- Lesson Details
In this extensive lesson, master draftsman Glenn Vilppu shares with you his approach to head drawing. Glenn will begin with an in-depth lecture on head structure and features of the face. Next, he will share his thoughts on master works and analyze various artists’ approaches to head drawing. Glenn will then doing several demonstrations drawing from various model references using a variety of mediums, including charcoal, fountain pen, and water brush.
- Maruzen Art Lead Holder with Charcoal Lead
- Namiki Falcon Fountain Pen
- Caran D’Ache Supracolor Soft Aquarelle Pencil – Brown
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine and Black
- CarbOthello Pencil – Black
- Noodler Konrad Brush Pen
- Conté Drawing Pencil – White
- Pentel Water Brush
- Drawing Paper
- Canson Toned Paper
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my basic philosophy in dealing with drawing the head is really based on understanding
of the actual skull and then building upon that. In this lesson I’m going to go through
the complete development of the skull, how you take and work with the structure, analyzing
it. Then I will take and do some demonstrations based on what I’ve been talking about in
terms of the structure.
Finally, I will give you an assignment. We will do a series of five-minute heads. Okay,
let’s see where we go from here.
than a more general artistic convention, which is generally a more popular approach. I base
everything I do on knowledge of the head, the structure of the form, and then the tools
of drawing. The first thing we deal with is, of course, proportions.
We start out to take…now, the eyes are exactly in the center of the head. Now, this is literally
for everybody. We’re not talking about the face now; we’re talking about the head.
So from the top of the head, the eyes are in the center and from the chin. So this is
our beginning point. So this is one-half.
Now, the next proportion we deal with is the brow line. There is no exact measurement you
do. You just have to learn to see that. There is a little bit of variety from one individual
to another on that now. The distance from the brow to the bottom of the chin. The bottom
of the nose is halfway. This is really important. Also, notice here that I drew this as an arc,
and we’ll go through that a little bit more. The main point here is that when you say the
center from the brow line, you have to make the judgment. The forehead is not a straight
line. In other words, if I take and put a pencil over that, you can see that the forehead
is really a rounded surface. The brow line then corresponds with that part of the process,
as we tend to think of this as straight line. It’s not a straight line.
Next proportion we deal with is the distance from the bottom of the nose to the chin.
The halfway point is the bottom of the lower lip. Not the opening of the mouth. The opening
of the mouth is above that. This now becomes a halfway point.
The eyes are one-eye distance apart. You’re going to find if you watch television, looking
at newscasters and stuff, you’re going to find that people’s eyes are wider and narrow,
but this is a generality now. So the distance between the eyes is another
eye. We find that you have three. Think of that distance there.
Now, the back of the head is wider than the front of the head. So we take and we go—in
other words, if I take and do a downshot of the head we would see that the front is narrower.
I’m making some sort of extreme here so you can see the difference. The distance,
the comparison, the distance, the difference between the front to the back of the head
is another eye so that there is actually this plane then on the side of the head, and we’re
going to be talking a lot about planes. The plane goes back at an angle. This is the width
of another eye. We take this width here—notice we take the width of the head here. That width
across here, that is equal to the distance from the top of the head to the bottom of
the nose. So in reality then, we have a square here. It’s a useful—this is useful for
proportions. In fact, I use this proportion in doing a lot of the figure drawing.
So now, we take that same proportion—we have here this to here. We carry that down.
That will be equal to the pit of the neck. Keep in mind now that the neck is higher in
the back than it is in the front, but this is a—it is essentially the front edge of
a cylinder. It goes back, the back being higher. The rib cage is higher in back than it is
in front. This is the pit of the neck. And so if we were adding the rib cage in here,
we would be taking and doing something like this. The clavicle is going up.
So as we do these drawings, it’s always you try to take and include the neck. In talking
about that, then, let’s take and look at the profile. So if we take the head in profile—eyes
in the center. Brow line here. Halfway to the chin, bottom of the nose. Going out, bottom
of the lower lip halfway. Opening of the mouth above that.
Okay now, we take this same proportion, this proportion from here to here, and that’ll
take and give us the pit of the neck. The neck tilts back. The back of the neck up here.
Actually, in profile the neck is wider at the top than it is at the base in profile.
We have to take in consideration the ears. The ears line up with the bottom of the nose
and brow line. Your ear is going to be in here. The head balances on these condyles
here on the bottom here. This is dead center, so the neck is balancing on this point here.
Notice that your ear was lining up with the condyles of the base of the skull here. Your
balance, everything is revolving around the exact center of the head. From here, to here.
This is going to be the front part of basically the ear. It’s fitting in here. Coming through.
The jaw is going to take and be going from here then to here. Notice that the opening—in
other words, here’s the opening for the ear; that point right there. Notice that the
jaw is taking and attaching just in front of that. Whether you’re talking about elephants
or mice, this is true for all mammals.
So the skull is basically the bottom of the mouth. So this is where you’re pulling through
and coming around. Now, like I said, shape really varies. As we go through, we’re going
to be talking more about this because it makes a difference when you’re taking and drawing
characters or you’re going out sketching and you’re trying to capture a likeness.
The act of being able to distinguish very quickly the shape of somebody’s head allows
you to take and very quickly indicate what are the characteristics of the individual
of the individual that you’re talking about.
So first of all, the shape of the front of the head. Okay, we tend to take and draw sort
of automatically. We look at this skull here. Well, this is pretty normal. When I saw normal
that is an incredibly wide range that we’re talking about. Normal is a kind of extreme
variety. First, let’s just mention the ear. As we get older, our ears continue to grow.
They just start drooping. You can see mine—getting close to being 80 here, my ear is getting
longer. Your nose will tend to droop a little bit. But the actual angles are the critical
thing that we’re taking and looking for. Let’s take and talk, take a little bit about
these differences we take and deal with.
If we start with, okay, we have this proportion up here to start with, or face the angle here.
The actual overall proportion of the head, from the width to the length is—roughly
in profile—it’s almost a square. It’s a ratio of four to five. From the front it’s
more like three to four. The head tends to be a little bit narrower. You’re going to
find that that’s probably one of the biggest differences between people. It’s width.
Not proportional length, but width.
But let’s take and start looking here. If we take this proportion, we’re halfway now.
I’m just taking and drawing a line here so we can see how this variation takes place.
The brow line, bottom of the nose. Okay, first of all, we’re taking and we have head here
that is doing basically, we give a little bit of a tilt going back. Turn through here.
Brow going back in. Here we can take and see the—now, I’m just taking a general thing
here. We’re saying, okay, here is the nose. It’s coming up into here. The mouth is curved,
bottom of the lower lip is here.
Again, I’m just saying that’s average, but average is a very, very loose word. So
what we had here is just a slight arc here. Now, this can be very easily—as you start
looking at people and analyzing you will see that the forehead often will take and actually
go straight and then turn. Take them down. The chin will take and say maybe being a little
bit straighter coming through. Think of where the chin would be in here. The nose, now,
let’s just for the sake of demonstration here, let’s say here you notice I draw a
stepping down like this, and the angle is going slightly up.
Now, if I take that and I take and cut down on this stepping down here, and carry the
nose to where we’re doing in here, see the proportion is still the same, and then I pull
the chin out a little bit, and the bottom of the lower lip is still in the same place.
We’re coming through, going in.
Already we’re getting a big difference there between this and that. But this can actually—you’re
going to see this—I actually have a photograph. My wife took a photograph of just some men
sitting on a park bench when we were Italy, just a snapshot. The one was actually like
turning this. So the forehead was coming down, this was pulling into here. This was going
down. He actually had the—the shape of the nose was a sharp angle like this coming back.
Notice that the base of the nose has not changed now. The chin was taking and coming out this
way. That’s pretty extreme differences. We can go the opposite direction, and we take
the head now, and as we change and push the angle here a little bit. Come through. We
start going into here and if I take and—we’ve got this nose sticking out here, now if I
take and push this going out, we can push the angle going up. I’m not changing that.
Just push this angle going up a little bit more. We’ve got this, bottom of the lower
lip in the same place, opening of the mouth. Now I come through and I pull the chin back.
That’s a big—this could even be a bit more extreme going this way. So now we’re
getting big differences. Very “normal.” We see it all the time. If you start looking
you’re going to be able to see these things instantly once you start to draw. You don’t
see it until you draw it.
So now, we can even—let’s just take another variation here. You take and come through.
Notice all the brows I’m making are pretty much the same. Coming through. Now, the classic
sort of Roman nose is going, following the line, following the line of the brow and then
coming back. Then taking and going this way. Maybe we could even—here I’m just taking
a variation within that we find that the—here we were drawing with the chin from the lower
lips going to the chin. Always going down here. Well, not everybody is like that. Let’s
pull the lower lip out a little bit and pull this line in here. This way with no going
back in. We’ve got this sort of a Roman nose that’s following this. Again, quite
normal. You see this all the time.
We have all kinds of variations. You learn to look at the angles of things. But notice
the basic proportions have not changed. They are being very consistent. If you are going
into doing caricature then, of course, we will take and we will stretch things. You
make note of this. But, be careful. You can be very extreme in showing a character and
yet maintain good structure. A da Vinci is a good example. If you look at some of his
very, very extreme we think of them as being caricatures. They’re highly rendered drawings
of heads and stuff. You’ll find that they’re very accurate structurally.
This is where we begin. We start looking at these points. This bottom point of the bottom
of the jaw here as we come through. This spot right here. You actually have a bone there.
This is the base of your jaw. So we think of that point of the hyoid bone as being the
bottom or the upper end of the neck in front, where the base of the skull would be up in here.
The pit of the neck you can see is down here. The 7th cervical vertebra, which is this bump
that we feel on the back of our neck so you have an angle that’s going across through
here. Like I say, I base everything I do on actually anatomical structure rather than
just a general artistic convention.
So there are landmarks that we take and look for as we’re going through. First, I want
to give you a simple conceptual way of thinking about the head as a three-dimensional object,
and then we can go from there.
This is just a way of helping to think about it. I’m going to take and start with a watermelon.
Okay, let’s say we have a watermelon here. I’m going to draw this three-quarter. Just
visualize this as a watermelon and the pointed parts on the bottom. Let’s take this watermelon,
and we take a sharp knife and we cut into it. I’ll do this right in the center. Remember,
we’re talking about proportions. We can take this watermelon, we’re taking it in
the center, and I’m taking a knife and I’m just cutting down. So I’m taking a slice
out of this watermelon. It goes like this. I’m going to take another slice so we can
get, we’re going out this way. We’ve taken this piece out of the watermelon.
Now, just take—because remember, this is watermelon. If you look at watermelon they’ve
got stripes on them. They go around. They go through. Now we’re taking a slice off
the side, and this is going off at an angle.
We’ll just cut this piece off in here. Remember,
the back is wider than the front, so we’re taking and going off at an angle. All I’m
doing is taking this watermelon and slicing off a piece. Now we’ve essentially the eye
plane, even the cheekbone coming out to the cheek, but the front of the face now is there
for me, so we take from here and I cut another slice off going this way. So now this has
been cut off in here. So now, essentially we’ve created—if I look at this in profile,
we’ve done this: Center, come through and done this. Done that. We’ve cut this off
here, and we’ve sliced a piece off the side to here. This is similar to a lot of conventions
you see about how to take and break down the head. I totally disagree with a lot of the
standard conventions like using a circle for the side of the head. Go for the real thing.
So when I’m doing that, I’m taking the skull. The landmarks that we work for, for
instance this point here and here and here, these are really we’re talking about the
corner, the corner of the eye socket. This is the corner. We’re talking about the ridge
of the eye socket on the bottom. Now, what happens here, and even this curve going down
here, you’ll find in a lot of instruction books it will take and go to the corner of
the jaw. That’s not what we see. The muscles actually take and come down to here. The masseter
muscles go from here to here, not to back here. This is the line that we become conscious of.
We take and we work, we work with these things. So now I want to take and go a lot
more into this in that this corner of the eye socket, and this actually becomes a pretty
critical element that we’re dealing with in the drawing. So we’re looking for this
corner. Remember, this is an arc here. This is the point here that this is not a straight
line. The eyes you’ll notice, you’ll notice the eye sockets are actually at an angle.
They’re not straight. It’s an angle here. So we’re dealing with, again, the real stuff.
So now as we take and, I’m going to take and go into this whole structure in here,
just the eyes. While I’m at here, we’re talking about this. If we were adding anything
to this we wouldn’t be taking and thinking the nose is sticking out. The part that I
haven’t talked about here is as you look at the profile here, you can see that this
muzzle, the mouth is actually a curved surface and sticks out. Here I would actually have
to be adding something here. I would have to be taking and thinking of the roundness
that’s coming through in here. This is another part that’s sticking out and dealing with
the chin. We have to take and all of these bits and pieces here.
But first, let’s take and I’m going to take a serious look at this. This becomes
a key to an awful lot of the drawing of the head. So we start out with the idea now that
we have. Now, you’ll find that I’m going to be doing an awful lot of drawing in three-quarters
so that the straight front view and straight profile doesn’t really give you a good sense
of what somebody looks like. It’s the three-quarter view that is where you start to take and really
get a sense of the proportions or the shapes of people’s noses and things.
As I do this I—in the first part of the drawing it’s always really very mechanical.
I automatically take and look and I mark off where the center is, where the brow line is,
where the bottom of the nose, bottom of the lower lip, opening of the mouth. I look at
the—not the first line I draw, it’s the first thing I look at. We’ll go into this
a little bit more. But it’s the line of the brow because we said in the other, little
earlier talked about the ear tends to line up with the bottom of the nose so that if
we have where the ear would be lining up here we’d have to add to the back of the head.
It was that watermelon idea. We would have the ear lining up to here.
So there is a line across there, and then we say, everybody says you look to the corner
of the brow, corner of the eye socket. You’ll find that most people just draw a straight
line. When a person is perfectly facing us they think this line here lines up with here.
