- Lesson details
Master Instructor Glenn Vilppu demonstrates his cross hatching technique. You’ll learn to manipulate the direction, length, and density of your marks to describe form and shadow in functional and visually pleasing ways. Glenn uses two photo references, both available on this page so that you can follow along with Glenn as you try cross hatching!
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine
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This session is all about taking and doing cross-hatching, a very,
very traditional approach to drawing.
I didn’t learn this in school.
I learned it on my own.
It’s a meticulous, careful way to take and approach analyzing the figure.
These are a couple of drawings that will probably take a lot of time going slow, being very
careful and observing.
So, let’s get started.
I originally took and started developing my approach to doing cross-hatching as a means
of taking and slowing down.
It’s not something I was taught in school.
Let’s take and block in a little bit of a figure here, and then we’ll take and break
it down a little bit more.
Now, of course, no matter what I do, the primary thing to start with is
just capturing the gesture.
This is a point that I keep bringing up.
In the beginning, I am more concerned with creating the feeling in the drawing rather
than being incredibly accurate in terms of a thing.
I don’t really measure.
I take and—my pencil is really on the model, and I’m taking and feeling versus…I want
to lead the eye across the figure.
And so cross-hatching is a basic tool.
Like is said, I started developing it for myself in the early 70s.
I did it as a means of taking and slowing myself down.
I would take and draw very, very quickly and fast.
I guess quickly is fast.
It tended to be too facile looking, which always bothered me.
So now you can see what I’m doing.
As I’m doing this I’m going through, and I’m slowly starting to build the figure.
You might say sort of constructing the figure.
In fact, my whole approach to drawing could be sort of categorized as an analytical construction.
That’s where the cross-hatching comes into play.
I’m taking it and using it as a way to take and analyze more carefully the forms that
Let’s just take and talk a little bit about how this cross-hatching works.
Cross-hatching is essentially a series, in its most fundamental terms, is a series of
There are many, many ways that you can do this.
You can take—some artists traditionally have done it as, like a square pattern.
Personally, I don’t care for that.
It has that sort of rigidity to it.
Also, you’ll notice that if I want to change the value of something, this is—okay, I’ve
drawn fairly light here.
If I want to make this whole thing darker I just take and go over that with a series
of parallel lines that will start lowering the value.
The more times I go over that, the darker it’s going to take and be.
So, you’re basically building up tone with just going over the surface.
In other words, I made those tones there.
Now, if I come in and do something like that, you can see that the line I just put down
is still perfectly clear.
In fact, I can take and go back over this again, and I would take and do another series
of lines going over the surface.
You’re still not going to take and lose that first, that tone, that line that I put down.
What happens is, as long as you maintain a certain consistency with your lines, it will
take and read spherically as tone.
That’s one of the primary elements.
That’s one basic part.
The other part of it is used cross-hatching is a means of describing form.
In other words, if I start to take and do this, now you are feeling a curved surface.
If I come around it’s alright to do this.
Each time I’m building up tone, but we’re also at the same time taking and describing
this round form.
If I come through now and have a contour here, I can take and emphasize that ever more by
creating a core that I’m building up.
Then I can take and drop this whole section into tone by doing this.
What we have now is two distinct attitudes for taking and using cross-hatching.
One, it’s just to make a flat tone.
This is a very, very traditional academic type of thing.
Also, that gets combined—you combine these and it’s traditional.
Different artists over time have used different ways of approaching it.
Like I said, I started out approaching using the cross-hatching as a means of taking and
analyzing the form.
As I build up the drawing now—first of all, you have to be conscious of the fact I’m
not drawing a contour and then filling it in.
This is a very different approach.
It’s also different than the sort of standard academy type of thing, where I’m not doing
it to copy the tones that I see.
I’m doing it strictly as a means of taking and describing the form.
But I will, at the same time, give a sense of light to it.
Okay, so I’m starting out and I’m just taking the nice round forms that we have here,
and let’s just take and carry this a little bit farther because I’m thinking of the
gesture looking at the—I’m drawing, I’m analyzing, looking at the rib cage, where
the rib cage comes through.
Feeling that volume of the rib cage.
I approach drawing pretty much as a sequence of a drawing volumes.
It’s three-dimensional drawing.
That doesn’t mean that we don’t deal with the 2-D. As we develop this you’ll see I’ll
take and start to really push some of the shape elements in it.
Different artists—when I was sort of teaching myself how to do cross-hatching, I did actually
do some copies of different artists, artists that I—they were some of the Michelangelo
drawings from Greek sculpture that I copied.
The Rubens drawings.
Ruben did a whole series of drawings from the Laocoon, the sculpture that was discovered
in a farmer’s field in Rome at the time of Michelangelo.
Michelangelo, in fact, took and did a repair job on it by adding an arm to it.
So, this was the flow so I keep going through.
Now what I’m going to do is start with the obvious areas here.
You use cross-hatching in both the light and the shadow side.
It’s all a matter of controlling values.
In other words, I’m coming through.
I want to take and think, just take and just thinking is just a round form.
As I’m doing this now, we’re going down to the sacrum here.
I’m pushing down.
Notice how light that is.
I’m barely, barely putting any lead down.
I can feel the surface.
I’m actually just going over the surface, analyzing where it’s going down.
As that surface turns and we go back away.
I do both.
I’m not against doing a line, tone that way, but if I want a fine line I go with the
direction of the pencil.
You’ll find my arm will be constantly rotating as I go around the form.
I don’t—my fingers don’t move.
It’s all arm movement.
In fact, I hold the pencil very, very lightly.
On occasion I’ve dropped it.
In other words, I’m just going over the surface just like I was doing with the ball.
I start out very lightly and I’ll slowly take and build the forms.
All of this is dropping down.
I’m taking and going over that surface, pushing it down.
You’re already getting a sense of volume in here.
I’m coming out across.
Right away I don’t take and start being concerned particularly with the light source.
I’m using cross-hatching wise, I’m using basically the modeling tone.
I’m going through.
Going over the surface carefully taking and feeling.
Most of these lines you’ll see are really parallel to each other.
As I’m going over the surface it will progressively, I will go back over and progressively take
and get darker.
Like I said, I originally started doing this to take and help me analyze form a bit more.
They made me slow down.
So here, for instance, I’m taking in the sacrospinalis, taking and coming through.
I feel the surface turn down.
I’m going to go over, make them feel the pull of the form here now.
You can see there is a point here where the gluteus takes in and is coming off the sacrum.
Now I’m taking and picking, push the line just as well as pulling it.
Now I’m creating this really subtle tone in here, and as I develop the drawing it’ll
even seem subtler because I’ll be putting stronger darks in as I develop the drawing.
