- Lesson details
In this series, you will learn how to create your own ecorché sculpture from scratch with artistic anatomist, Rey Bustos. Rey makes the challenging but rewarding subject of learning artistic anatomy easy-to-understand and fun. Here is the final lesson of the series! In this lesson, you’ll add the muscles of the upper torso, deep neck, and deltoid to your ecorché. Remember that this series is not about becoming an expert anatomist, or even about creating something that you can show off at a gallery! It’s about working with your hands and learning about the body in three dimensions. With a working knowledge of how the masses of the human body are compiled, your figurative artwork will be more accurate!
- Art Alternatives Armature (Aluminum) Wire – 1/8″ Inch
- 24 Gauge Steel Wire
- Super Sculpey Clay – Original Beige
- Shop Cloth
- Super Sculpey (II or III) Chocolate
- Zap-a-Gap Super Glue – Medium CA+
- Baking Soda
- Electrical Tape
- Circular Wooden Base
- Small Wooden Clay Tools
- X-Acto Knife
- Flexible Metal Modeling Palette
- Petroleum Jelly
- Staple Gun
- Krylon Color Master Spray Paint – Almond
- Needle Nose Pliers
- Slip Lock Pliers
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Well, this is it.
We finally get to finish up this ecorché.
We’ll be doing the neck muscles and the front torso.
That will conclude all of those wonderful lessons that we had together.
Remember, the whole purpose of this is for you to get a really good handle on human anatomy.
It’s so important.
Don’t worry if you look at your ecorché and it looks a little bit less desirable to
The whole idea is actually learning through doing.
It’s more important than having something you can show as a finished piece.
It’s more about learning three-dimensionally.
Anyway, you take care, and thanks so much for joining us.
Well, this is it.
We’re going to finish this up a bit today.
In this session what we’re going to be doing is some of the deeper neck muscles, but I’m
going to do those as a group.
I will mention certain important muscles of the deep neck, but they’re not muscles that
you’re often going to see.
Sometimes I see them on very lean people or older people or whatnot.
We’re also going to be doing, of course, a front torso, and we’re going to cap everything
off with the deltoid.
That will finish this whole ecorché.
You just kind of like rotate this around and see things that you might want to change here
It looks pretty good to me.
It has served its purpose.
It’s really helped a lot in teaching you guys.
I’m just going to put some of the deeper muscles.
Here is the semi-spinalis capitis, splenius capitis.
There are these muscles that are very deep.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to simplify it by just saying I’m going to put what
will appear to look like a 4th grade science project of a volcano.
Then what I’ll do is I’ll just bring up some of the muscles again but only the real
I always forget, but I don’t want you to—you can see that as often as I’ve done this,
don’t forget your Vaseline, your petroleum jelly.
I’m even putting it on the base of the skull like that.
The clavicle, the spine of the scapula, even a little bit on a rhomboid, and then the entire
front of this torso.
Being pretty liberal with it right now because it’s a big area.
Only a little bit comes off onto my finger.
Even a little bit over here, over here, over here.
Little bit on the chest there.
Mom giving you a Vaporub.
There, like that.
Kind of bring back memories.
I’m going to start tearing up now just remembering Vaporubs like this.
Even at the mastoid process, I think we’re ready to rock and roll, so let’s do it.
As always, I’m going to take my little handy-dandy paper towel, clean my fingers so things don’t
stick to my fingertips.
We’re off and running.
So remember, the grade school science project volcano.
You’re going to make this kind of mound up toward the cranium.
This would be like the splenius capitis, you know, deep muscles.
I’m pushing it up.
I’m pulling, pulling, pushing up toward the base of the skull because this is what’s
holding the skull on.
See now it won’t come off.
I mean it can, but it’s helping to have this clay holding it.
Now, there is a little bone inside your throat area called the hyoid bone.
We don’t have one here, so we’re going to have to kind of show that there would be one.
There are these little muscles called the digastric muscles that go toward the chin
to the hyoid bone.
What I’m going to do is put this glob of clay to the chin, and it kind of helps create
a little bit more of the profile of this person.