But the problem is, this isn’t a straight line. It’s a curved surface. The planes
of the head, the head is broken down into a series of surfaces that we use for painting
and drawing, of course. But this is the corner here. But the corner is not, as you can see,
it’s not out on this front surface on here. It’s really down the side. When I’m taking
and looking. Notice here when I did this, that corner is here. It’s not on the profile
out here. What we have now is this surface. It’ll start coming down. The eye socket
is, actually the corner of the eye socket is pulling out this way, and it’s down around
the side here. So the pillars of the eye are going down in this direction.
Now, it’s important here that as I’m drawing this—most people tend to think that these
two sides are parallel. They’re not parallel. You can see that the eye socket, the corner
of the eye socket is going at an angle this way, and it’s going at an angle that way.
So when you’re looking straight from the front—
remember now, I’m drawing. This is curved.
The eye socket is going back this way and that way. We’re going down, going
through, going in. We have this surface here. This base of the eye, we’ve taken the corner.
If you look at the skull it’s not as neat as looking at this nice little straight line
here. It actually comes down. This notch will tend to take and work more with the center.
Now, as we pull this in, so now we have a change in the direction here. This is a surface
thinking of going down. We can feel this plane coming around, and it sticks out. Remember
this is curved now as we’re coming around. What we have in the center, and this is something
that, again, a lot of people don’t even, they’re not even conscious of it. But if
you look at this thing you can see this plane.
Okay, this is called a nodule. Well, what you have, this is a supraorbital ridge, and
you have a notch at that point right there. At this point right here you can see that
this comes up. If you run your fingers on your own eye you’ll find that you’ve got
a speed bump. You can’t go very far. But this is here. So what we have now is this
surface here coming through this way. This is taking and sticking out this way. Coming through.
Like I say, there is a notch right there. The notch is supraorbital. In other words,
the top ridge of the eye socket, and there is a notch here. We have this thing sticking out.
Part of this is taking and defining the central plane here. So we have this surface
that’s going from here to here. This takes and is coming out of the corner of the eye
socket. The corner of the eye socket is coming out, so that is considerably lower. That’s
going back to where I’m saying that this is a curved surface, and it’s not a straight line.
The straight line, if you’re drawing it, we’re talking from the corner of the
eye socket, is down here. I really don’t use that now. If you can think of this as
like a corner molding, it just pulls right into the eye socket, and then the nose will
take and come out from that.
This is a point, we’ll come back to this is in a second. I’m going to take and talk
a little bit about the little lower part of the eye socket here. This takes and comes
down and pulls out. So as you can see, this is the eye socket. Comes around. This section,
this plane here. Again, it’s not a perfect neat corner, but often you can see it. If
you’re looking at myself here you can see that there is this shallow, there is the shadow
right here. That plane is the front side. It does tend to give us a fairly strong corner.
The masseter muscles are coming from the underside in here, and they’re pulling down to about
here. Not here, but here. They fill up this whole space in that there.
So as we come around this, this is taking and coming through. You can see that the eye,
this ridge is pulling up into the nose this way. Okay, so now I’m just going to make
here a point here a little bit before we can do the nose, a totally separate thing. You
can see this shape, this amount of set down that we get here. That’s one of the big
major variations as you go from one ethnic group to the other.
The other big variation is where the corners of the cheekbone are, your zygomatic arch.
So here I’m drawing this out here like this. So as I come through this actually tends to
have a corner… We have this corner here. So this is stepping down now. This zygomatic
arch takes and comes around, goes back, and notice it just, it ends just above the corner
of the jaw just in front of the ear. This is a curved. Remember this is at an angle.
We’re looking at the skull. This goes at an angle in this way. We’re coming around.
Everything is sort of coming together just before the ear.
Okay, so we have this pulling through into here. This angle here is going there. So this
is going this way. So we’re going around a corner, and we’re coming through. All
of this is going inside in here. As we get older, there is a tendency to take and start
hollowing out. Look at horses. It’s the same thins. Done. We all do it. Now I’m
taking and playing across. We’ve got this plane. We start to build a series of planes
that are talking and going through. Now we’re getting to a point here. As I’ve talked
about the planes of where the muzzle, the roundness of the mouth comes into play.
Now I’m taking and saying a right—what I’m drawing here is the general
sense of the plane from the outside. I’m going to give this even a bit of the curve
out, coming through in here. Going down. This line of the eye would be halfway. The corner
of the socket here now you can see is not on the contour. It’s down here. We’re
then taking and stepping down so here is where we get the plane of the side of the head.
This plane right here. This shape that comes through here. This is where all of your temporal
muscles come down, and those are attaching to the jaw as in the inside. We do have a
ridge here. So this plane through here. Now, the mandible or your jaw is taking and coming
through and fitting in through here. So we’ve got this coming out this way. Bottom of the
nose is here. Bottom of the chin is here. Notice that I drew this tone on this front
part, and it is taking and going down. Often we can take and sometimes we can take and
think of this as pulling over into this area here like that.
But it’s a plane and there are variations on that.
Now, how far out the cheekbone goes, that’s one of the big major differences that we take
and look at people. Some people this, if it comes through here I drew this sliced off
that watermelon which is like this. Well, for some people that is that way. Within any
ethnic group you will find the complete range of differences, and so don’t fall into the
trap of overly taking and creating a stereotype. It may be a way, way extreme generality, but
you’re going to find within that group all of the variations that are possible. Now as
we go from here, I’m saying now the muzzle, I’m taking and bringing the chin down to
here. Come through. Cheekbones coming across and going at an angle, going off. This is
coming down, going across into here. So we can see this is a general thing there. The
masseter muscles are coming down. The jaw is coming through here. You can see that we’re
starting right here. The nose is pulling. Again, remember, this is a big variation in
here. How much we stepped down whether we start down to here or whether we come off
up here, the big major difference here.
But this part here, as we come down from the base of the nose—remember now it is right
here, this point right here. That point the mouth now is a form that’s coming out this
way. We’ll pulling into the corner of the jaw. The jaw is actually, it can be quite
square. You’ll notice if you look at the skull here you see that this is really, it’s
cornered with a very clear-cut corner. It’s important when we’re drawing to be conscious
of the fact that this is a plane that has to correspond to the line of the eyes,
the line of the mouth.
So we come through this plane here. This is taking and coming out. The nose now is coming
off of here this way, and it’s fitting into this surface here. So if you look here I’m
bringing this line up in side so the eye socket is in here. Coming through inside this point
here. This plane is pulling up this way. So you can see that the skull as we come through,
this line is coming up through here. The eye is actually attached right in here. This is
where we’re attaching it. The plane of the eye then really becomes a straight line that’s
going through in here, as does the bottom of the eye socket. It’s basically straight.
So as you’re looking at this you can see that where the forehead is really curved that
this line here going through the nose is relatively straight.
We have this here. We have the curved surface here. This is straight here. So now when we
draw the nose we have to keep in mind that the attachment of the eyes is way down inside
here. There is actually a plane that takes place as this comes up and we’re pulling
through. I’m going to give this a clear top to the nose, a ridge making it fairly
flat here. This is taking and you can see it’s coming down, and we’re fitting into
this roundness of the mouth. Then again, proportions, we have this general here. Bottom of the nose
here halfway. Bottom of the chin. Bottom of the lower lip.
The opening of the mouth is in here.
Okay, so we have this. The muzzle—and this is important here. As you’re coming around
and drawing, as we pull into this, this is a curved surface in here. Coming around, pulling
through. This is now coming out in front of this, and the chin now comes around. We can
feel there is a corner to it, coming across, and then it’s going back at an angle as
we’re drawing now. So as we build this surface we have to be thinking as a curved surface,
and then we’re taking and coming out in here.
Now, a lot of variation as we come in through that. So now I want to take and make this.
But the widest part of the nose is down here. It’s actually taking and corresponding with
the cheekbone here. This is going down. This is coming through. This is coming through,
fitting into here. Then we’re pulling in. The main point here I wanted to make was that
as you’re drawing the nose we go over the surface of the nose. We have to go down, and
then there is actually a plane right here. This to this.
So we have to draw that nose. We come all the way down to the line of the eye so that
you’re pulling down. So when you’re blocking in the shape of the nose, and this is where
the fact that making this line here goes up. So often what we see is that this looks, the
end of the nose up here looks really narrow for a lot of people. But you have to remember,
you’re coming back down to where the plane of the eye is. You’re dealing with the whole
shape of the nose. This is the widest part of the nose down here. Not up there. And so
we got to take and think of the bone. That bone, of course, varies in shape, angle. That’s
a major change. We can feel all of this now is going underneath. This is round. This is
pulling through. That goes underneath, inside, and we come over.
So now you can see I’m laying an awful lot of importance to the actual bony structure
of the head itself, and that’s what is going to give you a flexibility. It’s going to
give you understanding of when you’re looking and somebody. It’s this. This skull. You
should be able to draw this from any angle from imagination.
Okay, now let’s take and pick out a couple other points. I’ve got a nice profile. Okay,
let’s take and say, okay, bottom of the nose for the top of the head. Remember, that
proportion now is going to take us to the pit of the neck. Back in here is where we
have that hyoid bone that I was talking about. The pit of the neck is balancing. The spine
is balancing on a point in here. The bottom of the mouth—in other words, the roof of
your mouth, not the opening of the mouth, but the roof of your mouth is going to line
up basically with the base of the skull in the back. So you’re pulling a line through here.
The back of the skull varies now. This is one of the things I mentioned earlier. Some
people are very flat. Others are very round. Other people are very, very round in front.
Others are very flat. Big variety. So you look. We go through here. We have this. I’m
drawing a very round head. This point here, remember is halfway from here to here. This
comes to the ear. Lining up here. But now right behind the ear is the mastoid process,
this bump that you’re seeing here. The styloid process is the little point here. These are
in front or I should say behind the ear, but these are critical because this point here
as it comes down, this is where the main muscles that we see in the neck are taking and pulling
from. This is the sternocleidomastoid coming down to the sternum, and it comes down and
part of it attaches to the clavicle, but we’re pulling from this point in here.
Now, this hyoid bone that I was mentioning here, all kinds of muscles now are taking
and pulling off of that, going up the chin and going down to the inside of the sternum.
So this is the point, this is what creates—you also have it from this. Here you have a digastric
muscle, a muscle that takes and pulls from there and comes down to the hyoid and goes
up in here. It works like a pulley. It’s pretty cool, actually.
So now we have this plane that we’re dealing with here. We also now have the plane where
the muscles are taking and coming across through here. You have the roundness of these forms
that are coming through. Often we have to take and deal with—the upshot of the head.
Upshot is that we have to deal with the corners of the jaw. Obviously, you can see that this
is wider. You’ll notice in my drawing here I was also giving a plane here, and I was
talking about this hyoid bone that’s in here. So this is what we deal with, how the
neck fits into that area. So if I’m doing an upshot, feeling very simple consideration
here now, we’re pulling through, the neck is coming and the head is turned. So you’re
thinking of the corner or I should say the ends of the chin, and then we’re taking
and seeing the actual corner of the jaw. In the neck here as we’re coming down in front
of the spine, which is here, you’ll have your esophagus. And sitting on top here you
have thyroid cartilage. We have thyroid glands on the side. But this all sitting on top of
the hyoid bone; this section here. So now we have to feel this is a rounded surface,
so we draw as fitting in.
Now, as we’re drawing the neck then we’re talking about this cylinder, and this is pulling
through. We’re going in. This is coming across. This is pulling down on the sides.
Your ear now would be back up in here. The plane of the cheek is a straight now. The
eye socket is going at an angle. The muzzle is sticking out. The nose is coming out here
and begin with the planes that are coming down from here. This is going back. The back
of the skull is down here.
So as we’re constructing that then we would have, in this case, the head would be twisting
or turning. We would be getting a pinch that we have from here. That sternocleidomastoid
coming from behind the jaw, behind the ear is coming across this way and over here it
would be turning and coming around that cylinder coming through. So as we build, as we build
the figure we take and we start to construct and we’re working with these points.
This is beginning.
Also, in terms of how to approach the actual act of drawing the thing is to take and you’re
drawing these forms. You’re drawing the surfaces. What I deal with then is the actual
putting of the marks on the page is I’m constantly going over the surface. I’m always
analyzing. I’m consciously drawing these planes. I’m going through lines, going over
and around, and you’re building, coming through, coming down. It’s a constructive
approach, and I’ve mentioned this many times in the lectures, what I teach is an analytical
I’m taking and drawing the eye plane, eye socket idea. Basically just the proportions
at this moment. Come through here, on to the lower lip. Now, let’s say that the head
is really turned away from us. We talked about the idea that the planes—we’re talking
about the corners of the eye socket. This is where a fair amount of confusion takes
place when you’re looking at the model. We’re talking about this point here and
this point here. But when you turn the head far enough away, you don’t see the corner
of the eye socket that’s turned away from you.
You see the bump that’s sticking out here, and so we tend to look at that and think that
we’re drawing across. So that becomes confusing. So let me take and let’s say now—so if
I’m drawing here, I say, okay here, here’s the center. The corner of the eye socket I
can see that that’s where that is. We’ve got this shape going back up. The skull. Remember,
when you’re drawing anything other than straight front view you have to add to the
back of the head proportion wise. So this plane is going in.
We have this pulling down through here. Cheekbones coming out. This bone now is taking and sticking
out. This globulin is coming out of here and we’re pulling down. This is what is sticking
out over on the other side. Then the nose is going to come out. When I draw the nose
I come all the way down to—and here is where, again, where you have to, when you’re turning
like this you have to take and see that this point here, the outline of the eye is back
in here. It’s going down. This actual corner now is down here, and chances are I can’t
see it if I’m looking at a model from that angle. You have to know where it’s at. Okay,
so now they come through there now. This is a point here that when you’re drawing this
line here often you look at a very, very simple quick drawing. Often this is what you see.
