- Lesson details
In this series, master draftsman Glenn Vilppu shares with you his approach to figure drawing. Each lesson will cover a new stage in Glenn’s process, including: Gesture, Spherical Forms, Box Forms, Cylindrical Forms, Basic Procedure, Modeling Tone, Direct Lighting, and Atmosphere. In this sixth lesson of the series, Glenn introduces you to the stages of rendering by beginning with modeling tone. Glenn begins with a lecture on modeling tone, followed by a demonstration. He will then take a look at some Old Master works to analyze their use of modeling tone. Next, you will get a chance to apply what you’ve learned in a timed figure drawing assignment. The lesson will conclude with Glenn’s approach to the assignment, allowing you to compare your work with his.
- CarbOthello Pencil – Black and English Deep Red
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine
- Drawing Paper
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refer to direct lighting as the rules or the laws of light. What it really is is being
able to use direct light. We talked about halftones or reflected light or cast shadow.
I’ll give you a lecture explaining the concepts behind all of this, and I will take and then
demonstrate, and then you will have assignments to take and follow through on this.
Let's just get started with this then.
This is a continuation of what we did with the modeling tone. The modeling tone is still
the basis, and now we add to that what most people think of as the laws of light. Actually,
an understanding of how light works, we can use it to make different experiences. Let’s
go through the basics first. Then we’ll take and see how we take and apply it and
how we can manipulate it to take and make things look different.
So, first of all, a little bit of nomenclature here. Now, we have a highlight. This is your
highlight. Then as the light turns away from the light source, where it’s here, I would
even—here we still have the modeling tone, and the thing turns away. But the modeling
tone takes and as we come through it’s turning away. This part is very similar now to what
we were dealing with the modeling tone. Except that we now bring into it another element.
We bring in a reflected light. With the modeling tone we had no reflected light that we were
dealing with. What happens when you bring in the reflected light that we take as we
go into the shadow, the reflected light bouncing off the environment leaves a dark tone in between.
This we refer to as the core. Some people call it the core shadow. Whatever.
What we have is the transition in between the core.
Actually, we start out with the highlight. It’s the whitest or lightest element. Then
as you turn away we go through a series of steps that create tone as we work our way
down. Now, that tone goes into what we call the core. These steps in here are basically
what we refer to as the halftone. The French prefer to call it mini tones. Then we have
in here the reflected light. Then finally we have the cast shadow. These are the basic
elements. We still use the modeling tone. We go through, we have the core coming through.
Now we actually manipulate these elements to take and create and experience.
First, let’s just take and digress here and give a little bit of art history. In dealing
with the modeling tone we talked about Giotto, where you take and have a tone going back
that maybe a little bit of an emphasis to one side. Basically, that was the modeling
tone. This is not to say that Giotto invented or any of these people invented. This stuff
has been going on for a very, very long time. That’s sort of the next step from there.
This was Giotto.
The next step we could say would be, and this is an example of the next step, where I was
actually taking and using it. So, we still have the highlight and the modeling tone.
Highlight, the modeling tone, but now the modeling tone gets a little bit more aggressive,
becomes a little bit stronger. We get more of an emphasis on one side or the other with
the tone so that we get an actual sense of light direction very suggestive of a cast
shadow. You can look at Masaccio as an example. From there we can take and go to Michelangelo.
Essentially what we are talking about here is that we have a highlight. You see the modeling
tone? We also take and have a core. We have reflected light. It’s harder to have a core
without reflected light. And then the cast shadow, but a more distinct cast shadow.
We’re getting this…all three of these are essentially dealing with form. Now we
can go from that. We can go to a Tiepolo or a Francesco Guardi where the emphasis starts
to shift. We still have the modeling tone, but now we take and we get a stronger sense
of the core with the reflected light and even more, I could say, aggressive cast shadow.
Now what we start to get is more of a feeling for light. This actually, as you can see,
as this takes and gives us more of a sense of brightness. For example, in other words,
if we take—because what we want to do is be able to manipulate these pieces to create
an experience. In other words, if I take two tones that are essentially the same…okay,
now these are pretty much the same. Now, if I come around and I surround one with a dark
we’ve now created a whole new value arrangement so that when we start to work with this idea
of a core then, we have say, going back to our sphere here then, and if I come through
and using the modeling tone coming in and we would say have the core here. If I come
in and start to emphasize capturing the—now you can put this in a little bit of tone here.
To take and capture that reflected light between darks it becomes much brighter. Now that we’re
creating axis as we’re coming through. We can feel.