Do you see what I mean?
There are even muscles like the stenohyoid that goes from the sternum to the hyoid bone,
hence the name.
So what I’m going to try to do is just create almost like a throat area of muscles.
The reason I don’t need to be very specific right now is that these are so deep that a
lot of times—unless you’re going to start doing some kind of surgery in your studio—you
don’t need to know all of these muscles.
I am going to mention the really important ones.
Try to look and see.
Make sure that this does look like a nice little profile, and it does.
The hyoid bone, sometimes people think it’s the Adam’s apple, and it’s not.
The Adam’s apple is the thyroid cartilage.
Men and women have it, but on men it tends to be bigger;
therefore, we have the Adam’s apple.
Hence the name.
Okay, these muscles—I should just say clay because right now I’m not really being too specific.
I’m just trying to create a base or ground for the other muscles to kind of lay on, and
also just to make it look like a little bit more of a finished neck area.
Don’t worry, I’m going to pull out some of the really important muscles.
For instance, scalenus medius.
The muscle that oftentimes I see when somebody is kind of straining or pulling their, they’re
turning their head really sharply, you’ll see like a pull like this.
These are strands that just kind of come up to the vertebral column, the neck vertebra
like cervical vertebra.
You just kind of do this.
There is one that I like a lot, though.
This was the scalenus medius.
There are a few scalene muscles, but it seems like the medius is the one that you’ll see
a little bit more often.
Do you see that?
It’s almost like these little muscles that go up or drape down from the neck or go up
to the neck, however you want to look at it.
I like this.
It’s attached over here.
There, like that.
This next one I like a lot.
It’s called the levator scapulae.
It’s attached, just like it says, on the scapula right over here.
That one you might see on some people.
Sometimes when I’m waiting in line at the bank, and it’s a nice summer day, and there
might be a lady in front of me and she’s wearing a low-cut outfit or something, and
I can see her scapulae, I oftentimes will see this muscle.
It does this.
It’s attached to the scapula.
I know that there is muscle and clay there right now, but the most important thing I
could teach you is it comes up like this towards the neck like that.
It’s actually a very nice, visible muscle.
I see this oftentimes enough for me to tell you that this is a good one to know.
Some of the deeper ones like semi-spinalis capitis and muscles like that, they’re just
not going to be that visible.
I need to trim this because I need to leave room for the trapezius, the big muscle that
you get massaged.
It’s basically going to be the scalenus medius and the levator scapulae.
I’m editing for you.
I’m just telling you the muscles that I think you’re going to see more readily.
For some reason, you need to know every single muscle of the body.
You can learn that little by little on your own.
But the ones that are necessary for you to know are the ones that I’ve been bringing
to you with each one of these lessons.
You’ll see this muscle like that.
I’m going to blend this in.
Leave room for the trapezius.
I’m going to clean this up too because I don’t want there to be clay on this bone.
I want that to be a little cleaner.
Okay, there is one that sometimes I see, it’s called the omohyoid.
It’s a really weird little muscle.
It’s almost like a linguini strap.
It has a little kind of loop that holds it down.
Sometimes you’ll see this, boy, I’m not even sure I want to put this one in, but I’m
going to put it in just because.
Every once in a while you’ll see this goes to the scapula, but you won’t see this part
of it, so I’m just going to let that disappear.
It comes like that, just like a little worm.
It goes up and disappears.
Sometimes you can see this part of it.
Just a little bit like that.
I’m just going to leave it at that like this.
I don’t know how much you want to get into some of these muscles.
I’m kind of making some of the decisions for you.
That’s like an optional muscle.
If you never learn that muscle, who cares?
That might not sound good to some anatomists, but I really am serious about certain muscles.
It’s okay to not know every single muscle of the body when you’re drawing or painting.
It might get to be too much, and it’s not necessary.
Too many of them are so deep.
The most important muscle, I think, for us anatomists and artists to know, is the sternocleidomastoid.
Take a look at me right now.
When I turn my head, see that?
It comes out.
As illustrators we know that because when you turn your head it not only pops out, it
It’s very striking.
