- Lesson details
In this series, you will learn how to create your own ecorché sculpture from scratch with artistic anatomist, Rey Bustos. In this eighth lesson of the series, Rey will go over the application of the thigh and gluteal muscles, as well as show you how to begin adding details to the skull.
- Art Alternatives Armature (Aluminum) Wire – 1/8″ Inch
- 24 Gauge Steel Wire
- Super Sculpey Clay – Original Beige
- Shop Cloth
- Super Sculpey (II or III) Chocolate
- Zap-a-Gap Super Glue – Medium CA+
- Baking Soda
- Electrical Tape
- Circular Wooden Base
- Small Wooden Clay Tools
- X-Acto Knife
- Flexible Metal Modeling Palette
- Petroleum Jelly
- Staple Gun
- Krylon Color Master Spray Paint – Almond
- Needle Nose Pliers
- Slip Lock Pliers
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What we are going to be doing this time
is now that we’ve finished the leg we’re
going to be moving up above the knee, which
is going to be the thigh and the gluteal muscles.
And we’re going to start detailing that skull a little bit more.
Isn’t it nice to just have the freedom to kind of play around with that skull a little
bit as we get better and better at sculpting this, putting the muscles on.
Let’s get to doing that.
the gluteal muscles, the butt muscles.
What I’m going to show you is just a couple of different little tools
that I am including in this session.
If you don’t have like a brayer like this, a roller, you can use a big marker or something
that you could just roll the clay out like this.
I also have my chopping tool just a little piece of flat metal.
You don’t need to have a certain specific thing like this,
but if you have something like this.
You don’t need anything that’s fancy like that, just something that will chop.
Here is my clay again.
And, of course, my Vaseline.
So, because we’re doing the thigh muscles, of course we need to get this bone, the femur
ready with the Vaseline so it will stick.
Even a little bit on the head of the fibula because you’re going to have muscles that
will attach there.
Same thing with the patella.
A little bit on the inside part of the tibia.
I hope you can see this but all I’m doing is getting a bunch of clay on here.
Even on the ischial tuberosity.
That’s right, I said ischial with a hard K sound.
There we go.
You can see our leg muscles from the last sessions are looking good.
Let’s do it.
Now, unlike the leg muscles, when we do the thigh and gluteal muscles,
I like to do those in groups.
I’ll show you what I mean.
For any of you that ever go to the gym you’ll know exactly what I mean.
We’re going to start with the adductor group.
The adductors actually start with a very deep muscle group called the iliopsoas, the iliacus
and psoas major.
These are muscles that are actually tucked in here so I’m not going to be too noodly
about this because, in fact, you won’t see these on any model.
It’s just not possible.
But, the reason I have a hole right here on the abdominal support is because the muscles
comes out of there, and it will end up on the lesser trochanter.
If you could see its path it goes from here.
It goes over the edge of this pelvis using it like a fulcrum, and it goes back there
so when you contract that it lifts the leg up.
Sometimes it’s called the dancer’s muscle.
People that know yoga or Pilates oftentimes know this group of muscles.
You won’t see much of this on a person but it’s necessary for us to do this because
it would leave a big hole here if we didn’t.
Do you see how I’m pulling that out?
It’s the coolest thing, cracks me up.
I’m just going to break some of this off because I don’t need to
use as much as there really is.
We use this muscle quite a bit, but if you happen to have a cow handy, you’ll notice
that it doesn’t use that very much.
It doesn’t do Pilates or yoga or anything, so that muscle, the iliopsoas, that group
of muscles aren’t used that much.
The psoas muscle is what we call—if you’re at a restaurant—filet mignon.
It’s actually shaped like this; it’s nice and round.
On cows they don’t use it much so it’s usually very, very tender and lean.
That’s why a chef will oftentimes wrap it with bacon.
Okay, so there is that.
There is the iliopsoas.
It’s not real accurate, but there is a lot of muscle here.
The reason why I’m saying it’s not accurate is because it doesn’t need to be.