So, this is really quite different now. In a sense the aesthetics—in fact, we would
be taking and working with tones on the outside, start coming around. We start to build. Now,
it’s almost like a Christmas globe. These are tools. These are elements that we work
with. Let me give you an example now. The core, by the way, also takes and becomes a
means of taking and describing form that’s manipulating form. So if I just take a simple
thing, and I’ve got this straight here, I’ve used this as an example for other purposes
before. But if by taking here we’ve put down two lines. Now, just by manipulating
the core and a little bit of the modeling tone, I can suggest all kinds of things.
In other words, I come through the core, cast shadow. Reflected light. Bringing in the modeling tone. So now, this surface
is implied. Then if I take and carry that a little bit further and just start to pull
in a few lines off of that contour, we’ve transformed what you see and we get a sense
of the light and shadow side by just dropping this into a sort of generic tone. This becomes
the tool that we use. The core, the cast shadow, and we build on using these elements. These
are tools. Also, at the same time we use lines going over the surface to take and describe
forms. We can constantly be taking and working with how these forms manipulate each other.
They expand. Again, it’s using the idea of light source, the elements that we recognize,
we recognize in reality as being core. We see cores. We see good reflected lights, cast
shadows. We can take the elements and reconstitute them to take and create images from our imagination
or take and manipulate the things by pushing things a little bit stronger, making other
things a little bit softer to create a new kind of experience.
One of the things that you need to take and be conscious of, like I said, everything is
based in a sense, really, on observation. You get this inn class a lot. It’s an analogy
that we have in the computer. We have 2D and 3D software. We have 2D and 3D brainware.
These are tools but we have a tremendous amount of knowledge. We recognize things in our head.
We already know this except we haven’t learned how to use it. And so we need to understand
the tools that take and create these experiences, and that will allow us to take and be able
to manipulate the experiences that we’re creating. That’s part of the creative act.
Okay, let’s take and look at some drawings now.
head of the Academy of Venice. He may have actually been the student or teacher of Tiepolo.
Now, if you look at him, he is exemplifying everything we’ve essentially talked about.
When we take and look at the deltoid up there we can see that the shape, very, very conscious
of shape. You can see as he noted in the modeling tone. Comes through, goes down. You can feel
the base down here. You can feel how he’s fitting in. How that gets light. How we feel
the form of the tone that’s coming through here. Also, notice the way he’s working
with the core. The core comes all the way across, goes down. It’s a continuous jumping
to take and show the volume. He’s very, very clear. The core becomes a whole series
of tones, overlapping tones that carry through.
Exactly what I was talking about. We then have the reflected light coming up. Notice
the way he’s taking with the accent under the armpit. The accent within the core and
then the shape of the line. He does a beautiful job of working with these elements. Notice
here in the elbow, the elbow is light and then he is getting a cast shadow essentially
from the reflected light that’s coming in and showing where the condyles would be inside
here. He builds and it’s always very clear overlapping even though we look at this and
we see it as a very definite outside contour. It’s very clear, overlapping forms. One
form fitting into another. Anyway, Piazzetta, this is a good example.
Okay, now we’ve got Rubens. Actually, this one is a drawing of Rubens’ son. Let’s
start with the child first. I’m going to draw over this a little bit. You can see we
have the curvature of the face here as it comes down. You’ve got the core coming down.
Then the strong accent in the cast shadow. This is like a formula. Even the way he’s
working with the tone coming down, and then the strong accent behind the ear, behind the
neck. It’s beautiful and a very, very subtle rendering within the light. You’ll notice
that that’s actually done as the modeling tone. In other words, the cheek goes down.
It gets us a tone. Come up the light as we feel the corner of the mouth go down. We can
see how he’s applying modeling tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow. Then on the
other drawing we can see the idea. The light is, again, like leaving the light, the highlight.
We go into the modeling tone and pick up the highlight. Then as he’s coming, as this
arm turns here, you can see he’s coming in with the core. He’s defining these forms
with the core. The cast shadow going over the surface.
So, you’ll notice that the cast shadow and the core are always to the periphery of the
form. It’s as the form turns away. In other words, if you get just done it a little subtler,
you wouldn’t even have a core, but it would have been done exactly the same way. We can
see on the chin, for instance, the core underneath the chin, goes back, and then he hits the
base of the form. Then he gets the cast shadow, and then the thyroid cartilage, getting the
accent again. This is just really, it’s almost like three lines. You have lines on
the outside and the core on the inside taking and defining the forms. Then you can take
and drop something in shadow. But those are your basic elements that you’re working with.