Think about that name.
Sterno—first to the sternum.
Let me use my little pointer.
Sternum, there is one leg that goes there.
Cleido refers to the clavicle.
I’m going to take some of this clay off of there because I don’t want you to be
Mastoideus goes from there to there, and it splits over here.
It’s a muscle that has a split to it, so I want to try to show that.
It’s nice and rounded at the top as it’s attached to right behind your ear.
Down here it splits off.
One of them is sharp, almost like this.
It’s going to be like this.
The other one is going to be more flat, like a flat screwdriver.
I also need to size it up because I’m just randomly picking a whole bunch of clay here.
I have to see if it’s going to be long enough or too long.
Right now it’s a little bit too long, and it’s too big.
Now I know that I need to cut off a little bit more up here, and keep pulling on this
until it becomes more spikey so it’s starts resembling my tool here.
Let me see.
Once again, I need to put it on to see if it’s going to match up okay.
It looks like it is.
Now the part that’s attached to the clavicle, I need it to flatten out a little bit more.
What I’m doing here is I’m separating them.
They fork off.
Show that split just a little bit more clearly.
Take this big chunk out of there.
Do you see that?
One of them is round, tubular, spikey, the other one flares out and becomes flat.
It will be attached to the clavicle so I need to make sure all of these components are working.
You really do need to look at good references for this.
The good thing is everybody that takes an anatomy class like this one, you have some
kind of book in front of you.
In some cases, I would even recommend more than one.
I have pretty much every anatomy book you can think of including ones in different languages.
See what I’m doing?
Little by little?
I’m creating that fork, sternocleidomastoideus.
Sometimes it’s referred to as the sternomastoid, but I don’t like leaving out the clavicular part.
Do you see what I’m doing?
I’m trying to make that elegant, beautiful little muscle.
Little by little, it’s coming together.
What I need to do is make sure I have enough here so that I can spready it out and attach
it to the clavicle.
Flare it out.
Flare it out like this.
This one goes right to the sternum.
What I’m going to try to do is break it because it creates a better taper.
What I meant by that was I pull it.
I pull the clay like this until it tapers.
By pulling and breaking it, it creates a really nice taper.
I did that, and I can clean it up because it’s a little wobbly.
I want it to look nice and straight.
There is an external jugular vein that crosses over that muscle.
I’ve never actually put it on my ecorché before, but just know that there is a vein
that crosses over like this.
When you’re yelling at somebody, sometimes you’ll see that.
It makes an X with that muscle.
I’m going to blend that in.
Certain blood vessels are pretty important.
It’s like the cephalic vein that comes out of this little opening that you’re going
to see later.
It goes down your arm.
Down the bicep brachii.
Trying to soften it up.
You’ll see this a lot in Michelangelo drawings, Leonardo da Vinci drawings, Jean Baptiste
You’ll see this little vein going across the sternocleidomastoideus.
But, don’t forget, it’s the muscles that count.
There, like that.
Alright, I like it.
It’s the major muscle of the back, and it goes up to the base of the skull.
It gives you the definition of your neck.
The trapezius is so big, everybody, that I need to do it in pieces.
The neat thing about what you’re learning right here watching me do this is that you
get to see it three-dimensionally as I spin it around.
Let me get my little tool in here and round this off just a little bit, clean it up a
little bit so that vein doesn’t stick out too much.
Okay, so trapezius up to the base of the skull.
It’s going to come down, rest on this shelf, which we call the spine of the scapula, and
it’s going to go around to this part, the first quarter of the clavicle, so like everything
else, I need to kind of size it up first.
Remember, it’s such a big, vast muscle that I have to kind of do it little by little.
It’s way up, up, up and way over.
Part of it rests on the spine of the scapula.
There is a part that comes around to the front, and it’s attached to the clavicle.
Let me rotate this around before I even do anything.
Notice what I’m trying to do.
I’m trying to make sure that it comes all the way around to the front so that it is,
in fact, attached to the clavicle.
Okay, I need to make sure, but not covering it.
Okay, do you see what I’m trying to do now?