If we come through we’re taking and you’re looking at the model. We see this. That line,
the brow line, actually, what we’re talking about here. We see that line. The eyebrow
starts on the bottom side. This is facing down this section of the bone there.
I’m drawing really extreme now. I’m fitting in. The eyebrow starts on the bottom side
of this plane that’s going down here, which is more obvious on the female. The male with
eyebrows—if you happen to have any—you can see on my head now, for instance, I think
I’ve got a fairly strong, clear, developed center here. You can feel this point here,
and you can see that my eye sockets are lower. The eyebrow starts on the bottom side and
often with the female. In some males you’ll find that the eyebrow then goes onto the forehead
so that the light that you’re seeing is actually the ridge of the eye socket. So if
we come through here—in other words, this here, let’s say the eyebrow would be going
through here. This is the bone here. Here is the corner that we’re taking and then going down.
So at this point here it’s going through, coming in. So on the other side, this line
that we see of the eyebrow is actually the edge of that bone that’s going as the head
is turned away. Then we come in through here. So now by taking and drawing the nose I want
to come down all the way to the base of that point in here. So we’re taking and coming
to that point now. Right away I’m thinking of the volume of the muscle itself now. I
can feel the chin coming out, and then we’re going back through in here. Cheekbone.
Now, when you’re doing really quick stuff and even just indication, but if you’re
looking a model that’s got fairly strong light on it these are points that give you
a sense of where the structure is. For instance, like here in the eye, of course, this would
become a tone. I can just drop that in tone coming through there. Even if I’m feeling
a little bit of a line here of the nose then we start feeling, and then if you had the
eyeball inside there. But you can see that plane links this to that.
Then the fact that the cheekbone turns down. You can come around. You can see that this
becomes a smooth corner right here. We carry this line coming through and here the corner
of the jaw will be back here. The nose as it comes down fitting into there. We have
the plane of the underside. It’s recasting the shadow from the nose over the roundness
of the mouth. The muzzle, the bottom of the lower lip, remember, is here. So, we’re
taking and we’re pulling in here, and we start to come out. Then we’re going down
and we’re fitting in this. Then we start coming through. We start building from there.
So you can see that right here, just taking and having a sense of those planes allow you
to very, very simply block in a figure, whether you’re painting or drawing. You can start
picking up through here. Then we can start to take and feel. We expand on this step.
Here I’ll be taking into consideration the back of the skull, the hyoid bone here. And
so usually what we get just is this taking and coming down. And we get the chicken lines
coming through. We’ve got a corner as this pulls through. We’re fitting in, coming
from behind, and we’re building up.
Then you get this diagonal and the thyroid cartilage coming out.
So, with fairly little effort now—well, little effort, lots of knowledge. It’s the
knowledge. It’s understanding. It’s analyzing what you’re looking at but analyzing it
with the understanding of the forms of the basic structure that we’re working. That’s
the key. And I keep repeating this over and over and over again. So we build on this.
Another element, and we’ll talk about this as a totally separate thing, is that the ear,
everybody’s ear is different. There is no one ear. There are an incredible number of
variations on a basic theme. That’s the idea. The basic theme, but there are variations
on that theme. In fact, we can take and talk about the head as thinking of that certain
basic theme of where all the parts go. We’re all the same in the sense that we have two
eyes, a nose, a mouth, ears. That part is the same, but it is an endless variation on
that basic theme that we take and build on.
So, as we come through now we took and started out with the idea that we’re building these
planes. You’re looking for these corners. You can see the way the brow would be going.
Go over. As I render surfaces I go over and draw. The pencil is literally going over—even
if I don’t put a line down I go through. I want to feel how things pull in, how we
build on top of these surfaces, but where the corner of the bone, where is the bone.
How do we start to take and build on that?
Okay, so this is the process. Knowledge, construct, form. The process of doing the drawing is
a process of analysis. The next step I want to go through now is start going through the
and combine these, working from reference so you can see the application and how all
of this stuff fits together in the regular head. Now, first of all, as I’ve already
been stating, the nose has to come all the way down here where we would see this would
be going back behind. We’re carrying through to that point in here. So as we draw the nose
now, the area that gives most people difficulty to start with is actually literally seeing
these noses and the proportions and the shape of the nose itself. Angles.
Let’s just take and do a little quickie here. If we take hair—I’m just going to
take and do a little bit of a progression thing here. Now, remember that, again, proportion-wise,
bottom of the nose. Remember, we’ve got the muzzle coming out here, and the chin coming
off of here. Okay, as we come through here, we’re drawing this shape. Come through.
As I said, there is a tremendous amount of variety with this now. A lot of times, for
instance, the forehead will take and carry straight through this way, and you will see
this line where it just becomes a line that’s doing that. You can see that that’s very
common. It’s a very normal type of shape. I keep saying normal. Again, corner of the
eye sockets are over here.
Now, this bone that I’m talking about, this superciliary bone that we haven’t mentioned
so much, it’s—some people have it really extreme. Others, women tend to be a lot more
subtle. Guys will tend to be extreme. If we go back to Neanderthals we see this big ridge
going across. So we come through—I always try to feel this corner. But anyway, let’s
just go on. Here we’re talking about the differences now. You can see that this line
here, okay, people say long nose, short nose. Forget it. It’s not the length of the nose.
It’s the angle of the nose. In other words, from here we can see that this is going out
this way. Well, if I just change the angle and we start doing this, all of a sudden we
have the appearance of a long nose. I do a variation on this now. If we take and think
of this classic Disney witch, what we go from is something like this. The nose even starts
to go down this way. We get the sense that the chin is actually taking and coming out,
and so we could actually tart to play with this. Right away, just with these slight variations,
we’re getting an extreme play on things.
But it’s the bone, this part here, how we come down. It could be very sharp, and we
can come out the bone. If you look at some of the paintings, the Renaissance paintings
of some of the Medici, you’ll find that the bone comes out like this and then gets
this shape. I’ve got photographs of people exactly like that. So you’re going to see
a tremendous amount of variety within this all the way to the classic Greek nose coming
down this way. A couple years ago I was on a little tour when I was teaching in Florida,
and in the boat with us—it was like a cruise going through the swamps type of thing—there
was this young woman, she looked exactly like a Greek sculpture. She was beautiful. But
the nose was a complete straight line. So let’s look at the way all of this stuff
comes. First, as I’m drawing here, for instance, I would be taking into consideration the actual
bone as we come through. Usually you can see, you can actually see this line as we pull
into the cheek and come around. This is pulling around. We have this corner. Through in here,
and the mouth now is coming off out into here. What you have as we come through here, this
is the bone, and actually you can look at this.
If you look at a skull, look at the real skull. It’s a little different, but there is actually
a sense of a seam in here that comes down. You have plates that come down here. You have
cartilage that comes down the side of the nose here. So we have this line in the center
that’s taking and coming down, and this is a corner. Now, the thickness here can dramatically
vary, but you have these plates that are coming through. Then we have what we basically refer
to as the ball of the nose, the end. Incredible amount, again, of variety. But essentially
what we have is, this is sort of a standard that goes down along the side. It comes out.
Some people have real corners of the nose. This comes down. But it goes down along, starts
down along the side. Then we’re coming into the septum, which is taking and pulling into
the center of this line right here. We have a center line that goes up through in here.
So we take and we’re pulling into this. This is pulling into the lip, and then we
have, refer to as the cup of the nose. This really, it’s like a cup. That’s sort of
the basic there. With the opening this is actually curving and going in.
Now, if we take and look at that, and I’ll also do a bit more of a front view of the
nose here, and we can take it in. Notice how I’m constantly taking and dealing with that
superciliary or the globule as we come through the corner of the eye socket. Now, as this
comes down, you have to go over the base down into here. Going in. Eye socket will be back
down. Going through in here.
Now, as this nose comes forward, and I’m taking it fairly straight here, Then we’d
be coming around. Return to the base. We take this all the way down to the base. This time
I’m drawing this fairly thin, and we can feel there is actually a plane here. Painting-wise,
this plane right here is, it’s usually the light that’s painted into the corner of
the eye socket. The eye does not—you can’t have the eye sticking into the nose.
There is a gap here.
So now here I took and I drew this. Well, you’re going to see the noses, some that
are taking and actually tend to be more pointed like this, where you basically don’t even
see that, but still going down, and like with drawing with say with the nostrils going back
slightly. Coming through. And we’re coming in to here, and we start to feel. Here, the
whitest part is right at this point here, and then this comes in that way.
Okay, we feel the cheeks coming from that. At this point here, instead of going in you’re
going to find that a lot of nose are actually, this is all rather full with the nostril taking
and going down in this way. Then we’re pulling through. So you still have the base underneath,
and you’re going to start feeling, but this can be really quite full coming down and filling in.
Now, this takes and we’re talking about the nostril, this thing here. So as we draw
that, again, this is variation. If we take the end of the nose they’ve got going through
here or coming in. You’re thinking of, now I’m thinking of where the septum is coming
Now, here I drew this at an angle basically going down. Well, then it’s just the opposite.
We can take and feel that this is actually coming down this way. The nostril is taking
and going out in here. Then we feel this plane coming through. It’s coming down through here.
You have openings that look like this and openings that look like this. We have openings
that are square. One of my boys has the square ones. The shape of how the nostril goes is
incredibly varied in how we go. Another point, it’s the transition from the nose into the
mouth. If you take and let’s draw this slightly up with the nose. We can see the head slightly
tilted back, and then we’ve got this plane and we’re fitting into the muzzle in here.
And we’re thinking okay this is going through. And so we have this pillar in the center,
and then I’m drawing a fairly wide nose here. Also, a lot of variety within one ethnic
group is, of course, the nostrils. That’s another key to taking and getting a sense
Okay, this part right here, this is a round pillar. Well, as we pull into the lip this
is a depression. Then when we talk about the mouth we’re going into, you can see that
the next step is, something is sticking out and fitting into the lip, which will have
maybe a depression in here. So what we have is, and I sort of—we have an outie. We have
an innie, and we have another outie, innie. Down here this can vary from something going
in this way to something taking and going just the opposite or straight. But you learn
to look at the pattern that these things take. So there is no standard for exactly this thing.
Often we find, like I haven’t done, you can look the typical nose we see quite often.
It’s where coming down, coming through. We feel the bone. And then the end of the
nose is really, you feel the plane sticking up. And we’re coming through. So you can
see how I’m really shorthanding this. But everything I’m , all these little lines
as I’m putting these very simple down, I’m basing, everything is based on a structural
element as I’m drawing it. So you’re going over it. You think structure, structure, structure.
And when we go through some of the reference stuff in drawing the head, and we’ll deal
with the nose, and we’ll go through these things a bit more. Now, let’s take and go
to taking and dealing with the eyes.
with it. So as we begin with this now, I’m going to take and come through.
Again, always, it’s the mechanical, this part. I’ll take and turn the head a little bit more towards us.
Take it to the ear, bottom of the nose. Come through. If I do this then as I’m drawing—I
do the same thing drawing from the model as I’m doing here or from imagination. It’s
always the same. Thinking of the superciliary right here. Globule. Corner of the eye socket.
Coming through, come down. Pushing down. The plane of the eye. Cheekbone coming out. Through.
And we’re dealing with basic planes. Come through. The jaw here coming in.
So first I work the eye thinking of this as like a cage. The planes that you’re taking
to the nose. We’ve talked about the nose now. We can go over and then draw that nose.
I come down to the line of the eye socket. This plane is going down. Muzzle, mouth, nose.
It’s going to fit into this surface. Coming down. I’m just blocking in a very simple,
sort of a standard nose.
Okay, now, the eye fits into the eye socket. So, the basic idea here is you think of the
eye as a ball, and we have a point here. In fact, if we look at this in extreme profile,
and you’re looking carefully, this whole iris area is flat. Then the lens is out on
the end of that. We don’t usually get that involved in it, but there are times when the
eyes are looking way up or down, and that’s something that will come into consideration.
Now, if you can visualize and think of this like a doll’s eye, visualize this as having
a rod that’s going through it. So this swivels. You’re taking and attaching to that. So
you draw the eyelid over that surface and it’s taking and coming down. Remember, the
eyelid has thickness to it. It’s not a line. It’s actually thick, has form coming through
it and coming down and attaching on the other side. So this is going to pulling over that,
and you come from the other side here, and we’re going to come across, and we come back up.
And again, there is thickness to this. The lower lid is not very flexible. It’s fairly
rigid. Okay, so we take and you have a tear duct in the corner coming through. That’s
the essential thing. You’re drawing a ball, and you’re drawing the eyelid over that.
Now, what we find is that the basic eyelid is fairly straightforward. It’s attaching
right here. Often what we have, is we’ll have many lids, or folds I should say, coming
through. This is going through. Filling in. Coming through. The nose is coming down.
You have the space in between. This is attaching. You’ve got that plane that’s coming through here.
Then we’re going up and we’ll go over the nose. It’s coming down. Cheekbones
coming around, through.
Now, remember this: The bone here is like a cage. This is part of the bone here. If
I take and run a pencil over my eye like this, I’m not touching my eye. I’m just riding
it on the bone. So the eye is set in. I don’t know if you have something of a thyroid problem,
but maybe the eye is going to be sticking out, but normally, no.
Okay, so let’s say that we have other folds. As we get older we tend to have many. We take
and you can look for where does it start, and then we go over, and you look to see where
does it attach, and so we build. You can see the fold that can go through here. You go
from where does it start, where does it end, and as it goes over that surface. Okay, so
now as we go through here… So what I do is we place the eye inside the eye socket,
and you’re looking to where we’re going through in here. Keep in mind that I place
this eye on this point here, and I’ve got the eye, this up rather high. We’ve got
the cheekbone coming around so I’m giving it a lot of distance in here. Well, for some
people this will be maybe a little bit lower. Some people’s eyes are higher and lower,
the placement inside there. You’ll have to look. Some people have deep-set eyes, others
not so. Some people are a little bit lower. Some are a little bit higher.