Okay, let’s try the next drawing. Okay, this is a funny drawing here. It’s almost
like it’s an overworked drawing. It’s sort of what you see now. The idea is exactly
the same. You look at these very round forms, looking at the leg of the right of the figure,
and then the core coming down, coming down the core. Just run down the thigh to give
us a sense of form. Then the cast shadow becomes an accent. You can see the way the core works.
I don’t think of this as a particularly great drawing, but the idea, the way he’s
working with the core coming through, you can see it’s very simple. It’s almost
like the gal in the center there. You look at that core. This is just a big round ball
with a core, reflected light, and cast shadow. These exemplify the overall mechanics of how
we take and describe form. Modeling tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
Look at this drawing now. What you’re going to see is that he has actually come through
and basically drawn this large shape of the torso. This is a big, round volume. Look on
the lefthand side. You can see that harsh line going down. It’s almost as if the arm
had been removed. Then, once you’ve got that, then you can see that he’s taking
and building in with the waist. He’s got the strap going around the waist. We have
this large mass taking and coming through. Now, he’s taking and showing forms here.
They’re not really great anatomical forms, but they do show the volume, and they do show
how he’s taking and working with the core, cast shadow, and reflected light. It’s rather
aggressive in the way he’s approached it. Anatomically, it’s probably not very close.
Aesthetically it’s really sort of nice. Nice, strong shapes. Working with the core
coming through. The way he’s working with the drapery pulling through in between the
buttocks coming around.
You can see that the sense here as the surface turns away it goes into tone. Every which
way, as he’s come down, this is just a big bowl that’s rendered coming down with subtle
tones. As things stick out he will take and come through and start building up. He’s
using a strong accent and really taking and building these volumes up. It looks really
anatomical, like a comic book. Yet, it’s not very anatomically correct. It suggests
the anatomy. So, using that core and cast shadow coming through, and the large, strong
shapes of things, with little hints of anatomy here and there that’s taking and carrying
the thing through. I have a feeling about the spine, but it’s more than just you sense
the overall total, and that’s where Rubens is so good. He takes and he gives us a sense
of a very solid, big form. It comes off very believable.
Here you have a very workman-like approach to the form. He hits the light in the center.
Then as the surface turns away he goes down into tone. You can see the next step is a
series of steps as the form turns away. The paper itself is part of the tone. To build
the white he goes into halftone which is the paper, and then we go down. So you can feel
it stepping down. On the edge he’s taking and working with the core. Notice how clearly
he separates forms. One of the thing that gives a sense of realism is the subtleties
of tone. We get a lot of very, very subtle tones, really sharp, soft edges. Notice the
way he’s working with the cast shadow off the arm, going over the surface of these forms.
The core coming down, cast shadow. There is a constant stepping down. Then the core becomes
on the outside limits of the form that give us the impression that we’re taking and
having a really strong direct light. But the rendering is essentially still a modeling
tone with the addition of the core and the cast shadow. It’s less fussy. It’s much
more direct and bold in its approach.
the gesture. I’m going to keep this fairly simple. I still start out very, very light.
I feel the flow, feeling the action. The gesture as I’m drawing it becomes the key to what
I want to use the core, reflected light and cast shadow to do. As I’m coming through
and drawing and feeling this flow within the drawing here. Now, the movement coming through,
this becomes my, in a sense, I don’t want to say blueprint, but it’s the idea behind
what I take and use the elements for. I’m just feeling the flow. It’s going up. Now,
it’s going to come through. I want to take and I’m just hitting points to begin with.
I’m not taking and drawing line shapes. I want to take and just feel the pull. Feel
the neck twisting. The shoulder is taking and coming forward away from us. Feel the
wrapping around. As I’m doing this, I’m very, very conscious of the overall volumes.
In a sense I’m still drawing the rib cage. I’m always drawing anatomy. I’m feeling
the volume inside. As I’m doing this I’m seeing the whole thing coming through. I want
to feel the pull. She’s obviously twisting. Feel the spine. I’m drawing the line, the
rhythmical line coming down through here. The spine itself is not very rhythmical at
that point. It’s really taking and doing this. But the flow is coming across. Now,
as I pick up and think of where the pelvis is, coming through, sacrum. You’re really
stretched out. Coming across. Now, as in the last lesson, I have no compulsion about changing
what I see in the light. Directions, shapes. The model is not particularly important. I
want to take and communicate the sense of the movement through the way I arrange the
shapes and lines and tone. I’m controlling how the viewer is going to experience that.
