- Lesson Details
The Zig-Zag fold will serve primarily as a review for all that you’ve learned about drawing drapery up to this point. You will learn the construction of the Zig-Zag fold that is most similar to the Half-Lock fold, then you will learn how to observe, construct and render the Zig-Zag fold placed over a cylindrical fold as commonly found in pant legs or sweater sleeves.
This lesson includes both the reference image used in the lecture as well as a 3d model of the plaster cast for your assignment.
Kneaded and Hard Erasers
Roll of Paper, Smooth Sketchbook paper
Used in video:
Long point sharpener
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in cloth, the zigzag fold. let's move on to the next type
we're kind of going back to when we pinned
our fabric to a vertical wall and allowed it to hang. Now we
did this with
this is sort of taking us back to when we started, right, to the
The zigzag in this type of analysis, right, where it's not
necessarily describing the forms underneath, where it's
just hanging, is essentially what happens when the pipe begins to
to change direction. Not all the way, not to the extent of a half-
lock. It's not pinned in multiple places really like it
is with the other constructions we've covered, but so
essentially all we have here - let's write it down - the zigzag
I think is self-explanatory in terms of
its name is a zigzag
because it zig zags as it cracks, right? So you
encounter this a lot
you're - like it's rarely that you're going to see simply a
pipe. You're going to see it cracking in some other places and
we have encountered this. So essentially don't necessarily
think of this as a fundamental construction, but we I think we
do need to practice this, it has a name, you'll find it in
books on cloth,
and once again, it's more for our own vocabulary, right? It's
for us to be able to experiment with this, see this here more
than ever before, we're going to really focus on the eye the eye,
right, the part where a tube squeezes in and changes
direction after that. So
at this point possibly think of this structural formation, as
kind of a review of what we've already covered.
That's not to say we're not going to other reviews either.
So but let's get to it, right, so we have, right, we're focused
that zigzag right? You can see I'm just going with that line,
right? Because that's interesting compositionally. This is very
important, right, as a structure compositionally it's really
what we need.
I don't know. I don't know does this look like a zigzag enough?
Because our shadows will play a larger role here, but you can
just see our main interest is this, right? There's
locking enough for it to be a half-lock. It's just a tube that lakh. It's just a tube that
cracking. Now in a sense
this is usually the one
that you see in
this is usually the one that you study right after
the pipe. Now I thought that wouldn't be the
the greatest idea. So instead
I explain these concepts
in structural formations that I think are possibly more
important and more useful
and in instead I'm using the zigzag as a little bit more of
So we do need to cover it, right, I think to go
through all of our folds.
But at the same time.
we've done enough of this already.
especially that half-lock.
Now the only thing is we've never encountered the crack in
the tubes in the pipes, the change of direction as often
as it's happening here with a
slight of a change, right? We counter with more of a we counter with more of a
change so it wasn't necessarily a zigzag but you can begin to
see that there are core principles, essentially that's
just a fold that's tubular and when it changes direction it
squeezes and that is called the eye of the fold. That's it. After
that it's all about the angle change of direction. That's of change of Direction. That's
pretty much it.
And then the question is of course how tubular is it? Right
like where the deviations from being perfectly cylindrical? a being perfectly cylindrical?
That's all we got. Now
in this respect, we can really see one change, two change ,the
third, fourth, fifth, and a sixth. That's nice. That's a lot.
That's a lot of changes.
Let's just get this one down here also.
Fantastic and this lovely cast shadow from this form down
Notice the zigzag
and the half-lock, but the zigzag is just one step away
from the half lock.
And notice how similar they are. In reality right those
gothic artists I was mentioning that used a lot of
those half-locks use a lot of zigzags too.
Though I think the zig zags are a little more common in
periods as well because they're just
so convenient to lead the eye up and down
They're great for that.
Alright, alright already much more of a zigzag.
In this case, right, our fabric is a darker value.
So let's kind of figure that out as we have been doing.
That's effective I think.
that's also good.
And there we have it.
Now let's reinforce some of these shadows
Cast shadow. Cast shadow but really sharp and almost falling
on the change of plane. Almost.
That's a good thing to have right, but we need to know
that isn't falling on that change of plane.
That's a much sharper change, sharper angle.
Now right here drop this down to here and look there's a
little bit of a twist on that edge, right, kind of
cash shadow there and then
where I go with these,
that's the first real eyeof the fold we're encountering in this
assignment. Fantastic, look at it.
He's squeezing in there.
I'm going to just move up with a little bit of a halftone
Look how flat this is. How flat - almost this is multiple.
This is a fold, but it's almost the same value. Now I'm going
to try not to make it as dark.
Tthough it's already happening.
But that's already clear enough
and then core shadow on here.
Cast shadow onto this other little piece of cloth coming
out. Obviously has nothing to do with zig zags
really. This is just an overlap.
And then we extend this up from here.
Oh, I'm gonna move this over actually, right. I miss that mark. I also
I don't want it to fall on the same line.
So that's there.
And bring this up to here. Perfect, everything else matches
Extend this upwards.
I've pinned it in two places, even though I said it , I did not
but simply to illustrate the point a little bit more.
All right, and right here look at that that's pinned into places.
