 Lesson Details
 Transcript
 References
 Instructor
 Chris Legaspi
 Subjects
 Drawing
 Topics
 Perspective, Sketching
 Mediums
 Paper, Pen, Pencil
 Duration
 1h 10m 30s
In this lesson, instructor Chris Legaspi will introduce you to drawing forms in 3dimensional space. You will learn how to plot basic shapes in perspective, construct forms from imagination, and break down a household object into simple forms.
This lesson belongs to the course Beginner’s Guide to Drawing. It is a 12week course designed to empower new students with a structured approach for learning how to draw. Join instructors Steve Huston, Chris Legaspi, Heather Lenefsky, Bill Perkins, and Mark Westermoe as you learn the fundamentals of perspective, rendering, and composition. After completing this course, you will develop a solid foundation in drawing.
Throughout this course, you’ll have access to the NMA community for feedback and critiques to improve your work as you progress.
This is actual 3d because we live in a 3d world, but our medium is
flat, our drawing paper is flat.
So the goal is to get our drawings to feel like these guys.
One of the ways we do that is to not only draw in 3d, but to think in 3d.
And that part of that is not only looking at the edges or the sides, but also
the backside, the underside, the top side, the part you can't see.
So that's the goal here and that's what we'd be able to do in this
lesson with these drawing techniques, being able to draw through.
And also the advantage of form drawing, 3d drawing is that we will to draw from
imagination where you can take these forms and draw them from almost any
angle from imagination left to right.
Top to bottom.
And like with the cube also with the cylinder, we will be able to draw it from
any angle for imagination who also make our forms feel like they're coming at us.
So you see that?
See that?
Normally when you think of cylinder, you just think of a one face.
Maybe you can see a little bit at the top or a little bit at the bottom, but
we also want to be able to do this.
And that's cool.
That's cool to make it feel like it's coming at you or make it feel like
it's going away from you as well.
Okay.
And the sphere obviously from any angle, from every angle that
you look at a perfect sphere, the shape will be the same.
The outer edge is see what would be the same, but I'll show you some ways
too that you can make that feel more 3d because really the thing that's
important about these is we're not just drawing boxes and cylinders.
And spheres, of course, we want to be able to combine these to create more complex
forms because these will eventually become the complex points we all love to
draw simple objects, still life objects, even landscapes, and obviously organic
things like people, animals, right?
Because if you think about it, the human body can be broken
down into these basic forms.
So that's what we're going to focus on in this lesson.
How to be able to think in 3d.
Think of not just the front, but the back, not just the top, but the
bottom, the parts that you can't see.
And also to be able to draw in 3d, to draw through the form, imagine
that these are transparent things.
These are, you can't see through them, but in our minds eye we will be able
to think transparently, be able to draw even the parts we can't see and show the
audience that this that our drawing is just
as real in 2d space can feel just as real as the real thing.
One of the ways where we'll be able to get the illusion of the form to make it look
3d is we're going to be using perspective.
Now you may be familiar with some concepts of perspective and
the one of the major ideas in perspective, that's very important
and we're going to be using in this lesson is what's known as the horizon line.
So the horizon line is the imaginary line, means literally you can think
of it as the horizon on, on the earth.
When you're looking out into a landscape, you can see that,
that long horizontal line.
But what we want to do when we draw is we want to use what's called the eyeline and
the difference between the horizon line
and the eye line is that the eye line is really where you're  where
you are looking and also where your audience will be looking.
So when I'll be drawing in it, in this lesson, when I mentioned the eye
line, one of the ways you can think about it to help you find the eyeline
is by using a pencil or anything that you'd like to draw with and just
put it right in front of your eyes.
And this is my eye line, really.
And also your viewer's eye line, the audience, the people
looking at our drawings.
And so in the matter where you look, if you put the pencil directly in front of
your eyes, this becomes our eye line.
You can even tilt your head, tilt your head.
So when I talk about eye line, this is what I'm referring to.
It's not the horizon line, although the same principles and ideas of perspective
of the vanishing points and things that converging lines apply to the eye line,
but for us, for artists and when we're doing our 3d form drawings as this is the
one we want to focus on, not the horizon line, but the eye line or the view from
from your eyes or from the audience.
Transcription not available.
Basically.
You want to think of it as the 2d, the silhouette, the also known as the contour.
Other ways you can think about it, shape, contour, silhouette, French word.
It basically means the outer edge, and we're going to start with our basic forms.
In this case as a shape it is a circle.
And notice the way I'm drawing again, drawing with the
whole body drawing through.
Practicing ghosting before I commit to a line really helps to
make better circles and to make our forms feel more 3d and real.
That's the end goal.
Next is the cube, the box, and the outer edge of the box.
Contour, silhouette.
Very simple.
If we just look at the box itself, the contour in this form in this flat 2d
graphic shape, silhouette of the box, the outer edge almost appears like
a, another shape, a hexagon shape.
Notice that?
And then finally, the cylinder, interesting shape.
It's basically like the box here, but curved at the end.
So very simple, very graphic.
Okay.
Next, we're going to do the 3d drawing, starting with the box here.
Now, what I want to do is review sketch perspective because here
we're learning constructions.
Remember it depends on our eye line.
I'm going to have to put down an eyeline first, before begin
to draw our box accurately.
Because as we know in perspective, forms will converge to what's
known as a vanishing point.
So let's say this imaginary line is my eyeline here.
So I'm saying I'm roughly like looking smack in the middle
of our box in this case.
So all of the corners will converge to a point known as the vanishing point.
Vanishing point, just call it VP.
Now you may be familiar with this concept.