I’m feeling that shoulder coming out. At this point, I’m pretty much getting her
blocked in. Coming through. One thing I’m going to take and change here right away is
that we can see that this arm is taking and coming through. But we don’t see it. I get
a little hint of a finger down here. I’ll take and move this and pull the other arm
across so that we can actually see the movement now as I’m creating, making you feel more of that.
Now, first I’m just going to take and will put the core and using the core to take and
help the action. I’m taking and giving a light source coming down. I’m thinking now
of this, I’m recreating. I’m pulling. The core now is taking and accentuating that
flow of the movement. This is coming through, and then I’ll take and hit the base of the
spine coming through. By drawing that line as dark as I did, I’ve actually created
the reflected light. Now, I’m going to take and come through there. This is not so obvious
when we look at the model. Come through. Using the cast shadow and then picking up the core.
This is continuing this flow. Now we can take and pick up, coming through. Now the movement
coming across. Flow. Here, again, I’ll take and create which is, again, not quite so obvious
on the model. I’m using the cast shadow going across. This is something I didn’t
talk about very much in terms of the lecture there, but the difference between the core
and the cast shadow is that the cast shadow is sharp. The core always has a transition
from the light, where there is no transition when you’re dealing with the cast shadow.
Now as I come across now we have the transition into the core, and I’m picking up and I’m
purposefully now separating the tone here so we can get a turn, that coming through,
and then pick up.
So now we’ve created a pattern of a rhythm through. So you can see this whole flow of
movement going across, and we’re building this up. Now as I carry that up farther as
I start to push this up, now we can take and use the lines here that’s created with the
scapula going back and the twisting of the neck. I create another bit of a pattern, and
then we have the cast shadow of the head going over that surface. Now the core then blends
into, or the cast shadow blends into the core. Now you can see the really abstract element
of what’s being created. This comes through, and then I would take and actually add the
spine, the line of the spine as part of this. So now we’re taking and—pattern, pull
from here. Through. Scapula area. You can feel this progression of movement. Here I’ll
take and use that cast shadow. Going across. Over the surface. Coming up feeling the scapula
lifting up. Going in. This now becomes the basic elements now. We can feel the twisting.
I take and come along and use the core alongside of the head. Use that wrap on the hair. I
like that. That becomes a useful element. Take and feel that flow. Even maybe take and
carry it a little bit further. We can feel that movement coming through.
Now we’ve taken and dealt with just one or two elements. We’ve got the core and
the cast shadow. Of course, I can take and here I’ll add the cast shadow going over
the other leg back here. Again, that helps to show the volume. The next element in here
we’re taking and using the—just take a second here. As I go through and create a
simple example here. We have this shape. This is like a step, sort of a soft step. We have
the light, say coming from up here. I would take the core. This is coming through here
and down the side. Then we have the cast shadow. Now, drop all of this into shadow here. We
have the core that would be coming across here. The difference here is the sharp edge,
soft edge as we come down. Of course, we would have a cast shadow going through here.
We actually end up with the reflected light coming through. We find that the filling in so that
the cast shadow, and the reflected light is taking and defining the change in the direction
of this surface here.
As I’m come through here, I’m using a cast shadow, but it really ends up being almost
like the cast shadow from the reflected light. In other words, if I take in this shape here,
if I come in and add another form down here that’s totally in shadow, that the reflected
light, and this being in the shadow here, the reflected light casts the shadow in here.
So now this is being completely in shadow. The core would come through in here. You have
the core coming down along the side here coming through. Now as we come through and I’m
defining now we have this buttocks that’s going down. I’m taking and using the tone
from the reflected light. It’s taking and helping to define that surface.
So now you are seeing the surface going down, going through, and then I’m constantly visualizing
the light as it’s going back up and pushing the surfaces that are turned away. Now this
is taking and defining these forms. All of this, of course, is in shadow now. At this
point now, I’ve been taking and using this now. Again, the elements reflected light coming
through and helping to define this. Coming around. I would take and help that reflected
light by hitting accent underneath here of the cast shadow. I can take and make this
seem more brilliant by pushing the core, getting in there, feeling the accent, creating a stronger
pull. These are the basic elements as we’re taking and doing the drawing now. Then I use
the outside contour as an extra something else. Now I’ve got this movement that I
started, so now I’ll come through and I’ll start to pick up lines that we’re now going
to take and help to emphasize this basic movement. This becomes like an accent in the thing,
but also the line itself now becomes a total accent that we’re taking and playing with.