Immediately the formation of a diaper fold, see that? So in a
sense there isn´t any bit of fabric that we can
hang up that's not going to exhibit at least on some scale
all of the properties. All of the
schematics that we're covering that's the
difficulty, right? I'm trying to minimize it every time
so we have sort of a little more clarity there, but they're
just things to guide you, don't think that they
can teach you everything right? You're going to need to
synthesize all of these things we've covered
in to sort of a general understanding of cloth
it's and how it's affected by light.
I'm just finding that plane break, right? That's the plane
break here. That's the change.
So I'm actually going to tone this one down a little.
Though that's not exactly what I see.
But that's what I want to exist here.
Right? Essentially. You can kind of just do it you want, is
not what I'm saying.
Don't do exactly what you want. But once you you know the rules
you can then kind of do what you want.
Who am I to stop you?
Of course, if you're after a certain effect, then I
doing what I'm doing here.
Nice strong cast shadow. But look at how quickly the zigzag
comes together, possibly
because it's easier in some ways, but also because it's just
we've also had this experience right?
We've had this practice.
And on top of that I think it's because
there are -
possibly because it's so
right, because you could see really strong angles, really
small little clear cast shadows and all that cool stuff and
that is -
we'll just as soon as that's captured on paper it'll look
correct. It'll look interesting. It'll look like
you've achieved what you wanted to achieve, what we were planning to
I'm working in those half tones, too.
Why because that's a pipe, it breaks up a
little bit the top part becomes the eye here. And then we have
this very tubular structure. Boom. Nice.
Okay, and then the
little bit of a shadow behind it of course, but yeah, that
becomes the eye right there.
Look, we can even trace it through its highlight.
That's too bright, of course, but I needed to get that clear
Notice this sort of an inside zigzag and an outside zigzag too,
right, we have one, two, and three. Not really zigzag but
changes in direction.
But look at that inside, right? It's this line right here, that
fold right here into an eye, pretty much same place the
And there there it is,
right, an inner and outer zig zag.
So there's a lot here. There's a lot here to play with.
However, right, I think that if we didn't spend time on let's
say the half-lock, this would be harder.
I think we'd encounter certain issues, right, like how
explain some of these things.
Right because I think too many -
it's hard to simply isolate a single tube and make it look
interesting and kind of explain these things. It's possible,
but I don't think that's helping you see the larger
So in order to describe some of these things, some of these
overlaps, some of these
these folds that go under others, they tuck under, come
out from the other side. That stuff. That's where we needed tough. That's where we needed
all the other ones, right so that
it wouldn't distract you. So like just being confused by
stuff. Like that would take away from focusing would take away from focusing
on the zigzag. That was my logic now.
I think it's successful. I think the order works for me, but
you are still going to go back over everything
or at least that's the point of all this right? That's the
I'm expecting you to -
expecting you to spend a fair amount of time with all this,
right, just following along a single time with me is I'm
sorry to say not enough.
But at the same time
it's not only just going over the course, right, and watching
me do this again. It's also just hanging up cloth in your
your studio and just practicing it the same way that
I'm doing here. So it's just a matter of
That's our fold.
And let's get it a little bit of a darker value behind it, right,
cash shadow from that fold.
We get into specifics a little bit later.
I know it's light
and we'll make it read like light even if it falls into
some shadows now, but
we're ignoring all this stuff underneath right? We're just
focusing on the larger structure and the one that
we're covering, so it's not just -
let's outlined some of these folds inside.
There's this one. Not that exciting, right, in shadow almost
Kind of tubular,
right, but it's nice to have tubular forms. Actually
it's cracking a little bit right here there's a break,
very minor change in direction, but nonetheless.
But there is that.
I think that
more or less lays everything in. I do want to make some
corrections now that I see it to the overall shape, right?
Okay, and I simply am doing this because I feel that it was
a little bit too rectangular and some of these overlaps can
be quite cool
along the edge, right, just to make
everything kind of squeeze in taper out more.
Like this right here,
I'm going to bring this in,
bring it in,
and allow that eye of the fold higher up to stick out more.
Right, kind of overlap that edge just a little bit more and
that's just more interesting.
Have that come in at a stronger angle right now. I'm just
composing. So see that's the other part. I was doing that
before but not mentioning to that extent. But now let's
spend some time, right, especially with a zigzag. Where
do we really have? How long is one part compared to the other?
Maybe actually this is
brought down a little bit.
And then this
is a darker value of - they're clearly not shadow. I'm
But just to get it down,
some of these overlaps
down here. I think it's still too tangential so that shadow,
I'm going to focus on the core shadow there.
Bring this in.
All right, and now we have that eye coming off of that fold,
right? So the zigzag is coming off of, it's
zigzagging against a strict vertical
that's around it. Right? So it's always the contrast of a
diagonal against a vertical, not so much a horizontal obviously
in this case, but it's that contrast that needs to guide
you, right, explore that
and push that in any way that you can. So
with that let's take a moment.
Let's reassess, look at it from afar, take a little bit of a break
as we usually do, and then and then come back and begin to see
where we can put our accents and really make
this come to life. So I'll see you in a minute.
take a look from afar, see if our large proportions,
relationships are all in place, and now we get to step to come
back to it and
do some refining.