Now, I want to keep focusing at the same time with the basic gesture.
We feel this movement going up.
I want to get through here.
Here is where I take and use the anatomy.
The anatomy is taking and helping to take and make that gesture go.
You can feel the pull now.
We can feel the muscles pulling up.
It’s very subtle play in here.
I’m taking and feeling and going over.
But now we’re starting to build this drawing up.
As I’m doing this now I can see—and this is the whole point of it.
I want to feel this surface here going back down and over.
From here I can feel the external oblique taking and picking up.
Maybe a little bit further over.
Now, here, right at this point, as I look at the model, I can see that there is a real
subtle overlapping here.
We can feel this going behind.
If you’re rushing through drawing you’re not going to see that.
That’s part of why I originally took and started working with the cross-hatch, so that
I could actually see and deal with these subtle elements at play.
The next fold here is really part of a cylinder as it wraps around that form.
You’re taking and talking now about elements that—and even here I would take and come
in and say, okay, notice now I’ve shifted my hand.
But as I’m holding the pencil it’s still not taking, it’s not my fingers so much;
it’s still my arm.
I come through.
I’m going to feel the pull, feel this overlapping.
This form now has a corner coming through.
I’m trying to do this, I’m thinking of the context as I develop the drawing.
These forms are building up.
This is going up with the gesture.
Maybe I need to take and even make this thing go a bit farther.
I’ll take and come back in, and as I’m doing this I’ll take and keep focusing on
Maybe I’ll put a bit more of a line here.
We’re feeling this flow.
It’s the conscious effort to keep focused on the total.
Cross-hatching, I’m not afraid of using tone at the same time.
We want to get into where the spine is in here.
This is all part of now, you can see how this is all going with the action, with the gesture
And all of these forms are just dropping down.
We’re creating now, and I haven’t really dealt at all with the idea of the direct light.
I’m just thinking of forms, thinking of how the surface—now, in here, the spine
in here is actually facing me.
If I’m talking about the modeling tone that this area right here, that’s facing me.
The surface here of the sacrospinalis then takes and turns down so I’m going down to
It pulls up the rather broad form here now as this pulls up.
I can go back into this, and I can adjust these things.
That’s the beauty of working with the crosshatch now.
I’m thinking, okay, here where the scapula is at, I can take and start with some rather
broad tones now, taking and knowing that I can adjust these things as I’m doing the drawing.
You can feel the flow moving through the form.
In other words, the gesture is the composition.
And so if you focus in thinking in a painting, if you were doing a composition, and then
your painting has to correspond to that composition.
Well, the gesture of the drawing is in a sense the composition.
Now as I’m doing this I will take and come up, and I start to push
this line going through here.
Now the eye is moving.
That’s taking and pushing on and making the whole idea of the gesture go as I’m
working with the cross-hatch.
Now, as I look at this I can say, well, alright, I’ve got this.
I want to feel the pelvis now.
It’s taking now and coming across.
I’m pushing a little bit stronger.
I’m going to take and as I’m going from here I can pick up the other side here now.
I’m pushing this.
I’m thinking of the line now.
I’m going over the surface.
Forms going back.
As I look here, I can see that this whole shape is fitting in.
Now, I didn’t really, I wasn’t catching that the first time around.
Again, this is where I’m taking and saying okay, by drawing so slow and focusing on developing
the form, I’m seeing things that I didn’t necessarily see before.
See, so coming around, now I can look at that and I say, whoa,
this is really coming out now.
It’s sort of like you’re getting to focus on what’s going on.
It’s coming through.
Here this now, as that leg is coming back, I’m seeing more clearly that we actually
get an extra bit of compression.
This is pushing up, and there is actually an overlapping.
These forms are coming down, and this is pulling over that, and we’re coming through.
I would emphasize the idea of the compression a bit more in here.
Here the form is going underneath in here.
Now, that’s a very subtle observation at this point.
So now I come back in and I start to pull the tone now.
In here, this is actually going in.
Maybe this needs to be a little squarer here.
We can feel now that these forms now are going in.
I’m building and we get the thigh now as coming out from behind.
All of this is turning and going away.
As I do this, I need to adjust the size, and I’ll be taking and going over that surface.
Now, when I’m going over the surface like that, and I start to, and I’m looking at
the model, the tone that I’m using, this is like just a fragment of a cylinder.
But as I do that, and I look at the cast shadow, I can see that eventually I’m going to take
and probably use the cast shadow to help follow those same lines.
Now I’m going through.
Oh, now we take to the other side here.
We can see that this, the more I look, this is coming in.
All of this form here now.
This is coming through.
This is your gluteus and it’s pulling off.
It starts up here at the sacrum.
These forms now are going down and around.
Again, we get, and in here I’ll push a little bit.
This is actually, as I’m coming around there, I’m going to take and see where I can actually
create a little bit more of a folding.
That very subtle, right there.
That kind of an observation makes a difference if giving us the very, very subtle sense of
In other words, even in here as this comes around, I’ll take and add another.
And so now I can start to see that this is taking and coming across.
Now, one of the things when I introduce cross-hatching in a classroom situation, and we start doing
like what I’m doing now, the student generally doesn’t have the patient.
They start doing this and they say, oh, that’s going to take forever to do the drawing.
Well, it may.
The point of the drawing is not how little time it takes to do it.
It’s doing the drawing.
As I work with these forms, now I’m slowly pushing this stuff.
This is really actually getting a lot of roundness in there.
It’s still feeling fairly flat to me.
That’s a value thing.
So now, look at how the form fits in here.
I can see that we’ve got, pull the tone through here.
This whole surface now is taking and going down.
We can feel there is a stretching across here.
There is actually a sense of a corner here.
I would take now and push that.
Well, you can see the biproduct of pushing the tone here as it’s turning the corner.
It ends up creating a sense of a core.
I’m just focusing on the corner of the form as I’m doing the drawing.
By not carrying that tone really far, we get the appearance of a reflected light.
Again, in doing this, we can see that I’m not taking and trying to copy the tones, I’m
really focusing on the form.
As I’m doing this, for a demonstration here I’m really taking and focusing on this area.
We’ll take and carry this up farther, but I want to take and, so we can sense, okay,
this is pushing up.
We can feel, I want to feel this shape of this form here.
We can feel this coming across.
So, now, some of the tones that I had that may have appeared dark in the light are starting
to take and recede because of this basic contrast as I go through.
So, before we go into it, I want to take now and carry this up into the shoulder area.
We start to pull across.
Feeling the movement as we go through form here now.
We started out here with the compression, feeling this real pinching.