Carefully I will take and I will vary that line, and I’ll come through. The line, the
tones, as I’m doing this drawing I treat the tones and the accents that are created
in here as part of the thing—now, for instance, now you can see this line here. Notice that
what we were trying to do was to get this moving over to here. Now I’ll come through,
and I will pick up the line. This is actually an important point here. This line is going
to come in front of—it’s being caught by this coming through. Now your eye is being
moved, although I’m making you experience this movement through.
I’m going to take and as I’m doing this, to help that movement go, we’re going to
feeling the pinch. Give a little bit of indication of breasts. So, as I’ve been drawing this
drawing, I’ve shown very little rendering outside of using the core, cast shadow, reflected
light as means of taking and describing the form with no particular rendering within the
light itself. It’s very minimal at this point, and I’m purposely not taking and
doing a lot of the modeling tone. I’m trying to separate the elements that we’re working
with so we can see the effect that you can create with just the pieces, the tools that
we’ve been discussing. That’s the essence of that part of the thing.
Let’s take and do another drawing now.
just doing a fragment of the figure so I can really focus on what I’m doing here. The
idea is you can see what I’m doing. This is really the drawing and the rhythm. Feeling
the flow. This is really an abstract element in the drawing. I approach the drawing as
really a movement of abstraction, but at the same time in the larger context I use a lot
of the subjective elements in play in terms of the composition. Let’s just take and
feel the flow, how this goes. You can see how really the gestural lines are taking and
really making your eye move, and the fact that I’m not really drawing the shapes of
the contour and stuff. I’m really just taking and focusing on the big flow of how the figure
goes. I get the comment a lot, it’s sort of a hallmark of my drawing, it’s that there
is a lot of movement to it. But that’s calculated. It has movement because I put movement into it.
That’s the subject, in a sense. The subject is the movement that I’m creating.
It’s a little different than just the shape idea. It’s the movement that is my subject,
so coming through, feeling the flow, and then we can take and you can see there is a stretching
on one side and a compressing on the other. In doing that, I’m really thinking this
is pushing up. The elements are pushing against each other. The pelvis is going up. We can
feel the compression of the external oblique that comes in. We can feel the pull. We can
feel all of these elements are compressing one against the other, and so it’s a structure.
Feel the rib cage underneath. Picking up the latissimus, seeing the large shapes of the
scapula and the serratus anterior, trapezius. These shapes are the raw material that I use
to take and be able to manipulate. This is the beginning now. I’m coming across, over.
The arm is coming back, so I think that this is a cylinder coming back. We can feel the
scapula building on top, coming through. Forms dropping down inside. Feel the stretching
as we come through the rib cage coming across. So now that we’ve got this general sense
of the movement now I want to take and reinforce that movement with how I apply the core, reflected
light, cast shadow. That becomes the next element.
For instance, even here the leg you will notice on the model is pretty vertical. I’m changing
that. I’ve turned the leg in. It creates probably an imbalance, but that imbalance
takes and creates a sense of movement. So, adjusted it’s already moving more as I come
through. Now I’m going to pick how I take and work with this. I come through. To start
with the spine is the obvious element here. Come through. As the spine goes through here,
this comes across.
Now, I want to expand on that line. I want to amplify that line. What I have right now
is this. But I want you to really experience something more like that. What I take then
as I come around I’m taking the cast shadow sharp line, and I’m using what’s there.
I’m taking this line and pulling through. As we are expanding over into here, that becomes
a cast shadow, and I’m making it stronger than it is. Coming through this. Then we come
back in here. I’ve just created in a sense that line, and I will carry that and make
it even stronger by starting to emphasize things over here. So, as I come through now
we can see the core. I’m pulling that line across, coming underneath, through.
Creating some cast shadows here. That’s really rather complex. Maybe too complex.
But as I start to pull this form up, and I can start to try to orchestrate some of the
other stuff going up. I think I will take and wrap this tone coming around. So now we
take and use the core coming through. That’s really sort of a grotesque shape at the moment.
Let’s take and see if we can unwind it a little bit. In other words, I want to keep
the eye moving. At this point it’s not moving. It’s all right here. To keep that moving
I need to extend the eye through. We’re picking up this so I’m going to go beyond
this and start to manipulate the forms over here to take and go along with this.
This way I will take and pick up the rib cage, and I’m forcing this also, pushing this
stronger. Through. Since we are working from a photograph, it’s appropriate to take and
comment here how you have to keep in mind now that you use the photograph, as my wife
would say, don’t let the photograph use you. You’re taking and building on, it’s
a tool, it’s a resource, but it’s not meant to be copied. It’s meant to be used.