So we would take and then have to deal with here coming through, the ridge of the bone.
Now, take and draw a profile here.
Now, you can see that this point here, the eye is inside.
The eyelid is coming through here so that when the eye is closed, the eyelid is down
here…here. Remember, that has stiffness. Now, as this is going through here, as the
eye opens and this lifts up this skin then is going to take and either goes back in here
or it folds. We can start going up so what we get then is this whole area. Now, you can
find that for a lot of people this tends to be a lot smoother. This area can be filled
in with fat, and this tends to be more like this, and you’re just feeling in a sense.
So, you’ve got these planes then that you’re working with. They can be folded. They can
go right into the corners of the eye socket itself back in here. Here for instance, we
make sort of the classic shadow that we see down this way. We see this look. Now, this
is the bone up here. Also, we draw the cast shadow from the lid onto the eye. This is
a strong element for taking and giving a sense of depth to that eye, so we’re just building
this and feeling this coming through, so here the eyelid would be coming through here and
getting in shadow underneath in here.
Now, so you’re building, you’re building on this surface. We build these forms. Okay,
for instance, when you get bags under your eyes. The bags are basically sitting on the
eye socket here. So we feel this filling in at that point, and the corner of the cheekbone
here, this stuff is coming through. That shadow just usually rides right into the pupil. And
we can feel how we start to build the volumes in going through.
That’s basically the ABC’s of drawing the eye. You think of a ball, and you’re
stretching something over it. We’ve gone through the eyes. We did the nose, and let’s
deal with the mouth.
First of all, it’s on a surface. In other words, you can visualize this here as like
being a half of an orange where you’ve got all these pieces that are taking and going
around, but you have to keep in mind that you’re drawing this on a surface, so it’s
three dimensional. You have to be able to diagram 3D. This is the biggest problem that
I find that when people are drawing heads
they tend to draw everything as if it’s front view.
Okay, I’ve gone out of my way not to draw this front view. We think that there is the
axis here. As I mentioned in drawing the nose, we were taking and saying, okay, we have the
center post that comes down. We have this part that takes and comes out. It’s the
curve. Then here there is a V that comes through. You look at cosmetic ads, and we see this
shape here. Then we feel this part is taking and—I’m emphasizing the overlap right
here now. This shape I’m drawing this, and then we’re fitting into the corner of the
mouth. Here we would be going around the back and around the corner. This is fitting into
the pad of the lower lip. This is a rounded surface, and this actually here can have a
groove, and it’s going to come down and I’m fitting the chin in too. It’s going
down, pulling through, coming down.
Now, a simple way of remembering this, and maybe I picked this up from Peck, but the
idea is if you think of this part up here as this is a bird sitting on a nest. The wings
are the lips, and this is the nest that the bird is sitting on. That’s a simply way
to remember this. So now that we’ve done that, let’s talk a little bit about the
variations of this.
First of all, you’ll notice that I drew this that way, and over here I drew it that
way. Okay, it can be either way. Like I said, you can take and draw this as the common shape
that we see. We can feel this going down and through. If I take that and let’s say, equally
this is also very common. If I take myself as a case, there is practically no lip. You
might say tight-lipped. We can take a really full lip this way. I’m thinking some of
the photographs I’ve seen on the internet where people had taken injections that went
wrong, and they’ve got these huge bulging lips that are sticking out.
In the corner, by the way, as you go around here they refer to it as the oricularis oris,
frown mouth muscles, going around, and tying in the corner. The muscles are going around,
and there is a nodule at the corner of the mouth. That nodule is what creates what we
refer to as the pillar of the mouth. This is the point in here that this curves in.
Now, variations of the lower lip, or even here, another one. Let’s take and look at
children. I draw a lot of kids, but they will take and what we think of as a kewpie. They
can go this way or that way, but it’s really the small, little thing, and then going to
the mouth. Notice that I’ve carried these lines all the way out to the end. That tends
to be the case with the upper lip, but not necessarily with the lower lip. What we see
with the lower lip is a lot of times the shape of the lower lip can be quite square. It’s
like what I’m almost drawing here. You can see this shape here, and this part you take
and fold in before it gets to the end.
We’re coming across and seeing that variation taking place at that point. The lower lip
can be really large and can take and be going out this way. We might not even see much of
a break in the center. So there is a credible amount of variety that we look at in terms
of people’s lips. Now, what’s important here is that you’re always working over
a curved surface with everything that you’re doing. The basic strategy for dealing with
that is that as I’ve mentioned in earlier lessons is that the actual rendering part
is that I work with lines that are going over the surface. I’m discovering the folds.
Like in here this will be slightly moving in, so I’m not just taking and whacking
down a tone, I’m actually discovering where these planes are. If you’re working with
a painting, you’ll get the upper lip is in shadow and casting a shadow over the lower
lip. And we start to feel. So you’re constantly working over the surfaces.
Now, right here is that lip as it fits into the chin. So as I’m coming around and drawing
this you’ll take and look at the placement of where the break ends right here. It’s
not standard. It can be very high. Notice this line is right about here, and so there
is a fair amount of distance between here. Others can take and go down quite low. Some
people have a cleft in the center of the chin. This is going to come down through here. Coming in.
I have a model. His lower lip doesn’t take and go in at all. It goes from here and it’s
going out this way. Maybe he’s got an overbite or something, but this part is actually going
this way instead of going that way. Again, you always look for the variation, and so
you don’t…get away from the tendency to say this is the standard. No. You construct.
You draw from a point of knowledge and structure.
Okay, so you’re building. We feel the corner of the jaw. We can feel these forms coming
down. So we work over that surface. We come to that point. It can be in. It can be out.
It can have forms in here. So you’re constantly working over that surface as you’re drawing.
So that’s sort of the basics. Again, when we start dealing with the whole head and going
from examples, we’ll go into it more with each one differently.
Okay, the next thing we’re going to talk about is ears.
countries, France for instance, they used to use the ear like we use thumbprints or
reading the eye, the capillary. In other words, everybody’s ear is unique and different,
but there are basic patterns that go through. So let’s just take and—you learn to recognize
the pattern, and then you see the variation on it.
As we begin, take and through. Feel this go around. You have this ridge coming through.
Then there is a—this turns and goes in. Then you have this pull through, and it’s
like a fork that’s going up that way. This is pulling around. Okay, now I’m sure there
is somebody that looks like that. But what we find from that, this shape even is totally
varied. Okay, look at my ear. You can see I’ve got this big lobe going down. It gets
a little longer, and you can see the shape. We look and we start working from reference
material. You can start seeing all the variety that we deal with.
So what we get then is our ears that are taking and doing this with no lobe. In other words, we’re
coming down. That’s incredibly common. This comes through. This can be really high. Coming
through in here, maybe a little bit of piece up in here. This will take and start working
into here. This starts coming down, through, and we start to build into these points. But
again, it’s the fork. You’ve got this ridge in here.
Now, this shape here. This can be almost an elf ear taking and going up with nothing down
here. It really looks like an elf. This can be flattened out when we start to feel this
thing coming down. So that shape. Then we go just the opposite of that. We can take
and see the shape that is taking and maybe going back a little bit more this way and
really sort of squarish and coming down through here. You can’t get much more wild and different than that.
Here, where we got this going in you find that some people have this. If you look at
this from sort of a front view, we see the ear coming out, and this part will be actually
sticking out this way. These extremes that start to take place within this context. Still,
everybody is going to have this part. The experiments have been done where they’ve
taken, and like for instance, bats we know are fantastic with their ability to take and
get directions of sounds. They’ve taken and covered up the parts of the pattern of
the bat’s ear, and they run into everything. So it’s the shapes that collect the sound.
For instance, I have a cochlear implant here, and I have, this is actually a mike that goes
into where the sound would be going in. So my ear is collecting the sound in the way
it would normally collect it to the mike that’s inside here. Actually, this is a T-mike. I
can take and hear things, a lot of stuff going through things in broadcasting, what have
you. So you can see these things. Now, let’s take and look at how the ear, the outside
shape—in other words, we take a head and we take and go through here. Some people’s
ears stick out like this. We have contemporary politicians who sort of get the caricature
of him as these ears stick out. We can see that shape.
On others the ear is really just, it barely sticks out at all. It’s just flush with
the head. Okay, now use the ear as a way of helping to give the action and the gesture
of the pose. Let me explain that. One of the first things that we talked about, the eye
socket, got the eye here, the corners of the eye socket in here. This line now, the corner
of the eye socket, the rough line—this is where a lot of people use just a straight
line here, and I’m just making and issue out of the fact that it’s not straight.
But this comes through from that corner here to that line. If you extend that line and
the person is perfectly squared off, it would tend to work with the corner top of the ear,
and the bottom of the nose would tend to line up with the bottom of the ear. We would see
something like that. We can see this line here.
Now the minute the head is turned—let’s just say they’re using the lips for the center of the head. The first
thing I look at, not necessarily the first line I draw, is I look to where the corner
of the eye socket is. As we look at this, we look at this. I see the line. I look at
this line to the line of the ear. I don’t necessarily draw that to start with. I do
look at because that’s what tells me. That’s what tells me what the angle of the head is.
As I look at this I say, ah, corner of the eye socket is here. This is a line that’s
going that way, and that’s going that way. That’s telling me the tilt. That’s like
saying this is a box form that’s taking and doing that. The ear combining with the
corner of the eye socket are two elements that are very, very important in taking and
getting a gesture or an action. If we take and diagram that a little bit further, if
we think of this as coming down off—the head is tilted. In other words, here notice
I’m just putting a dot on the top. That already starts to indicate that we’re looking down.
When I’m looking at the model, if I say even moving that line over here we can see
it looking this way. I look at that line. I look at that corner. I look to see that
ear, where the ear is. That is immediately telling me which way. That is also telling
us now that we’re talking about the planes of the head, which angles we’re taking and
working with and how we’re taking and building with that. So the ear is a tool to take and
help to show the gesture.
Now when you’re drawing from the back this really becomes useful. So now you can say,
okay, I’ve got a pose here, and I’m taking the figure—this is the back of the head.
There are actually three pieces that I take and focus on, and just indicating where they
are helps you to explain the gesture. One is the ear. The other is the base of the skull,
the nuchal ridge. If it’s available, the corner of the eye socket. So let’s say if
I come through here, and I say the minute I draw the ear here you know…in the context
of this head if I come over here you know that they’ve created an axis going across
here. You know the head is tilted. Now, then I come in with the base of the skull. Then
I would eventually be taking and dealing with the line. So this is immediately, then from
here I would come to the corner of the jaw going down. Right away you’ve got a clear
thing. Okay, let’s take and what I’m drawing here now is we’ve been dealing with the
front and the side. We have what’s referred to as the cup of the ear. So when we look
from the back what we see is the ear, the lobe fitting into this cup. Then the mastoid
process is behind that. This is the cup of the ear. From the back I almost draw that cup.
Now, the other element: If the head is not quite so extreme in the back, I come through
and I’m drawing the ear, then I would take and hit the corner of the eye socket. Then
it’s still coming back and viewing the base of the skull and corners. Everything I’m
doing as I’m drawing this now, this is based on knowledge of our friend here. You literally
should be able to draw this from any angle from imagination.
the first impression is that when you look at these da Vinci’s you say, oh, they’re
caricatures. Let’s look at them a little bit more in the context of what we’ve been
talking about. Let’s take this one on the left here. We can see that we have the bra
line. You can see this line come through. This is a curved surface, remember. We’ve
got the angle from the corner of the eye socket here going back. Then the overall line going
through here, that gives us the tilt. It gives us the tilt of the head.
Okay, but let’s look at the big thing here now. We’ve got this going through. The proportions,
the eyes are exactly in the center. The distance from the brow to the bottom of the nose exactly
halfway to the chin. The bottom of the lower lip is exactly from the bottom of the nose
to the chin. It’s absolute accuracy of the normal proportions. What gives it the caricature
that we’re looking at? Part of that is the expression, of course. But take a look at
the shape of the nose now. The shape of the nose is the angle—the bottom of the nose
is in the right place. It’s the angle that we’re looking at. This sort of grin that’s
he’s got going here. We see the teeth. Notice the mouth. It’s in absolutely perfect, normal
position. The ear is exactly where it’s supposed to be. The jaw is coming right in
front of that, and the end of the jaw is square. That does not deviate at all from very, very
We take the neck now, and we see the neck is really just a cylinder fitting in. In fact,
the way he’s drawn this, you can feel the way the lines are going over the surface and
going around. Let’s take a look at the other guy. Here we have the eyes. Okay, the top
of the head is up in here. Again, absolutely normal. Absolutely normal. Brow, bottom of
the nose halfway. Bottom of the lower lip halfway. Corner of the jaw coming straight
through. The nose is bending and is giving a little bit of a—notice the bump on the
nose the way it starts out, and then we’re dropping down.
This is one of the basic things that we were just talking about. What you’re seeing,
a lot of this is what happens with age. We can feel where he is heading in here, and
then we feel this stuff pulling down and coming through the jowls. Again, it’s the expression
itself that gives us much of the look. Even on the other guy here where we get this fragment
of the head on the side here. We come around, we feel. Notice that the fullness of the eyes
there coming through, there is an eyeball inside there. He’s dropping around. We go
from the brow line, bottom of the nose to the chin. Still normal. Now, he’s protruding
the lower lip. So that’s a bit of an exaggeration. But look at the shape of the nose: He’s
got that really Italian thing, the nose going out and then we’re pulling down and we’re dropping.