As I’m doing this, I’m thinking how the scapula is really pushing out.
Really, the form is a big compression that is taking place at that point.
As I’m doing this you can see I’m blocking in.
These are planes now.
As that is pushing up there is a big plane that’s coming in, and this is now fitting
into—we can feel that there is a surface though in here.
Maybe if I start to, as I’m doing this I might take now and we’ve got this coming
around this way, so I’m actually going to take and adjust this shape a bit, building
up and cross-hatching.
But as this other one is coming down, I want to take and actually use a bit of a cast shadow.
Now that cast shadow becomes a tool for going over that surface.
And coming through, we can feel the core, or just as the form turns away we can start
to feel this is now all, this is building up down into the center where the sacrum is
and the spine.
This will adjust now as I go through here.
I want to feel that shoulder blade sticking out.
This is taking and pushing—now I’m thinking of the line.
This is all, again, it’s all part of the gesture, making the eye move up so they come
across into the scapula.
I’m looking at this as a shape now.
This is a plane that’s coming down this way.
Again, we can take and go right back.
We still have the sense of the rib cage now as coming through.
I want to feel the compression that’s taking place in here.
It comes down.
All of this surface in here is taking and being compressed because
that scapula is coming back.
We can feel the form.
Now you can see I’m taking and creating a situation here where we feel these forms
now are pushing out.
We take and slowly build on these things.
Now, they come across, carry, carry, just blocking in the shape
a little bit more convincingly here.
Now, you can feel the pecs going underneath.
Excuse me, not the pecs, but this would be the teres major going underneath.
But this is a plane.
This is the whole plane that’s dropping down.
I want to take and emphasize that.
I’m just feeling that form dropping.
You can feel it coming up.
Now this dark here is pretty strong.
What I want to do here is that is more of the fold inside here, and I will take, maybe
make this a little bit lower, start pushing the cast shadow on that.
It’s a little too razor-y.
I want to take and feel core.
We’re pushing stuff going in.
I would have to make this—notice I’ve adjusted.
I’ve changed some of the shape.
It’s helping to make this tone go up.
I want to feel the corner.
Now combination, a little bit of tone and cross-hatching.
I’ll come back.
Even in a purely tonal drawing where I’m not using cross-hatching per se, I will take
and apply cross-hatching, just to take and come through and push forms back and around.
For instance, we can go through here.
As I do this, I’m thinking, okay, from here the 7th cervical vertebra about in here I’m
taking and thinking this is your trapezius coming back down, hitting the scapula, so
I’m looking at where I’m at, the corner of the scapula coming out here.
We can feel the blade of the scapula where we get the pinching coming through at the end.
We can see the clavicle coming through at this point.
So much of this has to do with line quality and value control.
We’re just thinking very simply here.
I’m not going to bother doing the whole arm here, but I just want to feel the deltoid
Notice I’m pulling it off of where the scapula would be in here.
We can even add a little bit of a corner.
So, I’m pretty precise about this stuff, and I’m taking my time in trying to analyze this.
We’re approaching this very differently than what people would call, I guess it’s
sort of a hyperrealism.
That’s not my point here.
I’m not trying to do that.
I’m not interested in rivaling the camera.
I’m trying to make a drawing that’s got the feeling and the flow to it.
Although, cross-hatching and taking and doing a very, very super realistic thing is one
of the basic tools.
This is coming—I’m going to pull this around.
Okay, so it’s form description.
Now we’re getting a very subtle play of how all these forms now are building up.
As I come through, you’ll come down and get the side of that scapula.
All of this is pushing down now.
I need to think about exactly where the base of that form is.
I’ll go down.
These are all pretty parallel lines that I’m using.
This form and the next form rises up, and I come through.
Going over the surface.
Now we have the spine in here.
This is being compressed.
Going over, pushing down, coming up and pushing down.
Now, often when I’m doing the drawing this way I will take and come in.
In later stages of the drawing, I’ll take and add lines that are considerably more bold
to take and give the drawing a sense of, a little bit of a sense of spontaneity so it
doesn’t look like I worked so hard.
So now we’re feeling the scapula in here.
This is a great way to take and really be analyzing your anatomy because you’re really
looking at the forms, and not necessarily taking and copying tone, per se, which is
a big problem when you’re taking and studying anatomy.
Most people have a tendency to get way too preoccupied with just copying the tones of
what they are looking at even from a photograph, in other words, essentially.
Today, a very large number of people, especially since students are gathered all over the world,
don’t necessarily have axis to models that we can build on.
You can see that now I’m painting this.
It’s feeling a little stiff to me.
I want to take and make this feeling the pull more.
Now I come back in and I start to emphasize as we go through.
I’ll take and push, I’ll start pushing the tones to take and make the eye.
As I look at this, I can see wow, this is sort of nice the way it comes and starts to
really flow over a bit more.
I wasn’t doing too good of a job of that.
I wanted to feel—this is taking and curving and going in, and so here is where I’d take
and come back.
Let’s take and feel the form compressing, coming in and going over that surface going
In doing that, I can see that here we can feel these forms now pulling up the muscles
we can actually feel coming off of the sacrum here.
There is a pull.
Part of this is due to the fact that there is a twisting taking place.
So now there is a little bit more.
We can feel this form coming across.
The more I draw now the more I see.
I can take and pull this a bit more, making that stronger.
Come across, emphasize this a bit more.
We can see how that form becomes a rather full form as it starts to pull down into the
Now you can see I’m starting to get a little bit bolder in these tones as they come in.
It starts getting a little bit clearer as we build the form up.
It’s going to come through.
I want to make, coming in.
I’m using tone also.
By the way, the pencil I’m working with is actually a water soluble pencil.
This is the Swiss pencil, Caran d’Ache.
It’s Swiss made.
It’s number 3888, and it’s called—I’m trying to read it, Mahogany.
The number is 067.
So, I’m building this.
Yesterday in class I was getting a question of why do I—what’s the big deal about
why do I use different colored pencils.
Essentially it’s because I like the look.
For most things you do it because that’s what you like.
It’s your taste.
I think it looks neat.
Also, with the water soluble pencil I can come back into the drawing and add water that
all depends also on the paper that you’re using.
I can see if I want this form here to really be strong going over that surface I can really
start pushing down into the corner down here, getting a sense of the shadow.
I’m emphasizing that.
I need to make this, a sense of a little bit narrower.
I’m moving my cross-hatching over slightly.
I want to create that shape right here.
I can also use from here the form is built up.
I start thinking of this as a cast shadow going over that surface.
That’ll help to emphasize that shape pushing up.
Then I’ll come back down and go stronger.