But before we do, I noticed a little bit of something here
that I'm going to slightly change, right? There's just a
compositional thing and it's not even so much about whether
that's happening but bringing down that cloth right here
and letting this one be smaller
is interesting, maybe even more
than that. So even if this one over here, that tiny one in the
shadow is actually a little bit smaller than it is in real
life. We know that doesn't matter but look at how that
changes at how that kind of - there's a sort of a lot like in
a sense a larger zigzagging quality to the fabric as a
whole that we then can perceive in individual parts of it. B
That's kind of the most exciting thing, right, is
when you're able to see large patterns
and see how
they repeat in smaller segments and vice versa.
Now as always, right, going off of a nice part that in which is
a lot of clarity which we want to make important
and moving right off that terminator.
Even a tiny bit of zig zag I'm getting in this part. Right?
Right in the middle of it small changes of direction.
Working a little half tones as well, right, making sure we see
that this is in fact a very sharp edge, this right here is
an end of the fabric. You can see it falling from all the way
All right. So there's already some polish happening.
It's nice to see.
And then we can get this whole part that eye of the fold here
even smaller, even sharper.
Maybe even enhancing that bit of light on it. I don't know.
Maybe we'll knock it back later, but I'm going to
actually make it a sharp - like a crack in sharp almost like a crack in
And then I'll define the outer edge of it pretty much in line.
And then begin the expansion on that tube below
I like what I'm seeing.
So let's move down right? I'm just following this form.
Highlight on there, not bad.
I get a little bit out of that. Now let's get into this now let's get into this.
more planar part.
And that edge, right? It's when you have these larger planar
or parts of cloths
you end up
sort of, right, it's sort of a - it's almost
a geometric structure with some variations and some softness on
the curvatures but in general think of them as more planar
I would rather you do this assignment and end up with
something that has very clear, very sharp edges than have that
sort of softness and turning on the form. I think that would be
important here in terms of
the learning process and what you can -
what comes from this, you know?
But there are some
smaller changes in plane, on the large plane.
That's always the
I'm following this fold now all the way up too,
following that terminator.
Moving that up into here.
We're getting more specific. You can already see it
And if I step back a bit, this plane right, that this cast
shadow's falling upon,
you can see it continue. It's very very small here.
But it's there.
And then we can block this in as a general plane, a nice flat
plane, which is
pretty much the fabric just against the wall that we've
pinned it on.
Now keep in mind the zigzag isn't one that describes form
underneath and we're going to see it in a more - in different
context. We're going to see it on a form on a cylindrical
element soon after we're done with this and you'll see that
even in that instance it's not going to describe the form
underneath all that well.
But it will give a certain movement, right, a movement along
There we go.
We're really I pushed that highlight a little bit too
much, but we're getting that
change of form.
Which is lovely.
Now look at this right this cast shadow. I blocked it in
and sort of just a nice sharp edge,
but now I'm going in to refine it, making sure that it falls
on the form.
And knocking it back a little bit.
So even the cloth in the shadow
is getting its
And this core shadow and make sure that we have a clear
separation between core and cast.
let's go with
the cast shadow
this fabric and allow it to sort of extend into
other parts, allowing that -
our half tones to work off of those shadows correctly, right,
according to the form.
Good bring this in a little bit more,
see at times you end up making things overly organic.
So you got to come in and get something a little bit more -
something with a bit more
this is a sharp clean line, right? It's an edge.
Cast shadow, nice. I mean obviously sloppy still but
easy to fix by smudging.
Don't overstate those things when they don't describe form.
And maybe get some variation in there, but not at this particular
Not much going on in here. So this is going to be difficult.
Right? How do we make this interesting? We just in here
have to look a little more closely, maybe sharpen things a
little bit more than seems normal or natural to do or
And the kneaded eraser definitely helps here, right
because you get to to get some real specifics.
Step back a bit. Now
this is an important part right? I've been going back
into this whole area
more and more.
And so I'm okay to push some of these values in here.
We need that. And also look at what it does to our reflected
lights, it really brings them out.
Really working that hard soft edge thing going on here.
Hmm. Okay good.
Reinstating that cast shadow there, right because I want to
have that contrast
without bringing too much light into this fold.
So everything hanging from up top seems to be working for me,
maybe getting in there with an even sharper
edge in the shadows a little bit right, kind of extending
just a little bit more.
And you know, what? Why don't we do a little bit of work up
here. It's not large but we have that
diaper fold right there.
So since we know it, why I ignore it?
Right, we can see these changes in plane.
Right using the eraser to get the highest points of this form,
lowest point right there.
Of course the whole thing needs to be toned down. That's
obviously the case, you can see that.
This is closer to where things are pinned
so we're going to
accent that things are pinned there.
And then just to bring up a little bit of interest, right,
this right here -
this right here
is sort of an accidental thing right there. I can once again
Ask yourself can I smooth this out and we'll change the
the answer is you can then think before inserting it into
the general structure.
You might still need it. I'm not saying it won't be any -
won't be necessary at all. It might be. It might really play a
crucial role in making this look
observed, if that's what you're after.
Not that this isn't observed,
but you know what I mean.
And then -
okay, good. Good good.
Working this into this and cast shadow up in there. Notice I'm that up in there notice. I'm
using a pencil that's actually not as dark
as the one I was
because I don't need too much contrast up here and I'm -
there's room for invention right? I don't need to make
this exactly as I see it.
I just want to get that point across that we've pinned that
fabric and, you know, as I said, just use this as another
opportunity to explore something we've covered as you
know, just as a review.
And then from here you can move this
up a little bit.
Right we got one fold stretching across from the two pinned
areas and another.