You need to know that the muscles start at the lumbar vertebrae, all five of them, and
on the ilium—that’s the ilicus part—and it goes back to the lesser trochanter.
How do you like that?
It helps lift the knee and then the rest of the muscles I’m going to put on here are
They bring the knees together, the muscles that help keep you on your horse.
They’re attached to the back of the femur on the linea aspera right in here.
See that line?
It’s not much of one here because we just kind of block that in.
But, basically they just do this.
They create the whole inside look of your leg.
I’m just going to put a big mass here.
Obviously, I’ll reduce it where I need to, but this clay is very soft.
It’s like bubble gum.
That’s the pelvis right over here, and they will end up kind of like this.
One of them is called the gracilis.
I’m going to actually draw them out for you.
What I’m doing is I’m actually blocking out the whole muscle group and then separating
them as if I was doing a drawing.
This is the whole group together.
There is one, the gracilis, that will come in a little more like that.
It’s just kind of a roughed out version of those muscles, so I’m just going to kind
of leave it like this.
The neat thing about this is to see where it attaches onto the femur,
which is right back here.
That’s a big bubble muscle.
On a cadaver you’re going to notice that this space is very empty.
I’m making it fuller because it’ll look better.
We’re accounting for the fact that there is no skin or subcutaneous fat on this ecorché,
so we need to basically fill it out a little bit more.
Athletes talk about pulling their groin muscles, actually these muscles right in here, right
at the very base of the groin where the genitals would be.
It’s the gracilis muscle and the adductor longus.
Now, I’m going to fill this out just a little bit more because there is a little hole there
and I need to plug that up because that’s where the pectineus muscle is.
Okay, so what I’m going to now is—that’s them as a group.
See how much nicer and easier it is to do them as a group?
But, what I’m going to do now is I’m going to draw what will look like a rectangle first.
That’s this one.
That’s the pectineus.
It’s got a silent P by the way, iliopsoas.
Pectineus, then there is a triangle or a cone.
You want to just go and use basic shapes.
It’ll be kind of like this.
Now, I’m going a little bit farther than it really does go because all of this is going
to disappear and you’re not going to see that.
Basically, what you’re going to see is above my finger.
The pectineus, adductor longus, and gracilis.
The gracilis is like a big belt.
It’s also like if you look at your jeans, it’s the inseam.
It’s an easy way for you to remember where that muscle is.
It’s the inseam of your pants, it’s going to be the gracilis.
And I’m not going to detail anything right now.
I’m going to leave it like that.
That’s enough for right now.
I might separate those just a little bit more.
My rubber tip tool is pretty handy for that.
How do you like them apples?
I’m rounding this off because it’s too almost like brick to brick.
It’s too harsh.
I want to make it a little bit rounder, a little bit softer.
Do you see that?
I’m going to leave it like this, and I think this is going to be okay.
I like that.
Now you can see what they do.
When these muscles contract they pull your knees together.
So for those people that ride bareback on a horse, and a lot of ancient people did,
their adductor muscles were incredibly strong pulling their legs together like that.
Down here I’m not going to be as concerned about
because the quadriceps will cover all this up.
Okay, so those are the adductors.
They’re attached to the back of the femur, and one of them, the gracilis, will be all
the way down to the tibia.
I’m going to add just a little bit more.
There is a congregation of tendons down here that creates like a bubble of muscle, so I’m
going to put just a little bit of that already so I can blend everything else in.
It’s called the pes anserinus.
Again, toma-to, to-mah-to.
It’s a congregation of muscles that kind of like meets and congregates here.
Merges like a bunch of freeways.
I live in Los Angeles so I know about freeways.
They all merge in this little area and creates like a bubble.
I call it the tendinous bubble because I’ve never really seen it as a goose’s foot.
It’s a Latin word for goose’s foot, but I don’t see that.
I just call it the tendinous bundle.
The tendinous bundle is really neat because you can see how very clearly on most of my
models, and you can definitely see on little kids—as a matter of fact, that’s what
kind of like their knees really don’t touch.
