this,
they don't have to be 45 degrees or exactly one or the other, but
you'll see here, we're darkening that field of line value.
If I do this,
let's put in our verticals again.
then I crossed my strokes at right angles.
So parallel to the top and bottom like this,
this kind of cross hatching removes all direction from the strokes.
It neutralizes the verticals and gives you something that's perfectly static.
Almost people think of this as cross hatching.
It is, but it's not the sum and substance of crosshatching.
This is really good for putting in backgrounds behind something more vibrant
and moving like that because it doesn't really have direction and a background
than just sits back in its place.
It doesn't advance.
It doesn't move.
We can do this crosshatching with the pencil, with the
charcoal or with a wax pencil.
So the charcoal pencil here I can use a 2B or 4B, let me start with a 2B
Bristol plate has a little more grain to it than the smooth newsprint,
but it also has the advantage of being very close to white.
So we can get a full range from black to nearly white.
No different from the wax pencil or the graphite pencil.
It's just a different medium charcoal.
Now charcoal is compatible with conte.
Conte, C O N T E it's a mixture.
It's a hybrid, it's part wax pencil and part charcoal mingled
together to form a conte lead.
So when you want to go over it, you can use a wax pencil here,
or you can use a charcoal pencil.
If you try to go over Conte, I'm sorry.
If you try to go over a wax pencil with a charcoal, go
resist each other it won't work.
If you try to go over
If you try to go over charcoal with a wax pencil, it'll resist.
But if you use Conte as your intermediate, intermediary, you'll be fine.
So oftentimes I use charcoal to refine the grainier Conte.
I'm going to do something else to this one, which is smudge it.
You know, they make paper, stumps rolled very tightly.
And coming to conical kind of a point at either end and with such a tool,
all you have to do to get gradations or to even out your tone is to go
back over that with a kleenex or such a stump, they call it and smear it.
And that will give you the most, even of tones.
Really, if you know what you're doing, that can be very useful,
but if you're just starting out, be careful, we might use it as a crutch
because you likely even feeling of it.
But at the same time, it can get a little wishy-washy.
If you do it too much.
In lieu of a stump, you can just take a Kleenex tissue and rub it.
Be conscious of your gradation.
So you don't want to lose the shape that you originally created.
Let's put down some more charcoal.
You can do this with what's known as vine charcoal.
A charcoal that I use sometimes when I'm laying in a drawing or painting, vine
charcoal has no wood surrounding it.
It's very fragile.
And if you lay it down on any surface, all you can do, you barely have to
blow on it and it will erase itself.
But if you have that
you can use it with a Kleenex or a stump, but it's really no different
from what I just demonstrated.
Just using a charcoal pencil.
Here's a pastel stick.
They come in a round and square shapes.
They're quite grain on a surface like this.
They're very good on what we call Canson paper.
That's a product and they so all kinds of colors too.
I'm doing everything in monochrome now, but this goes much darker
and it's faster to do that.
And just the residual that's on the Kleenex can be used
to finish out that gradation.
use gouache, G O U A C H E, just black.
It effectively gives us the same effect as a pen and ink wash.
And that's what I'm going to show now.
Notice with this.
I can also use my eraser to draw.
So the smudging has other purposes as well.
So I'm just using gouache, gouache is also known as opaque watercolor because
it's water soluble water-based paint, except unlike watercolors, we can use
it opaquely, not just transparently.
Transparent color includes marker, watercolor, acrylics, and
oils can be used that way too.
But usually are opaque.
So let me show you here
what we've got.
I have several brushes.
This is what we call a flat.
In other words, from one side to the other, it's cut
straight across at right angles.
This is called a round brush because it's rounded and cross
section comes to a point.
This is what we call a Filbert brush.
It's like a flat but the edges are beveled.
All of these are synthetic brushes.
Now, when you become a fabulously successful painter and you can afford
to buy a Sable, go ahead, be my guest.
But right now, these work just fine and I'm not too interested
in something like that.