How important is this top part?
Not too important, but I feel like it's nice to have in this case,
especially for some reason
sometimes I don't have an answer to why I intuitively
select one accent over the other.
And just knock back those highlights.
Just knock back those highlights.
Sharp angles, they're
kind of crucial
because they are
how compressed the fabric has become
in this area.
this really -
the more you work on this the more kind of a live
and all seem right.
I'm working into the shadow, right just
show some of -
some more of that
turning, right, the twisting,
right? You've noticed by now there's a lot of twisting.
It's never like that's sort of the mildest
form of the zigzag. In a way it's almost its own kind of
concept, right? There's always - it's not just the
tubular form begins to crack and change direction, but it's
also twisting constantly, so
that's something to think about, that's not something that's
This sort of idea of it spiraling around itself. Now
we're going to talk about clothing and cloth, but
obviously this will have to affect clothing, spiraling
an object, an arm, a leg.
But not that -
there's not a lot going on in terms of
its spiraling around itself.
I'm just getting a little bit more specific, a little bit more
specific. Not too much. We still have all this to work on.
So no worries.
But I'm getting down here through that, right? So the
secret is -
a little bit - that you want
be able to -
so, you know, I always say worry about the important
spend all your time on them and then do the rest later.
Now with experience you realize that there are certain things
that maybe aren't the key element. They're not that
important. But if you don't spend any time on them,
they will it'll just be too obvious. It'll be too obvious
that there's something wrong such as something out there. So
I end up like kind of like these empty areas. So I tend
to spend some time on them
I just feel as if this point if I do it a little earlier
at least that part is complete. I don't need to think about it
that much again. Maybe a line here or there but for the most
it will all be in place.
Don't need that too much. Okay, so I'm kind of okay with where
all these things are.
All those not fundamental parts those in the shadows. And though those in the shadows and
so now we can get to
the really key part here, the zigzag itself.
All right, that's a little flat piece coming off of the
I'm just trying to get that half tone on the underside of
this fold, only in one spot falls into a shadow.
The more I do this and talk about it the more I think that
maybe this is kind of everything.
Right, maybe if you spend enough time on cloth,
really analyzing changes of direction and all that cool
stuff we've been talking about
what if it'll
teach you to draw everything else?
Like I'm just looking over here at where that tubular form
Right, where it splits into two tubes.
That kind of reminds me of that the split of the upper and
lower crus, the crura of the ear of the antihelix.
Right, it's like it's got all those same things.
Kind of incredible.
Now I'm getting in here with this.
Because this is a very precise eye of the phone there, right, real
If we zoom in we're going to see tiny little changes
and all that stuff.
Like almost to that extent. That's what we need
We're gonna do a similar thing, right, this big tube right here.
We're going to do a similar thing
to this eye.
Knock that back.
All right. Now keep - I think you've noticed
that if you just figure out
that the eye of the fold, that change in plane,
then it already looks
like a fold.
That's the fun part.
Now what's happening underneath here?
Hmm good I do think that this highlights that I initially
placed on this
on that pipe can be knocked back just a little bit.
Bring things down then.
And going and finding that other eye, right, there's a lot of
eye here, right? There's a big turning.
On a small scale
this right here already is sort of a half-lock.
I kind of recommend thinking in half-locks.
Right just playing with that area in the shadow.
You think that's not that important but I think you can't
avoid it right? That you got to find that nice curve and have
it properly taper as you go from one spot to the other
and then now that inner,
the inner zigzag,
everything softer in there because I don't I mean it is in
fact soft, but you don't want to take away
the outer zigzag I think.
Now if you decide to make the inners zigzag the more important one
then of course you highlight that. I don't think it's as
it does not deserve that much attention paid to it.
Hmm that eye is
interesting right, gonna get into there.
Right so really getting that twisting going on there. Not
bad, beginning to work for me.
Enhancing that a little bit
now the hard part here right is that I'm going to simplify
this stuff inside just a little bit. I think it's too much
Right simplifying that. I don't think we need those parallels
and all that stuff. We can do them,
we can hit them but more as a contrast than a form.
Right just simplify it so that it's pretty much a little kind
of crumpled piece of fabric rather than multiple small
tubular forms there because I think it'll just take away from
what we need it to - what we need to highlight, what we need to
So from a structural standpoint at this point, I think we can
easily - you can easily already begin to imagine how to
structure them on your own, right?
That is pretty much a zigzag.
Right? And then there's
bits of cloth on either side of that.
this is obviously
a simplistic of course analysis of it, but that's the basic
That's what we have. So everything here.
That is thus
the basic structural analysis here,
you can already begin to invent. Now here of course right this
could become a half-lock, meaning you just need to get it
at the proper angle
there's not that much of a difference between the two.
Between the half-lock and the zig zag zig. The half-lock is
just the sort of extreme zigzag but one that actually clarifies
So let's just add a little bit of contrast here and there.
Make things stand out a little bit.
And we're really - we're really almost there.
This in here is clearly a nice strong occlusion shadow.
There's not much light getting in there. So why not play with
that? Right? Why not extend this darker?
And extend upwards, right, allow that to kind of fall into a
darker shadow and create enough contrast to bring out this
Right occlusion shadows are probably more important in
than they are in anything else.
