- Lesson details
Skies seem simple and free-flowing, but like all subjects in landscape painting, there are concepts that can help improve the rendering and understanding of what you see in nature. Learn how color and value gradients, as well as linear perspective, can take your skies to a higher level.
Landscape painting in a studio compared to painting on-location are completely different experiences, each with their own set of challenges to face. Painting landscapes on-location means you’re faced with constantly changing natural lighting, as well as nature, but the experience itself can really make your inspiration flow.
In this painting course, Artist Ben Fenske teaches you the fundamentals of landscape painting through a series of lessons. These lessons include easy to follow instruction, analysis of famous landscape paintings, and demonstrations shot on-location, to help you better your painting skills.
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tie in a little bit of linear perspective.
Those things seem like they might not go together,
but linear perspective runs through everything outside.
It's often not very obvious.
So I want to just cover basic sky gradations and clouds and create a little scene
combining all three of those things.
So the first thing I want to do is talk about a general sky gradation.
And I want to talk about values first.
And in order to do that,
I'm going to mix up a sort of chromatic black on my palette because I don't
have black on my palette,
so I'm going to mix up
a little bit of alizarin and ultramarine and phthalo green and try to come up with
something that is basically black
for the purpose of demonstrating value scale. And I might use a little bit transparent brown.
Okay, so that's an easy way to mix up a black if you don't have one.
I can also take this black and I can make it slightly more violet by adding
more alizarin, slightly more blue, slightly more yellowy brown
by adding the transparent brown or more green.
I want a sort of neutral black for this.
Actually I’m gonna make this a bit wider.
Just gonna eraser this a bit.
Okay, let's look at a sky gradation
first based on values. So I'm going to draw horizon line.
Here's our picture. I’m gonna draw a horizon line somewhere here. So here is the horizon - if
you can see to the horizon you often can’t see to the horizon. There’s often a
mountain, tree, light up, trees, something where you can't actually see to the horizon.
But if you could see all the way to the horizon
you would see the bottom of the sky.
And the sky can be divided up into different bands.
I’m gonna do right now a sort of simplified version
of this sky gradation and I’m just going to divide it up into bands first.
So there's a very narrow band at the bottom,
slightly bigger one after that, and then getting bigger as they go up towards the top
of the sky. So in this case we're going to have four bands.
And imagine them as four separate colors right now.
Eventually it will be all one smooth gradation.
But right now it's just four bands.
And just thinking about values first before we think about color at all.
I want to think about where is the lightest part of the sky?
Where is the darkest part of the sky?
So it turns out that the bottom of the sky,
it's not the darkest or the lightest.
And I want to mix up a value
to represent the value of the bottom of the sky.
And again just general sky gradation.
These are just general principles every sky that you see outside
Is going to be different.
So at the bottom of the sky we have a value maybe something like that.
Now the lightest part of the sky is going to be just above that first band.
I'll mix up something a little bit lighter.
Now from this point this guy will continue to get darker until you reach the top
of the sky, which is looking all the way up at the top of the sky.
So I'll mix up something a little bit darker
for the third band and darker yet for the fourth band.
Okay. So now we have a value plan for the sky gradation. So these will eventually
be blended together and you will have a sky that is a seamless gradation.
Okay. So again, the lightest part is just above that first band. That first band may
or may not be visible at all times.
And I might make this just a little bit more obvious.
I kind of lost the - let's just make that a little bit -
I'll reinstate that light band again.
Okay, so there's our sky gradation.
Just in terms of values.
That's what we're looking at.
Let's do the same thing with color this time.
Here's the horizon line and then up to the top of the sky.
There's that first band. Second, third, and notice how they get bigger and bigger as they
go up. Okay, let's take a look at color and I'll do eventually two versions
of this. This is the first simplified version of it.
So we're dealing with color now and the first band
is it going to be a violet gray band.
Now keep in mind that
I'm painting a blue sky.
So if I say that there's a violety gray area that's within a context of the
of the blue sky. So here's the violet grey area, next there’s a yellowy green
area, then a greenish blue area,
and then up to a more blue and eventually violet at the top of the sky.
So that's the kind of color change
we're going to look for.
And I'll just mix up some of those colors.
I don’t intend this to be a sky formula by any means it's just an illustration of a
general version of a sky. You can use it to compare against -
use this as a starting point.
So I'm going to mix up the yellowy part of the sky and I
might just exaggerate this for purpose of illustration. So now this is by no means yellowy
but it's by no means yellow but within the context of the sky,
that's the yellow portion of it.