If you look at some of the paintings of Piero della Francesca, you will see the painting
that he did where some of the really important people, or even look at some of the paintings
of the Medici, you see that nose. It looks like a broken nose like everybody has gotten
hit by an axe or something. The point I’m trying to make here is that even though it
has a characteristic look to it, it’s all perfectly anatomically correct. Okay, let’s
take a look at the next one. Okay, now in this drawing here or painting—this is again,
a da Vinci. This is actually one I wasn’t very familiar with. But again, you look at
the characters. The biggest thing to start with this, notice that the shape, the overall
shape is this. Here we get more of a feeling like this. Part of this is the guy’s chin
is really sticking out, but again, let’s look at the overall structure. We’re getting
a feeling of pulling across the eyes, going through here, going around.
Again, we get the sense that this is absolutely just normal. Very, very accurate. It’s one
of the things that you have to, when you look at da Vinci, which is one of the things that
really works with him. He was actually a scientist. He based so much of what he did on observation.
He wasn’t working from what was supposed to be ideal. He was taking and working from
reality. So he’s building the character. We can see as I’m constructing this now.
This is absolutely normal, realistic drawing except that he brings to it a sense of personality.
For instance, you’ll notice how the eyes are set into the work. Everything about this
is just normal, realistic drawing kind of thing. I would criticize from, say, well,
if he was in my class I would say, okay, he didn’t get this superciliary very well.
But, you know, he didn’t spend enough time in my class.
You look at the other one. Again, the first thing you look at. They say, wow. That nose
is really long. Let’s look. Let’s see where it’s at. Here, bottom of the chin
down underneath the hair here. Bottom of the nose is right on. Now, where we’re off a
little bit is that the—but that’s part of the expression. You’ll notice that we
can see that the bottom of the lower lip is high. But the nose now, it’s the angle that
we’re seeing. That’s what makes it look like really a long nose. We can see the way
the eyes are set back inside the thing here. It’s a little low. But like I was saying,
not everybody’s eyes are exactly—some people’s eyes are low. Some people are high.
But you can feel, and you can see the bone in here. He was using a line up here. This
is a lot of line work where he was taking and drawing into this surface. Again, the
shapes that he is creating are, it’s really, but it’s still reality that he’s taking
and working. It’s real. It’s absolute realism that he is taking and drawing.
Okay, now in this one, here make a point of seeing there is the corner of the eye socket.
Here the expression is modifying everything here, and we’re feeling the brow coming
down. Pulling down, coming through. The mouth being pulled, but notice what he is doing
here is that you can feel the cheekbone, zygomatic arch coming across. We can feel all this stuff
now wrapping around the corner. We can feel the masseter muscles going down to the corner
of the jaw. We can feel coming through the end, the pulling of the mouth up. So these
are all things that are going up. We can feel the cheek. Visualize that eye inside, and
we can see the way he’s drawing the lower lid around the eyeball. We’re getting the
corner, giving us the sense of the planes overlapping, pushing of the furrowed brow
to give more expression.
Part of this is that the muscles on the head are different than muscles everywhere else
on the body. Often, they’re only connected at one point and sometimes no points on the
bone. So across here there are muscles that are pulling. The folds are always at right
angles to the pull of the muscles. That’s what you’re seeing very clearly. Here, the
other side, now you can see that corner, that bone that I’ve been talking about. Come
through. The eyes underneath. You can feel the bone of the nose itself. You can feel
it coming down and dropping. Nose, expression. The angle across the jaw pulling through.
Again, feel the pull. He’s drawing the pulling of these muscles as they come back. It was
like a window shade. Come through.
You try to—and this is what I suggest you do. I have done this an awful lot. It is to
take and not necessarily da Vinci. You can draw almost any of the really good guys, and
you can take and draw from them as if you were drawing from a model. What you’re doing
then is you’re actually taking and learning something about drawing, learning how they
used the anatomy to create the imagery that they’re using, everything from expression
to use of tone. Draw from the old masters. I used to start every morning. I would take
and draw from things. From books before I started working on my own stuff. I would draw
from the old masters and then start working on my own material.
Okay, now here this is another character. This is sort of fun. If you look at the guy,
again, very realistic. This is really pushing now. The shape that we’ve got going, we
come through, it actually looks like one of the same characters. But if you take and analyze
it, the action of the head is looking up, so we can see from the corner, the corner
of the eye socket is over here. This is where the corner is. Then you can, what you’re
seeing then is the bone going up. He’s not showing this section above the nose here.
But we do see the corner of the eye socket going down, and he is sort of running this
into the cheekbone here.
Okay, so this part flattens out a little bit. We take the line from here as really defining
the angle. We feel this pulling down, so we’re starting to think of the masseter. The jaw
is coming down right where it’s supposed to be. Then again, the really strong shape.
But again, the proportions are such that everything still falls right within line, very normal.
There is nothing extreme about it. The shapes are strong. They’re clear. That’s what
gives it a caricature look to it. The lower lip is being pushed out. So that is part of
what gives it—and then the chin is jutting out, so there is where we get a lot of the look.
Actually, it’s very Italian. If you look at some of the photographs of Mussolini, you
would see that this part is sticking out more, but it’s the same kind of look, the way
it’s jutting out. We feel it coming over. The eye is set back inside, and the lids are
going over and around that eye. Then we start to build. Back of the neck is high, coming
through. Feel the sternocleidomastoid coming down, and you can see where we’re coming
over and around the neck. He’s twisting. He’s pulling the thing around where we feel
Okay, this is a Bernini sculpture. Now, if you look at this, let’s take and…he’s
given this angle in this sculpture, he’s given it a very narrow head. As we go through
and the whole action would be first I would be thinking of the gesture. He’s turned.
We’re pulling through. Coming in. You think of where the corner of the jaw is. Here you
look at the line. You look at the corner, the corner of the brow up here to the ear.
That line that comes down. That tells us the angle. So I would be drawing an ellipse for
the eyes going this way. Then you can see the fact that the brow now is curved. The
brow is not a straight line. The line of the eye itself, even though I was drawing this,
the ellipse to get a sense of the tilt, like taking and drawing a cylinder going back.
Then I would take and come through the eye. It’s a plane going through. The eye socket
then is going in. We can feel the plane of the side of the head. We get the corner.
Coming across you can really notice—talking about the eye now—the eye is a ball. The
lid, now here it is really exaggerated. But he’s doing sculpture. It’s the shadows
that are being cast to get that eye to look up. So we’re feeling this. This is what
we do in cartooning. We push, show the extra light coming across the bottom to give us
the expression so that we’re looking up. You can feel where this is pushing up against,
we can feel where this is pushing up against the fat above. So we’re coming around. You
draw round. We can feel the cheekbone coming through. We’re dropping down. So this is
now coming down to where the masseter muscle of the jaw would be down low and going across
the plane from one side to the other. We can feel the corner. In other words, the corner
of the eye socket is in here. Here we feel the pillars of the eye, cheekbones going behind.
The ear now is way, way down here. That’s what is giving us the look. In other words,
we take from that corner going down. The ear is low. This is coming across. This is like
taking, again, looking at a cylinder or a box. We’re looking up at it. So we feel
everything now. You can feel the pull of the ears. He’s giving us that point here. We
can see the eye socket fitting in.
Now this is a difference between a sculptor and a typical painter. The sculptor is very,
very conscious of these corners. You can feel that. Bernini was also an excellent draftsman.
So now we come through. The bottoms of the nose, bottom of the chin would be in here.
We’re seeing a foreshortened view, of course. And so this is taking and coming up underneath.
The mouth, notice we’re getting the feeling that this is a rounded surface. The mouth
is open, and so we’re getting the lip coming through. You’re building. You’re constantly
building these forms. He’s pushing. You can feel the fat underneath the eye socket.
Feel the planes of the head. Coming around the corners of the cheek bone and coming through,
the pulling. Again, the ear is really down here low.
So the process, even the way the shadow is taking and working here, it helps to take
and define those planes, the way the forms are fitting in. Go over. So then the beard
itself, all of this stuff is now taking and coming out. It’s a great ear. You can really
feel the way that whole shape. But it’s, again, standard formula. Build in. Okay, let’s
go to the next now.
I begin and the first thing I do is like—not necessarily the first line I draw, but the
first thing I look at is where the corner of the eye socket is. I can see the angle,
the overall angle coming through here. I’m going to keep repeating that the forehead
is not a straight line. The corner of the eye socket here now is down here. The eye
socket is going up. The corner is down here. This is going up at an angle this way. The
center being in here. So then you can see the way the eye socket goes down. But you
can see that what we’re doing is pushing down here. Here the tone, for instance, takes
and helps us to show that pillar of the eye as it comes down. You’re seeing the tone
on the side of the head. We start to push this thing down.
Okay, now this is a rather full figure. We want to feel here. Go back here and feel the
roundness a little bit more now. You can see the cheekbone is coming out. It’ll come
through. You’ll notice how much light we’re getting here. So we really feel the plane
of the side. This is pulling out. From over here, I would look to see then, from here
to the chin we have the brow, bottom of the nose would be here. Bottom of the lower lip here.
What I do is if I’m drawing from a model, and so I’m approaching this the same exact
way as if I was drawing from a model is that I take and I look carefully at where distances
are. How far, for instance, where the nose is. But the minute I draw this shape here
and going over that nose, I’m very, very conscious that the plane of the eye is a straight
line going across. I pull down, I go down to that line. I pull all the way down. I’ve
got the end of the nose here. I look to see where we’re at in here. If you look carefully
you’ll see that we have the bump where the bone and cartilage start, and we can see the
bowl on the end of the nose. Coming around. We feel the shape. So drawing from sculpture
is really an excellent way to take and study. We build.
Bernini is also good in that it’s really quite realistic. So here now, for instance,
we can think of the fullness of the mouth, the round muzzle going over. Think of where
the chin is coming through. I go from the nose. Notice how the elements I talked about
with drawing the lips—we have the septum. We can feel the nostril on the other side
a little bit. Come through. We can break it. We can see the V. The full lip. The shape
takes and is coming down. A better perspective here. It tends to look straight, but there
is actually the way it curves and goes in. We’re going around the corner. Notice that
the lower lip now, it fits in front of what we’re doing. So we’re getting this overlapping.
We can feel the full coming across. We can feel it’s turning and going back up. And
so as I draw this, then, you can see here. You’ve got that little bit of hair there.
We can feel the break. Now the chin is taking and coming out from that. So I go over that
surface. We’re building these things.
You can feel the way these forms are coming around. Coming through. You feel the pull
of the muscles as they work around. He’s got a little bit of a mustache here that we
can see is coming across. But you can see these surfaces. The fullness of the cheekbone
itself. The eyes are very clear. You’ve got this whole volume. You think of the eyeball
inside there. As he is doing that, you can feel now, you look at the fullness as we come
down to the corner. This is coming up, but the bone is way up here.
Now, he pulls the lid over. The lid is going over that ball, coming down to the tear duct.
It’s going over the ball. We can feel the fold behind, coming through. So this is pull
around. Then from there he would come across and pull through. Get the lower lid, and you
can see the eye coming in. So this is a very full. Now, we’ve got the plane—in other
words, we’ve got from the jaw to here, there’s a plane that cuts across from here. But, this
is full. It starts up here. What we get is a general sense that this is pulling down.
The cheek, these forms are full. You can feel it coming around. So we’re feeling the building
coming around. You can feel even here the mouth. We work around those surfaces. Full
jaw. We come back to the—you think of where the corner of the jaw would be back in here.
Okay, he’s slightly turned. Coming around to where we would be thinking of this. He’s
turned, tilted slightly, and you can see that we draw the underside. He’s come across
the underside of the chin. Then we can feel the fullness underneath that. Coming through.
Then we get a bit more coming through. So Bernini was being very accurate. He probably
understated the fullness of the form, how we can feel the pull. We start building. So
the other eye is the same thing. You think of the eyeball inside, and you draw over the
surface. You’re drawing over the surface. You’re building these forms. Coming through.
Again, it’s all about structure. It’s all about structure and control of the forms
themselves. Being able to take and draw in a way that doesn’t destroy the structure,
but communicates it in the same way that reality does.
Now, this is the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. If you look at the drawings of the French
artist Cruz, you’ll find that he did many drawings based on this, but using the wife
as the model, where he took and—but the same pose, the same attitude. Again, it’s
going back. You look at the angles that we see things. You’re visualizing this surface
as it’s going back. We’re looking underneath the form. We can feel the volume going under.
So once you’re sort of just getting the sense of the gesture, you feel the pull of
the form going down. Then we have to start dealing with structure.
Now, what’s important here is that she’s really, really looking back, so the corner
of the eye socket is over here. The eye socket is going down. What’s happening here is
that the bone is going this direction. We can feel where the globule is coming forward.
Then the nose, again, we can break down where things are. You can see that he’s drawing,
he’s coming through. Now, obviously we’re drawing a Saint, so there is an incredible
amount of idealism going on here. But you can see that the angles, the basic structure,
construction are all very, very normal. Coming through. The mouth is fairly small. We think
of the roundness of that form, and we think of the plane coming from over here to the
chin. So the mouth is going over the surface. We can feel the lip lifting up. The teeth
inside. Notice this is the first one we’ve shown where I talked about in drawing the
lips where the lower lip was like a cushion that you would take and sit upon. With her
lip that’s exactly what you’re seeing. You’re seeing that sort of split in the
lower lip, and we’re seeing the underside of that as the face is pulled back a bit.
We see the chin going back in fitting into that. So the way I’m drawing is—in other
words, I’m just going over the surface. She actually has a slight cleft in the chin.
We’re going around, over the surface. We start pulling down.
So now, here what we get is the—the cheek is pulling over the surface. You’ve got
to keep—this stuff is behind. It’s not one line around the outside edge. It’s a
series of overlapping forms coming around the nose. We can feel the top of the nose
sitting back, going in. The eyes are really excellent here in that you can see the shape,
first of all the eye socket is going down into here. Then we get this roundness of that
ball of the eye. You can feel the lid going over the ball and the tone going through,
and we can feel the shadow up here. It’s giving us a shape. We can feel all this is
dropping down. Feel the pull through. So this is really another great example to draw from.