The pes anserinus on both sides touch, the tendinous bundles.
Okay, so that’s that.
Now what I’m going to do is I’m going to put—now which ones—because I could
go in different directions.
The hamstrings or the flexors of the back of the leg, the ones that help bend your knee
I’m going to do this again as like a big bundle.
I’m going to split them up because they have two tendinous areas down here that creates
those indentations on the back of your knee.
What I’m going to try to do is try to show you that more than anything else.
I’m just making like the general shape of the back of your thigh.
Now, to be a true hamstring it has to be attached to this point right there.
That’s the tuberosity, the ischial tuberosity.
There are only 3 muscles that actually attach there.
The biceps femoris long head—not the short head—semitendinosus and the one underneath
all of those, semimembranosus.
Kind of like when told you about the gastrocnemius—two heads on top of one—
there are two heads on top of one here.
I’m going to also do the biceps femoris short head first because it’s on its own
and it’s on a hamstring muscle.
It shares a tendon with the biceps femoris long head, but it attaches lower.
It attaches over here on the femur, so I’m just going to leave this right in here.
I’m blending it because it’s not important.
If I do this part accurately it’s going to get covered up.
It’s this part down here I want to get a little bit cleaner.
It’s going to share a tendon that’s goes right to the head of the fibula, right above
the peroneal muscles.
I’m going to leave it like this for right now, just for right now
until I put the other hamstrings on.
I’ve noticed that when Leonardo draws this muscle he always draws it like a big pastry,
like a Twinkie.
It’s like a big kielbasa on the side of the knee.
He always exaggerates that one.
It’s kind of interesting.
He might have just liked that muscle.
I know I do that with the teres major.
Anatomists end up having favorite muscles.
I also love the serratus anterior.
Now I’m like, you know, it’s nerdy talk.
Okay, there is that.
I’m going to just group these all together and just kind of carve them out.
Make it smoother.
Just caress it, knead it like it’s a little pet.
You’re just caressing this little animal.
This is going to go way down low.
It’s the semitendinosus and semimembranosus.
It all kind of goes that way.
If you need to get more specific you could go page by page in your anatomy books, but
I like to just teach it the way I’m teaching it right now, which is I just group them together.
This is what you’re going to see on the model anyway.
You’re going to see a lot of separateness.
This muscles tend to ball up together when you pull your foot up toward your butt.
I’m going to break that off like that.
Now it’s time to separate them.
Basically, it’s like this.
These will merge, these two muscles.
This is the biceps femoris short head, biceps femoris long head.
There is going to be a tendon that I’m going to put on here for these two muscles to share.
It’ll be on this long ridge right in here.
All of this here is going to be tendinous.
I’m going to break that off.
There, like that.
This is a semitendinosus which is also part of the pes anserinus group,
so I’m going to do that.
Now I’m going to put a clef all the way down the middle like right in here that separates
some of these muscles.
I’m going to actually have to explain something to you.
This is the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris long head.
I do need to alter a little bit of this though.
I need to carve a little bit of this out.
The semimembranosus is very interesting.
It’s underneath both of these muscles.
It’s underneath both of these.
I need to carve this out so it looks like it is, in fact, underneath and not side by side.
That’s it right there.
Now this looks like it’s on to of it, and it should.
I also need to make sure that this looks like it’s split and round like a shotgun.
This is also semimembranosus back here.
You have a nice big fat pad behind your knee as well.
This is also part of the semimembranosus.
This one and this one.
Then they go to the pes anserinus.
See how much easier this is if you just kind of block it out first and then carve it out.
It’s a little bit easier, and this is the way you need to understand it on the body anyway.
You don’t need anymore.
I’m tucking this in so it looks like this is rolling on top of a semimembranosus.
How do you like them apples?
Little by little it starts coming together.
It’s looking good.
That’s back of the thigh muscles.
The tendon for the biceps femoris is pretty important, so I’m going to make this substantial
muscle here—or tendon.