Now I’m going to let it rest on here.
Sometimes you can see it overflowing like this.
This goes up to the base of the skull, covers up a lot of those really deep muscles.
It goes around C7.
It’s kind of neat, leaves like a little opening here.
It comes back to the vertebral column.
Now, I haven’t done the bottom part yet because it doesn’t end there.
There is a little tendon that will take it from here, go across here, and the bottom
tip of the trapezius will come down like this.
Let me try to make this really beautiful for you.
This is the bottom part.
This is all one muscle.
There is a little triangular tendon at the bottom.
Remember, there is a little tendon that goes there.
This is all one muscle right in here.
Now I’m going to try to blend it all together and let you see how beautiful that is.
It creates this little triangle that we call the triangle of auscultation.
The rhomboid is inside, but the bottom part of the triangle is the latissimus dorsi.
This arm of the triangle is the medial border of the scapula, and this arm of the triangle
is the trapezius.
It’s the triangle of auscultation.
Auscultate means to listen.
That’s where you would put the stethoscope right in this little spot right there.
That’s where Galen, almost 2000 years ago, put his ear, the first great physician, Galen.
You might even go to a University where there is a Galen Hall or something Galen.
A lot of times the kids at the University don’t know who Galen was.
They think it might be a football coach or something, but it’s not.
He is a physician from a long time ago.
He was very ahead of his time.
He made a lot of errors, but this was about the year 130 AD, for God’s sake.
One of the things he did is he would listen to your insides by putting his ear right here,
and he could here if you had like a respiratory problem, gastrointestinal, or circulatory
problem, listened to your heart, which seems pretty obvious now.
But, it wasn’t.
A lot of the stuff—nothing was obvious.
There was a time when people though the world was flat and everything revolved around the
Earth, things like that.
Look how pretty that is.
Now remember there would be a tendon here.
There would be a tendon down here.
The neat thing about the tendon down here is if the individual got big, the tendon would
remain flat, and you would see more and more of the roundness of the bottom part of that
trapezius, kind of like where I’m putting my finger marking now, and I’m taking some
of this off.
We leave it without the tendon, leaving the roundness of the bottom.
If your muscles are very lean they basically create a line or a form along with the tendon,
which makes the bottom part of the trapezius look more like a point, like an arrowhead,
nice and pointy.
It just depends on how big the muscles are in that particular individual.
All of this would be tendon, which attaches this muscle to the vertebral column, and the
muscle fibers really vary because they spray out.
I’m just trying to smooth this out before I do any kind of striations.
There kind of like that.
Just reminding you guys that the trapezius is also attached to the clavicle, touches
on the acromion process here.
I let this kind of overflow a little bit because it is a male, and I want it to look a little
I’m going to try to clean up this bone here so you can see that the scapula is exposed.
Let me see if I can clean it a little better while you guys are pondering all this fabulous
How do you like them apples?
Or mansanas, depending on where you’re from?
There is this right in here.
Now we can get to the front torso muscles.
But, before we do that, I think you might want to see me striate the muscles, so let’s
just do that together right now.
What we have is muscles that go up, muscle fibers that go up like this.
Then they kind of swirl around towards the front like this.
This is the muscle that when somebody gives you a massage, that’s what they’re massaging
is the trapezius right in here like this.
Then it starts becoming more and more vertical like this.
Sometimes because of these cuts right in here, sometimes it appears that there is like a
really nice demarcation right there.
Let me just get in here and make it a little bit harder so you can really see it like this.
This like this, and then he starts becoming like this.
It kind of sprays out.
What I’m going to do, too, is I’m going to clean this up a little bit because you
can see there is a lot of what I call, debris or sawdust looking stuff, and I just want
to clean up the shop here.
How do you like them apples?
You like that?
There you go.
Now, the neat thing about where the deltoid—excuse me, the trapezius ends.
I’m getting ahead of myself in my head.
The deltoid would be begin, your shoulder muscle would begin where that muscle ends.
On animals that don’t have clavicles like a horse, when I’m teaching about character
design and development, I ask my students, or they ask me,
should my animals have clavicles or not.