You can see what I was talking about, taking and pushing the tone
a little bit stronger as I go.
I’m going to come across, I’m going to feel this corner a bit stronger, where we
start to pull in.
Again, something I wouldn’t be all that conscious of—there is a pushing taking place.
I’m building that tone and coming across.
Feel it coming around now.
I can see where I need to really go back in and emphasize the roundness of this form.
As I start to build these tones I start seeing the drawing, these forms start to look a little flat.
Now I can take and make the sense of the sacrum stronger.
Take and get a sense of how the muscles here are going back down to it.
I’m working into the light area so I have to be very careful now to take and make sure
that I don’t confuse the light side with the shadow side.
I haven’t gotten really the feeling now that this surface is taking and going back down.
I keep going back over the surface.
I want to make this whole side feel flatter.
I’m going over.
I’m going back up, pulling from under here.
Here’s where I will take and create a sense of luminosity.
I’m going to take and start pushing the dark and using the cast shadow.
That cast shadow becomes the means of taking and helping describe the form.
Now we need to take this core then as I make this stronger.
We need to pull this in to all…over that surface.
Here’s where I would apply one of the things we talk about here.
Talking about taking and dropping whole areas into shadow.
So now this whole light area here—I can just take…that’s just a flat tone.
I can take and do a lot of the same thing over here.
If I want to drop all of this slightly into tone, okay, so I’m lowering the value.
In doing that, though, and since I’m working with the core here, I have to be a little
bit more consistent.
I need to take and create more of the cast shadow, and then we’ll start to come in
and emphasize the darks a bit more.
I want to feel this surface coming down.
I look at these lines…it’s a little too, the tone is not coming through clearly.
I need to pull this around a lot more.
You can see how, again, it’s a very subtle tone you’re slowly building up.
Like I said, you should take and look at some of the Michelangelo.
He did a lot of stuff with cross-hatching.
One of my favorite artist used cross-hatching a lot in different ways was Pontormo, who
was a friend of Michelangelo’s.
Michelangelo designed some things and had Pontormo paint them.
Okay, so now as we keep building through here, and we can see now as we come around with
the gluteus coming down through here that the cast shadow we’ve got going, emphasizing
With the shape of this now I use coming through, and here is where I will take and go into
that cast shadow.
Now that becomes a real useful element there for taking and describing this leg coming
And I would take and then pull, keep working with that and carry that right into the sense
of the core coming down and just really turning the edge.
I’d be building up over these surfaces.
So now, as I look at it, we’re starting to get a sense of the movement.
I can see that as I’m doing this I need to feel the pull.
Here is where it’s a little subtlety.
I can feel the pelvis in here.
What I would do now is I would take and hit a point, that’s just a dark spot.
That dark spot is corresponding now with where the pelvis is going to take and pulling up.
So now I’ve come through, and I find, here now, I’m using this as I come around.
This is going to come in front.
This is coming around now to pull in.
Now that movement is coming through.
Here we can feel a bit of the flatness now coming out from behind that.
Here we take, this is pushing down.
Again, this is something I didn’t ssee the first time around or even the second time.
We have a pull coming through here.
As this is taking and coming around, this flatness through here, we can feel where the
trochanter would take and be pushing out a little bit.
Make that a little bit clearer.
Here we can feel now what we’re getting the feeling for some of the fat pads coming
I’m emphasizing that line now.
I want all of this as a combination of lines.
We’re going to take—now here I’ll take that basic thing I’ve started.
As I’m making the eye move, coming through.
Now as I’m doing this, then, fitting in, I’m getting more bold as I’m going through
because I’m trying to make the eye move.
As I’m doing that then I can take and come in and push tones.
We start to work into the spine.
It’s going a bit stronger.
So, you feel the flow moving up, and I will take now, at this point, through, building
and the cast shadow now becomes a tool that I can use to help with the movement because
we’ve got a shadow now that’s taking and going over the surface.
I figure where we’re going to go so I’ll take and go, it becomes a shape, this is corresponding
now to the flow.
It comes over the surface.
Here, instead of doing this, the form is actually going the other way.
We use, again, that’s a subtle observation that you have to be able to look and see how
these forms are taking and going.
Now, in doing this, I’m taking and really pushing the dark.
I’ll take and I want to emphasize getting underneath the edge of the scapula.
So, we can feel these forms coming out.
We can feel the tension involved now.
Here is a corner coming across.
Here is maybe, a bit more.
And so now we’re getting that movement.
Again, as I’m doing this I’ll take and come through and use a sharp point here where
we’re thinking of the cast shadow.
I’m going to feel this form coming down a little bit more this way.
I’m adjusting now what I’ve been doing here.
I want to feel this coming through.
Feel the push of the shadow now.
As we come up underneath and then going over the surface of the form, I want to take this
shape here and make this a bit stronger going up.
As I’m doing this, I’m slowly altering what’s going on, but I’m taking it in
the service of basically the gesture.
I’m starting to feel this whole thing flowing, and here I can do like we were talking about
I can take and drop whole areas now.
I can drop this all into just a simple tone.
I’ve lowered that value, we can see this coming up.
So then as I start to build into here, I want to take and make this cast shadow going through,
which is pretty much what is there.
As I’m building up into here, I want to make this go over the surface, going through.
I want to feel this is a corner taking place.
This is a muscle that is building up.
I’m going over the surface.
In here we come across.
We can use then a cast shadow from here, going over the surface.
That, again, becomes a means of helping the overall sense of the gesture.
This is contributing to the sense of the tones now that I’m building up.
So, going that way, I would take and actually, we can start to…
But first, we’ve got to get all the way to the other side.
This is staying.
Now we’ve been taking and pushing this, I’m taking—okay, what I just did there
is like a sawtooth.
That’s actually a series of interconnected cross-hatching tones, but it’s sort of a
shorthand way of working.
So now I’m going to pull.
Pull this in.
Making this stronger.
I’m going to go through.
The main thing here now is I need to take and make this, I’ve got to make the eye
move over, so I want to take and push, see I’m pushing the line again.
I’m going up.
We’re making that flow.
Here now, the more I look now I can see that this hip, I can make this fit in.
He’s just pulling this in so we can see that this whole surface here then is taking
and fitting into this.
Now, here is where it would take and be adding a little bit of atmospheric thing, because
as this line forms here and goes behind, I’ll let them basically fade out.
I’m really controlling, really, really controlling the values now as they come through.
I’m adjusting and pushing.
Now, I’m going to make this come out even a bit more cause then you can start to feel.
This feels flat right here to me.
I’m going to take and push this a bit rounder.
It didn’t take very much.