This really blends in quite a bit.
I’m going to try and show them.
I’m not sure if I can but I’m going to try.
I’m flattening this tendon out because I want it to be a little bit flatter than what
I’m also making it purposely a lot longer than I need because I’m going to break it
off at the head of the fibula.
This joins both these heads to the head of the fibula because I put Vaseline on there.
It should break off.
The thing I don’t like about it is that it’s not very straight, so I’m going to
try to straighten it out.
There, that looks pretty good.
The biceps femoris tendon makes a line with the peroneal muscles like that.
I’m going to blend this in just a little bit more.
Try to straighten that out.
It’s important to try to keep as best you can some of these straight because it’ll
look better and cleaner.
Let’s see, where is my rubber tip tool?
Okay, so those are the flexors or the hamstrings or the hammys, whatever you call them.
There is a huge muscle call the adductor magnus and it would show up a little bit over here.
I’m just going to fill this out over here a little bit more.
It’s a huge muscle.
I just want to put a little bit of clay right there.
Just fill that out but later on it’s going to get, all this is going to get covered up.
The adductor magnus is one of those muscles you rarely see unless somebody is really doing
some kind of scissor step and they’re really pretty defined.
The muscles that I’m telling you are going to be the ones that I think you’re going
to see and you should learn.
The biceps femoris long head and short head and the semitendinosus, these two back here
that kind of create almost like a shotgun looking thing.
Those are definitely necessary.
I’m just going to comb this out just to make it look a little bit more like it’s
These muscle fibers go into the femur like that.
Okay, so now we can do the quadriceps.
I think I wrote quadriceps like a U before, but it’s quadri, with an ‘I’.
There are certain things that as I’m writing sometimes I write the wrong letter down.
You’re going to find that there is a lot of anatomical muscles are US or IS.
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, you know, all of these things.
Some of them are U, some of them are I. Gastrocnemius is a U.
Okay, so watch this big teardrop.
It’s almost like a water balloon.
Little by little it’s becoming a big teardrop.
Little by little I’m making a teardrop.
Imagine that teardrop as being blown in the wind that way so you can see them pulling
it more towards that side.
I’m also trying to keep it really even so that the sides are nice and soft and not so messy.
And you can kind of see—one of the quadriceps, only one, is going to be attached to the pelvis.
There is just a little spot left on the pelvis for that.
That’s rectus femoris.
There is vastus intermedius which is underneath all of these.
That’s the 4th quadriceps.
If you’ve ever wondered that it’s named quadriceps, but our teachers only mention
This point is going to be in that little empty spot.
That’s the rectus femoris.
That’s the only one that’s attached to the pelvis.
The rest of the quadriceps attach from the femur, and they cross over the patella.
It becomes a patellar ligament.
It’s all the same connective tissue.
It’s just the quadriceps tendon.
It’s called the tendon because it’s muscle to bone, and tendon connects muscle to bone.
The patella to the tibia is bone to bone, so that same piece of connective tissue changes
What I’m also looking at, everybody, is the side view.
Vastus lateralis is going to be attached to the great trochanter, so I need to be pretty
good about looking at this in the round.
Okay, I like it.
I think it’s going in a good direction.
What I’m doing, though, is just kind of caressing it.
You just kind of caress it and give it that little TLC, tender loving care, here it is.
Just TLC it for a little bit.
This is going to land and touch the patella.
This needs to be long enough to touch the pelvis.
I’m going to push it up into that area.
That is quite beautiful if you ask me.
Remember the teardrop.
I’m just going to pause for a second because I want you to see that I’m going to be wrapping
this around the leg.
I’m also looking to see what the shape of it should be.
This is going to come back, and I need to fill this out more so that I can see that
I just don’t have enough here.
I need to pull that and make sure it behaves like that.
Like that, like that.
Make sure it sticks too.
I’m pushing it.
I don’t want to see any gaps there, so be really careful.
There shouldn’t be any big gaping holes.
All the muscles are pretty tightly packed liked sardines.