It just depends.
If the scapulas are in the back, it’s a good idea to put clavicles in the front.
Animals like a horse where the scapulas are facing the ground, no clavicles.
But then you’ll see that there is only a piece of gristle or connective tissue separating
the deltoid from the trapezius.
So, right in here where you see the trapezius ending, and it’s attached to the clavicle,
I’m going to later extend that and put the deltoid right underneath that.
It’s a really good rule of thumb when you’re drawing or making something up or you’re
just looking at your model that day.
You’ll see that it’s true.
Even in your anatomy books you’ll see that.
It’s like how come people don’t mention that?
I don’t know.
It’s just something I noticed as I was teaching animal anatomy.
It helped me when I was drawing people.
There, so that’s the trapezius.
Isn’t that beautiful?
Alright, so here we go.
The first muscle I’m going to put on is the rectus abdominis.
I have a little piece of clay here, and what I’m going to do—the rectus abdominis are
the abdominal muscles or the 6-pack muscles.
They’re actually in a sheath, a tendinous sheath.
They kind of fit into the sheath.
When I look at cadavers it’s kind of neat to see that.
What I’m going to do is I’m just going to flatten this out a little bit, stretch it out.
I might even roll it a little bit.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to use my handy-dandy little roller.
Again, you don’t have to have a fancy roller.
You can use a big old yard sale marker or whatnot.
Just flatten this thing out like a piece of lasagna.
I’ve got a little bit of the texture of the wood.
It’s kind of neat.
I like it.
I’m going to use it.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to cut one straight edge because I’ll be right
Watch, I’m just sizing this up as if I was a tailor.
Obviously, that’s way too big, way too long.
Do you remember where I made that little mark for the nipple?
You can kind of see that little spot right there.
That’s where I’m going to be putting this.
That’s my key because underneath your nipple, underneath your pectoralis major is this muscle.
I can see I need to cut it about here.
So far so good.
I’m going to make one initial cut not knowing exactly if it’s right or wrong.
I have to cut just to see if it’s going to work.
It’s a nice strap of muscle.
It looks like that’s going to work out really nicely.
It’s a little wide still, though.
It might even be a little thick, but I’m going to leave it.
Okay, I’m not going to leave it.
I’m going to just roll it a little bit longer like this, and I’m going to cut it a little
bit narrower like so.
This goes all the way to the inguinal ligament and pubic bone like this.
Like this, like this.
Nice and flat.
I want to cut a lot of this off, and the pectoralis major is going to cover this up anyway.
Just know that this muscle is underneath your pectoralis major, but because I know that
it’s going to get covered up, I’m not going to get too noodly about what I’m doing
I’m just going to blend it and smoosh it.
The other thing that you need to remember is see how I already have the form that is
indicative of the rib cage?
I’m pushing this just to remind everybody how important it was to have that stair step
already in there because now you can see that your rectus abdominis is subordinate to that.
It kind of goes in and out.
It looks like he’s taking a nice deep breath.
Isn’t that amazing?
Isn’t it beautiful?
You like that?
I like that too.
This blends it, blends it.
Now you can see that there is a space between it, the rectus abdominis and the serratus
That space is going to be for the external oblique.
There is internal oblique.
There are all sorts of stuff, but you don’t need to know that when you’re my student.
You just need to know the really important muscles.
What I’m going to do just to help me is I’m going to visualize where the belly button
What I’m going to do is I’m going to make sure it’s not up here, and it’s not down
here; it’s somewhere in between.
You just kind of help me out and see if that doesn’t look like a good spot for it.
I kind of like that.
I’m going to make a little demarcation that says, okay, that’s the belly button, the
Because we’re mammals we all came from mom, and we’re attached to mom by this little
lifeline right there.
Look how cute that is.
It’s a little bit of an outie.
I’m going to give it like a little bit of an indentation.
Make it look as cute as a button, a belly button.
I’m going to use that to help me start making the demarcations that separate each little
division here into like compartments.
This goes kind of like that.
It goes like this.
There is going to be one more like this.