Even when you're thinking structurally, right, because when
you're thinking structurally the light and shadow are just
use them right to show
as much as the form is possible, but here
you have to show
a quality of fabric
to the textural component and the quality of the fabric
is how heavy that fabric is and those occlusion shadows
and reflected lights will will get you a lot of them.
Let's not worry too much about what's happening down here.
Wrap this around.
It's all we need for now.
So as you can see though,
the zigzag is interesting in terms of the patterns that it
makes, the directional changes, but in terms of
I think it's actually it's not - this is completely a personal
opinion. It's not straight enough
to have that calming, classical effect, just
sort of just that parallel pipe after pipe. And I don't think
it's dynamic enough like a half-lock, right, to get that cross lakh right to get that cross
to have a strong effect either.
It's a -
it's a little bit neither here nor there.
But it's usually - but obviously we never think of - aside from
this course - we never think of any of these principles
independently of each other, right? So the idea is
Usually zigzag might lead into a half-lock closer to what was
already happening here which then leads into something
else and something else and it kind of moves your eye from one
type of structure to another. So in terms of leading your eye,
leading that line,
the zigzag is of
great help often.
I think we're good. We're doing good here. Simplified some of
the stuff at the bottom, zigzag is evident, we have been
rendering it the way that we have done
the rest of the assignments.
Now from this point on let's
move on to
to exclusively seeing how some of these these zigzags
structures as well as
the next structure we cover
play a role
in describing more of the particular
element that the folds will be and the cloth to
be wrapping around, say once again an arm or a leg or
any other tubular structure. So with that let's
move on to seeing how the zig zag
can be seen on fabric that's wrapped around a tubular form.
to the wall of the box here, let's see how it affects the
forms of the pant leg or in that respect any tubular
I'm going to just, so that we have some consistency, zigzag
part two is what we're going to call this and we're going to
work primarily from the knee all the way down.
Now the trick is right is to begin to see the knee, right? So
we have the kneecap kind of right there. But that's all we
need, right, and then the expansion upwards here as you
see I'm actually going to kind of structure it as if there's a
leg inside, right? So I'm just going to hint at that tubular
form underneath. Not getting too caught up in it. Not that
important right now, right because we're not - and that is
not the goal here. However
quickly right begin to see what's going on right there.
That's actually a tangent to the form underneath right here.
But tangent to the form underneath everything else due
to the fact that once again, I've simply wrapped the
in cloth. We have a lot of excess cloth simply because I
feel like that will
kind of arrive at the point sooner.
So what we have here
is now we begin to see our shadows. Now keep in mind the
knee, that's an important area here mainly because the leg is
just slightly bent and that means that the knee's protruding,
which means it is an anchoring point. And we remember that it's
that anchoring point which straightens all of the like the
kind of allows the fabric to go on top of that form and then it
begins to come off of that form and it's the beginning of the
tubular structure of the cloth, right? And then where we're going
to change direction is the next important thing. So
you can already begin to see
the zigzag, right, and the zigzag is rarely just a single one.
It's multiple. So here's one that I'm seeing closer to the
shadow side and they intersect, they meet, right, and here's
another, they meet, right here comes down actually another zigzag
coming from around.
Bringing it down here. Then this is going down this way.
They meet again.
Down to here, wrapping around.
Now it's particularly interesting to use the lower
leg because the
lower leg isn't as wide and it tapers as you go from
the knee to the ankle. Meaning you will naturally have excess
fabric, where and it's here where we on a model for
example, we would see a larger amount of these structures.
But at the same time we proceed in a similar way, right? Let's
get those shadows in place.
Squint a lot, right, squint so that you can see
the general shadows
of everything, general shadows of the tubular form of the
It's all along this line, right, all along
that. So from a structural standpoint, you have
and then you have
something like this,
coming off of this, meaning that you begin to carve, right, you
begin - I'm not - this is just a strict
sort of imagination assignment.
These are wrapping around the form.
And then usually this is all bunched up here almost to the
point of a half-lock and then you have perhaps a shoe or
something of the kind.
So that's essentially what we're dealing with up here, if
the knee is bent enough you begin to have
a half-lock, right? This begins to wrap enough.
All right, and then everything kind of evens out here, is kind of evens out here
though chances are you also have some
elements around that upper leg as well. So see you so kind of
a simplified schematic
of what we're dealing with.
I would wrap that even more maybe.
And so on. So
but our concern is to get accustomed to actually seeing
this in life, right? That's the deal. that's the deal.
So I'm actually not too satisfied with this half-lock.
I want to really see this wrap around
and squeeze in there, right? This excess
on the edge there.
And so on. So that's
assuming of course that there is a larger amount
of this fabric in general.
Okay. So let's get back to our actual observed observed leg.
The hard parts are going to be the half-tones, not the shadows.
The shadows will just kind of move into place
and we'll be fine with them, right, so just move things around just so just move things around
think of what's happening, of course.
Keep them uniform even though of course some are lighter than
Now the next
cloth structure is the spiral fold
and you'll begin to - when you see it you'll wonder how
different really is it because there are elements of the the
spiral here even,
right? Like essentially anytime it begins to wrap around the form,
that's already - you can call that
So the other thing that you need to see is and pretty much
know what the difference is when it comes to seeing how
these forms describe the structures underneath, this the
importance of the mannequin leg there, right? You can see
that these zigzags don't do anything for the form. They
the cylindrical forms underneath, right? If it was just
a cylindrical element, then we would read this terminator
more clearly, but because things are crisscrossing right
on one side
and on the other, possibly a few in the back as well. It's hard
what that form underneath is. So this is really where our half tones
come into play because without them you won't get that
rotation because the shadows are actually disrupting form,
not helping it.