And then what I’m going to do is those three major quadriceps is I’m going to separate them.
Now that I have the big lump of clay now I can actually reduce and separate.
I’m going to draw a line because the rectus femoris does this.
It does this, does this, and it comes to this point about three-quarters of the way down
and it ends.
Over here it does this and it ends.
These muscles are underneath.
I’m going to push them in.
Do you see what I’m doing?
I’m pushing and pushing and pushing them in to make them look like now the rectus femoris
is on top of them.
This is also what I call the Captain America muscle.
On superheroes they always really augment that and in action figures too.
What I’m doing is I’m pushing the vastus lateralis in, maybe even reducing and taking
Now, a neat thing about the rectus femoris, it’s a bipennate muscle.
Penna means feather, so it looks like a feather.
It’s a split muscle and it’s got a really nice little crease down the middle like this.
Just like a feather.
It’s going to resemble a feather.
The bodybuilder guys get huge, these two look like two muscles.
These two sides will look like each one is its own muscle.
It’s really, really amazing to see that.
On very fit models it’ll look like it is too as well.
You’ll see a nice crease down the center of that muscle.
And because it’s a feather, I’m going to put the muscle fibers going up like this
like a feather, like there are arrows pointing up.
These muscles come this way.
The muscle fibers go towards the patella.
I know it’s a little scratchy.
It’s just the way I work.
And then this is the vastus medialis.
It also has a band that kind of pulls on it creating this bubble.
This bubble that kind of pulls on this right in here.
I’m going to show you a little bit.
It’s part of the iliotibial band, which I’m going to do shortly.
At rest the vastus medialis oftentimes looks like it has a little bit of a pull, like a
piece of tape strapped across your knee, and it kind of pulls on it like that.
So I’m just going to do that.
I know that there is a lot of tendons that will connect here, but I’m going to leave
it like this with just that muscle color at least for now until I decide if I’m going
to do that with you.
But do you see how it’s looking now?
Isn’t that pretty?
It’s the human machine kids.
Those are three major muscles, the ones that are going to be visible.
I’m going to start with the gluteus medius, which you could barely see on a cadaver.
In our artistic anatomy books we show a lot more.
I learned that the hard way.
I learned that by just going to the cadaver labs.
My friend, the doctor friend that facilitates the lab for me, he says, “When I look at
your drawings, Rey, and a lot of the artistic anatomy books, you always just show way too
much gluteus medius.
It’s just the way we learned it.
I think it’s because it’s so visible for us.
Even though this muscle gets covered up in large part by the gluteus maximus.
It’s what I call transparency of form.
It just means this muscle pops through even though there is something on top of it.
We can see it as artists so we oftentimes exaggerate it when we draw it in our books
including Rey’s Anatomy, including my book.
It’s like a fan.
Oftentimes, I’ve seen this on lean models.
I’m going to tell you something about the gluteus medius.
Oftentimes, you’ll look at the model—and it’s almost always males because they have
less fat in this area—what you’ll see is almost what appears to be fingers.
That’s because there is a lot of bundling, almost like parts to that muscle.
I’m going to do the same thing and just kind of split it.
A lot of times it looks like a paw, and that’s the way I’m going to show it to you.
It’s attached to the great trochanter so that when it contracts it abducts your legs.
It’s the opposite of your adductors.
Okay, so far so good, eh?
Now, the gluteus maximus.
That’s the muscle you guys knew from the time you were in second grade.
This one I do until it looks right.
What we have to account for is the fat.
There is a lot of subcutaneous fat around the butt, and there is a strap that holds
the butt up.
The gluteal strap.
All sorts of stuff that make it bigger and fuller and rounder.
We’re going to have to account for that to make this look nice.
The actual cadaver gluteus maximus, it doesn’t look good at all.
We need the fat to make it look nice.
We have to account for that.
The gluteus maximus surrounds the great trochanter, and that’s what I’m going to do here.
I’m trying to take a bite out of that.