Next time move up to that green
band and I'm looking at the value plan and I have to get a little bit
darker at this band. So now I’m going up to more of a greenish zone
and then up to more of a blue zone.
Okay, and I'll get the violety gray zone in there
too. Okay, so that - maybe that's a bit too dark.
But that's the general idea of a sky.
Let’s just call version one of the simplified sky gradation.
So I got a narrow band at the bottom that you may or may not see,
going up to the lightest part of the sky,
which is that yellowy band and the green band and the blue band.
Eventually looking straight up, if you were ever to look straight up,
it's going to go to violet again.
Let’s just - maybe I'll just leave those
separate for now. Okay, so that's something to think about when you're thinking about
a sky gradation. So now I want to jump into - I want to create a scene
with a big sky full of clouds and I want to tie in linear perspective.
So I'm going to draw this out with lines a bit first.
And I'll just take my black that I've got mixed up
or maybe I'll make it a little bit brown.
I want to just imagine a scene here I've got - I've already imagined a horizon
line and this is by no means intended to be a course on
linear perspective. That's something to be studied
on its own and probably for quite a long time.
It's a whole topic onto itself.
My intention here is just to introduce the fact that linear perspective does apply to things
outside and it's not so obvious sometimes. So we’re gonna look at a few
things where linear perspective is more obvious and a few things where it's not. Okay,
so I'm going to sketch out a little scene here.
And I might sketch out
something like a house and a lot of times human-made objects are tend to be square
and the linear perspective is very obvious.
That's why I want to include this house.
So let's just think about a box first
and let's make it go back in 2 point perspective.
I know it's make this a sort of.
Let's make this a sort of house of some sort or a barn.
And I'll just introduce a little bit of a lights source so I'm
going to imagine that the sun is overhead,
but a little bit off to the side, like roughly this angle.
Okay, so it's pretty obvious for anybody that studied two point perspective what's going on here.
We've got basically a box,
we’ve got our horizon line with out two vanishing points,
and a light source. Okay,
look at this. Look at a few other things, we might put a road in here.
And I'm imagining sort of a country road
that's kind of winding around.
But of course the linear perspective applies to roads as well.
And you might find a section of this road
with perspective lines going back to the horizon
like that and maybe another section.
with perspective lines going off in this direction.
And so you can think about this road having different sections and make sure it goes
back into space, following perspective, even when it changes angles.
And I'm going to imagine maybe some
crops here, I’m gonna imagine a field,
with lines going in perspective as well.
Okay, so this is all fairly obvious.
I might even imagine some electrical poles going off into the distance
following that linear perspective.
linear perspective. And I’m gonna imagine for this purpose I’m gonna imagine cumulus clouds.
Cumulus clouds are nice because they ought to have a very flat base and they
all sit at any given time,
they all sit - the base starts at the same level of atmosphere, same height.
So I’m gonna imagine a scene full of puffy cumulus clouds and maybe some upper atmosphere clouds above
them. And I'm going to imagine them first as just boxes floating in the sky.
And for this I'm going to use one point perspective
because clouds are going to appear to come out of this - to come out of one
point in the sky. So I’m just gonna draw a series of perspective lines in sky.
And hopefully this will be more clear in a second.
I'm just kind of randomly drawing these lines as a guide.
I shouldn't say randomly drawing them, they’re all going back to the same vanishing point.
But once I have a few in I'm going to start imagining some clouds floating.
So I’m gonna start drawing a few boxes here floating in the sky.
And I'm going to just give them a little bit of symbolic shading on the
under planes. I'm going to make sure that they get bigger as they come towards me
and smaller as they go away from me.
And I'm just going to start of place them,
try to place them randomly and I might get some really small ones
back here. Maybe I need a few more midsize ones, maybe I need some overlapping
ones where one box will sit behind another one.
I’ll imagine this one’s sitting behind that one.
imagine a big one maybe here. I'm going to get back to the sky gradation
in a minute. I'm just kind of drawing out of the same here.
I'll put a few more
here. I’m gonna make them kind of random sizes like clouds are but in general they're
going to appear larger and larger as they get closer to the viewer.
I want to make sure I have something of that too.
And maybe a few more small ones back here.
Okay, so floating boxes,
maybe there's one over here
too. I like to look for overlapping forms
because it shows depth. If I have a house sitting in front partially obscuring a cloud
it's an easy way to show depth.