Not too much, that's probably even too much, but that's my gouache black.
And then I'm going to use a tub of water.
Don't buy this at the art store.
And then I can thin that out, see like this, or if I use less water
obviously, and then I can mix the two together and where they come to together
I can gradate or I can always just add more water, water to the brush to do that.
Now that's applied just to the bare Bristol plate.
You can also, this is a favorite of water colorists, of course.
You can do wet on wet, like this, where you wet the surface.
This is often used for skies, for instance, and then you go back
into it like that, and you'll see how the paint kind of bleeds
out into that moist surface.
So let's go ahead and do that on the first square in the second row.
Actually to do this as best a flat surface, otherwise there can be
a tendency for the paint to run, but we can get past that I think.
Let's put a little more water on the board and let that kind of bleed into it.
You'll need a Kleenex so you can control the amount of paint and the consistency.
When I use oils, I have a bunch of cotton t-shirt rugs
that I use in lieu of Kleenex.
And they're very important cheap tools, because if you can't control
the amount of pigment on your brush, well, it's very difficult to have
enough control to do a painting.
With ink, it's the same.
we want to mix up the consistency of your ink wash inside the water bowl itself.
We're going to let that dry and while we do, I'm going to show you another
way of getting a nice, flat tone
on toned paper.
All right, let's do this then.
If we take the white pencil, this is wax pencil and we push hard
we can gradate this.
So that you still have a dark tone coming down from left to right.
But this consists of the gray paper itself.
And now if you want to make that an even more even gradient, you
can use a wax pencil product called verithin and the verithin is harder
and comes to a tighter point.
So watch as I do this, how nicely and evenly I can gradate from a
light into a dark, the same goes for the earlier demonstration
where we can cut down on the graininess that we see here by
using a verithin pencil at the edge.
So on this gray surface, I'm just, and good paper stock is Canson, C A N S O N.
And they make a product called mi teintes.
It's spelled M I-T E I N T E S, which means tints.
Now the nice thing about the the gouache or even better pen and
ink wash is that you can use it in conjunction with other materials.
Here I'm using a black wax pencil and just going over it like, so this
allows me to get my darkest dark very quickly and all of my gradations.
To any level of subtlety that I like, I'll be showing an example of a great
illustrator named Fortunino Matania.
And he uses this a combination of pen and ink and pencil graphite pencil, I believe
in his case, to get wonderful effects.
And he comes into with some highlights that are light.
Now let's talk about a couple of specific textures.
Hair, for instance, sometimes
first of all, you can curve your strokes.
this is not curly hair, of course, but for long sweeping hair or the
mane of a lion, something like that, that's pretty effective.
You can also do this.
You can put down a tone using essentially just a squiggle
and you can gradate that too, I can do this with a wax pencil.
I could use graphite pencil.
I could even this out after after the fact, or I can leave
it if I like that texture.
So first I showed you how to get even gradients and flat values, but here
we also can use this for texture.
I'll give you a couple other examples on that in a moment.
There are certain architectural surfaces or hair, other areas which
actually do have a similar texture.
So it's worth practicing some textures too.
One thing we can do to create texture is to draw on top of texture.
So I'm putting a sandpaper pad, the kind you'd use to sharpen a charcoal
or a content pencil, and I'm laying it underneath the tracing paper.
Let's see what we get.
When we draw across the sandpaper path, let me not use that.
I'll use charcoal.
So we pick up a little bit of texture when we do this.
If you compare it to here, where we have no texture at all.
By the way all of these little demonstrations can be made quite
different, depending on the paper you're using here, we're using
a lightweight tracing paper.
Well, let's have a look.
What we can do if I pull it taut like this, and then I just
use the weight of the lead,
a 30th of one value
because I'm not drawing on a cushion anymore.
I'm drawing on air.
Otherwise I'm usually drawing on a surface like this with about 25
sheets of smooth newsprint, because if you're drawing on a hard surface,
like a masonite board, it has no give.