So a very basic concept in drawing.
But this is what helps make our 3d form feel realistic when we converge to the
vanishing point on our eyeline, this would also will tell the viewer because
not only paying attention member to our eye line, but the viewers as well.
So whoever looks at our drawing.
Will feel that they're in this position in 3d space.
That's what we're doing here.
So that corner will also converge, this corner will also converge.
And actually this point will also converge.
So remember, we want to draw through.
Treat it as if it's a transparent object, like a piece of glass.
Draw through.
So this converges to the right vantage point or VP, these ends, these
corners converged to the left VP.
You see that?
Now we have something similar to  see that box drawing.
Notice we can see the top plane of this box.
That means our eye level is above.
Now.
Our eye level can be at the form and I'll show you what that looks like
real quick, same concept, eye level.
And let me just draw up a couple of converging lines here.
Sometimes I like to do this is to sketch a few lines, not only,
you know, helps me practice my dexterity, drawing straight lines.
Remember we had some exercises like that.
But now it gives me a choice as to how big or how.
A smaller one for my box, because once I have these converging lines and I can
drop in some verticals and it's going to go see those in birth, always drawing
through, go stink, practicing rehearsing
before we lay down the mark.
And now look how pretty my box is, even though there's straight lines
drawn by hand, they look fairly okay.
And let me draw through.
So this corner remember goes through.
I always want to think about drawing through and we're
beginning our 3d drawing.
It's drilling in our mind that there is a backside.
This isn't just a shape.
There's now a backside, drawing through.
Now we have our transparent form or in this case, our box.
And the last our eye line can be below the box.
Just gonna draw a few diagonals here, just to give me a rough estimate
of what my box could look like.
And I drop in a vertical, couple of verticals, and now I have an
idea of what my box form will be.
I'm gonna draw through from corner to the vanishing point.
And you know, we don't have to be perfect.
Notice mine is not perfect by any means.
And I haven't used a ruler yet.
That's why I always recommend those exercises.
Right?
Remember the exercises where we learn and we get the muscle part of it down.
Okay.
So now we can see the under plane of our cube and I'm going to  I'm
just going to add a little tone so you can see what I'm talking about.
See that, that we can see that, that means our eye level is below
where we can see underneath and form, our eye level's below.
You can see through the form or roughly in the middle.
And this one is above and above we can see the top.
So really quick introduction into drawing a box form in basic perspective, using
the eye line as your horizon line.
Two vanishing points in this case is also known as two point perspective.
going back 3d, we can take our conventional horizon line and
we could tilt it so that we can create really interesting forms and
basically draw them from any angle and even from imagination, right?
This is what I'm doing here.
I'm not really looking at a photo of a box anymore, going from imagination.
And that's eventually what we will be doing in this lesson.
Really that's the goal here is to be able to draw any 3d form from
imagination, any position, any angle, any rotation of their eye line here.
So notice drawing through, going through, going with the arm,
drawing through, drawing with the arm, backside drawing through.
It's not just the front corner.
It's the back corners.
I'll even draw a point, remember point point and that's the back
corner of that box going through.
Doing those exercises will really help at this stage help you get close.
I mean, you can see here, I'm not exactly at the VP, the
vanishing point, but I'm close.
I'm close enough with that.
I can start to compensate in my mind's eye, knowing what, you know, roughly
what this shape should look like.
At any point I can also to get more accurate with rulers
and things, straight edges.
Makes you think in 3d.
So now this is no longer flat shape.
It's a form that turns this way.
It goes from here.
It goes back because we've drawn that back side.
We've drawn that back side.
So we created that feeling.
And I often do that.
I imagine that I'm crawling actually writing on a 3d object.
I imagined like the form is here.
Like the forms that we saw earlier, I'm actually imagining them like physically
writing on it and then turning my hand.
Do you see that same kind of thinking if I was going this way?
Right.
I would go here and, in my mind's eye, I don't literally do it,
but that's the way I'm thinking.
And that's the goal here and that's why, again, draw through,
draw through, draw through.
is a little interesting because a lot of ways it's like the box.
It has two straight edges.
It also has interesting idea known as the ellipse.
Let's start with our eye line again,
drawing some vanishing points here.
And what I'm gonna do here is I'm drawing an ellipse, which is,
imagine the center of the circle.
Imagine you, you cut.
like an orange, you cut it, cut it off.
And then what you'll see perspective is what's known as an ellipse.
And that's what we're doing here.
And I'll talk about ways that we can get make our ellipses more accurate.
And a lot of ways you can think of them as boxes as well.
You see that is it, there's also a middle.
So what we want to do is imagine the, let's say we'll take the
bottom corner of this form.
Remember, we're drawing through again, drawing through starting at
the front, drawing through, drawing through, making contact with the sides.
Cause that's a corner, again, the corner's most important when
establishing the 2d, same with the top.
Now what we want to do is we're going to cut this in half.
So from top to bottom, just kind of draw an imaginary line through it
and I'll do the same with the top.
Okay.
Let me get rid of this so you can see better.
Prospective in a moment.
And then what we're going to do is draw an imaginary line that runs exactly down
the middle of our ceiling, basically cutting it wto even halves here.
The way we're looking at it in that point is exactly the middle of the top
and the bottom side of our cylinder.
And this is known as the center line.
Center line.
And this is important because this will help us draw the
cylinder from almost any angle.
So for example, If I want to draw the cylinder, say, here's my eye line,
I want to try the cylinder coming towards me like an arm or a finger.
Imagine your finger coming towards you, right.
Fingers, a cylinder like that.
I'm going to draw a vanishing point and I'm going to draw that center line.