I’m just pushing that.
And we can see now where we’re fitting in.
I can take and allow, I can work more with this overall tone now to take and pull this,
Now we’re starting to get the feeling I want out of it.
Now that I come back up into here, I can start to push this, lifting, going across.
Going over that surface.
We can feel all these forms building up.
For instance, we got all of this twisting going up.
All of this would eventually take and be dropped in tone.
We can feel where the corners are.
Start to build.
We can sense, slowly building that stuff up.
Taking it as you’re drawing here now.
You can see where I was hitting the end of the scapula and the clavicle where it’s
Now, I wna to feel the trapezius as it comes through.
We can feel where we’re attaching.
Here is a—as I draw this line now—I’m really focusing on how these forms overlap.
The neck, these lines are going over a cylinder and wrapping around over the surface, pulling
through and down.
So, you’re constantly taking and thinking of the 3-D volumes underneath the construction,
Through, coming up.
All of this drawing now.
I’ve been working fairly long here.
We’re taking and you can see I’ve been going very slow.
No effort to take and even—I’m not thinking about finishing the drawing.
This is just talking about the –in fact, again, if you look at old masters you’ll
see fragments of studies of figures.
Think of the structure underneath.
Feel, come through.
Okay, now in taking this whole thing is going up this way.
We’re going back and we’re dropping down.
For instance, this whole dropping down, here is where I would take and be pushing the tone
Using strong, strong accents in here to get luminosity to the form as it turns.
Then to take and push these forms down, coming around.
As we build, everything is trying to go with the form, so it’s a slow, slow process that
I’m taking and doing, the building this drawing up.
Feeling the forms.
As I’m doing them I keep coming back in.
I’ll take and push this stuff some more.
I’m now trying to feel the flow of this.
I’m building the drawing up.
I’m analyzing the form.
I’m taking and actually rendering.
The rendering is an analysis.
It’s not a copy.
As I’m analyzing what the gesture is, what the form is.
I started out, notice how free and loose the drawing started.
Now I go back and look at this again.
I want to say, uh, you need to make this stronger.
Again, it’s all about making the action clear as we build the forms, see how we made
the overlapping take place.
We can start to—now, then as I work with this, I’m going to have to make this go
down even more.
It’s slowly building, and I’ve come through, and I could emphasize now some of the core,
which end up giving us a reflected light.
We take and give more of a sense of the shadow from one side to the other.
It gives the luminosity to the drawing.
Now I’m actually using tone.
I will take and push the idea of the core coming down through the accents underneath.
It’s all about describing form.
Okay, that gives you an idea of using cross-hatching as a means of taking and analyzing the form.
Take your time.
You build it up, and there is absolutely no rush in the process.
You cannot rush this.
My approach to it is developing it as a means of helping to analyze more clearly what it
is that you’re looking at.
And that becomes the process.
This figure has a lot of movement in it.
I’m approaching, of course, as I always do with first the gesture.
Take my time.
When I’m doing this, I don’t particularly, I don’t go through and measure anything.
I try to use my eye and feeling the form as I go along.
I allow for a certain level of correcting, so in doing this I start out very, very light
so I can make adjustments and corrections.
The whole approach is one of working from the inside out.
I’m focusing on basically the anatomy, the movement of one side of the form to the other.
As I’m doing this, I’m rehearsing the stroke each time as I’m doing it before
I actually put anything down.
Even though I am going to be taking and approaching this from working with cross-hatching, the
reason I actually took and started doing cross-hatching myself, and I think I’ve mentioned this
before, was to slow myself down so that I could take and analyze form more clearly.
It was a process of helping me to take and slow down so that I could be more critical
looking at form.
In other words, I use it as an analysis tool.
It’s sort of like the next level of analysis and construction as I go through the drawing.
You can see I’m building up the simple volumes.
The pose itself has an awful lot of movement in it, and so that becomes the compositional
point in the drawing.
You can remember that when you’re drawing is what you’re doing is composing a sequence
of lines that communicate an action, so it’s all about communicating.
I’m doing this a bit over the surface, constructing, building up.
Now we’ve gone through sort of, you might say we’ve gone
through it several times already.
As I go back in again, a little bit more care in taking and slowly starting to build it up.
Now, I will change and adjust and move things around as needed to help the composition,
but I’m wanting to feel the flow.
Essentially what you’re doing is you’re composing and designing all at the same time
as well as diagramming the form.
I’m going to just start working my way down.
I’ll go through this in several layers.
As I’m first taking and really being conscious now of the rib cage, particularly the fact
that it’s really tilted.
He’s really taking and giving a strong, which is great because what it does is it
helps to emphasize the gesture.
In other words, when we start to pick up anatomical points, picking up the corner of the rib cage
here coming across, and the same time now we’re really feeling the roundness, roundness
of the rib cage as it comes around.
From here we’re getting a really strong stretch,
taking and coming down to the pubic arch.
We can see the corner of the pelvis again.
Here I’m going over the surface, going back, and we’ve got the trochanter pushing out
at this point.
I’m taking and feeling the pull coming across.
Front of the rib cage going down.
You don’t normally see this kind of a strong line, which is really nice, because I’m
really feeling the stretching of that form as it takes and comes down.
Again, it’s not so much copying.
That’s a useful line because I want to and now start thinking in terms of orchestrating
tones and lines that go with the action, which is going up in this direction.
Obviously, what we’re getting here is a really strong sense of the squish and stretch idea.
So, first we need to…
I’ll need to block in where the major elements are here.
We feel this really cutting across.
Feel the forearm pushing down.
Rectus abdominis compressing at this point.
Now, when I focus on this section right here, what you take into consideration is that all
of this is pushing down.
When I come into here I want to take and feel the forms.
Notice I’m taking and really being careful now.
I want to feel this as coming down, and it’ll be pulling from behind.
You’re really feeling that compression that takes place at that point.
These forms now are taking and getting a lot of compressions.
These are pushing down, coming through.
Rather than thinking in terms of copying something, I’m taking and really focusing on what’s
happening with the forms themselves.
That’s really a major key to my approach to taking and drawing.
You’re dealing with the physical effects of what is actually going on.
Okay, that can be blocked in.
I’m still coming back to the rib cage here.
We’re seeing a corner of this rib cage as it comes down.
Now, I’m constantly analyzing the form to feel exactly what’s going on.
We see this pushing in.
This is a series of cylinders.
Take and visualize now how the muscle is pulling from the pectoralis and pulling from the chest,
going over the biceps.
I’ll start with blocking in the shape.
The deltoid, as you can see, is taking also the clavicle.
The clavicle is right here at this point.