Here I’m using the cast shadow to go over the buttocks here. Notice I’m really manipulating
the sharpness of that. Then I come in through the core. Now, as I’m developing these forms
you can see that this area that is way too complex, and I will take and subdue it a little
bit. It’s taking and being subordinated now to the whole. So, we can feel all of this
now taking and building. Through. I’m using the core. I do it as sort of a—in approaching
drawing this way, which I don’t always draw this way. I’m doing this specifically for
this lesson. It’s the type of thing I did for many, many years, but I used to sort of
jokingly refer to it as lightning bolts. What it is, I do a lot of cross-hatching where
I’m taking and building lines up by taking and doing this to create. It’s a pretty
academic process, but the lightning bolt is sort of a shorthand way of accomplishing the
same thing. If I was drawing on a larger scale it would be a little bit more obvious. Come
through. Now, I’m taking and using the tone. I’m coming around. I’m turning the corner,
and then I’m going to create a cast shadow in here.
Now I’m wrapping all of this movement around. Through. Since I pulled that leg back, now
I can take and, coming through I’ll pull this from behind. Come through. Now you can
see, so the movement here is becoming even more than what we see in the model, which
got a strong movement. It’s not incredibly rhythmical, but the compression is there.
Now I’m going to take and even making this compression stronger by taking and come through
here. I’m using a form going underneath and pushing this tone now is creating reflected
light so we can see the change in the direction. By the way, I’m working with that shadow
there. So, then as this comes down we can actually then use the tendons of the biceps
of the femur here. Coming through. Cast shadow. Feel the roundness of the inside of the knee.
Then we would feel the gastrocnemius coming in from there. Through.
At this point, it almost becomes a parody of a Renaissance type of Baroque movement.
Feel the pull. Out here this leg is coming back, but it’s forcing up against this.
What I’m doing is coming through. We want to feel, this is fitting in. We can feel the
pull, and this would be the tensor coming across, and we feel this is fitting in. Now
I’m taking and changing a bit what I see there and throwing this into tone and leaving
the reflected light to show that side of the buttocks. If we were take and add a bit of
something in there, and now we can feel this is coming down, fitting in. We pull from behind.
Here this is coming back, and this other leg is coming back up here. Then I would take
and cast a shadow, which obviously, as you can see in the photograph doesn’t exist.
Feel the turn, side, and let this sort of fade off.
Now, let’s go back up here and we need to feel where the pelvis is. Come through. We’ve
got a feeling of a bit of the stomach behind, the external oblique pulling. It started with
the rib cage up here, really pushing that. Now along the field this is coming down, the
idea that there is weight, that this is pulling around. Come through. That may be a bit much
there. I need to feel more. I overdid that. Modifying that to get it to pull through a
bit more. I’ve actually stretched this out a bit. I can feel the underside. This is dropping down in.
This right here, the shapes, this shape to that shape do equal, so I need to
modify this so I can break that up. I’m thinking of the trapezius as it comes back
from behind in here. Coming off of the scapula. I want to take and shift this line, and I
want it to come through and create a cast shadow. Coming across.
Now, I changed all of that just by working with the elements there a little bit. That
arm as it comes back we’d take and we’d go across and over that surface. Here I would
use the cast shadow underneath. Coming through and we have to add. The latissimus would be
pulling up and pecs behind. And we go over. Now, if you hadn’t watched me do it, you
would think that it was done a little bit more looser and freer, but you can see even
though I’m talking gesture and movement, I’m really quite deliberate about what I’m
doing, except my goal in the drawing is to communicate the gesture, the movement, and
I’m using the tools that we have and that we’ve been discussing to take and communicate.
Now, here I’m going to pull that from underneath. I come through. We can feel the latissimus
taking and coming down. It has more of a belly into it. Long head of the triceps. The deltoid
coming down and fitting in. Now, this is the tricky part here, to take and feel the way
the trapezius is taking and pulling off the base of the skull and coming around, and it’s
going back. Right here. Notice what I’m doing. I have a very subtle sense of a line
there. I’ll take and I will vary the line. This is really, this is the hard part, taking
and knowing when to put an accent, how to take and control the lines as you’re working.
Through again. Now it’s the overlap here of the trapezius. Through. This now is taking
and coming from the scapula, coming across. Going over that surface. I go out of my way
now to take and I need to come back into this, and this is pulling up. I came down too fast
here. I want this to feel the compression there. Down. This straight, this end of the
scapula. Pull. Then we get the deltoid as taking and coming all the way back up in here.