So how do we draw our, our cylinder around this area?
Well if we start with a circle and I'm going to imagine the point where the
center line is right in the center of the circle and notice my circle's not perfect.
But it's okay because I've ghosted it.
I'm still drawing it lightly.
And then I'm going to take this cylinder here or perfect 90 degrees to this
perfect center of, of this bottom plane.
This bottom face, this bottom side.
And when you do that, you're able to quickly get points of
intersection where you can pull that back into the vanishing point.
You see that?
And then, and now I can draw another ellipse a circle in perspective.
And then if I go here, draw the exact center where the
corner is, or the sides meet.
The perfect half of the bottom face in that case.
This is the front face, the one facing us called we'll call it the front
face and the body face let's draw our, let's say this is our cylinder here.
Or like my finger is a cylinder.
So kind of a rounding form.
Let's say it's going, instead of going this way, perfectly up and down, it's
going this way so what it can do in that case is draw the center line.
And let's say it's coming more towards me like that.
And roughly ghost in this circle.
So what I'm going to do is what I want to do is here's,
here's the exact center line.
Here's the exact circle, but I don't know where these ends are.
So what I'm going to do is I'm going to make sure that I get, I get a
line that's perfectly 90 degrees.
See that.
And once I have that, I go, Oh, that's an end.
That's an end.
Because as a ghost in my circle, these four are divided evenly.
See that, see how even these feel, even these look.
To determine the, how dramatic or how much, whether it's like this
way or this way, how much this cylinder tapers or meaning gets
smaller as it goes away from us,
we're going towards a vanishing point, remember a vanishing point,
this the sides of the form taper.
We can put the vanishing point closer.
In this case it'll go, it'll go really far like that.
We can put it farther away, right?
Depending, you know, how big your paper and how, how big you want your form to
be really, but let's just put it here.
So I'm going to draw the sides going back, draw the sides going
back to the vanishing point.
In this case, this is our eye line.
And notice that this form is  we're below.
Our eye line is below
here because we're seeing the bottom.
Remember if we can see the bottom we're below.
Mine's a little off, that's okay.
So I'm bringing it back.
And then what I want to do is remember here's my line.
I'm happy with my center line, happy with my center line.
So what I'm gonna do is try to get it to where it meets at 90 degrees.
Boom.
Perfect.
That's just a quick way we can a draw our cylinder and I'll
show you a quick exercise too
that'll help you draw cylinders better.
It's really, really tough because ellipses or circles in
perspective are incredibly tough.
One way you can think about it is
start with an ellipse here and then start with a perfect circle.
So imagine here, we're looking at our cylinder in perspective, and
here we're looking at it directly.
We're going from here then there's our cylinder.
I'm going from here to whoop right here.
So we want to draw a series of ellipses.
We're basically trying to imagine the top, top of our form as it's turning.
So it gets fuller and fuller and fuller really, as it goes up, it's
just a quick little exercise you can do
to help you.
And you can draw a bigger or smaller through that one
because you can also go down.
So let me try that exercise again.
Here's a little bit smaller.
So I'm gonna start right in the middle.
Right just draw these kind of oval shape again, ghosting
using my whole body, whole arm.
Perfect circles.
Just draw the sides here.
And then at the bottom also perfect circle, meaning perfect
top view, perfect boop, top view.
And as we get there, we become fuller and fuller and fuller, overlapped a little
bit, but so just help you start to think.
Oh, okay as this thing turns
and goes from a perfect circle to the ellipse, from the ellipse to
the perfect circle or perspective view to perfect top view.
So that's just a quick exercise you can do.
Finally the last form is our good old friend, the sphere, but to distinguish
a 2d circle from a 3d circle, one way you can think about it is to simply
imagine the ellipse or we, we take a knife and slice it down the middle.
I can take a samurai sword or ninja knife here, here, and slice down the middle.
And then we have the two sides.
And one way you can do this is by taking like an orange, cutting it down the middle
you'll see that divide into even forms.
Or you can look at something like a tennis ball or basketball, and those
will have a curved arch, but that's really, the concept is basically a
line that you draw through your form.
And a lot of times you can take like a lot of children's toys there
is basically a sphere cut in half.
They're a little container that you pop it open, right?
You pop it open and there's a, that's like a toy inside.
So that's one way you can think of a spear as a, as a little
children's gumball toy and put a little bit of a demonstration there.
And there is a, let's say there's a, there's a, a baby duck.
It's a terrible baby duck.
But inside.
That's the idea.
And we can do this with more than one line.
Obviously I just drew one.
Remember again, see how I'm drawing through.
I'm always drawing through, drawing through, which is the backside.
This is not a, this is not a 2d anymore.
This is the 3d, 3d forms have a backside.
Now we can go both ways.
We can cut our sphere.
Not top down.
We can not just cut it this way.
We can cut it this way.
We can go left or right.
Just go whack, take our little knife and go whack.
Cut it this way.
So this just helps me to think in 3d and helps to show our viewer audience
that Hey, this is not this anymore.
It's more than the silhouette, the contour, this is a 3d form.
And then later we'll show you how you can, you can really create that
illusion using a value and light.
And obviously of course, you can go, you don't have to go in a left or right.
You can, don't have to, you don't have to stop at two.
You can go multiple directions, whatever it takes to really sell
the idea that this is a more more than a flat shape and you can even
do what's called a rings, little concentric rings,
which are basically ellipses.
Remember cut here.
You know, you're, you're taking a slice here and taking a slice
here, a slice here, a slice here.
Whack whack, whack whack, cutting chuck, chuck, like a big old
egg or an onion or an orange.