It’s going back in and behind.
As he’s turning and going back in and behind.
As he’s turning and going back, we get a, that goes back.
We have to pick up the deltoid now.
It’s going to be all the way from back into here.
The pec is pulling off the clavicle, so we start to get a pull from in here.
Then the deltoid is taking and coming back down.
We can feel this compression.
As he is going back the clavicle is turning, going back in.
The deltoid is coming over, and the pectoralis and the deltoids are blended together as we
take and go over the arms.
This is going back and you just follow through that line as it goes back in.
Now, at this point, the biceps is taking and going across up to here.
It’s going at a diagonal.
And so we want to feel the pull come down, picking up the condyles on the
End of the ulna.
In this area here we have the intramuscular septum.
Then we’re seeing the triceps taking and coming down.
Condyle on the outside of the humerus.
All of this now, coming through.
It looks like I’m probably a bit short or small in here.
He’s pretty well developed.
I can view this and I start coming a bit more room in here.
So now as I build this up, again, we go—we think of the arm first.
It’s a cylinder.
The bone is going back into here.
I start out with the idea that this is basically a very, very simple form.
I then take and build up.
Carry this line right back down into the scapula down in here.
So now I go over that surface.
I’m building here.
The clavicle is going behind, so focusing on overlapping now.
As this goes behind the pectoralis coming off the clavicle, laying off the front of
They’re taking full, and it turns and goes around, behind.
And it’s compressing.
We get several sections in here now.
As this goes over the surface.
All of this is coming off of the chest now.
The arm is here but we’re picking up the, the scapula is pushing up.
The rib cage is gong underneath in here.
As we build on this we take it and pull.
Muscles coming off teres major, latissimus dorsi, taking and pulling up into the arm.
This is the long head of the triceps coming in.
We go over that surface and down and around.
We feel the deltoid on the outside then.
Taking and coming up.
Going down and attaching.
That blocks in.
Now, you want to keep conscious that this is all essentially a corner, like a box.
The end of the ulna is out here, coming down.
That line that I started out with is not part of this.
The deltoid—or excuse me, the triceps is pulling into that.
Here we come down on it to the wrist as being a rectangular type form.
Feel the pull coming off the condyle.
Feel the way the biceps now is taking and pulling in.
Here we get the muscles taking and coming off, brachioradialis.
Forms going around.
This is already beginning to cross-hatch.
And so before I’m doing any kind of cross-hatching, I’m being very meticulous about taking and
blocking in everything.
Then when I start to take and do the cross-hatching,
I’m taking and developing the thing even further.
Pelvis, muscle coming across.
The vastus medius.
We’re picking up a little bit of the gluteus behind there.
Now, as we come from here, the vastus muscles are taking and pulling through.
Go from one side to the other.
We’re pulling in here, getting the action of the Sartorius pulling through.
Muscles are attaching in here, picking up a little bit of the adductors here and focusing
on the overlapping.
As I start to take and go through, looking at the forms, I can see that it probably was
a bit long here, focusing on that is a box form.
The thickness, we feel, go through.
This is the long head of the biceps of the femur.
Now I’m starting to take and go through, this one is pushing down.
Now, building, haven’t really done much cross-hatching yet.
I’m just taking and blocking in yet.
I’m going through a very careful step-by-step building of the forms, taking and blocking
in each layer as I do it.
If you look at a lot of the Renaissance drawings, what we see is that, say for instance, look
at some of the Michelangelo’s, the Rubens’.
They would actually do a preliminary drawing underneath with another graphite.
Then come back over so the underneath drawing would be incredibly loose.
It’s quite surprising.
If you haven’t looked at any originals, you would be surprised at how loose the drawings
Now here I’m feeling this.
As I’m looking at this, now we’re starting to sense how all of this splits.
Pretty strong foreshortening as that goes back in.
Through and around.
That leg is considered a way back.
Now as I’m taking, actually I need to come down a bit lower with this over here.
Showing lines that are taking and allowing the drawing to look like a drawing.
I’m not interested in making photographs.
Now we can go back in and block in that head a little bit.
Really focusing on the angle across the brow, the corner of the eye socket dropping down.
Feel the nose coming up.
I want it to drop, pull.
Feel the cheek on that far side corner of the jaw.
Feel the pull.
Now, here we’ve got the masseter muscles down at the corner.
We want to pick up the underside where the thyroid cartilage is of the thyroid cartilage
is of the hyoid bone going over it.
Feel the sternocleidomastoid from behind.
And we’re pulling through both sides.
Okay, so now what I want to take…
I’m working on this now.
I’m focusing on the idea that there is actually a corner.
This is like a box from here going down.
Now, what I’m using, I want to create, work with this movement.
I’m taking and cross-hatching, just I’m going over the surface of the form.
Find the corners.
Then I will do this in several layers.
I’m taking and trying to find the corner of the bone sticking out.
Picking up, I want to go over this whole section.
It’s taking and going down.
Feel the external oblique as it takes and comes through the pelvis.
It’s less of copying tones and more of taking and describing forms.
I’m not really interested in copying the tones that I see, particularly, but I am trying
to look at the forms themselves that are taking and how they’re going.
I can take and be…
Now, we’re going to feel this and pull down.
Come through, over.
I want to make more of an issue out of the bone itself.
Feel the corner.
You can feel the pull of the tensor as it hits through.
Now, it’s the movement here.
I want to take and keep this movement.
Focus on these surfaces as we turn and go back over.
Emphasizing that line as it goes back in.
Picking up here.
I want to take and use.
The pose is pretty good.
He’s got the anatomy.
He is doing really great in terms of the shapes showing the direction of the composition.
It’s really going along with it, so there is not an incredible amount of change needing
to be taken here.
It becomes more one of emphasis as I go through the drawing.
Feel forms come off.
Now, the cross-hatching, what happens as you’re doing it.
Like I say, this is where I started the idea of taking and doing, the idea is to slow down,
to take and see things a little more closely.
As you’re doing the drawing, you start to see things as you go back over it that you
missed the first time around, or even the second or third time.
It’s the fourth or fifth time that you go over something you actually start to see a
little bit more clearly.
It’s a continuous development of the form.
The feeling is it pulls down.
We can feel the stretching of these forms now.
I’m going to take and make more, feel the compressing going on in here.
This is an approach to drawing that I did not learn in school.
I’ve mentioned that before in other lectures.
I really started doing this on my own.
We can take and start to build the forms as we start to go up, pushing and even carrying
Triceps here, we can feel the stretching.
Everything is going with the direction of the action now.
And so, come through, pick up the corner here.