You can't really get nuances of edges and value changes, but with
this cushion of newsprint, I'm able to get almost anything I want.
So it's not just the paper that you're drawing on but
what paper is on top of too.
So it's never just, Oh, well that's charcoal.
Charcoal on what?
So all this is important.
As far as further textures are concerned, you can do stuff like this.
I'll use a graphite for this.
Let's try to create an interesting texture.
Where it's darker at the end of each stroke.
Or it curves like a thatched roof on a house
Working like this is sometimes called alla prima drawing where you're
trying to get the texture at the same time as the value and edge.
Alla prima means at the first.
So it means right from the outset, you know, kind of go back
in and overwork it in French.
It's called premier coup.
It's the same one painting.
If you're trying to mix a trying to do a painting and you want to
just do it at the first outset.
Premiere coup that means on your palette, you try to mix the, just the
right value at just the right paint consistency and just the right color
intensity, and just the right hue and lay it down in the proper place
and with the right edge.
Certain painters, Frans Hals was one of the first notable
painters to go that route.
Although he didn't just do that.
John Howard Sanden emphasizes that, Richard Schmidt emphasizes that.
They both have excellent books on painting.
Sargent, he used a lot of that kind of an approach.
Although he was a hybrid, he also did layered painting.
So premier coup.
also applies here.
If we want to get the texture as we go.
A texture like this could be used for the side of a building, or
it could be used for pavement and
more things than I can mention.
I'll show examples by real master draftsmen.
You can gradate this too.
So in a moment, we'll switch over to do that.
What I'll do next is create almost a spatter kind of a look, which by the
way, you can also do, if you take your soft brush, dip it in your pen and
ink wash or your pen and gouache wash, and then just pull back on the fibers.
And that will spatter.
I guess I'll show you an example here.
I've got a
synthetic soft Filbert brush and we'll spatter the texture.
If you want it to be nice and clean.
You can just take some low adhesive tape and put it around
the edge of this rectangle.
And that will confine this spatter shape.
This is good for like marble texture or any number of other surfaces.
And then you can also bleed that into veins or areas where it evens out.
Then you can come back into those areas and
darken one side and harden that surface so you get a sense of overlap.
So it takes practice.
One thing you can do is you can turn the whole sheet upside down 180 degrees
and then spatter it from both sides.
That will make for more even effect.
Now, before I go on to examples from key important artists, I'm
going to do one more thing for you.
That is let's take a common sponge
and lay our tracing paper on top of it.
What an interesting texture that is.
If you want to get a sense of concrete, take a sheet of particle board and
turn it on its side and then take a tracing paper and go on top of that.
And that will give you that kind of Stony surface.
So here then is another texture.
And we just - I've done drawings where I wanted more texture.
So I took from outside, put them against my apartment outside door, outside wall
and I just did the drawing on top of the stucco.
So that's really easy stuff to find ways of creating textures,
but don't again, fall too much in love with texture for its own sake.
Texture has to follow a form, not the other way around, unless you're
doing something meant to be flat.
So let's take a little moment or two and go over some examples that I've
pulled out from important artists
who've done really good work in monochrome with everything from pen and
ink to a pen and ink wash, graphite.
Transcription not available.
And in some instances like here, just a flat black tone.
So, but here you'll notice how the the line has been put down to not just
create value, but to create planes.
So here this is more vertical.
And then when we get to the back, you notice the strokes are doing this on
the side and this on the back or top.
He's also gradating you see here from pretty dark, into very, very light.
Charles Dana Gibson worked around the turn of the 20th century.
He was an American illustrator and he's almost known, known almost exclusively
for this line work and hatching.
So here are the direction of those strokes is very important
to conveying the form here.
This is the background.
And as I said, just a little while ago, you want to keep that almost
at right angles with crosshatching.
See, and that keeps the background quite static and sits in the background.
Doesn't come forward.
You'll notice this is a white tablecloth.
So the values for the shadows are very light.