If you have a sharp knife thing or a tomato whack whack, right.
Same concept.
But we do it on paper and our audience recognizes like, Oh, that's like, I, I
I've seen that before in many places.
It's like, you know, it's like that time I cut that egg open or I sliced that tomato.
It's the same thing.
If you take, you take one of these slices this way, this was a
tomato, take one of these slices.
Boom.
You know, and you got a tomato for your sandwich.
We can't eat a 2d.
We can't eat this well, we can eat a tomato guys.
So, and we can go crazy.
We don't have to do tomato slices.
We want to make salsa.
How do you make salsa?
You cube, you dice, which is going the other way, guys.
See that?
What's up?
So you go from tomato sandwich to salsa, right?
This will make a nice big pile of salsa.
Well, you know what I'm saying, guys?
Right?
This feels 3d.
Okay.
3d, check.
Not 3d.
Just as important though.
That's still there, right?
That's still there.
I'm gonna get, I'm going to get a dark pencil just to prove a point that,
not my little sharp pencil see that?
It's not very dark.
See what I'm saying?
That's still there.
So we start here, we end here, and we do that, I've given
you a couple tools to do that.
The eye line, the center line.
And now cutting through.
Can't eat shapes but we can eat tomatoes.
All right.
Now let's talk about a couple of little exercises you could do
to have some fun with this and really improve your 3d drawing.
And our goal is draw a page of boxes.
I'm gonna draw a big old, I got a big old page.
I'm not going to fill it here in this, in this, in this lesson, but
I'll show you how we can do that.
So what I'm going to do, what I like to do is first is I like
to ghost the vanishing point.
Remember I was doing those things.
I won't ghost it here, but I'll do it really
really light.
Remember that I was doing that and the other sheet and
then I've got my verticals.
And then now I have an idea of what my box could look like.
And I like to start with the shape, the outer shape.
We start with the shape.
Start with the shape and then always drawing through, taking a corner,
going through, drawing through, drawing through, front corner, back corner.
Then I have my first imagination box.
Okay.
Which view am I?
Am I, where is my imaginary eye line?
Am I below this box above it or right in the middle?
You're right.
You saw that I'm below it.
So, so you want to practice a couple of things.
One is page of boxes.
You want to draw a bunch where your eye line is below, eye line middle,
eye line below middle, what do we got top and finally the tilted or diagonal
eyeline, also known as diagonal.
Right?
So that's below.
Let me do a middle.
And I like this one, this was pretty, was pretty straight forward.
Couple of diagonals.
Vanishing point.
Establishing in my mind where my vanishing point is.
Horizontal establishing where the sides and the corners
are, the ends and the corners.
Boom, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom.
I'm going to draw through to remind myself that this is 3d, not just 2D,
draw through, draw through, draw through.
Boom, boom, boom.
Okay.
Eyeline top.
So how are we going to do that?
Right above eyeline, but that's the right word.
So I'm basically like, like a bird it's also known as bird's eye view.
And I like this one.
This one's pretty easy.
Cause I think I'm a bird sometimes when I draw I'm right above things, you know,
Just kind of going back, going back in my mind's eye, ghosting ghosting,
ghosting, drawing through whole arm.
I'm going to move my body.
Ready?
Boom.
You didn't see it, but I move my whole body.
I swear I did.
Drawing through, drawing through, drawing through, drawing through establishing the
silhouette first, the outer shape, but now to make it 3d, boom, cutting right
through, boom cutting right through.
Backside boom, cutting through.
I just went that corner and this imaginary corner I made because I drew through.
2d to 3d.
And then I like to darken the outer edge and the front corners, just so
I know that this is where we are.
Little, little bird, top plane, top.
Now I'm going to tilt.
Next one is tilt.
So here, I'm going to let me start with some verticals here just for fun.
And then I'm going to drug through imagine imaginary banishing point and then go back
to the vanishing point number two, the one in the opposite side of our eye line.
And now I have my sides.
My two sides and the corner, the corner that I'm looking at,
it's more facing towards me.
I almost, for me, I almost do I find a vanishing point second
that's kind of the way I like to approach a sketch perspective.
Obviously, if I wanted to make a more accurate drawing, I would,
I would not do it that way.
Accurate but I mean, make the perspective tighter.
Really more mathematically precise.
I think that's a better way to put it, but you know, we're just practicing here.
We're just doing these nice little warm ups.
Can you see kind of an angle, this is below, there's an eyelines through
that glass you see imaginary box.
Boom.
So that's an example of a diagonal box.
So I want you guys to fill the whole page like this.
And when you get comfortable, you can even like me.
You can even just kind of sketch
freehand without having to draw the long diagonals, that's one way to do it.
But it does help when you're drawing the backside, because these all have to
converge these there's the corners of this side of the box or the face I'll have
to converge at the same vanishing point.
So it does help to drive through in that case.
Same with these corners here, they all have to converge one,
two, three, four points all have to converge to the same one.
This does help a little bit, as we know these are become parallel lines, but
again, this is just sketch perspective.
We have a lot of great lessons in the library too, from some
great teachers like Gary Meyer.
There's one, one of my favorite examples.
If you want to dig deeper into the, the true, more, accurate, more
precise mathematical perspective.
Okay.
So just one way, so you notice I didn't get too deep with the long
diagonal for the sketch though.
Okay.
Next is cylinder.
So the cylinder, same thing.
Page of cylinders.
So that's exercise number one.
Number two is a page of cylinders.
Same thing from, from below eyeline below middle, above, and diagonal.
So what I like to do is I like to start let's see, I'm below this one.