Surprisingly, the gluteus maximus comes down much lower than most people know.
I’m going to take off a lot of this, just too much.
I don’t want to cover too much of the gluteus medius even though I’m used to that, and
you’re used to seeing it fuller in your anatomy books.
I’m going to try to keep it a little more accurate, which is you don’t see a lot of it.
This is attached to the sacrum.
There is a little piece of it that actually goes into the body, and it’s attached to
That’s a detail that starts getting too much, too much information can make it a little
bit more challenging.
This muscle drops down lower than you would think.
In the living form there is a strap that holds it up nicely, and that’s about here.
That’s what makes your butt look nice and round when you’re young.
When you are young that strap is still really doing a good job.
As you get older it starts to loosen up, and your butt drops to about the back of your knees.
There we go.
There we go.
I’m just smoothing it out just for aesthetics.
Just caress it like it’s a little pet.
This comes down a lot lower than you think.
That’s actually going to be attached to the tibia, believe it or not.
I’m also going to reduce this because there is just too much muscle here.
There, that’s looking pretty good.
I can adjust that in a little bit.
The last muscle of the gluteal group is the gluteus minimus.
There are all sorts of muscles underneath here, but nothing that you need to concern
It’s always hidden in the iliotibial tract, but artistic books always show it fully as
if it’s out of its little sleeve.
That’s the tensor fasciae latae or TFL.
Some of you who work out or are a physical therapist or anything like that, you’ll
know this muscle.
It’s the one that, you know, I show my students like if I put my hands in my pocket it starts
at my belt and goes into my pocket.
Anything that starts at my belt and goes into my pocket when I bend my knee up
I get creases right there.
That muscle, this muscle will bent.
It goes to about the same point as the gluteal strap.
That is a highly variable muscle.
I’ve seen that really tiny where you can barely see it.
I’ve seen it really huge, but I’m going to blend it in to this muscle here because
I’m going to actually put the iliotibial tract or iliotibial band on there.
And that’s what I needed the roller for and also the regular Sculpey.
Get this about as thin as you can get away with.
Try not to get all of this stuff in there like I did.
That is going to attach, the gluteus maximus, tensor fasciae—it actually goes all the
way up to the ileum.
This is going to be the iliotibial band or the iliotibial tract.
It’s actually really strong connective tissue.
On a cadaver I like to actually put my hand, my fingers in between the vastus lateralis
right in here, and the iliotibial band and then pull it up and show my students how thing
it is by how strong it is.
It’s almost like packing tape.
It’s really beautiful and strong.
It’s very thin.
It wraps around and it goes into where the femur is.
It’s attached to the femur.
It surrounds the leg but on the side it’s very thick.
In all of your anatomy books you’re going to see the iliotibial tract.
More often than not, that anatomist you’re looking at—his or her book—will end it
usually where I’m going to end it now.
We all have to make that decision.
Where are we going to put the iliotibial band.
It does go all the way up to the ileum, but you can’t cover up all these pretty muscles,
so we usually make an artistic decision to end it.
The bottom part is really important so I want to make sure that I’m not cutting this too short.
It’s getting good.
I’m trying to make this a really long strip so that I can reduce it when I need too.
It’s getting close to being perfect.
Once I see it I will show you and you can do the same thing.
Basically, it’s this big, long connective tissue.
It acts kind of like a tendon, but it’s really not a tendon.
I’m going to need to cut it all around here and here.
Let’s see if I’m getting close.
I’m trying to get it to the great trochanter.
Enough for this.
Okay, I’m looking at it.
See where the great trochanter is, where the tensor fasciae is, that’s the bottom part of it.
It needs to go all the way down to the tibia.
I think that’s pretty good.
I want to cut it off about here.
Now what I’m going to do is blend it into the tensor fascia and vice versa into the
great trochanter and blend it into the gluteus maximus.
Like that, like that, like that.
This is really strong.
I’m going to show it as such.
It goes all the way too this area.
I’m going to break it off right there.
It blends right in.
You can see this on the living model.