Now, if this was a figure that I was using in say a painting, I would be taking and making
the eye continue on into something—in other words, give me another target they can go for.
This is continuous, the flow, movement.
Forms fitting in constantly.
That’s really like a section of the cylinder going through.
Even more now to get this coming around the corner.
In other words, I’m following through with the line as it goes behind.
As we’re building this form up, this becomes a combination of everything working together
to take and get the eye to move up.
I’m pulling this form.
Like I said, this is unusual to see in the pose itself, the anatomy that you can take
and use so much of this.
You can feel the stretching come through.
Going over that surface.
Feeling that stretching coming down.
Carrying us all the way down to the pubic arch.
This becomes a strong line.
Then to take and orchestrate that as it moves.
Now we’re feeling the curve and carry this into the center, and we start to form, as
this builds up this way, we can see now on the other side these muscles are sort of like
curling into it.
We can field the build with this to the next.
This becomes really a strong series of lines or
tones that are taking and helping the movement.
Even the cast shadow comes in here and starts to play a part.
We pull these muscles.
Know that I’m creating lines now.
I’m looking at the shapes that are making the eye move more so than the actual anatomy
that I see.
We can feel the compression on this side, taking and going through.
We go back here and now we can really see about this fitting in, pushing down.
So the contrast now, I pulled from there, and this is taking and coming around that
I’m building these forms, think of the center.
This takes and helps us to go with the action and pull.
Again, notice that I’m not copying.
I’m not copying the tone qualities that I’m drawing here.
I know who several schools of thought today.
It’s all about the tone.
I’m not particularly preoccupied with that.
I’m more into thinking of how I can take and use the tone to take and describe the
Now as I’ve gone through here, I want to take and pick up a bit of this transverse
muscles coming through here.
But the main element here now is to pull the pecs off of the rib cage here.
This takes and pulls up, making this go up and over.
Really feeling that pull.
This whole surface of that arm as it’s coming forward, the pectoralis muscles are pulling
away from the chest.
We can feel this whole plane of this surface as this takes and drops.
You can see how I am using the cross-hatching here.
I’m taking and using it as a way of describing the surface as it takes and turns, going over,
feeling the fullness in here.
It’s a subtle play taking place in this now.
We can feel—remember, you have two sets of pectoralis muscles.
We have the pectoralis major and the pectoralis minor hitting the top.
Pectoralis minor is this section here coming up.
Now I want to make a point out of getting the rib cage right behind or overlapping.
Now, this point has come down, through.
All of this is compressing, pushing down.
Size, forms going behind.
Now we feel the latissimus coming from behind.
I’m taking and I made it a bit thin here.
I need to give it a little more volume.
Notice I’m drawing that as a cylinder as it goes in.
We can see how that’s pulling through.
Now we go over the surface and feel the triceps again.
As I’m doing it, then, I’m constantly adjusting.
I’m really making a point that this goes behind.
You want to feel the corner here as it comes through.
Picking up the end of the ulna over here.
We’re building the drawing.
As we go down through here, we missed all of this movement.
This could have been by Parmigianino.
He has such a lovely flow to the pose.
Feel the pelvis behind that.
It’s coming through.
Again, I’m catching that perfectly the first time around.
Now we can feel these forms dropping down.
Here we’re getting the sense of the Sartorius as it takes and pulls down.
They change on the surface.
We’re going over the abductors here.
There is actually a flat area and the leg goes down.
The rectus femur is coming out from behind, coming through.
Then we’re coming into the light.
Again, I’m just going to take and go back.
I want to take and feel, make this felt a little bit stronger.
As I’m doing it, I’m trying to go back and reassert the gesture so that we feel the
lines coming across.
Coming down, pushing down.
As I’m doing, this is talking about cross-hatching.
Notice I will take and combine cross-hatching and basic tones.
Now we pull the rectus femoris coming out from between the tensor and the Sartorius,
which would be pulling up here.
Now, we come through.
Rectus femoris coming in, fitting in.
Now I look at that as lines that are useful for taking and showing the gesture.
Feel the play here.
The muscles go over so I’m starting to pull these forms out.
This is the vastus lateralis that’s taking and coming through.
All of this now, as this comes through, we need to feel this is turning it.
So you go down over that surface pushing down.
This is pulling through.
We can see it now.
I can see and then coming through into here.
There is actually a corner now.
I can feel that gluteus.
At this point, I want to take and do some adjusting here.
As I get this line coming down.
I want to pick this line up right here.
We’ve got stretching from here.
Making that strong and feeling this pulling in front.
Okay, so as I’m drawing this, I’m carrying this through out into there.
Your eye is picking up that line.
Then we get this stuff here as behind.
We can pickup, this is coming in front.
We get this pulling through.
This is going behind.
Notice how I don’t start out with a contour.
I end up with a contour.
Now we can feel these forms taking and going underneath.
I’m carrying this line through now.
This is really more of an abstraction now.
Start to push the form.
In doing that, in looking at that, I want to make the eye come across more this way.
I’m pulling this, carrying that line through.
In other words, the rectus femoris is the excuse for right now for a line.
We’re coming out from behind the vastus medius.
That comes through.
Do you mind dropping that knee and change the shape a little bit.
We can feel this corner as it pulls up.
It is a box form.
What I’m doing here now is I’m going to take and adjust the shape.
Instead of having something like this, I’m going to take and make this whole line go
more in this direction.
It’s a diagonal that I’m taking and working with the shape of this tone.
I’m using cross-hatching.
It’s sort of—I guess you could call it the core, but it’s a combination of lines
that I need to take and make the eye sort of flow.
I’ll take here and emphasize now this corner.
Pull, coming through.
As I go into the knee, thinking of the corner, the end of the patella, we can feel the condyles
on the far side.
We come down.
As we pull into this, we want to take and be conscious of the fact that the fibula that
comes in here.
This is the biceps of the femur.
It’s not all that obvious, but I’m making it more obvious.
I’m taking and pulling this line.
Then pull these right underneath.
We can feel this whole form now coming down.
The biceps are underneath.
The vastus lateralis is on top here.
We start to find excuses where I can take and start going over.
Now, we’re coming into the muscles coming off of the tibial ridge were.
We’ve got a corner here, the patella.
As you’re coming through here, I need to move, subdue.
That pop is a little too much.
We don’t want to see that.
I don’t really want to see that.
So, I’m coming in.
Now I’m coming in from behind here.
Your gastrocnemius go in and then attach.
They go behind, coming out, through.
Let’s go back up here and take and keep all of this moving.
It’s just a simple line going over the surface form.
Here is where I really take and use a simple cross-hatch.
I don’t want to bring this out particularly.