Everything he draws, still life, this chandelier.
These cups and saucers all done in planes.
Here's a classic, one of his most detailed illustrations.
It looks like a night at the opera.
You'll see how the head in the foreground is nicely defined by
the angles of the crosshatching
cast shadow there, and look at the planes of her hair.
He's looking for the areas where planes come together called crest lights.
So he leaves those light.
He just suggests some of the pattern on her dress and here the planes
of the hair are really, really beautiful in and of themselves.
So we actually can look at any part of his drawing here and find that
even by itself, it's a little work of beauty.
There are stories being told here as almost always with
Charles Dana Gibson's work.
Notice he uses the background as a foil to bring his figures in
front of it or silhouette them.
So we have some light on dark and some dark on light.
The actual work is a lot more refined.
This is a reasonable reproduction, but if you've seen the
original, it's really something.
Again, see the strokes following the form.
There is a little crosshatching going on here, but it's not at
right angles, which is static.
There's still some angularity to it.
Let's look at another one.
Another beautiful composition.
He's got this figure silhouetted against the dark background.
But look at this, the directions of the strokes.
That's what I want you to concentrate on.
And also some areas that are just dark.
So it's not all evenly, incredibly detailed.
I couldn't process that.
This is a movie illustration.
Movie poster illustration for Hot Shots Part Deux, and Charlie Sheen
is here along with Valeria Golino.
And this is a hybrid because you see strokes are being used in a linear way.
And they vary in value.
This dark balances these darks here, but also the tone is being put down
in a flat way too, in their hair.
And in other areas like the simplification of the gun and a very,
very soft light cloud background here.
We have a head drawing demonstration.
I did some years ago, I used conte for defining the light and dark pattern.
And then I used wax pencil to create the lights.
So you'll see actually the movement of the halftones crosses the form,
but the Conti follows the form.
It has its darkest darks
Couple of areas are left out where the reflected light occurs at the crest light.
So and at the very end, I used some verithin, which is the
finest of the wax pencil products.
And for that, I use to very close values, such as creases on the forehead.
I probably in looking at it after all this time, I probably could have gone
just flat and dark for these shadows.
Here we have a costume drawing demonstration, and this is
strictly using conte, nothing else.
You'll notice how some of the half tones are just literally lined strokes together.
And then there are areas that are saturated really, really dark and flat.
Edges harder where we get overlaps, softer where this heavy fabric
turns from light to shadow.
I want to talk about.
We have two characters toward the top of the composition.
I left two areas, completely light for possible title treatments.
And then I applied my value in long strokes, not concerned
that this be perfectly flat.
I actually like it more this way.
It gives some movement, some energy to it, and then it fades
off into a vignette here and here.
I see this gun is completely dark.
His hair is completely dark.
So he's the first read and this other fellow, this is an
espionage movie, back here.
He's a second read.
And because of the high contrast, the white next to the black, and
then the clear, hard shapes here.
The first read in this particular picture are here
The rest of it just supports that purpose.
This one is worked on a blank sheet of paper.
And so here I used white wax pencil and I took an airbrush and lightly blew over
the edges to give it some atmosphere.
The thinking is the same as if it were a dark on light.
It's just, we're going from light to dark.
The last example was a drawing I did for a film known as Frankenstein.
It might not have a subtitle.
I also worked on Kenneth Branagh and Robert de Niro's
Frankenstein a little bit later.
I don't know.
I had a little spurt of Frankenstein's and horror, but I also do a lot
of film noir and crime stories.
And this one is actually not a real movie, but it could be.
It's Charles Bronson and it gives us here the setting which I just made up.
This is a demonstration for a class I once taught in movie poster design.
So, but what I want to show here is I just drew the core.
I didn't feel in the whole shadow.
And so I faded it off here and I faded every single to white here.
That works really well because they could drop a title treatment right
in here or they could do something down here, like the billing.
Or they could put in like a tagline running across the dark here of his hair.