If I show one cloud behind another one again,
it just enhances the feeling of depth. Maybe I'll yeah,
I’ll have one here.. I’ll have a couple small ones here.
I’ll have one going off the page here.
And do a few more.
Okay. So why is it important to understand this idea of clouds being a box?
And one of the reasons is the under planes of clouds are so important. If you
look at good paintings, usually painters simplify clouds,
but they almost always included under plane.
So that's one of the most important features of cloud is the under plane.
The other reason to understand this one point perspective here is you'll notice that as you
get further back into space you're seeing less and less under plane, more and more of
the side plane or upright plane on a cloud.
So this cloud up here as it's starting to almost pass over your head and when
a cloud passes over your head you're only seeing the under plane of cloud. Okay,
I'm going to just going to sketch in a few more things in the scene and
then I'll start painting it.
I might also - I’m just going to imagine maybe a tree
here and I could even imagine
part of the fence in front of this house. I might - this house might be casting
a shadow onto the road here a little bit.
And I’ll imagine a little bit of shade on this tree as well, this bush or tree.
Maybe it’s a tree. There may be a distant mountain so we can see
that some of the clouds are going behind the mountain.
So the horizon line is often obscured by a mountain or hill.
And that could make few more trees here and there.
Maybe a bush here casting shadow. Okay,
so let's start to - let's start to paint this imaginary scene and see what happens with
the sky gradation, talk about what happens with the clouds,
talk a little bit about aerial perspective, how it affects the clouds, the color, and
value of them. Okay, I'm going to - I’m going to maybe just start with the mountain
and get down some value for the mountain so we can compare that to the sky.
And I’ll make it nice and blue violet because it's going off into the distance.
There's a lot of atmosphere in between the - in between the viewer and the mountain there's
miles of atmosphere. There's lots of veils of atmosphere.
And I might even imagine another mountain behind that mountain which is even further back and
further affected by aerial perspective Hey,
maybe we're just seeing a little peek of it.
Maybe it here. Maybe here just stepping off further into the distance.
Maybe a little bit here.
There's another peak. I don't like that design.
Let me just to that. Okay,
so we got a couple layers of mountains.
And I'm going to paint the sky around these clouds for now.
And you know what, I might put in a few upper atmosphere clouds
that will sit above these clouds and from our point of view
it will appear as they’re behind these clouds.
So these cumulus clouds you can imagine them,
they might be at - the bases might be a few a couple thousand feet up.
Where as a cirrus cloud might be at 30,000 feet above, so it's two levels
of atmosphere. Let me just see if I can draw a little diagram here.
You got all these - you got the ground here
and you've got all of these cumulus clouds, the tops of which are a different heights,
but the bases of which are all roughly the same.
And then above that there are some very thin
cirrus clouds. So I'm just going to draw in a few of those so I can
paint those around paint the sky around
as well. So just give hopefully a little bit more depth to the sky with all
these different layers going on.
Maybe these are kind of starting to break up into little pieces here.
Okay, so I hope this isn't too confusing right now.
Okay, so let's start to paint that sky gradation and imagine what that looks like.
Then again, I've been imagining these bands of value and color going up to the top.
So I might start in here with this green band.
And I’m just gonna kind of guess at it for now.
And I can make this - I can make some changes later on,
but I'll just kind of guess at the color I want now.
But I just want to know that I'm in that green band.
It's not the darkest part of the sky, it’s not the lightest part of this sky.
It's not even necessarily green.
It's just green relative to the part above it and the part below it. So this color
might not look green
and you probably don't want it to look green.
It's not green, it’s just green relative to everything else.
And again, I kinda want to stress that this is not a sort of formula
this is just illustrating an idea. So whatever I'm mixing on the on the palette
is not necessarily any specific combination of colors.
When you're outside painting you want to just make your observations
and mix based off of those.
So I'm roughly going to paint in this band and leaving some spots for clouds.
And you know what, I think I need a few more clouds in the distance, it’s
just going to look nicer.
I want a few of these kind of appearing to go behind the mountain.
So a few small ones back there.
Okay, I'll mix up maybe a darker more bluish band.
Maybe I'll modify my cirrus clouds a bit.
Anytime you're painting a sky outside
it's all about design. All about design. Everything you put down - because the clouds are moving
all the time. So it's a chance to design the picture more than any other part
of the picture. I’m just gonna sort of scrub this in.
So right now I’ve got a blue band and a green band
roughly scrubbed in here. Let's just step back and see how that looks.