So I like to start with one of the top planes, top face, the top side.
Yeah, I'm going to put myself below this one.
So I'm looking up, here is my eye.
And remember to get this more accurate I want to first find this center.
So I'm going to cut this right down the middle to find my center
line, then to get this center line to work, these ends to work.
I'm going to cut this bottom face in half, make sure I get it a perfect 90 degree.
And that's just sketching.
Then I have this corner, this corner, and I can drag this up,
ghost it up drawing with the whole arm so I can be able to connect.
I can do a quick check and that feels pretty good to know.
I noticed see this corner of my circle is off, so now I can better gage the shape.
So I have one, two, three, four, even sides.
So let's be below.
So I drew through it and I'm gonna, I'm gonna darken.
So I know where, just darken that side or know where I'm at below,
right in the middle, let's see.
For these, I like to
 And for the middle one, what's interesting about this one is that you actually
won't be able to see either side much.
So, first, just to check my perspective, make sure I'm looking good.
Find my center line.
Cut this in half.
Cut this in half.
Make sure it's 90 degrees.
And now I can find the sides sketch them out.
And then I'm gonna darken the corner and the end and notice here I don't
see either face cause I'm right in the middle of the eyeline's here.
I'm right in the middle.
Right.
I don't see either face, but I still draw through because it's
there, the 3d backside is there.
Right.
Was drawing through.
I'm imagining a following this top edge all the way around my cylinder is there.
I find the eyeline above.
So I'm a little bird and I'm above.
So I'm basically real simple, just quickly sketch it in and find my
eyeline  center line, excuse me.
And then cut the face that I see in half.
Look at my first check the  make sure it's 90 degrees.
And then make sure that these look good, they're about even then drawing
through it again, coasting during the whole body helps helps you that they
bring the sides down, sides down.
Next one, it looked like it was there.
I'm checking myself.
See if it's there and now let's tilt these real quick.
So what I'm gonna do here is draw a series of diagonals until I find one
that could be a nice center line.
So like this one.
And what I'm gonna do is I'm going to start with actually the 90 degree.
That's one way to work.
And then fill in my oval.
So notice I went from here 90 degree, and then I made an
oval and now just searching.
I'm really searching.
I'm not committed to an oval or ellipse yet until I get one that
feels has four even quadrants.
And when I get there or at least for sure, this one, this is my center line.
It's the most important.
This thing's going to go this way.
I want to make sure that it feels right.
And then when I, when I get one that I like,
then I kinda darken it.
So do these feel pretty good now what I'm going to do here instead of being even I'm
going to taper it a little bit, meaning it's coming towards me a little bit.
So all I have to do is taper the  taper the sides really.
Do you see that?
Basically taper means get smaller and smaller and smaller.
Right.
Instead of these are even, even, even it's getting a little bit smaller and
these actually go to a vanishing point, this is known as three point perspective.
But again, there'll be a, there'll be a lot of lessons in this library about
perspective and remember to make, to get this to feel right, bring this
down and make sure these two sides are even, so I find the imaginary center
point of the center line, draw the
imaginary line that cuts our bottom side and have to get three quarter.
And what does does is gives us a tilted eye line from here to here.
Actually, since the eye line is above.
So actually eye line would be closer to here actually true perspective.
Darken it, but keeping the backside in mind and darken this top,
just to show you where I'm at.
And also we can go this way as well.
I'm going to go make take our cylinder and go whoop this way.
So going into the paper real quick, I'll show you what that looks like.
And one way I do this is I start with the some diagonals cause really I really
want the sides, really want the sides.
And then one of these diagonals can become my center line.
And to do that, I'm going to make sure that it cuts this circle perfectly
for this ellipse, not a true circle.
It's an ellipse.
And then what I'm gonna do is make sure it cuts it perfectly in half, ghosting it in.
Then I'm going to draw an imaginary line.
That's not ninety degrees.
So that's way off.
Okay.
I got to do more line drawing exercises, right?
Find that.
Make sure these taper or converge.
Gets smaller.
These are going towards the vanishing point and then same thing.
Draw a circle.
That's perfectly cut in half at the center line and then imaginary.
So this is a sketch cylinder in perspective, going away from me, just
going to the face that we're looking at.
So do a page of these going away from you, going up in a way, going down in a way.
Well, your eyeline's above or below in the middle or above.
I remember at the middle.
It's actually, I'm going to just lightly erase.
If you're at the middle, remember you won't see, you only
see the sides and the corner.
You won't see the top plane top face.
And one last thing I want to touch on is the idea of stretching.
Notice how we're able to make cylinders of various links.
Well, let's talk about stretching because if you want to draw a box,
if you want to do a rectangle, it's really same idea here.
It's basically just a box that you ramp you pull, and we'll touch
more on that in later lessons, but you see how I didn't just cap it
here, try and make a nice cube.
Perfect cube.
I'll even size.
I were, I just kept it later at the end.
And we still draw through no matter what the form is, dragged through.
Think of the backside.
And we can even later in lessons, we'll talk more advanced ways to
four.
Okay.
So that's a quick imagination drawing exercise.
starting with our basic shapes.
I want to draw through, draw with your arm, ghosting,
draw your circle, and then imagine this slice of your circle.
Always thinking of the backside.
Same with the, the box.
Taking it to the vanishing point and again, drawing through, drawing
through, and drawing through.
Always want to think of the backside.
And, same with the cylinder.
Remember the cylinder has a center line as well.
And always thinking of the backside.
So we're basically going to take these guys, combine them and, and modified
them to create some basic forms.
So some of the most common household objects, pretty much any object you
draw will, can be made of basic forms.