So it's a, it's a technique or it's actually an approach to lighting that I
have used in genuine movie poster designs.
And you'll see one or two coming up.
So like the last design I showed you with Bronson, this is a, for
the real film Terminator Two, I did about 30 in a day for this.
I just basically did the drawings as you've seen me demonstrate
several times and then photocopied them onto gray paper in all cases.
And what that did was it gave me all 30 of them.
And all I had to do was come back in and refine the edges a little
bit with wax pencil and come back in with highlights using white pencil.
And if I wanted to, I had a little bit of whitewash and I touched
back into the rim light here, for instance, or maybe the eyeball here.
And I may have had some black gouache to, to really, really dark and
everything where I wanted it to be.
So by doing this, it's just a simple process.
I was able to get all 30 of them done in just a day.
This one is Ransom with Mel Gibson and it's real similar.
You got one character here and he's viewing a television screen.
Or a big monitor.
I'm not sure.
So it depends on having nice rich, flat darks like these.
And then at the same time, I just used an electric eraser and I pulled
it across the page to create these static lines, which helps sell the
idea that it's a TV or a monitor.
And then coming back in with some white.
Just to give it more form.
You'll notice this is carried a little farther than the Arnold shots, because
I didn't have so many to do that day.
And the edges are important.
If this were completely hard-edged, it would look plastic.
Like, what is that?
But here instead I softened the edges a little and that keeping this edge hard,
keeps our focus going right where we want it, which is the attitude of Mel Gibson.
After all, this is a movie involving retribution and everything else
that's not a happy emotion.
We want to show attitude.
We don't want to just go on autopilot.
So especially when you're drawing heads, this is important.
And by the way, even still life, the staging of that was still life can
convey emotion remarkably, but true.
This is A Fish Called Wanda.
And they already had a logo for the fish, which they're going
to repeat in other poster ideas.
So that was just basically plugged in, cut and paste.
And then we have John Cleese, Kevin Klein.
What's his name?
And Jamie, Jamie Lee Curtis.
I didn't have a very good photo of Jamie Lee Curtis.
So I drew something more generic of a very glamorous, pretty, you know,
star, but you'll notice the texture.
I went over a few textures, just, just a little before this, and this
is the scribbled texture I showed.
And that's really how I built this one.
And I kind of wanted to use it because, you know, everything was kind of a
big mess and they're very confused.
So not only did I have to pull off the, the emotions, but I
had to obviously apply tone.
And so I use that except here at the feathers where I use almost like
a ribbon where you get a highlight in the middle and carries over.
Here we have what I think is a very, very excellent Charles
Dana Gibson illustration.
Notice the direction of the stroke on the under plane of her hat.
Notice the crest light, defining her hair.
Look at the subtle light crosshatching that he uses to
create the planes on the faces.
Here this is really fantastic.
The way he creates that rounded head, leaves the crest led here to create all
like he's very flushed, dark complexion.
Notice here he applies a textured stroke.
It has direction.
We talked about that just earlier and on the color, the
direction runs counter to it.
Obviously he's got some flat plaques that he introduces, so it's not just all line.
And that would look like a kaleidoscope.
We'd go crazy instead.
It's just beautiful.
And the negative shapes.
He's not unconscious of that either.
There's a lot to be said for this one.
Here's a crest light.
The fact that the hat is really dark and the crest light is almost just
the white of the paper means that we know the hat has a satin finish,
not a matte finish, like we would have here where evenly grades from
the crest light into the darks.
So that's a very good device.
The hands give a lot of expression, notice her facial expression, but her hand
expression is just equally like curious.
This is called seeing New York, the flat iron, which was the first
skyscraper as such in New York city.
And so they're pretty, it's a marvel to them.
So I love that piece.
Gibson had a kind of a wry sense of humor.
And in this case, maybe less so, but he has bathers.
You can tell the period piece by their bathing suits or otherwise.
And look at the direction though.
That's what I like about this one.