Okay now down to the yellowish band and then we might see a sliver of this
more gray, violets, red-orange band but the yellow band is the lightest, I want to make
sure that I paint it the lightest.
Then again, it should just appear
yellow a compared to the other ones.
This is not - I'm not actually even - well I am using a little bit of yellow
ochre, but it's - this color is not yellow.
Okay, and I might not even - because of the mountains,
I might not even see that final band.
I might not need it.
Because there's nowhere in this picture that I can even see the horizon.
Okay, and I'll just kind of - I’ll sort of weave these together a little bit more
and I don't want to end up with three or four horizontal very obvious horizontal bands
in my picture. I want to have a seamless gradation
with this sort of thinking behind it.
So I’ll just kind of weave those together a bit.
I don't want to blend them to death.
I just want to sort of weave them.
Okay, so there's our sky gradation.
Let me just look at it.
Step back and see how that looks.
Okay. Now let's talk about the clouds and let’s talk mostly about these under planes.
That's the important part. So they are going to be going back into space, meaning
they are affected by
aerial perspective. I already mention that
the closer the cloud is to you, the more of the under plane you're going to see.
it's also generally true that these under planes that are close to you are going to
be a little bit darker and a little bit more yellowy orange. The
under planes or shadows in the distance are going to be more towards the blue.
So I'm going to start mixing up a few of the under planes.
Actually, I'm just gonna change the shape of this
Cloud, just looks too long.
Okay, so I’m gonna mix up some of these under planes.
Now it is possible that the sky - you might ask yourself this:
what's darker, the cloud under plane or the sky next to it?
It could go either way.
Sometimes they're almost the same value.
Sometimes the under plane is darker than the sky next to it.
Sometimes the sky is darker than the under plane, sometimes the sky, because of the
gradation, the sky is darker than the under plane up towards the top of the sky
but the sky is lighter than the under plan towards the bottom of sky.
So these are observations you’ll have to make. I'm going to try to do that,
I'm going to try to have under planes that are
clearly darker than the sky here and up here
I want to make them
maybe quite similar to the sky behind them.
But either way, I'm going to mix up a more bluish
tone for the distant under plans.
So there should be less contrast in general in a distant cloud.
That's too much even, that’s too dark.
I'm just going to leave these boxes
as boxes for now and maybe a little bit later try to turn them more into
clouds. So I’m gonna make these under plane slightly
darker and more yellowy as they come forward.
By the time we get here,
we might be dealing with something.
that's obviously much yellower, yellow-orange, but it's almost the same value as the sky behind
it and bluer as they go back.
Okay, so we have a color gradation from a warmer color
o a more blue color and a value gradation.
So this probably is darker than this one.
I can make it maybe slightly
more obvious. Okay. So now we have an obvious transition.
It’s almost a gradation
in the base of the clouds or the under planes of the clouds.
up some of this white.
So maybe I'll scrub in some of these
colors, again thinking of aerial perspective. So I haven't talked about the side planes of the clouds
yet, so before I do that
I would like to get some of the land painted in because I want to
introduce another subject, which is a cloud shadow.
Cloud shadows are another really fun things paint because they move and they help you to
design a picture. So let's paint in - I’m going to paint in the land a little bit
I might make a couple big cloud shadows on the land.
Actually it - maybe that's the first thing I'll do.
So again, anytime you're using a cloud shadow,
that's a shadow cast by a cloud onto the land,
you can think of it as a as an opportunity to design the picture.
So I might put a few little cloud shadows back on the mountain,
maybe - actually maybe there's a - maybe there's quite a big cloud shadow out here
just sort of darkening this part of the mountain.
And maybe there's one or two small ones on this back mountain.
And again, it's aerial perspective.
So the cloud shadows are going to get lighter as they go back in space.
I'm just imagining - and this, I don't know which cloud is casting the shadow.
I don't know. One of these in here casting this big shadow here.
So a few cloud shadows. Maybe I'll put a big cloud shadow in the middle ground.
I'll sketch that in. Big cloud shadow somewhere here.
Maybe coming across the road.
Okay. So a rough idea where I want cloud shadows.
And let's paint in the foreground a bit.
So I'm imagining sort of a dirt road.
And I’ll paint in a very blue cast shadow. So this leads to another topic, where do
shadows get their light from?
Because Shadows are not being touched by the sun's rays.
So a shadow receives its light
from, in this case, from the sky, from the ambient light of the sky.
In this case we have a lot of blue sky.