Not that the thickness of it because it’s actually going to be much thinner, but this
part right in here, the front view.
You’ll see the iliotibial tract.
I’m just giving this a once over, and then I’ll do a little bit more with the skull,
as I promised.
You’ve got to just keep playing around with the skull, okay.
You know, I have it handy.
That’s the whole key, everybody.
It’s that we work on this and the skull is just waiting for us to do a little bit more.
We have the luxury of time because we’re working up the muscles like this.
That’s looking pretty darn good.
That’s the iliotibial tract or band.
It could be just a little bit thinner.
I’m almost afraid of doing this, but I might have to, and that’s cutting this just a
little bit thinner and seeing if I can get away with it.
I think I might have been able to do that.
At least I hope so.
There, that iliotibial tract or band—either one is fine.
I call it the iliotibial band or IT band.
I’m going to make it really strong and straight with a little bit of oomph.
I don’t want it to be caved in.
I’m going to push this in and now straighten it out.
It’s almost like what I did with the Achilles tendon.
I just want to keep it clean like that.
I want to make sure we can see the front of it because that’s very visible on the living form.
The front part of it.
When you look at your own knee like this, perhaps you can see that load line.
It’s not the biceps femoris tendon, it’s the iliotibial band on the front side.
Okay, that’s not bad.
This would actually surround and engulf the tensor fasciae, but what I want to do is actually
show the tensor fasciae so I’m putting a little bit more clay on top just to show the
roundness of it, like that.
I hope you can see that.
I’m going to blend that in a little bit better.
It’s a really pretty muscle, and it’s really elegant and it has a nice roundness to it.
It’s very gentle.
It’s a very kind of beautiful, elegant little muscle.
Michelangelo drawings you could see it like with a bent knee.
He really makes it large and bent and crease, like your pants would be
in that area by your pocket.
What your pants do, what your shirt does oftentimes is what happens with the skin.
If you think of it that way it’s like, oh, it makes so much sense.
There is one more muscle that we have to do, though,
and that is the longest muscle of the body.
That is the Sartorius.
The Sartorius is a tailor.
Those are the tailor’s muscle.
For any of you who know who Andrea del Sarto is, del Sarto is of the tailors.
His father was a tailor, so that’s how he got that name, del Sarto.
So, because it’s like a belt I’m going to actually make a belt.
Let me see.
Got a lot of little extra clay around here.
I’m just going to roll this out like a big old worm, and I’m going to start flattening it out.
See if my roller will help.
And because it’s a belt I’m going to try to make it a belt, make this a little bit thinner.
The reason I want you to see me rolling this is to remind you that it’s very belt-like.
I don’t know how long it is going to be, but it needs to be long enough to reach all
of its trajectory, and you’ll see what I mean by that in just a moment.
Okay, so it’s this big, long muscle, belt-like.
It starts at the anterior-superior iliac spine.
It is separating the adductors from the quadriceps.
Again, belt-like so I’m going to try to keep it
towards the back of the knee.
It becomes part of the pes anserinus group.
Let me just flatten it out a little bit more.
It comes back here, and it comes forward again.
It’s attached to the tibia and it just dissipates with the tendon down in this area right there
of the tibia.
So now it joins the group as part of the pes anserinus group.
There, pretty arrogant, pretty nice.
Making that a little bit fuller.
I’m just going to take it off very gently.
There we go.
It’s just been resting there for a little while.
We’re looking at some of the little features.
If you look very carefully at the skull you’ll notice these big brow ridges.
That means that this is a male skull.
It’s also European because of the back of the teeth.
The teeth are nice and flat so it’s a European skull.
I didn’t know that when I came in.
There it is.
Asian skulls the back of the teeth have little ribs on the back of the teeth.
These didn’t have that which makes it non-Asian or what we call European.
The brow ridges are these little bumps right in here right above the eyes.
You can see that on the living form, on the living model.
I want to blend them in because it is part of the skull.
It’s not something that’s stuck on there so you have to blend these in to make it look
a little bit nicer.