This is crossing over. That continues this sort of flow and movement. Those two are too
much the same. I would take and…
There I’m using the modeling tone and going over the surface and feeling those forms fitting
in. I manipulate the tones and lines, the tools that we have to take and create the
experience. Now, I want to come through and I want to feel. Now I’m using very fine
lines that’ll give a sense of subtlety, but it’s also taking and giving me a little
bit more basic control. Accents. Coming around. Through. Now I’m going to give this guy
a little bit more hair. It’s awfully easy to overdraw sometimes. I want to take and
be careful. If I can suggest without having to actually do something, that’s much more effective.
Cast shadow. Pulling in the core.
I think we’ll leave that as is. Maybe we need to
pull back and feel a little more compression. Coming through. Now I’m taking advantage
of the information that the photograph is giving me.
Okay, now we can push here.
I want to feel...
light. Now I want you to take and do a drawing. Again, I just want you to do a fragment. This is a back view.
We’re focusing on the pelvis area and moving into the waist and going up. Don’t try to do the whole thing.
At the same time, block in very, very simply the gesture, and build the form, and then apply the direct light.
Don’t be afraid to change it. You’re not copying.
You’re taking and working with the direct light to take and create an experience.
it, how I take and work at adding cast shadows, moving the light. I don’t copy the light
that I see. Again, I suggest you taking and doing it again, you don’t have to copy it
the way I did it. You can take and re-manipulate it and create your own versions of the way
the light goes. You should be able to eventually make the light come from anywhere you want to.
Okay, let’s see what happens.
We’re talking about direct light. As I’m going through the model, again, I’m drawing
a fragment of the thing. I want to focus first, as always, even if I’m doing just a fragment
of something, I try to take—a fragment is always affected by the rest of the figure.
It’s not—we may be talking about a fragment, but it’s never in isolation. We feel the
volume going over the shoulder. Again, I’m going to be working with direct light. I’m
going to be focusing on the waist, pelvic area. It’s easiest to take and understand
volumes because you’re already starting very round. As I’m doing this I’m already
thinking, okay, she has a strong twist coming through. Volume is going back in. Using the
cylinder. Going back. Leg going back in. As you are doing the drawing, you should have
been taking and going through all of the things that we’ve talked about, gesture, sphere,
the cylinder. These are all elements that are required to really understand. Remember,
these tools, and that’s what they are. They’re tools. There are no rules. These are tools
that we use to take and describe form. That’s what we’re doing. We’re describing form.
We’re using light to do it.
Now, I come through here. We started out with the idea of a sphere, and I’m thinking of
the cylinder going back. And so all of these fragments now, now, when I’m talking about
a light source, let’s say we’ve got a light source coming from up here. General
in a sense it’s the way the light is on the model. But again, I don’t copy that.
I can use it, it’s actually very nice the way it shows the gesture really well. I will
take and use it. But we have a light source as the light going and pushing the sides back.
We also use the modeling tone within the light. Let’s take and—we have the cylinder, spherical
form, coming down, and it’s fitting. Look at the model. You can see a line here where
it’s fitting in. You can see how that’s just a fragment of a sphere and cylinder.
This whole section here is a rather very soft cylinder that is taking and coming around
the form and is fitting on top of this large spherical form. As I work I’m taking and
thinking of using the core, the reflected light, and cast shadow. At this point there
is not a lot of cast shadow in here, but I can take and create shadow. In other words,
I want to use the idea of the core to take and show the action more clearly.
Now I’m taking and feeling starting out with, I’m pushing this thing down. You can
see how this is pulling right into the gesture of the rhythm. This is building up. Coming
across that surface. I’m using the sections of a cylinder in my cross-hatch as I’m coming
through. I’m visualizing this as a form that is complete as it comes down. In other
words, drawing over, I’m coming down to where the spine is here. In doing that, then
I can see that I can emphasize this gesture even more by taking and using the cast shadow.
I’m going to take and come up, picking up this core, coming through. Now, I’m drawing
this sort of in fragmentary terms here since I’m really dealing in detail, but I want
to make it clear exactly what I’m thinking now as I’m doing it. We can feel the surface.
The modeling tone is turning away also at the same time. As I was saying, you use the
modeling tone and the direct light at the same time. So as we’ve got this surface,
this comes down. We can see that there is this compression taking place right here.
Really compressing, but that’s really far away. That’s the farthest thing away of
that pelvis, and the natural tendency is to try to make that line the most important and
strongest. Well, it’s important but it’s not as critical as the points that are out
here that are working with this rhythm, so I want to push modeling tone pushing this
back. The modeling tone is pushing this back in this direction. So, I’m combining modeling
tone and the direct light.