The blue sky will reflect down into the shadow
and make that shadow appear bluish or have a blue cast to it.
So I'll make sure that that shadow is a cast shadow has a blue cast to it.
And I'm going to imagine this house as being painted white.
But it's in shadow so it's also going to be affected by the blue sky
reflecting into it. Now to mix up a color for the ground plane, I’m gonna imagine some
grass or some crops here.
And the flat plane or ground plane is one of the lightest planes.
Or it is the lightest plane in general.
I'll make sure I make that light enough.
And I imagine some crops or something planted here or somebody's garden maybe.
Okay I want to leave room for that cloud shadow.
I don't want to paint that in light.
That's now technically in shadow
in the middle ground. Distant fields. And I'll paint in the trees. And the trees are going to have a light and shadow
Let's make a shadow for this tree.
And a bit of shadow for this bush or whatever
this is here. So upright shadows.
And I’ll make the flat plane shadows again being affected by the blue of the sky.
So the sky giving the light to the shadow parts
is going to make them bluer.
So this is green grass with blue light on it.
Same here. This is green grass with blue light on it as opposed to the sunlight which at
this time of day is maybe a white light or maybe slightly yellowish light.
Okay more cast Shadow. Okay.
So it's starting to come together.
We've got all of our - or most of our major planes painted in here, we’ve got the
ground plane, we got the ground plane shadows here. We’ve got upright planes in shadow here
and here. We've got slanted planes, the mountain, we've got under planes in the sky
in the clouds. And we have shadows being cast
by the clouds on to the Earth and that is represented here as this darker patch
on the back mountain and a patch of the middle ground.
I'm just going to modify that color
actually, it's going to be a little bit less blue
because it's not as far in the distance.
So that cloud shadow - I’ll warm that up a bit.
And I'll alter the color of it
on the road portion of it.
Okay. Starting to come together.
Give the foreground a little bit of variety
and paint in the upright planes that are in the sunlight. That’s the tree.
Okay, so that's starting to come together a bit, maybe paint this bush in a little
bit. Okay, so light and shadow.
And at this point I'm going to change the color of the mountains a little bit
to distinguish from the cloud shadow on the mountain.
So I'm just going to make them a little bit less blue.
Try to make this a little bit more clear.
Make it look like maybe there's some sunlight hitting
these areas. Just to make it clear that this is a cloud shadow this is
not. So I'll just warm that up a bit.
And I'll do the same with the distant mountain.
What happens often is the very distant mountains start to take on the sky color a
little bit. So they do get bluer, things get bluer as they go back or they
start losing yellow as they go back but at a certain point,
the distant mountains start to almost dissolve into the sky and they start to take on
the sky color a bit.
So I'm just going to maybe throw some of that sky color back in there,
into that mountain. That's a bit too much.
Get rid of that little - little cloud shadow for now when I get rid of
it. So we're looking at very little contrast now between the distant mountain and the sky.
And of course, this is just an imaginary scene, it could be - the possibilities outside are
endless. It could be very dark against the sky, very - it can be lighter, it can almost
fade into the sky. I'm imagining it like this.
Mainly because I wanted to distinguish that,
this idea of a cloud shadow. And I think I put another cloud shadow on this
mountain. A smaller one. And this cloud shadow, when you see them move across the landscape
they're going to - anytime you have a cast shadow
it starts to follow the form of the object that it’s cast upon.
Actually you'll start start to reveal - it
will reveal to you the the form of the object when you see these
shadows flat across the mountains. So I'll just imagine it's something like this and maybe there's a
touch of it, another one there.
Okay, so some cloud shadows.
Let's get back up to
the clouds here.
they want to make them gray.
Or some combination. But it's a good idea to just go, when you're outside
you look at your sky,
compared it to everything else and in this case I’ve got to ask my question -
I’ve got to ask myself a question.
I've got this white building,
maybe there's some sort of raking light on this the side of it,
I've got kind of a whitish road, and
I’ve got these clouds. Now which one of them is lighter?
I have to figure that out.
And if the clouds are the whitest thing
do I want to make them white?
I have to make that decision.
So I’m working on a white canvas,
that's as white as I can go right now.
Do I want to make the sides of the clouds white like that,
or do I want to maybe like it normally is outside, in this lighting
condition, do I want to tone them down a little bit or key them down just
a little bit? A lot of times
it's a good idea in a painting to kind of save room to have this
idea that you can always go a little bit lighter or a little bit darker.
So I’m gonna mix up something slightly darker for the side planes.