That's what we're going to demonstrate here.
And for this lesson, I've, I've picked out three household objects
that are very common, very defined.
A cup, a tube of paint, and a hammer.
So I'm going to start with a coffee cup, but before I do that, I want
to talk real quick about pinching,
turning, and bending.
So remember how we were able to use our vanishing point, our eye line
to to draw our forms in perspective.
And I briefly touched on that.
We can also take our square and just basically pull the backside
back to stretch, to go from a square to a long rectangle, for example.
And we can even also do a bend, which becomes very helpful.
And one way to do that, instead of thinking, connecting it in a straight
line, we can connect it in a curve.
So maybe draw a curve and then you can take this remember of the back side
of it, the back face, the back end.
We want to draw through this in this case, pretend like now
it's facing in front of us.
So go from one end to the other and go from this corner to this
corner and sort of follow the curve and follow the curve here.
So really we're just basically following the original curve we had.
And of course you want to draw through, so this corner, this corner, because
the underside, even though we can't see it, it's still there in 3d.
Remember, these are 3d forms.
We're trying to create the illusion of 3d forms.
On 2d paper.
Okay.
That's an example of a bend and of course we can also do it the opposite way.
Instead of going back here, we can take the back face and go there and
then draw a curve, draw a curve.
And you know, if, if you want it to feel like it's going back into space, remember
just to make this smaller remember, they always taper or converge get smaller as
they go back into this space back towards
the vanishing point.
Remember?
So that's one way and the draw through always thinking up under plane,
drawing through, and this is one way we can start to curve and bend.
Same with the cylinder.
And cylinders already naturally taper.
Right.
Drawing through, drawing through, tapering as it goes to towards the vanishing point.
And we can do the same thing.
Let's curve this one this way.
So cylinder pacing here, and then the other face, this face is now here.
So we can just draw a curve.
Oh, well, first let's figure out where that guy is.
Okay.
Now the center line goes right through this.
One's a little bit smaller, so I'm just gonna use a sketch idea.
Then they have to be precise and perfect and just follow the curves as best as
I can in this case, I'm tapering it.
So it's a tapered cylinder that they both start to face the same direction.
And then sometimes I like to draw
the cross sections or the slices.
Remember how we sliced a little tomato there, a cube.
And even this guy, we can stretch it to make an oval.
You see that go from circle to oval
or egg even.
So that's just a quick idea of stretching and bending your basic form.
You don't necessarily have to keep them.
You don't have to drop boxes, boxes, boxes, you can draw rectangles and you
don't have to draw straights all the time.
You can use curves to connect the front face and the back side.
Yes.
All right.
So now let's construct same shapes, same ideas, same techniques, and we're going
to construct the household objects.
So I'm going to start with a cup.
So here I have a reference of a cup, basic coffee cup.
And when I look at the cup, I see cylinder, I think is pretty obvious.
If you look at the, the part where you pour your coffee or pour your
liquid is clearly a cylinder and this one looks very obvious a cylinder.
Now the only thing in question would be the handle.
And to me, the handle, really, at least the coffee cups that I usually drink
they're basically cylinders, right.
With a bend.
I mean, this could even be a coffee cup.
You see that or a handle.
I'm just going to approach it as that one basic cylinder and
then one cylinder with a bend.
Okay.
So let's start with, so I'm going to start by just drawing my top ghosting
drawing through, and then I'm going to kind of cut right down the middle.
So divide this into two even halves.
And then I'm going to divide the top, the opening of the coffee cup
also into two upper and lower halves.
Now I look at this and I feel it's pretty good.
It's pretty good in terms of they're pretty even.
So I'm going to put my center line there and then this, I
don't have to commit to yet.
I'm still like in the ghosting kind of sketchy stage.
And then I'm going to draw a line straight down, straight down,
and this doesn't taper too much.
It does.
We we've done only two point perspective, but in reality, the
real in, in nature, there's multiple.
Vanishing points and this one has a three point perspective.
So it does eventually taper, but that's for, there's much
more detailed perspective lessons in the library as well.
So now I have to do is close my coffee cup, kind of, kind of look at my reference
to see how far, how tall my coffee cup is.
And, and again, I'm going to draw the under where the cup resting on the
table, but I'm going to drop through.
It's not a flat form.
I'm thinking of the backside.
Draw through there, draw through there.
And I want to feel confident about these quadrants.
Now I know that, Oh, the sides are about here.
You see that?
So this one feels pretty good.
And also this one has a little foot, it's basically the part
where it rests on the table.
It's a ceramic coffee mug and the opening.
You can think of the opening as well as It was a curved little cylinder.
Okay.
This is my body of my coffee cup.
Now the tricky part is this guy.
So what I'm doing is I start with the, the actually the center line,
the center line, see that center line.
And again, drawing from my whole arm, not doing this.
Drawing through a mushy kind of cutting right through the middle.
And I'm imagining where the, this makes contact with the, with
the actual, the body of the mug.
So I'm picturing it kind of like that, where this bottom half, this top one
will make contact kind of like that.
Because it's behind us, but we can still drive through.
We can still imagine it.
And then our audience we're able to see it as well.
And so now remember how we just connect the curve.
This is a straight, so now we can just connect the two
openings with the curved line.
And I know you may this part is covered up by another of our objects, but
actually I made my too far, I used too much gesture almost so let me
let me bring that back, starts to look a little cartoony or unnatural.
Too stylized like the cartoon.
I want to bring it back to realism.
And I noticed this one has a little bit of a straightened.
It kind of kind of bends down a little bit.
Some was perpendicular or along the same as parallel to the center
line, the horizontal center, but kind of, kind of dips down.