There it goes again,
zigzags one more time.
Right here comes out again out to here.
And now I'm right away beginning to place some half tones.
Without them we will be lost. Now that of course it's not a major
half tone. That's a half tone on a fold but it's more about the
fold and its relation to the light that matters here. Right?
It's essentially on what plane do we have to have this fold?
Right? So just by toning that one down, we're already in a
better place, right? Because clearly it's here if our light
is from here.
Now this one
than the other one but still
than this right here.
What is pretty much like that but a little bit lighter and a
little bit more of a gradient. There's a little - there's
already a little bit more of that rotation right in the
form. Underneath is cylindrical.
I think we're getting somewhere though and pretty fast, that's
the great part here. You can see that if you keep the right
things in mind you can move quickly.
Look at this lovely zig zag right there down to here. Nice.
Hmm. Okay. Okay. Okay. See I'm minimizing the internal
stuff, right, the form. This is the important terminator
because that's the knee,
even though I don't think it's that important in this
assignment. If this were a Leg this would be absolutely
fundamental. This would be the accent
and that terminator need sto be softer to show
the full form, right, if I stretch that terminator a
little bit into the dark half tones, you can begin to sort of
realize that there's a form underneath now we cannot see
too. Well the half-lock that's forming behind the knee but we
can in fact, you can see it right here
a little bit right this right here is that half-lock.
All right, so it's wrapping towards the back of -there's
already that excess fabric behind.
And extend these
coming from the knee right there near that anchor point.
Soften, soften, soften.
And there we have something of a little bit of interest, right?
Now this is an interesting knot, right? I'm gonna start maybe
referring to them and not as a point of interest. Not
that it's all knotted up
but also often when it's not enough it is sort of an
Excellent, right. So we're beginning to get everything
that I was just talking about, that internal form and the
sort of the protrusions of the of the zigzag fold is coming
out from them that are really helping us. I'm going to just
go back in with my vine charcoal and reinforce the
shadows, the terminators all that stuff.
Keep in mind that of course right here, we're going to get
a little bit of reflected light because it's a shadow with this
cloth coming up from it.
Notice every time there's a turn it's sharper.
It's cleaner. It's that eye of the fold again.
I'm gonna tone this down a little bit.
That knee probably a little bit higher. So I move that up. It's
no big deal.
When you're working piece by piece, it doesn't really
matter. It's when you're working the whole
proportion then it matters, right? You can't just move a
knee up without altering everything else.
Look at that, another one of these, the continuation of
coming right across.
And that cloth cast shadow, core shadow. course shadow.
Right. The whole point is you get to a point
where it's not really something you're concerned with in terms
of like where do you begin a shadow,
where does all this originate and which one's core, which one's
cast? You are just observing them looking for edges, right?
Just an optical way to solve these problems except due to
the fact that you've spent enough time on analysis this
makes your life a lot easier because then you just know what
everything is as you put it on paper, you know what to do to
make it look
That's the secret now.
What's interesting is of course atthis claw little piece
coming off of the patella.
For those of you who have done
the anatomy portions of this course, doesn't it remind you
of the patellar tendon?
Isn't that - it's not that prominent but it's a similar
way to handle that light on it, right, protrudes, has a light on
the side. The rest is a flatterer kind of
more vertical plane on the side of the knee.
And there you have it. Bring this up a little bit ,isn't that
nice of kind of a wrapping movement right there, rapping movement, but they're
also coming off of that knee.
But we're not so concerned with this, right, the cloth is our
main interest. So just going to keep plugging away at this with
our half tones sharpening our shadows and so on right as we
have been doing
making some corrections,
bringing some of this down.
These are the proportions.
They matter of course, but now but only so much.
All righty. All right, notice the triangular
formation again, right, of the planes.
I mentioned it but never directly brought
to attention that that idea that when you do have a piece
of cloth, right, everything
is kind of -
it's kind of triangular
in between these changes of plane, right?
Everything can be kind of perceived
between the triangles.
Inside, in between the actual tubular elements,
you have a kind of triangular patterning, right? One.
I mean, in fact, it's probably more of a kind of a trapezoidal
and sometimes rectangular is as in that case, but you can break
this up into planes.
And then you can break it up into planes even further.
it's already beginning to happen. Now, is that as bright
as this probably not.
So you see that the main -
I'll bring this up again of course, don't worry,
but the main difference up there goes that triangle again,
the main difference between these formations,
the zigzag on the leg,
spiral formations that we're going to want to come,
essentially main difference, the spirals, are going to be helping
you figure out what the form is, right, they're going to be
wrapping around the tubular form in a tubular way.
Going to kind of go along the direction of the form
don't help at all.
They look cool but they're not helping you see clearly, if
anything they're being much more
confusing than that.
Yeah, I'm just - I'm working in those triangles, but I'm
clearly getting a little bit too dark.
So I'm going to bring that up right now and I might actually
try to solve this with the pencil =with a bit more of a
hatch or something like that.
Now this right here I'm gonna use the point because that's actually a crease
and then that is a another crease coming off of that. Now
might even be already much closer to a half-lock.
That's the thing.
I want this to be a much more precise, but it isn't.