Might also be a good time to notice another thing that happened in the one-point perspective.
If you notice this cloud,
you're seeing the right side of this cloud,
you're seeing the right facet, the right
side plane. When you get over here
you're seeing the left side of this cloud.
Something to think about if you think that our light source is coming in
at a little bit of an angle,
probably makes sense that this side of the cloud is going to be lighter than this
side of the cloud. But who knows?
Like I said before the most important point is the under plane.
Yeah, so I'll mix up something for the cloud, though the side planes of the cloud.
And actually I'm going to try to make a color
gradation as they go back into space.
So as there are more veils of atmosphere in between the viewer and the clouds
in the distance, they go through a color change.
So if you imagine here,
we have something almost almost like a white,
as you go back you go through a color change going to eventually on the - on
some days you can see almost a a violet or a red cast to this distant
clouds. So going for a while, a white yellowish light, to maybe an orange to
a red. I'll try to get some of that in there as well when I
mix up those colors up.
Okay, so I'm going to aim for a color that's not pure white.
I'm going to consider that the temperature of the light is slightly yellowish.
I'm going to go through a color change
as we go back in space.
As I start going through a little bit of a color change now as we go
back further. Some of these will have sort of a reddish cast to them.
That's a slight exaggeration and I'm making here.
Okay, so slight color change, slight value change.
Going back into space, less contrast back here,
between the light and shadow, more contrast here.
Maybe I need a couple more clouds back there.
Small ones. Okay. All right,
so that's the side planes of the clouds. In this case, the sun is coming through these
very thin upper atmosphere cirrus clouds.
And in that case, I'm going to imagine them as being maybe even lighter than the
cumulus clouds. So I’ll mix up something pretty close to white for that.
And these can be thought of as being almost formless, flat clouds. And notice how I
am - I want to make sure that these go behind some of the lower clouds,
some of the cumulus clouds. It just adds a layer of depth to the painting.
So I've got all these overlapping forms in the painting. I've got the sky,
which is behind the cirrus clouds,
I got the cirrus clouds which are behind
the cumulus clouds. I've got the cumulus clouds are behind the mountain here.
And the mountains is behind the tree and the house is behind this bush.
So you've got all these overlapping forms that show levels of depth.
And I’ll paint in the house.
See what that might look like. I might even be getting a little bit of reflected light
back into this house, which could be nice.
So from this green bouncing back up into the house,
starting to tie all these things together.
Okay. I think I'm about to wrap this this up.
I think - I just want to maybe pick out a few clouds and cut into them
and see if we can take the box shape and start making more of a cloud
shape of them. So I'll take my sky brush again,
see if I still have that color.
So I'm just going to cut into the top of this cloud and
see if I can make something a little bit more cloud like. Like I said
before, the tops are pretty irregular or the bottoms are mostly flat.
Okay, so let's just recap here.
We've got the bottom planes or under planes of the clouds.
It's really the most important plane in the clouds is the under plane.
It's the - yeah,
when you look at historical paintings
it's the one that's really sort of painted the most.
A lot of times beginners will make the mistake of trying to put too much modeling
and too much form in a cloud.
So they want to model all the little variations within a cloud, including the other plane,
but including lots of half tones and making this form. But what happens if you run out of
room for all the other parts of the picture.
So it's a good idea just to, as a general rule, to simplify clouds
and just sort of under planes and
side planes.And when we look at the sunset painting, the under planes are also very
important, but that in that case will be illuminated from below.
So we got under planes,
we've got a sky gradation, a general sky gradation, the latest part being just above the
horizon. Keep in mind that you might not be able to see the bottom of the
sky. And then different types of clouds at different altitudes. Okay,
so there's a few ideas about skies and clouds and how you can start to see
linear perspective in the landscape.
Let's look at some historical examples now.
Transcription not available.
a sky study. Take a small panel, a full color palette and pay attention to the
vertical gradation in the sky and the structure of the clouds, particularly the under planes of
clouds, and try to see how the clouds diminish in size in linear perspective as they
go back into space.
Free to try
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16m 23s2. Learn How to Paint Sky Gradations
12m 26s3. How to Paint Clouds Using Linear Perspective
17m 10s4. Adding Sky Gradations to a Scene
17m 42s5. How to Paint the Ground Plane with Cloud Shadows
14m 51s6. How to Paint Color & Value into Clouds
18m 23s7. Analysis of Skies & Clouds in Master Paintings
35s8. Assignment Instructions