I want to make that little fatter, cause I think this ends a little
bit bigger than the bottom end.
I think I'm not quite sure, at least not from the reference.
And I'm going to connect this point
here and here where the center meets and just kind of bring it
down to where the center of this.
Meats.
And again, just sketch perspective.
With practice you'll be able to get these, especially if you do the
curve exercises, be able to make your curves look really, really good.
So that's pretty much right there.
One thing I like to do too, is sometimes I'd like to draw the
cross sections just so I know that.
Sort of, if it's a check to myself so that I make sure that cylinder
is nice and consistent throughout, and then if I want, I can darken,
take another pencil pretty much darken
the parts of the cup, the, the outer side, you know, remember we started with
2d shapes and focus on the silhouette.
Sometimes I like to reinforce the silhouette.
And make that a little bit more clear.
Because right now the silhouette has the same thickness as the
construction drawing underneath.
So there's my little coffee cup.
It's basically a cylinder with a curve cylinder.
Okay.
The next object I'm going to draw is the tube of paint.
And this one is it's a little bit interesting because it kind of has
a flat top and a curved bottom.
So I definitely see the cylinder.
I don't know if you guys see that, especially the the cap, we're looking
at it upside down here in the reference.
So it starts as a curve, but then it kind of pinches.
So what that tells me is it's a cylinder that becomes almost  you close the top.
So imagine if you had like, the inside of a paper towel, that
little thing at the top of a paper towel inside or toilet paper roll.
And you just squeeze, that's kind of exactly what's happening here.
So it's basically a cylinder with a pinched top.
So, let's start with the, since it's cylinder, let's
start with the center line.
And then I'm going to kind of ghost in where the cap is and then where the,
the cylinder of the the bottom edge, the bottom cylinder of the of the  I'm
going to make that a little bigger, the bottom edge of the  the tube right
here, and then I'm just gonna draw it.
I'm gonna pretend like at the moment that it's the top, hasn't been pinched
and notice that I'm putting my whole body into this line.
Get a nice, beautiful, long, beautiful, straight so definitely review those
exercises to get that dexterity.
And I'm going to continue to build down and fill the cylinder because it's pretty
much  remember the eye level is pretty much even right in the middle of it.
So it doesn't taper that much.
I'm basically drawing the cap, which is another cylinder and the part
where the cap meets the body of the tube of paint is another cylinder.
So we did that many, many times and hopefully you did your page.
Okay so now here's the interesting part.
To me, we could really complete this drawing just by doing this at the end,
because what we really want to do is to describe what's happening, the change
we need that  the next element, which we'll come to in another lesson in
another clip is the light and shadow.
So what I'm going to do is just basically create a straight and again,
I'm going to drop through again.
And this one is interesting.
Remember how I drew these concentric rings or the cross sections?
This one, I'm going to have the cross sections too, but they're actually there
in the form of the rings and the label.
You see those black rings on the label?
The label on this tube of paint, and I'm just going to basically draw them
there and to make this more realistic, obviously you can erase out, but I'm
going to leave that there, just to stress, a point that we do draw through
and we do consider the backside, which makes our drawing feel threedimensional.
Again, again, again, worth repeating again.
It's a nice pinch.
And then I'm just going to quickly draw that circle for
there, where that label is.
You don't have to go too deep.
That's more of a detail in the form, but this looks interesting to me.
So put that in there.
So this is the bottom of the label and the reason why I put that label there is
because these rings act as a cross section
tell me, tell the story that this is a 3d form.
All right.
So that's a quick tube of paint.
It's basically a cylinder kind of like what we did here.
It's almost simpler than what we had here of the, because of the curve, but we had
a tricky little part where it pinched.
Okay.
Our less object is the hammer.
So I'm looking at the hammer and the reference here.
And to me, I see three forms.
I see three forms.
I see a cylinder.
I see a rectangle, which is a box, a box at the head cylinder, cylinder,
and a modified box at the claw part of the hammer, the backside of the hammer.
So let's talk about how we can tackle that.
Let's start with the body.
So obviously the long body is what's kind of a it's all box,
actually, even the handle.
So let me do do that.
Remember how we took a box and turned into a long rectangle, so let's do that.
So I'm going to start
I don't want to go too far here.
So this may be the top of the hammer here.
I'm gonna go there and kind of draw the vanishing points.
These will go to a vanishing point and these go to a vanishing point, obviously.
So that's a nice long box.
Before, before we add some more detail, let's talk about the, the
head of the hammer, which to me is a box is clearly a box here and
there's a curve leading to the claw.
We'll talk about that in a minute.
There's a couple of ways we can approach that.
And there's a little bit of a taper, kind of remember a taper
means it converges, or gets smaller in one end, bigger in one end.
And this box also has a vanishing point.
Remember this same vanishing point actually is this one.
So let's try to keep that consistent.
It doesn't have to be perfect cause it's again, that's a more, many more detail
detailed lessons cover that, but the perspective part, but in sketch when
we're practicing form, we just want to keep that in mind and notice how my body
is actually moving my entire hand here.
And the, the head are those the face, the smasher part.
I don't know what else to call it.
It's basically a cylinder.
It's a multiple cylinder kind of gets bigger at one and
just like what we did here.
So find the center goes to the vanishing point over here.
Okay.
Get that, get that 90 degree so that I know where and actually, that one part
is actually just a little bit bigger.
So I'm just going to draw another ring free hand there.
And then what I'm going to do is go back to the vanishing point at
the end, and then it has a nice
 and I'm going to draw it through.
So draw through, draw through basically a cylinder.