Now, as I come back into here I’m going to take and create even more tone than I see.
I’m going to drop whole sections of this into shadow so I can use this coming across
and pushing the core. I’m going to take and drop the cast shadow coming through. As
this cast shadow creates a strong accent, now you can feel the reflected light coming
through. Now I’m taking this cast shadow coming through. As I’m looking a this thing
now, I’m going to take and pull the core around a little bit farther on the buttocks.
So, I’m coming around, I’m modifying what it is that I see. I’m going to take and
invent maybe a little bit of a cast shadow in here. We feel this coming through. Now,
all of this would then be in shadow. Okay, so now as you can see, we can pick up, then
the core coming along the side. This is continuing. This is continuing the movement now. We’re
building this surface. Then come through. All of this now is going to be in shadow.
Now, you can see we’re getting some fairly interesting shapes. Coming through. Since
I moved that light around so far, we’re not going to have any core or light on the
other buttocks. You want to feel the compression coming through. The idea is that as I’m
rendering this and I’ve changed the light source, coming around while using the modeling
tone, coming through, this would pull into just the modeling tone. We can feel the surface
going back, going over that surface.
The reflected light is—you have two light sources; one coming down and one coming up.
You’ve got your reflected light. Now I define because this—remember now, we’re analyzing
these surfaces as we’re drawing. This surface is as this comes down to the corner. This
is a round surface. The light is bouncing off of this surface and creating a shadow
here that is now defining that surface. So, now I’m taking and using the light coming
back up, creating a shadow that is now taking and helping to take and define these forms.
Now we’ve got reflected light. We’ve got a direct light. Now we’ve moved completely
away from the light source that you’re actually seeing. So, as these forms filled in this
is really a creative use of the tools to take and create a look that is different. We want
to take and give really the strong sense of a light. Then we take and we work with the
accents that we come through. So now I’ve got this cast shadow. Maybe it’s not a good
thing. That would probably be a core.
Now I’m going to come in and hit the accent from here. That’ll take and play with an
accent that’s coming through, emphasizing the core. I’ll come in and I’ll push the
darker tone in here with the dimple. We can really feel it going down and coming over
that surface, pushing through. Now I’m dramatically adjusting all of the elements that are taking
and playing, so I would take and then use a cast shadow. Come through. As well as working
with the modeling tone, forms are turning away. Going over.
You’re manipulating tools to create an experience. You can see now that this is very, very different
now, and I have totally changed the sense of what you see. When I would push these things
even more, the more contrast I’d create, the stronger you get or the feeling for the
light source becomes.
So often the student, they’re already quite surprised a lot of times. The beginners particularly.
You can make the light come from anywhere you want it to come from. You can invent.
So now I’m going to come back into the leg up here, and I’m focusing on how the form
overlaps. Now I’m taking and working with the modeling tone. These forms will be going
over the surface, pushing it back. You have to be careful that what you do with the modeling
does not get confused with what’s in the shadow, so you have a clear, distinct difference
between a modeling tone, core, reflected light, cast shadow.
Each of these elements, then, has a unique character to it and purpose. The cast shadow
can do several things. In other words, I can take and if I assume, let’s say we have
a shadow being cast on the figure, that cast shadow would then be taking and functions
as a way of taking and describing the surface. In other words, I could be dropping this all
in shadow. It creates a new pattern of light and dark shapes, but it also takes and helps
to take and define the shape. I look at that and say, well, that’s too much the same
as that, so then I would help them modify this. Take and come through. And I would be
working then in the shadows, the reflected light to start to take and define those forms.
Everything is a tool that allows you to take and manipulate form and to do what you need
to do to make things understandable, so you take and work to create the image that you
want to create. It’s all conceptual. This is the part that I’m very different from
your academic. I approach a drawing from a conceptual point of view rather than copying
the model. It’s an analytical, conceptual construction. Okay, so compare what I’ve
done and how I’ve approached this with what you’ve done. Maybe I would suggest that
you take and redo the drawing and to understand a little bit more clearly about what I’ve
done and how that varies already from what you have done.
Now that you’ve gone through the whole thing of direct lighting, and you can see the relationship
between direct lighting and the modeling tone, the next lesson is going to be atmospheric.
I refer to it as atmospheric perspective. It’s a continuation of all of the things
we’ve talked about. In a sense it takes and brings together all of the lessons, and
so this has been a really important lesson, but again, it’s just a step. The next step
is adding to the sense of mystery that we find in working with atmosphere.