The sweep you see
of that wave the shadow on the wave or how it pools up as a gathers it's strength
and then gonna come slamming down.
So the direction of the strokes in this one is really central.
Beyond that, you can see a few, a few areas that the eye goes to
immediately because they are the darkest, but it's also subtle.
I mean, I love this figure, which is submerged beneath the water.
Notice, he keeps it lighter and he sweeps it into the same flow of that wave.
And then look at the beauty that the design of this hair.
Imagine if that weren't there.
If we took it out, wouldn't be nearly as nice.
In fact, it echoes this the foam at the top of the wave, which is almost like
the Japanese 17th century painter printmaker Hokusai in some of
his famous work involving waves.
Here is a tour de force which actually could get so repetitive because almost all
of his work is made up of tours the force.
So here notice that the strokes, first of all, you'll see that he
used an ink wash and it gradates from darker to lighter and darker again.
And then down here, very dark and then reflections in the water.
We see some debris, Norman Rockwell wrote a chapter in the famous artists
course called the importance of detail.
You have to take that with a measure of salt, because some people
will take that as a license to start their drawings with detail.
No, that's not how he does it.
And he does little thumbnail composition before he actually does the finished
drawing and they will have four values, black, light gray, dark gray, and white.
That's that's a nothing really, but I just want to tell you, he doesn't
just start shooting from the hip and figuring it out as he goes, although
in small details, he certainly does.
Look at the direction of the waves again, just like Gibson's last
piece I showed you, but more subtle.
And the characterization characterization of these victims.
This is from the Lusitania, which was sunk during World War II by the
Germans and was one of the it was like a match that set off a powder keg.
And one of the big reasons that the United States was able to
enter that war, even though Woodrow Wilson had promised he never would.
So here we have another Matania.
And he's used once again, washes and pencil to create
everything that's on this page.
This is a nice, simple black.
She or course is our center center of attention after
all, she's almost pure white.
Shadows on white garments never go as dark as shadows on darker garments like this.
You'll notice there's an interesting secondary activity going on here a year
and more to the point for our study.
If you look at this figure in the middle distance and you follow
his breast, his deltoid muscle,
his biceps, and his forearm muscles, you'll notice that they're cross hatched.
They go like this.
Very lightly, but nonetheless, in the direction of the form, he's come
back in with paint, it would appear, to create little crumbs on the table.
Probably to do most of the lights on this white gown.
He's got relief, that is to say simplicity, but even here, if you look
at the bricks, they're just basically textural strokes of the type I showed
you, but kept very light and then just touched at the seams between the bricks,
the rest of it we don't, we know that the brick runs all the way like this, but
he doesn't have to outline that for us.
He just prompts the viewer's eye.
Beautiful black here.
Again, a gradation from darker to lighter on the ground plane and in the background.
Notice he keeps the background pretty static.
Like I showed you guys with Charles Dana Gibson.
This is a pretty complex subject matter.
We feel - you see the wounded and the dying and the trenches in World War one.
Again, wonderfully done.
Foreground, it's kind of dirty, just muddy, which is what
happened in the trenches and in no man's land between them.
These figures in the distance notice they're closer value.
They're almost the value of the ground as the same thing with this structure, the
farther back they go, the lighter they go.
The closer that is to the value of the sky itself.
Notice this is probably done with wet on wet wash, which I
demonstrated a little earlier.
And the highest contrast is going to be in the foreground.
In this we have deep space.
It's not like Norman Rockwell, where everything is in one
picture plan at the front.
Here we go all the way from front plane figures to middle plane
figures all the way to the third plane, which is the distance.
That's usually the way a landscape is set up.
I mean, really this, this
- this palette they're going to carry the wounded away, serves as a nice
background to silhouette the second most important action behind this in the
composition, what an illustrator he was.
Here we have a pen and ink wash pencil.
He may have even used dark paint.
He probably, in fact, he I'm sure he did for the bottom of that cauldron
or for these beams or for this spot.