Like I say, it’s very famous. Many people have taken and drawn from, mimicked, copied
it, used it. Art is based on art.
So we build up over things, build around, and even the way all of this is taking and
coming around. We feel, again, the jaw is going back under. We can feel there is a corner
coming around. Again, this is a great one to draw from. But I would suggest to draw
from it, but look at the drawings of Cruz to see how he took and dealt with it and using
it as a jumping off point for his own work.
Okay, now, this is van Dyck. Here we can see it’s a painting, and it’s a study. It’s
not highly rendered, yet he’s taking and dealing with the structure. So if I just take
and block this in really quick, let’s take the, well, this is a good one. When I’m
looking at this we can see that what we’re dealing with now is feel the corners here,
eye socket. You’ll notice I’m pushing the way things overlap. Coming in. This is
a plane going down. Coming through. The eye is inside. Notice I’m drawing rather quickly
now. I’m using all of the elements. I think of the cheekbone back here. I would be pulling
through, thinking of the cheekbone, the jaw is going down. So we’re coming around. We
feel the structure. Now, the nose comes all the way down.
Notice what he’s got here. He’s taking and pulling the bone. We can feel the shape
of the bone, and he actually paints. She’s coming down to the plane in here. Notice that
he’s drawing, getting in tight. He is pinching here. Then we get the really bulb of the end
of the nose. It’s coming down around the side, and since we’re looking down we get
the cup of the nose, and we can feel the way the pull of the cheek coming around. On the
other side you can see the eyes underneath. So all of this, even as a quick thing like
this, the cast shadow is useful because it’s taking and dropping all of this down. Going
over we can see the way the mustache comes around, building.
So it’s one of things I would suggest using van Dyck. He’s really an extraordinary.
But it’s all based on structure, knowledge of form itself. That’s what allows you to
take—even here, as I’m doing this very simple sketch, if this was just in my sketchbook
by itself, you would look at it and say I drew that from life, one of the bearded models.
You use the old masters as full, accessible models to take and work from, and at the same
time be learning.
Now, this is still a study by van Dyck, but you’ll notice it’s a lot softer. Now here
is where the rendering takes and come in. As I’m going over that surface, again, it’s
an angle. We see the line across, the turn. You can see where the ear is down here. That’s
what I’m looking at to start with to help me see the placement. Looking and coming through.
Going from there, the brow, looking to see...So I start out taking and proportions. Angle.
Even here thinking of the hair going across, going around.
Now, here you can see very clearly we get the globule coming in front, and we’re feeling
the planes. See, the corner of the eye socket is way down here, and this is pulling over,
coming through. The pillar of the eye is going down. The eye is set inside, going over. So
here you can them coming across the same thing here. This is part of the central plane. Notice
the way he is rendering here now. The corner, he is giving us a corner here. We can feel
that there is actually a plane right here. The tone is being pushed down as we go through,
From here, the strong brow is going on the globule, and then we’re coming down the
side. You can see here now the tone that is being used to define where the corner of the
eye socket is, and we’re working into the temporal area. As it comes through the nose,
how it’s coming out. Through. It comes right down to absolute normal. We can feel the planes.
This is really now, look at the plane here that we see the side of the nose. It’s very,
very; it’s diagrammed out for you. Come through. We can feel the plane on the end
of the nose where the light is and pushing back. We can feel when we go down the side
of the nose. Then we’re getting the cup of the nose. Underneath. The tone on the other
side for the opposite side.
The cheek now is softened and coming out. We can see the space between now the nose
and the eye, and the eye is now inside here. It’s a ball inside the eye socket. You can
see the way the lids are going over the surface, and the second lid is pulling through. And
so then we’re building up, and you can be picking up a cast shadow. You can see—how
do I put it—the bags under the eyes are fitting into the eye socket. We’re taking
and getting the cheekbone. Pretty wide over here. Coming down.
You can feel these forms going over.
The mouth is out. We don’t see too much of this because we’ve got the mustache taking
and coming out. But again, look at the shape of the lip. Look at the shape. Actually, the
lower lip is fairly small. Feel this stuff coming around. We can feel the plane as we’re
going around. Then we’re pulling out. Again, this is absolute realism. It’s like taking
very clearly structurally and building it up, and we go from that. So it’s all structure,
structure, structure. Understanding the planes. Taking and drawing in such a way that you’re
explaining the structure and going from there.
with pen, and then we’ll carry through. But the idea is I’m starting out. I’m
always taking and dealing with basic structure. So I’m coming through just like I was lecturing.
I’m moving across, through, build down. So you build, you think of proportions. Come in.
This is automatic. No matter how fast I’m taking and drawing. For instance, I
even use the shape of the hair as a beginning point to start. At this point, you can see
this is becoming a tool now. As I block things in, I’m thinking about planes. So we’ve
made a real point, as you can see, so as I drop a section in shadow I’m talking about
where the structure is going over the cheekbones. You can see the simple masses of what I’m doing.
We can feel the eye, a superciliary or globule coming through. We can feel that central plane
of the forehead, and we start to build. We can feel the cheekbone coming out, going over
the mouth. We can feel where the bottom of the lower lip, the opening of the mouth coming
through. Pushing. This is a starting point. Now, even here I can take and go back into
this. I’ll draw with my pen. So now I’m coming through. Using the brush as a beginning
point. I’m not trying—here, all I’m doing is just becoming familiarized with the
form. Even as I draw that eye I’m thinking of this, going over the surface, going around,
pulling through. Building each one of these things so as I come through, I’m thinking,
okay, the corner of the eye socket coming down. Feel the cheekbone coming out from behind.
I visualize the eye. I’m going through. So the way I’m talking is precisely, I’m
telling you exactly what I’m thinking as I’m doing the drawing. I go over the surface
and down, feeling that bone coming across. Corner of the eye socket coming in. Visualizing
where the cheekbone is. Thinking of the line of the eye. I want to make sure that I don’t
run it in to the nose. So I’m coming across over the plane, dropping down. Coming over.
We can feel the nostril a little bit on the other side coming through.
I’m taking and the whole process is one of analysis. You can see that the speed that
I’m taking and approaching this with is possible because it’s a clear-cut pattern
that I’m following as I go through. Now you can look at this and I can say, well,
got that lip way too low, so I’m adjusting and coming through. Thinking this is the round
muzzle going down, through. Feel the volume of the lower lip coming across. We can feel
the pull of these forms overlapping, coming around the corner. Feel the chin coming out.
You can feel it coming under the chin, the base. Through. I’m constantly going over
the surface. Going around and going over the surface. Getting through. You can see where
the ear coming across. Here is the shape. Here is use the shape, the closeness of the
hair here to help me see where things are. Coming through. Build. Even with this now
I could take what I’ve done here, and like I’m drawing this with a pen.
Now, don’t get stuck into thinking that there are certain kind of rules. You can only
do the pen drawing, but you can’t mix pen drawing and something else. You can’t come
in with charcoal or wash or white. Well, I’m just going to pull in this with some white.
So now if I come through and just hit some of the points, just coming through and feeling
where the corners are. I’m taking and thinking of this center plane here coming in, hitting
the lip. It’s just adding another dimension to the drawing as we build and feel the forms
that are facing up. I could actually even come in here with this and add to this by
taking and coming in a little bit more. So I’m mixing the media.
Build, build. Stick your neck out. Don’t get preoccupied in thinking that every line
has to be perfect. You’re taking and you’re playing with the thing. Maybe that’s what
you’d have to be thinking this isn’t work. It’s serious. I had a friend who was talking
about how we have to take and work. He said, well, it’s like golf. It’s like you don’t
go to golf, you don’t play golf to take and relax, but you have to be relaxed to play
golf. That in a sense is what we deal with. You have to relax, enjoy the process, but
you’re constantly focused on things. It’s like a form of a meditation. Okay, so that’s
a beginning there.
Okay, that was done very, very quickly. But when I take and go to say the next step, I’m
doing the same thing except I start off very light and I’m just going slower. Try to
feel, coming down. Now, one of the points here is that when I begin the drawing and
I’m working from the model I will take and I start out with drawing like what I’m doing
here, but I’m actually looking. I look for things, and in my mind I’m going through
the thing. I’m going to the next position. I’m thinking of the axis of this whole thing.
Then I’m coming down and I’m putting this coming through. Then I’m visualizing how
the forms are taking and going around. The fact that we’re looking slightly down. Then
where the center is, come through.
But I’m thinking of this axis so it’s all very careful, very calculated. I come
through. I’m looking, okay, where is the chin. I’m rehearsing the stroke, coming in.
Very conscious that this is in the center. Coming around the ear. The angle we’re looking
down. He’s looking down slightly, so I’m taking and coming across, thinking of planes,
feeling the surface. This is a curved surface. Notice that I’m barely putting any marks
down, and so as I’m doing this I’m taking now, I’m doing exactly the same thing I
was doing with a pen, except I’m being a lot more subtle about how I go about doing
it. I’m moving my arm probably just as much. I’m not putting as many marks down on the
paper so he’s coming through. You build the things. I’m saying over here, come in,
bottom of the nose, bottom of the lower lip. I’m taking the points from here to here.
Here I would take and actually feeling the hair coming across, coming through. Now, one
of the things I mentioned is that I really, and this is the whole point of talking about,
say, da Vinci. What da Vinci, even though the drawings that we were looking at have
a very strong caricature look, they’re really built on reality.
And so I’m coming through. I can’t equate myself to da Vinci, but the idea of basing
everything on reality and taking and building on reality and then going beyond that. So
now by looking at the angle, feel this coming through. Again, taking my time, building,
feel forms going back in. I might want to feel the corner of the cheek coming through.
Now, the pencil I’m—this is a CarbOthello pencil. A little soft for the scale that I’m
drawing on. I’ll use different materials so that you shouldn’t get stuck in any one
material. The strong shape of the lip coming down. Remember, we’re going around a corner.
We have foreshortening. We can feel the way it’s coming through. Come in, chin. Right
here, you can see I’m modifying, I’m looking at the way we fit in underneath. Coming through.
Feel the corner of the eye sockets over here. Coming in. Then we’re going down the pillars
of the eye, so the angle that we’re coming across. Cheekbone over the surface. Through,
pushing down. Now, we go over that nose, come down, point. Thinking of the eyeball as round.
Taking and pulling through. Going over that surface, visualizing it’s the ball inside.
You can feel the pull of the tear duct in here, coming down and across. Now, this is
actually a good…we can see the—the standard characterization of an eye is sort of a standard
type of thing when we’re talking about the eyeball. The upper lid will be high to the
inside and going down, and the lower lid will be just the opposite like that. You’ll see
that his eye is taking and being a perfect example of that as we’re drawing it now.
So you can feel the pull. Here you can see the way the lid, and I follow the lid back
over inside. We can feel it going over the surface of the form as we come down. We’re
thinking of where the corner of the eye socket is coming through. We feel the plane of the
side of the head coming in. We get the pillar of the eye going down.
As I come through to the nose, now a little bit more, I want to feel the corner of the
bone. Feel the bone. I’m being fairly cautious about how dark I’m getting. Feel the nostril
coming out, down. Through. We can feel the pull. This is the side plane. Again, notice
the control of the value in picking up a bit of the cast shadow underneath. Now, as I come
through I’m going back over that lip. Look at the shape coming in and the angle for going
around the corner. This is going back around, going around the corner as we’re going back
in. You can feel the fullness. Notice that his lip now in contrast to say some of the
ones that we would be diagrammed was you can see how it’s coming all the way to the end.
Well, that’s very definitely his look. Then we can feel as I pull around underneath. Coming
through. Start to feel the chin. Now I need to pull the corner of that chin over. And
we’re coming through.
We can feel as we come around that these forms are pulling over. We have a line of the cheek
that’s hitting to this, but we feel these forms are coming over that surface. We’re
coming down and that’s actually going behind the chin. So I’m really pushing overlapping
forms. Now we can come through. We can go over. Think of the eyeball in here, and I’m
going over that eyeball. Feel the line going through and coming in. So now we come back
in, we can feel. Now, if I’m taking and adding white to this, which I’m going to,
I want to be careful that I don’t take and mix the white if I can help it.
Now, here I’m hitting, being a little bit more bold and hitting some of the tones. Dropping
in. The eyelashes here. I can feel the shape of the outside contour. We can feel the, here
this is pulling down. I’m going over the surface as I’m going down. Going through.
Coming through. Pushing down. Feel the pull across. Now here I can see where I can push
this a bit farther up. It starts on the underside here and then comes forward. Also, we’re
taking and feeling the central plane, central plane is coming across. Feel the pull in here.
Now, again, you can see how I adjust as I’m going through.
Now, we can take—this eye seems a bit larger. We’re going to take and pull the cast shadow
of the eye. We can feel this dropping down and a bit of a tone on the underside. So maybe
it’s the other side that’s too small. I’m not going to worry about that right
now. We’re going to take and, what we’re dealing with is trying to get the sense of
plans here using a cast shadow and then working into a core. Come through. Feel the forms
pulling around. The cast shadow going over the thyroid cartilage. Feel this coming from
behind. I want to feel this plane underneath.
Give a little bit more bravado here with the hair. This is really a quick sketch here.
Coming through. For the scale that I’m drawing, like I said, this is pretty loose. This is
a pretty soft pencil. Maybe some of the other drawings I’ll take and draw with something
a little bit sharper. We can start to feel…let’s add some of the tone here now. We want to
pull out a bit of the light. I don’t want to get too excessive with this. I just want
to feel forms. We can feel the end of the nose here. We can feel the bone coming through,
picking up a little bit in the light in the eye and even the underneath. We’ll do a
little bit of pulling through.