This one will be right up against the pectoral muscle like this.
See those separations, everybody?
They’re called raphes.
In your early development, these are all kind of split up.
Little tendinous intersections.
I’m not going to put any clay to separate those.
I’m just going to leave it as little lines, as if we we’re drawing.
You don’t need to get into all that minutia.
What I need to remind you now, though, is that interlacing between the serratus anterior
and the external oblique.
What I want to remind you of is that the external oblique reminds me of a picket fence.
I’m going to remind you of what a picket fence looks like, or maybe one of the pickets
of the picket fence.
Sorry about not being able to show you what I’m doing, but I want to show you what I
end up doing.
See the little picket fence.
Look at how cute that is.
Isn’t that adorable?
Alright, now, let me just explain something before I go on any further because the external
obliques are really quite beautiful.
They are like your flank muscles all along here.
With really nice models, men and women who are lean and athletic, it does look like a
The other thing I want to tell you about that name, external oblique, is the oblique part.
This is vertical.
This is horizontal.
This is oblique.
Oblique is at an angle.
So, reminding you of that and remembering that, watch.
This is a picket fence that’s straight up and down.
This is a picket fence that fell down.
This is an external oblique picket fence.
You can see it fits right there obliquely.
The other thing is you can see where it should end.
These are actually attached by a fascia or an aponeuroses, a flat sheet-like tendon to
the center of the body, but that would cover up all these muscles, these pretty muscles.
What we do anatomically as artistic anatomists is we just kind of end it there and just explain
that these muscles are attached to the center of the body, covering up the rectus abdominis.
Right now I’m going to make it just like this, leave it like this now.
These are flat.
I’m going to just keep doing those until they fill that area.
It’s really nice how they all kind of fit together like a little puzzle.
Notice what I’m doing here.
I’m just kind of like sticking it on there, and then I’m cutting it by just eyeballing,
and you can see that.
It’s like, okay, I can see the line underneath, so I’m just going to cut it right there
and take this off.
You can see they are affected by the bones underneath, which is exactly what should be
I’m going to keep doing that until I have them all in there.
I’m going to roll out a little bit of clay here because it’ll be a little easier.
I could even do a big piece and just separate them on the body.
You can find your own ways of doing stuff.
I like to show you different ways.
In this case, it’s like an area.
I haven’t slatted them out yet.
The slats aren’t there yet.
I need to kind of pull those out a little bit.
Make sure these are fitting in with the serratus anterior.
See how it’s flat?
There we go.
Now we’re cooking.
These are also attached to ribs just like the ends of these fingers of the extensor,
excuse me, of the serratus anterior.
What happens is now the ends of these rub out of ribs so it becomes a flank portion
for your love handle muscles.
I’m going to take some of this clay.
I’m just cleaning up and making the flank portion at the same time.
See how efficient I am?
This is your love handle portion of the same muscle.
It’s going to be kind of like that.
Let me just kind of look at it.
Part of it is going to be attached to ribs.
Pushing, pushing, pushing the flank portion of the external oblique.
I want to make sure that these are really clear.
Then pushed in between each one of these little fingers.
I want that to be really, really important.
Okay, flank portion.
Love handle muscle.
It gets pretty fatty on men, and you get that big spare tire.
Don’t make me have to show you.
Like this, watch.
It rests on the ileum but it kind of overflows a little bit.
Start thinking about the contour of the body, and you’ll be okay.
See how from the back it overflows a little bit onto here leaving the anterior superior
iliac spine alone?
Then there is a tendon that would attach all the way to the inguinal ligament, which is
just like a strip of tendon that goes from here to here, if you can imagine.
Something that is very clear on cadavers but not always in your anatomy books.
That’s why I’m here to help you.
I’m going to striate this.
These, of course, go the same direction.
I had a lot of debris on that one.
Same direction as the slats themselves, and then these become closer
and closer to being vertical. Like that. It's a little scratchy.
These go the same direction, of course, like this, just down.
And the little cleanup brush and my little cleanup fingers just to smooth things out.
I think I could put just a little bit more external oblique right in here.