And he looks for sure that he used a white gouache to come back here
wet on wet and create these fumes from the poor people below who are
having molten tar poured on them.
Foreground is pretty light.
Here we have Zenobia
the queen of Palmyra, which was part of Syria and was part one of the
Eastern provinces part of, one of the Eastern provinces of the Roman empire.
But she kind of rebelled and wanted to form her own independent kingdom
rather than be a dependent of Rome.
And so the Romans would have nothing of it and they besieged her.
So that's a scene from that warfare.
This is a great scene from history and she's one of the strongest women that
we encounter in classical history.
Here's a classic, what they call Gibson girl.
And they even made a movie called that.
She was so well known, just like Leyendecker had an arrow shirt collar man
we associate Leyendecker with the New Year's baby, et cetera.
There was the Petty girl by George Petty.
Well, Gibson was famous for this.
And you'll notice she has an aristocratic bearing and that's pretty
much kind of subject matter that he worked with with a few exceptions.
Notice the direction of the strokes here to create the hair texture and then a
few thicker strokes where it gets dark
Notice the beautiful line that silhouettes this head.
We can see the head separating from the neck, which is of critical
importance, but it's very light.
Then he's got his darks around the eye socket.
That's obviously going to want to be one of your focal points.
And notice how the strokes twist over themselves here to create the hair mass
on the bun at the back of her head.
But these are some of the things he used to create it.
This is dated 1898 by Charles Dana Gibson is called Mr.
Pip having developed unusual symptoms the best medical advice is secured.
He's used a lot of devices, artistically, forget medically.
Notice all of this wonderful Baroque curvature to this seated lady's gown,
as opposed to the straights, just like that on the standing male figure.
Quite a contrast.
In between we find these spiral folds on this gentleman's jacket.
The legs are nice and dark and they silhouette against the lighter plan here.
Notice again, crosshatching in the background runs parallel to the
picture frame, quite different from the hatching that describes his head.
We're all constantly drawing from Charles Dana Gibson, his heads,
because they described the planes of the head so beautifully.
All of my teachers, students were encouraged to draw from Gibson.
If I didn't mention it, there is a book it's put up by Dover it's called
the Gibson Girl and her America.
And so if you want to get something to draw from, it's a real
cheapy and really, really good.
he's kind of softened the edges around this guy's mutton chops and his hair.
It also kind of makes his head glow.
If you really pull back and look at it, as opposed to the sharp
definition of this guy's bald head.
This one is also from 1898.
It's titled one of the hazards of golf.
It's like a painting.
I really look at this as a painting.
Notice he left an area out here, so it wasn't just a boring rectangle.
And here he puts his darkest darks on these tree trunks, even though
they're not in the front plane, they're in the middle plane.
And these figures are united.
Look at the strokes, he merges them together.
In fact, when you look at a couple in the distance, that's the effect
Notice that this bank on the ground curves, upwards and the direction of the
tree trunks and his strokes do just that.
Making us see that.
Almost like two waves in the ocean, which we saw him use earlier.
Then where the plane of the path evens out the strokes become more horizontal.
use some of these textures and also how they create form by using crosshatching,
direction of the strokes, even line.
You'll notice for instance, in one case I've gone over just a
simple drawing of a head by Charles Dana Gibson and the silhouette
and the silhouette is the most beautiful lime.
So we can use line in conjunction with tone.
However we've created the tone.
That's central to everything is line, but from it, we can create tone as well.
So I hope you kind of get the connection there.
We'll definitely be using it in future lessons in this series.
So thanks for watching and I'll see you in a later lecture.
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1. Learning Recommendation24sNow playing...
1. Using Hatching and Texture to Create Value18m 26sNow playing...
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2. Using Wet Media and Frottage to Create Texture21m 29s
3. Learning Recommendation24s
4. Analyzing the Use of Texture by Charles Danna Gibson, Mark Westermoe, and Fortunino Matania28m 42s
5. Closing Statements54s