I want to feel as we go into the corner of the eye here, feel that plane coming around,
through. The corner of the eye socket. I want to feel this particularly here to get the
sense of the bone coming across. We want to feel these surfaces as we come over. We’re
building on so you can feel the plane coming out. We can feel the cheekbone pulling out
underneath here. Come across. Feel the top plane of the muzzle here and the way these
surfaces are coming around. The top of the lip. So you can see how the white now is just
sort of helping to pull out the form a bit. So I would go back into this, and now I can
take and get the sides. I can push the form a bit more, exaggerating the idea of the plane.
Come in. Contrast. I’m giving a pull.
We need to give it a little bit of a sense of the mustache. We pull through.
Okay, let’s take and do another one here as we get a little bit of contrast.
looking slightly up. I’m going to start out first, it’s what we’re doing when
you’re talking about up. We’re taking and doing just like looking up to the cylinder.
Going up. Coming through. Feel the neck. You have to feel like you’re dealing the underside.
We can see now as I’m just blocking this in. This is just a simple cylinder going over
the surface, but the eyes now are on a plane. It’s going across. We can feel that the
forehead really is quite round. We’re looking up underneath. Build the nose. The nose is
coming through. It really sets down. Coming in. We can see that the ear now is down in
here and just blocking the shape of the hair, the mouth, the chin sticking out.
Now that sort of is the simple beginning. So let’s take and carry this forward now
a little bit more. As I draw this now I’m going a little bit slower. I’m very conscious
of the fact that we’re looking up at the model. So I’m going through. By the way,
I’m drawing with a Polychromos. This is black. We’re going through. So I’m really
thinking of this as like a cylinder now. Coming down, visualizing, okay, where are we going.
Through. Feel the pull. Going around that surface. As I’m doing this now, I’m thinking
here is the corner here. Here is the corner way—it’s actually around the corner. This
is the center. We’re thinking of the plane in the center here going down. The cheekbone,
we can feel this as dropping down. The cheekbone is out here. It’s a little bit wider now.
Come through. We’re going over that surface.
So as I build this now, I’m thinking, again, it’s basic proportions. We can see that
the eyes now are going to go across in this direction. The nose should be halfway. We’ll
probably need to pull the chin up. I’m just judging by the distances that I see here.
Come through. We can feel the bottom. Again, I’m looking at distances. The bottom of
the lower lip then would be about in here. Here I’m taking and really considering.
We’ve got it all around and around the corner. The ear is down in here. I’m thinking of
where the jaw—the jaw is here, and we’re seeing the underside. This is a plane that’s
going underneath this way. And we have the cylinder of the neck that we’re working
with. The pull behind in here.
I like to draw the shape of the hair because that really is part of what affects some of
the imagery that we’re seeing. So we’re coming through. Down. It’s already starting
to take on a certain amount of the characteristics. So now I want to take time here to really
feel this center section. This is where the nose is really stepping down. We can feel
this plane. We can feel the brow as it goes up. We can feel this surface stepping down,
and so we get down to the line of the eye. You’re seeing this plane here going down.
Structure going across, we’re going up. We’re building this form.
Focus on the fact that there is an eyeball inside of the eye socket, and we feel this
plane coming down to this surface. So we can take, and you’re building this so as we
draw that, thinking of that eyeball inside, we’re pulling from here. Notice that there
is a distance in here now. This is taking and coming forward. The corner of the eye
is right here. This fold is coming over. You’ve got another corner inside there. And so what
we’re seeing then is this is going over the ball of the eye and coming down to this
point, but if we go underneath that, and you’re seeing this surface coming back into here.
So now the eyelid is casting a shadow on the iris here. We’ve got this, and now let’s
see how full this is. This is very typical now. We see this volume coming through. The
lower lid now, he’s got pretty full. Now, I don’t normally take and carry so far with
just one eye, but in terms of talking about trying to get this stuff going, so I’m lecturing
here. Through. We can pick up the pace here a bit. Coming through. I want to feel this
come down. Going over the surface, through. I want to feel this pull, see the smooth,
round surface in here. And we’re coming through to the end of the nose. Very simple.
Now, here where we get—the nostrils now are coming out, coming through. So all I can
see, now let’s just take and carry through a little bit further here. Pull. Eyeball underneath.
Go over the surface. Pulling through. And here you go around, going around the corner.
So we get underneath. We can see the lid or the iris underneath. We see the underside
of the lid. We can feel the pull, the fullness that he’s got in here and the bags under
his eyes. Okay, coming through, this is rounded. From here we’re going back up this way,
coming through. Cheekbone coming in. Then we’re heading down to the chin.
Now, this point here, I look at this and I feel like, wow, the nose feels flat here.
I need to take and pull this so that when you’re drawing, when you’re drawing very
lightly you have that option to be able to take and adjust and change things. Keep in
mind now we’re talking about this mouth, his muzzle going over the surface here. We
pull, we think of where the base, where the… Now, look at the difference between the models
that we have here. The shape is rather full. Full upper lip. Let’s finish with the nose
here. I should at least finish blocking it in. We feel the corners coming in. Feel this
as round. We can feel the fullness behind here, and we’re building in.
Now, at this point, the upper lip is taking and is really quite full. It’ll come through.
You’re seeing it’s this volume in here. We’re going around the corner. It’s really
this is the whole, the whole muzzled area that we’re talking about. This is taking
and coming down, going down. Pulling through. And it’s tucking underneath. Then we’re
going up. Then we’ve got the lower lip. See now how we get that cushion I’ve been
talking about. Feel this pulling down. This is going in. Pull through. Going over that
surface. Coming through. Here this is rather full, coming across. Now, I’m going to take,
when you look at him he’s not fat. But we want to take and feel the pull here. So I
take this line here, and I’m coming down to the chin in here.
Now, I want to feel, and it’s not something that you can see very easily, I want to feel
that this part of the cheek is pulling over that. And so it’s just a very subtle. That’s
that subtlety of line right there is what will give you more of a sense of volume as
you’re looking. We come around the corner, and now I can take and pull through. I want
to feel—notice now that I’m picking up the pace a little bit. I want to feel the
cheek here coming in. Again, pretty quick. There is the famous Velazquez painting that
he did of—I forget which Pope it was, but he had roughly 15 minutes to take and do a
sketch of the pope, and then he did the painting from it. Of course, he saw the Pope around;
it’s not like the Pope all of a sudden disappeared. But the idea was that he took and built the
painting. It was based on that 15 minutes of taking and doing the drawing. At the end,
the Pope’s critique of the drawing was that it looked too damn much like him, and what
he achieved in that 15 minutes was the character of the Pope. That was the part that was considered
looking too much like him.
So you can see that in rather quick order you can take and start to get—now I want
to feel the underside of the chin. So here I used the core coming across to take and
feel. Going down, feel the pulling down through, going around that surface here. To draw that
point on here I use the cast shadow coming through. We can feel the pull then of the
neck itself. Here I don’t see any of the sternocleidomastoid. It’s very round. Pick
up the clavicles here. We just pick up a little bit of a line coming from behind. The trapezius
going over the surface. Now, look at the ear. Now the pattern that we’ve talked about.
He’s got a very round ear. We’ve talked about this going in. You can see now in this
case that fork I was talking about was really tiny up here. We’ve got a really large opening
in here. This is pulling in. You can feel the pull here. And then he’s got a clear-cut
lobe. We pull around and coming through. With some of the other models I’m sure we’re
going to take and see some variations on that. As far as drawing goes, I take and emphasize
the contrast of value. Coming through, pushing.
Now, I’m going to go back. First I’m going to take—before I go in with any really strong
darks, I want to use the white again. I’m coming back in and adding the white. I want
to feel that dropping down. Hitting the end. I’m going to come back into this now with
some really strong darks. We can feel the fullness of the eye, round. We can see the
forms on top. I’m taking and I’m thinking of the plane here, the plane of the center
form here going over that surface. Notice how subtle I’m doing it. I’m not pushing
this now. I’m taking and coming through, and we feel the fullness in here on the heaviness
of his lower lid, taking and coming through. Feel the pull. A little bit on the nostril
here. Through. Full. Here we’re really feeling the upper margin of the lip. We can feel the
pull coming through. Now we’re getting the chin coming up.
I’m using the white as a means of taking and helping to really describe a lot of the
forms here now. Now I can go back in and let’s hit some of the darks. Okay, so now we come
through. Push. As I’m doing this I want to give the pencil stroke a little bit of
character even to taking and hitting lines through. Notice I’m leaving the strongest
darks and lights until the end. I’m very conscious of the look of the drawing. I’m
going through. Once you have basically the things set, then you can afford to come in
and push things. We come through. So now what I’m doing is the boldness of the strokes
give the drawing a bit more life and also is sort of in a sense disguises the fact that
I had to work so hard to get it.
Now, come through. Feel the form fitting in.
Okay, let’s take another one and see where we can go from that.
very good paper. What I want to accomplish with this drawing is going to be the end result
to look very bold, but as I’m doing the drawing I start out as always. I’m taking
and being really quite careful. I’m taking my time and I’m establishing where I’m
going. This is a very, very soft charcoal. Part of that is to draw with something very
soft. I actually let my fingers run on the paper. I’m taking and thinking of the proportions,
as always. Brow, bottom of the nose. Bottom of the lower lip. Through. As I come through,
I’m starting out light because I’m going to be ended up really quite bold. But I want
to take and—I’m just blocking in where I’m going. Through to the cheekbone. Coming
around, through. What I’m doing is I take and really look at the alignments of where
the brow coming down Again, when you have the upper lip come through, lower lip coming
across and the chin. Going back. I use the shapes to help me get my placement. Now, with
the brow, so his head is slightly up.
Again, I want to feel the way the neck is taking and pulling back. I can feel the base
of the skull. Then the hair. Now, at this point I’ve got it pretty well blocked in.
Now I’m going to take and be a lot more bold and start to push the line, and I’m
going to do a combination of actually working with some white too. But I want to feel this
is the, we feel the bump in the forehead of the globule. We feel the surface of the planes
turning away. Still being fairly subtle, but now I come down the corner of the eye socket.
I want to feel the eyeball inside so I come through. The eyelid is turned away so I go
around the corner, and we can feel it building in. Feel the lower lid, feel across the eye,
through. Now, I’m really feeling that cheekbone coming out. I push, feel the pull down.
Now, the nose now is really coming back of here, and I want a subtle bit of a play here.
I want to feel the corner of the bone. He actually has a slight building out at this
point. Coming through. This is a very, very soft pencil now. Coming through. We can feel
underneath. Feel the nostril taking and coming down. Through. And we feel the pull of the
mouth. Actually, you can feel it here. We want to feel the planes coming around, so
they’re stronger than we actually see. If you’re looking at the photograph you’ll
see that these are not very clear at all. Here we get this pulling out in this direction.
Coming in front. We feel the chin out behind.
As I’m doing this now everything is planes. Come through. Feel this stepping down. Through.
Corner of the jaw. Feel this building up. We’re going underneath. Through. Feel the
pull as we take it across. You can really feel the pull of the muscle. This is where
your hyoid bone is right here. So the thyroid cartilage is coming through, and we’re feeling
how the hyoid goes underneath the clavicle. We have the other hyoid muscles taking and
coming off the sternum and hyoid, coming in. Feel the sternocleidomastoid pulling back
up out of here, so I’m already taking and pushing. Feel the pull in and come from behind
the ear now. Pull.
Again, another different ear. Feel the shape go through. So working with something so soft,
it’s almost a calligraphy that we take indicating shapes. Come through. It’s almost a calligraphy
that we take when indicating shapes. I want to feel the tone from behind the ear now.
I’m going to take and pull this as the cast shadow going over the muscle. Coming down.
Now, from here feel the pull there. So now this is giving, it’s the look. Very free,
direct. You might say a little more than the impression, but now he come back in, and I
want to be a little more precise. Every one of these drawings now that I’ve done has
been different. A different approach, yet everything is revolved around structure. The
techniques are vaguely related. Still, everything is about structure. Materials have changed.
It makes no difference.
Okay, let’s take and add a little white to this. Now, I want to bring out, so we get
the plane facing…the corner of the eye socket here. Feel the pull here. These are the masseter
muscles that come down. Through. We have a little bit of light into
the ear. Muscles from behind the ear underneath, and the stroke itself is helping to define
form. Now, just a little more—need to take…
Now another one, but we’re going to approach it quite differently. We’re going to take
and be more delicate.
this I’m being a little bit more delicate, going over the surface. We’re really looking
up at the model. So I go over the surface, going back down. Now we’re getting a real
contrast between female, male, and something a little bit more delicate. I’m also going
to combine this one working with black and Sanguine and white. This is referred to generally
as a three-color approach. If you look at artists like Rubens or take a look at Watteau,
you’ll find that this is a very popular approach to doing the drawing.
I’m really thinking about the underside of the chin and how we’re going to fit into
that, going over the cylinder of the neck. Now, as I do this I’m going over the surface.
I want to take and we have to think of the overlapping forms. So I’m visualizing the
eye socket. We’re looking up at her…so I’m thinking we’re looking up at her,
and I’m going over. Notice how lightly I’m drawing now. I’m going to come through.
Get the eyeball inside. We’re going to go over the eyeball. We can feel the corner of
the eye socket pushing down. Feel the tone as we come through. Since we’re looking
up at her we’ll see that the lower lid will tend to be a bit straighter. Through. We feel
the cheek coming out. Through. I want to build the tone. Picking up the shape. We need to
trim a little bit off the forehead here as I look. Coming across. The eye now is behind.
We’re going to feel this coming down. Looking at the angle across. I’m going over the
eyeball. Through. Cheekbone. Going over the nostril, over the muzzle here as we’re going
through. Constantly going over the surface. Working around the mouth and down. Through.
Now, since we’re really looking up at her, we’re seeing the underside of the jaw. It’s
going back down. We need to feel the corner looking at the surface. Going down. I want
to feel that the—one of the primary things that I’m always working with in doing a
drawing is I’m always looking at how forms overlap. How we go over the surface.