There is a frontal prominence which is almost like a melon
coming through the front of the forehead.
I’m not sure if I’m going to put that in.
I might, might not.
It just depends.
If something is really super important, I will definitely tell you.
These you do need because it makes it look a little bit more masculine, and that’s
what this is.
It’s a male ecorché so the brow ridges do help.
I’m trying to make sure you can see that.
I’m blending them in.
These are very prominent in some people.
Like anything else, less prominent on others.
That’s the beauty of anatomy and the differences between all of us.
Blending, blending, blending.
There are these little openings called nutrient foramen, and that’s these little holes that
you see on all skulls, where it’s human or not.
You can see them here underneath the orbit, at the chin, and above the orbit—supraorbital,
infraorbital, and this is the mental foramen.
It’s a little opening.
I’m only doing it on the left side because that’s the detailed side.
The other side will get muscles or what not.
Or a face, not sure yet.
There, kind of like that.
Just time to clean up a little bit.
What I’m going to do is make a little lentil and push it up against that skull, and that’s
going to be the eye.
I’m going to take my handy-dandy ballpoint pen—you don’t have to do this.
This is just a silly thing that I do with my students.
It makes them laugh.
It has to be a retractable pen.
This is an option, but it’s a fun one.
You retract it and then you put it right in the center of that little eyeball, and then
you pop the pin and it gives you both the iris and the pupil.
It looks kind of silly, but once I put lids and everything on there it looks fine.
I’m going to put more of a brow because I’m going to make a little face.
Put a little bit more brow here.
I’m also going to put little tiny lids.
Let’s see, where are my little handy-dandy tools.
Very little of the eye shows so you don’t have to actually literally put a ball in there.
This is the brow.
I’m going to blend it into the skull because I want to make kind of like a face.
Then the lower lid I do separately.
Again, I’m only going to do this a little bit at a time because I want you to have the
luxury of time when you’re working with this.
This is the lower lid.
It’s just two little tiny banana shapes.
Once it’s on the face you have to just basically use common sense and do whatever it takes
to make sure it’s starts looking like what you want it to look like.
Those are the lids.
The other thing I’m going to do is half of a nose, and then I’m going to leave it at this.
I don’t want to do the whole head all at once.
Neither do you.
You want to just do this piecemeal, little by little.
You just have to do a good nose.
There is no such thing as a nose.
Everybody has a different nose so you just have to try to do your best to make a nose
that you’ll be proud of, that you’ll like.
So, I’m just doing half the nose.
It’s tricky because everything is so little.
Half of a nose like this.
Put a little nostril in here.
A little wing.
Lips I’ll do pretty simply half and half.
There’s the upper lip.
It’s just fun.
Just pretending like you’re a little kid and you’re playing with Play-Doh.
It kind of reminds you of being little.
I don’t stress over this too much.
Put the lower lip.
What’s going to help it a lot is when I put this next element, and that is the node
of the corner of the mouth.
It’s a little flap of skin.
There is like a little weird jelly bean shaped nodule at the corner of your mouth.
It just gives the mouth a little bit more of a pleasant look to have the corner of the
mouth with that little flap of skin.
I’ll be doing some of the muscles, but I don’t want to do it all now.
This is called the philtrum, like a person’s name, Phil-trum.
Right there that separates one half of the lip from the other.
We’re going to leave it like this for right now.
Little by little it’s starting to look like somebody.
I don’t know.
But, all my ecorchés end up with like their own little look.
I hope you enjoyed that.
Alright, so that's it. I mean we finished the entire lower part of the body.
The skull should be looking pretty good right now, and the next thing we're going to be doing
is moving above the waist.
We're going to be doing some of the triceps muscles and some of the back muscles
for the next lesson, so tune back in.
Alright, so we'll see you next time.
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1. Lesson Overview40sNow playing...
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2. The Adductor Muscles29m 49s
3. The Gluteal Muscles17m 12s
4. Features of the Skull10m 19s