You can see I can get quite a lot though. I can still get
quite a lot of information.
And knock that back a little bit simply so that I have
a highlight which I'll have to go back into.
Hmm interesting good now there's a sort of a flatter part here.
Right we are getting more and more precise, more and more specific.
Now this light right here overstated, obviously.
Knocking it back.
Look at this, you can almost see that I have the fold
I just isolate that tube. I have the fold, another
tube coming from there.
Opening up and quickly into another eye of the fold.
I think you're beginning to see a pattern.
Lots of eyes, lots of eyes.
And easier than
you know anything else that you've encountered
then actualize at least for sure.
Knock that back just a little bit
and you can see how it looks like a crumpled, at the moment sort
of a crumpled bit of fabric, but you can also see that
inside there is a cylindrical form and that's what we're
This right here right, right below the knee. It's probably
one of the brightest areas and this here too. Right, we need that
clear. That's a already a plane that's turning up which is
following the direction of the the anatomical structures of
Now the same is happening with this bit of cloth, right, it's moving
up, but I don't think it's as important though.
I don't think it's describing the forms of that
area. Now in reality of course, that would be already
coming up to the ankle which is an important form so you can
still highlight it. Just simply draw attention to the area,
right? So it's a little more complex than is, it's showing the
form underneath because it could be but it could not be
but it could be in the perfect spot to have a contrast.
Hope that's clear.
So yeah, interesting, right and then here you can kind of break
these up so you can really break everything up into these
interesting little triangles.
Okay, I like where we are right now.
There is this
bunching up at the bottom, which is just like an enhanced, right,
like the just even more of the zigzag at the bottom
because there isn't enough space but at the same time what
I see here is a lot of spirals, so we're not going to concern
ourselves too much with that area, also closer to the bottom
of the page. So I'm going to just blur that out and we're
going to get back to working on all this in just a
second, but I think that's pretty much completes
sort of part one of our analysis
and allows us to move on to
part two after the break,
in which we of of the break-in which we of
course, we're finding these forms and keep accentuating that
internal structure. So I'll see you in a second.
I like what I'm seeing up here. I like that I am already
beginning to see a form underneath all this cloth. Now
it's just that it's time to pick out accents and and refine
the thing, so let's begin.
So let's start from the top, right, start with that knee. Now
I was thinking about this while
would like to bring your attention
to the fact that
this is actually not going
to be exactly how you would proceed on a leg,
mainly because your main purpose on the leg
is going to be the anatomy, right? So if it's the knee then
that would be where your accents are, where we really
would focus our attention
that would be
how we proceed. So for example, the knee would have all your
main contrasts. The knee is where maybe some cast shadows
off of the cloth would be,
that's not exactly how we're doing this, right now we sort
of are -
we do a preference as I mentioned we have certain bits of
cloth over others,
but at the same time,
we're not discriminating that much.
We're not -
we're kind of just starting from the top and moving our way
to the bottom.
Which in general on a form that's long is not the best
way to proceed because you want the eye to move across the form
not along the form.
Now if you've done other part of this course, then you have
heard me say that, if you haven't
here it is.
Right, you would like this - so the one thing though to add of
course is that if we're interested in our eye moving
across the form then these zigzags are actually really
it would be an added challenge
for sure. challenge for sure.
Look at these cast shadows as they fall
on the cloth there,
which is a fundamental importance in this area.
A fundamental importance in this area right because
you can see the tubular forms.
If you can see them
then you accept them.
Alright, so there we go, right, getting into some of the
Look at this part of the former. This is adhering to the
a little bit more.
this upward plane isn't but is hinting at the forms in a lot
of these areas. So
why not use it? Keep in mind, right, that even if a piece of
is actually going against
the direction of the form underneath, that in a sense is
also hinting at the form underneath.
So right here too, right?
That's helpful because that's
allowing us to see that change in plane. Everything here that's
a cast - that is a shadow being cast on the large form
is very important, cannot be overlooked.
follow this form down,
down to there.
Right now, I'm just
working on those small bits.
And now I am modeling so, you know, in a sense at this point
a lot of this is
stuff you already know, right? This is not that new because
now we're just going
we're modeling a tubular form, squeezing it in when you hit
the eye of a fold, and expanding upon it
every time you lead that eye towards the
the larger mass, that's pretty much it.
Nothing to it by this point.
And more and more
you're getting accustomed to those like the specifics of the forms
Right the more you practice that
the easier this becomes.
One can say that about everything right? That's sort
of a platitude do it.
But since I am in the job of repeating myself
as I have mentioned before
there's no harm in doing that, saying all that again.
I feel that this is an important spot, right?
Look at that. Now something here feels sharp to me.
probably that terminator needs to come down a little bit.
That's good, that's working for me. But I'm losing a little bit
That terminator as it moves down to here.
And being a cylindrical form,
I'm going to accentuate
the reflected light
on this left hand side, right, kind of keep it a little bit
it might even appear that I should.
Mmm, but I can't just leave it blank, right, so I may have to
continue some hints of tone,
little hints of tone,
right, so that we can get a form, like a feeling of the form is
turning that it's inside.
Cleaning that up a little bit
along that edge.
And so far I've just worked the top and I haven't even gotten
too many specifics. That's the thing you noticed right and
none of the small things. Keep in mind, right, what I said
That you went - you block this in and by that I mean that
in as literal a way as possible. You actually make
these things into a block of sorts.