How we pull down.
Again, the cast shadow takes and defines the area of the reflected light. Defines the shape,
actually, of the underside of the chin. Again, this is building up. I’m going to take and
be adding white and black. So we come through. Now, the next step is to come in the white.
I’m building the top side. This is a lot more subtle than the one we just did, but
at the same time it’s still fairly loose in the handling. If you take and go back and
look at the artists of the past you will find a strong correlation between the way I’m
approaching the drawing and what has been done.
Wrapping around. One of the points here is that you can notice it’s not doing a drawing
and adding white. I’m taking and going to be building these together as I’m doing
the drawing. So, in a sense what we’re doing is, it’s like painting. You go for the total
as you’re building the drawing.
Polychromos. Again, this is just starting the suggestion of the dark to begin with.
I’m keeping, getting the feel for all these eyelashes and stuff.
We start getting a feel for—again, you can see I’ve already made some rather strong changes.
When you’re working with several different colors you need to be able to think in terms of integrating
the thing. So if they work together you need to build the drawing.
Now this is a rather grainy paper.
I like that bit of an expression she has. I’m taking
and want to make sure I don’t lose that quality that she’s got. It’s a lovely little play there.
Notice I don’t draw a harsh line around that now. I’m just giving
suggestions of where the forms are, and I build—so this is very different from the one I just did.
Much more—well, they were both very controlled, but the subtlety of
the values now, and so I’m playing a lot of the extremes here. As I’m drawing this
now I can see I want to take and push this up a little bit higher. I’m changing the line.
Follow the line. Follow the line as I go along.
Controlling the values.
Notice that the lines—
I'm constantly going over the surface.
I’m going to pull a little bit more into the nose.
I’m getting a little bit more bold with the hair just as I did in the other drawing.
This gives a—now it becomes a benchmark in terms of value.
Adjusting the shapes of things as I go along.
Now I’m going to go back into—there’s a little bit more here, and then I’m going
to go back in and start working with the sanguine again.
Slowly build form. Work with the sanguine and the white.
You can see now I’m integrating two colors or three.
Even pulling this into the hair.
You can see I’m getting in the bold strokes as in the previous drawing, but the underlying
structure of the drawing is a lot more subtlety and more variation within it.
Now what I’m doing is I’m going back in, and I’m really pushing the darks now, so
I’m trying to carve out a bit more of the form. The whole time I’m always checking.
So in here, for instance, I’m going to use the hair coming from the back to take and
pull this down through. Coming out from underneath. Now you can see the cast shadow is really
defining, and now I’m going to take and push the core through here. We get the luminosity
then within the reflected light pulling through. All of this is dropping down. Come across,
work with the core coming through.
This becomes a combination now, a core. Working with the black, sanguine.
Coming through across the surface.
Pushing down. Build value.
So there is a similarity to the drawing to the previous, but again it’s a little different.
It has the subtlety. First of all, it’s a female so it’s a little bit more delicate.
But still, a rather bold approach. I’m not
taking and—I’m not polishing. Yet, it gives the look that I want.
It’s the feeling of going over the surfaces.
Feel the pull over the surface.
Okay, I think you get the essence of what I’m trying to accomplish there.
Don’t worry about the technique.
Focus on the structure and the basic procedures that we’ve been talking about.
seen me do it, then go back and do it again. Don’t worry about my technique, but focus
on the structure.
First of all I’m drawing with a color water soluble pencil. This is a Caran D’ache,
a very, very unique color. It’s called brown. Also, I’m going to take and work with the
water brush, using that to help get the form. These are five-minute drawings that we’re
coming back to now. Even though I’m working with a water brush, it doesn’t make any
difference. The whole point that we’ve had with my lectures now was that I was focusing
on structure. So rather than having a formulamatic, basic way of blocking the head in, repeating
now, I can go by thinking about the skull itself, the actual bony structure. These are
five-minute sketches. Once I’ve done this, go ahead and try to do it again yourself.
It’s a process, a procedure, and the thing to be careful of is that most mistakes are
made in the first minute. Take your time. It’s the blocking in, the beginning that
is the critical part. The ultimate rendering and stuff, that comes with mileage.
Notice as I do this I actually rehearse the strokes as I go through. I’m just feeling,
come through. Very mechanical in the beginning, in terms of proportions. I go for real proportions
rather than sort of a stylized approach to it. Blocking in, even bringing in just the
simple shape of the hair. Now, from here right away I’m going into where the corners of
the form are. Come through. Feeling the cheekbone. So structure. Everything is based on structure.
Placement, thinking about the basic planes, the muzzle coming through. Corner of the jaw.
I’m not going to be going into a lot of detail. These are just five minutes.
As I go through this now indicating where the forms are, think of the eyeball as a ball.
We can feel the superciliary bone, which I’ve made a lot of effort to talk about. We’ve
got the corner planes. Think of the eye socket here using the cast shadow going over the
surface to help draw contour and picking up the core, which is part of the plane coming
down. Bottom of the lower lip is halfway. We build from here. Thyroid cartilage, sternocleidomastoid
Now, here’s where I’m taking and I’m just going to block in a lot of this with
just water brush. At the same time, I’m constantly working and refining contours,
using tone outside of the form. Coming in. Now I can go back into this. Again, it’s
all about the structure. Feeling the volumes, coming over. Pushing the sides, the corner
of the eye socket, the temporal bone. Again, as they go over here I really try to feel
this surface form, ridge of the nose coming down. Volume. Feel the volume. Now that I’ve
essentially got the head blocked in, then I can go back in. Again, I can be a little
bit more precise. The emphasis is upon structure, feeling the corners, feeling the form. At
this point, the drawing is pretty much blocked in. It gives me all the essentials I need
to go further with the drawing. Thinking corners of the bone, superciliary, cheekbone, feel
the basic planes. We’re going over the surface. I can take and indicate the underside of the
chin by using the cast shadow, which will take and help to define the reflected light.
And so progressively as I build the drawing up, we can take and go back in and constantly
build. So this is just the beginning stage of the drawing. Five minutes.
Not trying to get any more.
Okay, let’s take and do another one.
Notice that I’m doing pretty much everything in
a three-quarter. The three-quarter angle gives you the greatest opportunity to take and show
three-dimensions. Now front view, most people tend to do that. It tends to be a little bit
flatter, and it actually for instance does not give you as clean a view for understanding
of a person’s, how much or how far the nose sticks out or what have you. You get more
of the actual character by taking on a three-quarter.
See what I’m doing, I’m using a little bit more tone. Again, structure. Corner of
the cheekbone. Through. Notice that I’m not going a lot of lines. I’m really thinking
about where the planes are. I will do a lot of the basic idea of construction by essentially
doing it in the air, rehearsing the strokes before I put it down.
Now, you’re going to find that it’ll be quite challenging to take five minutes, and
the point is that in five minutes you should be able to block it in, but not take and get
involved with a lot of detail, and that’s the detail. It’s the total that you’re
after, not the fancy rendering. It’s just the beginning. Blocking in and thinking of
the structure as you’re doing the drawing. So as I come through, now again, big planes.
Here we can feel the central plane that’s being created. Start with that superciliary
bone or globule, whichever you want to call it. Through. Thinking of the eye socket. The
eye. You’re using the actual shadow to take and help to define the form.
Feel the corner of the cheekbone.
Now, I’ll drop this shadow side completely in at this point. The idea that I did draw
it to start with, draw the form, but then I will come back in as the drawing is developed
and carry it further. Come through. Now, I put down a bit more of the pencil. In the
next drawing I’ll even do more so that you can start getting a darker tone.
Again, reaffirming the basic structure. Corner of the cheekbone and eyes, drawing the eyes
as a ball. Through. Corner of the eye socket is here. Feel the cheekbone. Through. Work
over the surface. Volume. Notice I’m constantly going over the surface of the form.
Feel the corner of the jaw. Don’t make that line too dark or too extreme.
Okay, this gives us, again, a basic starting of the drawing.
Okay, now, focus on this a little bit. This is a slight upshot. Take care, now as I’m
doing this I’m thinking of coming through, going around, looking at the angle going through.
Again, I’m going around over that surface. Again, it’s structure. Where the bone is
at. Even if I can’t see the cheekbone on the other side, I’m drawing the cheekbone.
Feel the plane of the eye sockets going in, corner of the eye socket creates. Coming down
we can feel the cheekbone sticking out, coming through. Feel that superciliary bone. The
nose is sticking out. We’re looking up underneath it. The muzzle, chin out. Going over that
surface, through. Corner of the jaw. We want to feel the underside of the chin. We feel
the neck coming down. Come through.
Now, when I go back into this, again, I’m focusing on the big planes of the head. So
first, pushing the eye socket down. We can feel it behind, yet coming across the end
of the nose. This is a plane that’s underneath. Feel the tone on the side of the nose. I’m
using the brush just to push the color around, get the corner of the eye socket. Pushing
back the plane. Going over the surface of the cheek. Here I would actually use a bit
of tone as the surface turns away. The muzzle around—in other words, notice now I didn’t
even bother to draw the lips. I’m just taking and I want to feel this tone. I want to take
and show the reflected light by using the cast shadow underneath. Coming across all
of this, we’re taking and dropping into. We have a shadow being cast,
going over the surface.
So you can see now how I’ve implied the mass of the head just by working with these
planes and the volumes. We can go back in and start to indicate the lips, which are
looking up. Feel the underside going underneath. That gives us a fair start. Then going back
into that again. I would take and emphasize carrying through, being very, very conscious
of the overlapping planes. The mouth is coming out. The cheek is behind. We feel these planes
dropping down, going over the surface of the mouth. Feel the chin fitting in. You’re
looking up. Think of the ball of the eye. We’re going up over that ball. It’s not
always necessary to draw hard contours around things like the nose. In fact, it often is
more productive to take and let things go. We can give a little bit more of an emphasis
underneath there which is bringing out the cast shadow.
Now, let’s take and draw a male here for a little bit. Same thing. Now, the difference
when we approach drawing a male is that I will be a little bit bolder in how I take
and apply the idea of the plane. Notice, I’m still being very mechanical about how I block
in the proportions, placement. Think of the corner of the eye socket. Feel the planes
again. Cheekbone sticking out. Feel the whole line of the nose coming out here now. You
can say I’m going to be a little bit heavier with the wash now. Think of the eyeball, but
we’ve got the lid going over the ball.
Again, corner of the eye socket. Going over the cheekbone, both sides. Now, as we come
down through here, feel the pull. The muzzle sticking out. Now, I’m going to rely on
a bit of the tone of the drawing to be used with the wash as I’m putting it down. Being
fairly disciplined about taking and hitting the proportions to start with is what allows
you to be a little bit freer as you take and develop the drawing. Corner of the jaw. Thinking
of the underside of the chin. Put down enough tone so that I can pull, create a reflected light.
As I’m doing them, these are five minutes. I suggest as you’re doing these to possibly
do them several times at five minutes. You’ll find that as you repeat a drawing, you’re
going to be drawing from the experience of having done the first drawing. All drawing
actually is drawing from imagination. As you look at your subject then you take and you’re
kind of drawing down on the paper. So in reality you’re drawing from memory.
So the stronger the sense of structure and order that you have in your drawing that you’ve
learned, the more you’re going to be able to do without having to take and actually
look at your model, which, of course, gives you more speed. Also, I find that drawing
with the brush is actually for me, quicker.
Okay, that gives us the basic essentials here. Again, I would take and be going back in and
developing it from that point. This gives it the—you have the foundation that you
then build on as you’re taking and doing the drawing.
Now, I’ve made a point that five minutes in a drawing is fast. The point in doing the
five-minute drawing now, again, is that you’re focusing on the structure and the placement
of the things. Not the beginning point.
Okay, let’s take and do another here. This is a profile. Structure, structure, structure. Corner.
If you can take and draw, what you should be able to do is to take and draw the
skull from any angle from imagination. Then also start to take and develop an understanding
of various types of heads. The prototypes in a sense that you can take and then look
at the angles. Through. Come through. Cheekbone, corner of the jaw.
In this case, the profile shows, which we did not see very clearly at all in the even
three-quarter, is how the chin takes and recedes. So we start to build the form from here. Going
back in. Feel the roundness that’s going down, and then the age is being shown with
the jowls that are taking and going over the jawbone.
Feel the masseter muscles now come through.
We can feel the expression, or the way they’re building up.
Feel the sternocleidomastoid coming down.
Cheekbone, through. The cast shadow helps to show the roundness of the nose. You get a much better
understanding when you’re taking and looking at this.
Often during the Renaissance they did paintings for weddings or for introducing supposedly
brides and groom type thing. They would often do three different angles to take and present
to the potential marriage brokers, what the person is actually going to look like.
Come back in.
That gives us a fairly good start.
Like I said, I suggest that you take and do
the same drawing several times, maybe taking and doing some a bit faster, some maybe a
little bit slower where you’re analyzing. Everything is about analyzing the basic structure.
We’ve just completed the basic head structure. I think we’ve had a great lesson here.
See you next time.
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1. Lesson overview54sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Proportions of the head19m 17s
3. Planes of the head: Part 116m 1s
4. Planes of the head: Part 216m 42s
5. Shapes of the face and skull10m 50s
6. The nose14m 4s
7. The eyes and mouth19m 39s
8. The ear11m 45s
9. Old Master Analysis: Leonardo, Bernini18m 45s
10. Old Master Analysis: Bernini, Van Dyck20m 28s
11. Demonstration on green toned paper: Part 121m 48s
12. Demonstration on green toned paper: Part 220m 3s
13. Demonstration on ochre toned paper: Part 113m 1s
14. Demonstration on ochre toned paper: Part 29m 51s
15. Demonstration on ochre toned paper: Part 317m 2s
16. Head drawing assignment26m 41s
17. Glenn's approach to the assignment27m 30s