It's a tight little cylinder drawing through and then is a curve connection.
And that's really all there is to it.
Now there's more detail in the shape of this and more new, new ones,
more subtleties to, but we'll get to that in the later lesson, that's
pretty much the basics of the head.
Now the claw.
Oh, before we get to the call, let's touch on the handle because
the handle is really simple.
We're pretty much done with the handle.
There's one tiny detail really, or two that we need to address.
And that's how it goes from a very obvious rectangle shape, right, and it kind
of tapers in the middle a little bit.
I don't know if you guys can see that.
And then there's that end or that corner where the rubber handle is.
Now it becomes a little bit curved, right?
So it kind of does this kind of thing.
So what we're going to do, and it's not quite a cylinder, as
you can see, it's not quite that.
What we're going to do is kind of go somewhere between, I'm kind of
gonna go and I'm going to  notice how it kind of bulges in the middle.
I'm just going to kind of go somewhere between not quite a cylinder, not quite
a rectangle, it's somewhere in between.
And you could see it at the bottom, how it's not a square anymore.
Right.
It's more of a curve in the lips.
And it's not the ellipse of a circle.
It's actually the ellipse of an oval shape.
It's not a perfect circle.
There's the handle.
And then there's one nuance or one subtlety is that it
doesn't go all the way through.
Notice around here it pinches and it tapers back down.
So I'm just going to do that.
See that kind of pinches tape back down, and actually where
it, it starts to curve up,
it's also a good area to put a cross section.
Well it's actually not a perfect circle.
I'm trying to draw a perfect circle, which making my drawing a little
bit weird, a little bit funky.
It's more, it's more like this, huh?
Or something like that.
Just a curve rectangle.
There you go.
And then let me suggest that in the back, that's just a nice, subtle detail.
It makes our hammer or the handle feel much more realistic and cool.
More accurate for sure.
Now the last thing is the curve of that claw.
So it's like a little claw.
So how can we do that?
This is a couple of ways we can think of it as a cylinder.
It might be the best way actually think of it as a long, big old cylinder.
And then we just cut a little section out of it, right?
Could be the best way.
So let's look at it from top view.
So this is the.
The hammer here and then we just take the cylinder and then cut into it.
Right?
That's probably the best way to do that.
Actually let's do that.
I was also going to suggest we take a box, we can take a box or it's a long rectangle
like this, and then we can just curve it.
That'd be a great way too actually, huh?
Actually lets do that.
And then the claw part, we just kind of find the middle of it.
And then sort of, halfway or near halfway, this probably would be
a halfway of this, of this curve a little bit closer to the head.
We just coop, coop, cut into it like that.
And of course there's a, there's a form now there's a, the top side of it now.
And we always want to draw through, I think I like this idea better.
There's lots of ways we could handle this, but I like that better.
I'm going to keep that on there.
Okay.
So let's do that.
Let's draw a box, pinch it at the end and then bend it.
Okay.
Do want me to start with a box?
My rectangle form is actually same height as the head, the head of the hammer.
So to find the bottom, we just find a corner right here, and draw it through in
perspective, going to the vanishing point.
So there's the corner right there, roughly this guy.
And instead of I'm going back, I'm going to perfect the curve.
It it's a little bit too curvy, curbe it back and the bottom side, we can't
see it, but we, you can draw it in our, in our drawing draw through,
and then I'm going to close it at the end and that becomes a form.
Then we take the top side.
Basically come down a little bit.
I'm looking at the referencing how thick this claw is.
Top face of it.
That feels about right, right there.
It's a little bit of a thickness.
There's no need to measure, be super accurate.
I'm just kind of going you know, it's roughly aligned with the center of this
head or one of the  close to, to the, to the head, aligned with the head.
So that's where I'm going to start.
And then bring it back down.
So this is just basically taking this guy, pinching it, shoot the curving at
the same time and then find the center.
So it's from here to here to roughly the center would be
right here and curve it through.
And this should lead to the center of where the the center
line of the cylinder here.
And then but a little bit past halfway, make a little cut.
Make little cut.
Basically draw a line from the center, not towards the center here, but a little
bit down to make that V shape opening, see that little Vshape opening and then
draw it and suggest the face, top face.
Now the claw, and I can even erase a little bit so you can see it better.
There it is.
Now I'm going to take a thicker, darker pencil and really nail down the outline.
I'm not going to draw  I'm not going to erase the construction lines, which would
make it all this work we did, which would make it feel more realistic and cool.
But I'm gonna leave those up there for now and just sort of draw the
front facing corners like here, front facing corner there, the overlapping
corner there, the outer edge of the handle, outer edge of the handle.
And then
and then this little corner here.
So as you can see, that's pretty much a nice drawing of
a hammer using the basic forms.
And as you can see we're able to take what, everything we learned, the 3d
drawing and create a little bit more complex forms, just stuff found around
the house and you can draw anything, you don't have to draw these objects, but it
just shows you how you can take the basic forms, turn them into pretty much anything
you want and even draw from imagination.
So that's the end of this lesson.
And then later we'll get into how to make these feel even more real
by using value, light and shadow.
Transcription not available.
Reference Images (4)
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1. Introduction to 3D Forms4m 39sNow playing...
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2. Learning Recommendation24s

3. Drawing Boxes in Perspective6m 59s

4. Tilting boxes in Perspective2m 20s

5. Drawing the Cylinder in Perspective8m 48s

6. Drawing the Sphere in Perspective5m 1s

7. Drawing Simple Forms from Imagination15m 23s

8. Drawing Household Objects26m 32s

9. Assignment24s
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