Now we're back down here. It's good.
We're bringing it down a little bit.
I'm very concerned for the highlights in these areas.
Now, every time I step back
I ask myself is it clear enough
that inner tube, right, that inner leg.
I ask this
every time I make - I mean I don't ask every time I make a
mark, but I ask this every time that I
make a mark and then step back and ask myself whether that
mark was fine or not. That's what I'm actually, you know,
every time I step back is what I'm doing.
It's a quick process. I don't actually
sort of I don't say those words in my head, but that's what I'm
Just a little cleaner.
So where are we here.
I've attached the kneaded e raser to my hand so that I
that I don't leave marks.
I keep thinking about it.
Now let's get into some of these specifics down here.
And look at that shadow, right? Some of this is really
Cast shadow there.
Look at that zigzag. That's a strong one.
That needs to expand and then from the bottom here -
there we go.
I have the fold, nice crease, kind of an accidental crease to
And then we're coming back in with some of these
terminator on this large tubular fold.
Down into another eye.
That's all we're doing, right?
You can see there's definitely a repetitive
quality to this.
Which is why
when working on something a little bit more complex in
the sense of using these folds to describe something,
then you don't just copy them, right, you pick and choose, you
work with what you have to just establish a narrative,
a movement of the eye along or across the page.
That's kind of all we can do, we don't have a lot of other
Tiny little creases and cracks in that large tube.
So we do them.
Alright, so we're really
getting there, I think.
Now just want to subdue this a little bit.
to my vine
to make sure that works. What I'm looking for here though is
actually quite interesting.
I think everything
from this point to that one is cast shadow, that's already a
different part of the crease.
And that I invert slightly to make
All right. Here we go.
knock that back slightly to make room
for the highlight
and make sure the rest of our values are dark enough for that
highlight to read without overpowering.
Beginning to work.
Some inner movements in there and that particular crease.
Getting into here, nice cast shadow from that crease.
I'm not going to be too specific with what it's
defining below that.
A little bit of that eraser hatch.
just kind of using the eraser to sculpt these
Why don't we now kind of take a look from top to bottom and see
what we need to do to make this work.
Right those final creases right that really push this
toward something much more kind of organic, observed,
not so sort of blatantly structural, right? There's
for something else, right, for just a little bit
enjoyable right to just kind of look.
Occlusion shadow in there will really allow us to have a
without doing anything to our reflected light. That's the
secret right? We don't need to get in there.
Now, I'm just
kind of working those creases a little bit more.
So you can see
I think after
this particular exercise as well as
the part of the zigzag. I think this really makes things
clear, I think.
I really do.
And we're almost at the end of all of our
structures of cloth.
We have this spiral left
we have the inert.
And then we're gonna put them all together so that we can
see how all of them work in concert.
How one type of structure leads to another, one describes the
form in one way and another one in a different way, really allowing
to pick and choose
what's the most effective.
I think that line maybe is a little bit too sharp.
I almost want it as light. However, so that it establishes
how light this area inside is, right? That's an
upturned plane and by outlining it heavily
in creating this illusion of contrast. I mean you are
creating contrast, but you don't need you - actually it
looks that area can look even brighter just because it's
next to a darker element.
Like a line, right, that doesn't exist in nature.
See so that is a nice way to wrap the form there.
Now a couple of hints of those creases.
A little bit of light right in there.
Right and sort of focus on one of the particular areas where
there is a zigzag happening. This is interesting right
it's up to you kind of to control what's happening with
the zig zag.
All right, so you kind of you know, there's some that are
clearly more important than others because you can focus
your attention either on the highlight side or on the shadow
side. That's up to you. Or move from one to the other.
As you see it's happening little bit here. We move down to
here, accent, we skip that one, move down to here, are seemingly
continuing off from the right to the left side. But no, we're
still on the right side and then we swing over to the other
side. So there's a lot happening there in terms of
accent, right, that's a part of using the zig zag.
And then using the multiple zigzags that we have in this
However, I think we just step back, take a look again.
Maybe make a couple of marks.
But overall I think we have
a lot going on here. We've explained
how the fabric wraps around the form
let's move on to the spiral fold.
with this course, you're going to be working on the zigzag
remember that as you can see that the zigzag appears both in
fabric that's not describing a form underneath as well as when
there's a tubular structure underneath it. So in this
assignment, I urge you to work alongside me or set it up on
your own, though setting it up with a tubular former
underneath is harder, but most definitely attempt to set
zigzag on its own at home.
But the key is to do both of these and explore and see how
look like depending on the conditions in which we find
them. The important thing to remember about the zigzag
describing a form is that it doesn't actually describe the
form, it actually cuts the form across and prevents you from
seeing that tubular form underneath. This is
something to keep in mind because you need to still
accent the form that the fabric is on. With that, I wish you
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview19sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Observing and Analyzing the Structure of the Zig- Zag Fold25m 57s
3. Refining the Drawing and Enhancing the Shadows and Highlights26m 47s
4. Adding the Finishing Details and Resolving the Drawing20m 10s
5. A Zig-Zag Fold Around a Form19s
6. Analyzing and Blocking in the Structure of the Zig- Zag Fold around the Form30m 34s
7. Refining the Halftones and Shadows and Finishing the Drawing35m 6s
8. Assignment Instructions1m 28s