We can see the line.
We can feel these lines here coming through.
I want to keep this really subdued pretty much the way it is.
We’re just going to drop that in tone and just the---now, with the cross-hatch lines
when you use it this way, it should be very clear and simple and parallel so that we can
see anything that’s underneath it without—in other words, when I put that tone in it did
not destroy the lines that I had underneath.
I can come through and construct and develop the form further.
As this goes back I want to pretty much just leave it.
I’m just going to drop this in a very, very simple tone.
Then we across and feel this line.
This is part of this movement now that’s taking and going up.
It goes into the leg.
I try to take and—not all that successful here.
In other words, I want to get the eye to move down and pulling into the pickup the soleus
Gastrocnemius on top, the Achilles tendon comes down to the calcaneus bone.
Go over the bone.
Feel the shape.
Again, I’m just dropping in tone, going around.
Pick up a bit here.
I’m just going to take and keep it fairly simple.
Now, we’ve got a lot of the rendering going here.
But again, the emphasis I want to be on this movement.
Actually, the cast shadow now on the head is really helpful.
You can see that that follows through.
We can pick up the back of the head here and the shape coming through.
This is becoming clasped, so I’m taking and coming through.
I’m thinking the bone, the wrist, finger, coming in, feel the pull.
Go over the surface.
You can feel the biceps coming down, fitting in.
But, we’re pulling into here.
Then the different direction.
You’ve got the flexors in here coming across, and the outside are your extenders.
They combine to create a shape that is simple volume.
In this case we have a corner here.
Over the surface.
Just picking up a bit of the tone.
Using this cast shadow and then within the shadow the ear coming around.
Since I have introduced that cast shadow I need to take and carry that through a little
bit farther in my thinking here.
But since I will take and draw all of this slightly in tone coming through.
Now I am pretty much using the tones that I see—or not tones, but the pattern of the
Okay, we’ve got the things sort of blocked in now, so I’m going to start to really
emphasize this movement more.
I’m feeling stretching.
This is going around.
Triceps are going in between, deltoid behind.
Now, emphasize, not push.
I’m even taking now and using the cast shadow over the surface.
Here it’s really playing to the core.
Feeling the stretching of these forms as they come down.
You can see I’m making that a lot more than we actually see through.
Look at that.
Now, by emphasizing the core, what I’m doing is creating a reflected light just by the
fact that as I’m pulling that tone in, emphasizing the core, and I’m leaving a lot of the shadow
area that gives the appearance of reflected light.
As the pecs are pulling off here, I need to feel the pull of the rib cage up to it.
Now, we pull the rib cage up to it.
Now you’re feeling the stretch.
You can feel the pecs coming off of here, fill the corner coming down, and I’m going
to push this even more in here.
I want the eye to really go up and in.
In doing that, I need to take and feel the pull.
Feeling these forms coming down.
If we come through here I can feel the surface here.
We come down, pushing stronger.
I really want to work this corner.
That thoracic arch is going back.
And go over.
Even within the shadows now I’m taking and I want to push the line, the corner of the
You can feel the ribs pulling down.
As we then pull, this is a plane that’s dropping down in.
Then we come around the corner.
This is pulling around.
This is taking and coming around the corner.
Now, pulling these forms, coming through, and all of this is taking and stretching and
I want to make this even stronger.
Taking the shape coming through, over.
Feel the pull of the external oblique as it attaches to the pelvis.
We’re really picking up the corner.
That’s the Sartorius and the tensor coming out.
That adds to this whole shape.
What I’m doing is I’m downplaying a lot of this corner here to emphasize the stretching
As I’m going through, I keep trying to carry the eye.
I’m just taking and using lines.
I can feel the pull.
Push and go back up to there.
I can pick up tones.
Feeling this dropping down.
A combination of this tone I’m putting in here with the core really helps to emphasize
the reflected light, which takes and becomes a way of taking and finding the base of that
Pick up the sternocleidomastoid as it goes behind.
Emphasize the ear.
Lift that a little.
Feel the pull.
The underside of the chin.
Now, here taking and really push this going through and fitting in and coming out from
Then seeing the underside of the jaw.
The clavicle going behind.
You can see that we start to lose, builds right into the biceps going up.
See sort of the common tendon of that.
We come right up to the end of the ulna and give that a sharp corner.
Notice how many different times I’ve gone over the drawing, And I keep emphasizing,
I push the anatomy to take and make the actions stronger.
The subtle changes I make, take from what is actually there are helping to take and
clarify the basic movement.
To continually adjust and to change and push through.
Now, what I want to get here is this.
We’ve done getting this to go back in here, and we can take and drop a lot of this now
It’s turning away so it would pick up, we could think of this like a reflected light
going over the thoracic arch.
So coming through.
Feel the pull.
I’m really adjusting this stuff to do what I want it to do.
Coming through here.
Now, as this goes back.
You can feel this tone going down.
You can see how that’s not really taking—and come through.
You need to make this go back in, so what we’ll do is go over that surface.
Pushing down, going in.
Here, what I’m essentially doing then is the modeling tone.
This space is roughly facing us, even though it’s mostly in shadow.
Arms fitting in.
This is underneath.
Feel this coming through.
Here we want to make this actually go behind.
Feel the corner.
Feel the pull.
That’s an intramuscular septum that’s taking and going back in between the biceps
and the triceps.
I’m going to push this even stronger.
There is your brachialis coming out of there.
As these forms are going back in, we can leave a lot of this.
I don’t care to get really that involved with the features and stuff.
Just getting the feeling for the back that it’s getting the feeling for the fact that
it’s going back.
Get a little bit more of the dark.
We can feel this going back in.
Okay, now, at this point I want to—again, redo this.
Feel the pull, taking and leading the eye across.
Emphasize making us stronger.
Now, the stretch goes from this side.
We need to take and make this come out to the other side.
I think I’m going to get a little strong, getting a little strong.
Feel the pull here.
This could be even emphasized more as it comes through.
External oblique can take and have a bit more of a shape.
They want to carry this line now.
Come through here.
Now it’s the movement coming down.
This would be picked up, carried into, it’s going through.
I’m constantly pushing the abstract now.
All of this works even clearer, seeing the difference between the light and the shadow
I’ll take and I can feel that we can able to do a bit more in carrying this line across.
Use the tone on the top of the thoracic.
Now we feel the stretching coming through.
I’m going to make this more obvious.
Okay, this was a really good session.
You saw how slowly I take and do the drawings.
Take your time, being very careful in building the drawing up.
It’s not a flashy approach to doing a drawing, but it’s a way to really study and take
your time to really analyze.
So, this was a good session and take care.