This is going to be pectoralis major abdominal portion.
There is also a pectoralis minor that’s underneath everything that sprays out from
the coracoid process, but we’re not going to do that.
I don’t see that on the living form so I just don’t put it in.
The abdominal portion of the pectoralis major is see sometimes, but I’m basically going
to do just two parts of the pectoralis major.
I know that there is a pectoralis major abdominal portion, but I’m not counting it as a major form.
It’s just a little form.
It sometimes it looks a lot like the external oblique.
The two major forms.
Remember, there is a pectoralis minor that’s underneath, but that’s not the one I’m
going to be doing first.
The pectoral muscles I have broken down into two segments, two major segments.
One of them is the sternal portion.
It’ll be real obvious where I’m going to be attaching this.
That’s the origin.
The insertion is going to be over here on the exposed bone.
It’s going to cover up these muscles right here, the biceps brachii.
These tend to kind of twist and turn and have a funny way about them.
I’m going to just kind of search for it first before I get too noodly about it, because
I don’t know if this is going to be the right size.
I need to just search first like this.
They have kind of like a twist to them like this.
It creates this little bubble here that you’ll see underneath your arm, oftentimes.
When I twist this, it just kind of happens naturally.
Something I didn’t understand for a long time.
There is this major kind of bump in the pectoral muscle.
I’m going to stretch this out so make sure that it goes all the way, and this too, the
bottom part is attached to the same aponeurosis as the external obliques.
The pectoralis major is attached here on the sternum, but also to the center of the body.
The bottom part, by the same aponeurosis that covers up the rectus abdominis.
That might be a revelation to a lot of you.
It was to me years ago when it just hit me as to what that was.
It made a big difference in the way I thought because these muscles could overlap because
they’re on a different layer over those muscles.
In extreme twisty poses, it could get a little challenging to try to figure out what’s
I’m just trying to smooth this out because the clay was really rough.
What I’m doing is just caressing this as if it were my pet, my little pet muscle.
I need to make sure it’s going to reach all the way across where it needs to be and
have the twisty still.
Let me see if that’s going to work out.
Yeah, it’s looking okay.
I like it.
I’m going to start nailing this down.
The only thing is this needs to reach all the way across.
I’m going to just try to pull it, pull it, pull it and hope that it behaves.
I want it to make it because I want you to remember that that muscle does, in fact, cover
It’s important that you know that.
This lower edge is attached to that.
I also keep seeing like a little piece of white over here so I’m just going to cover
this up, everybody, because I don’t like that.
Remember, underneath there is even more like serratus anterior all the way up here, so
if there is like a little spot, it’s obvious that I didn’t put enough muscle on there.
Okay, this looks pretty good, and I think I have enough now to go across to the bone.
There it is.
See, it covers up the biceps brachii.
It’s snug up against the body here.
It’s going to be pressed up against the body here.
That’s a pretty bundled muscle.
There are a lot of bundles to it meaning that oftentimes you’ll see these
big kind of deep grooves like that.
This is the direction of the muscle fibers like this.
They get tucked under the shoulder, which we haven’t done yet, of course.
That’s the pectoralis major sternal portion.
I’m going to make a cut here, though.
I think I’ll make it look better.
Kind of like that.
Now I’m going to do the pectoralis major clavicular portion, which is like a knife
It starts higher but it’s going to end up a little bit lower than the pectoralis major
This is a tricky one because when the model raises his or her arm, it can get a little lost.
What it’s doing is it’s untwisting, if you could kind of picture that, as I raise
that arm up.
Remember, I’m thinking knife blade.
I’m going to roll this out.
You might not see this, but I’ll show it to you and just show you that all it did was
flatten this out a little bit more.
On a cadaver you’ll notice that—or I notice—there is barely any noticeable difference between
this muscle and that muscle.
But in life because this is a little bit plumper, it is noticeable.
When you do certain movements like you push your shoulder forward, for instance, all of
a sudden, this wedge kind of comes out.
Whether it’s male or female doesn’t matter.
It’s going to be attached lower here but higher there, if that makes sense.
Once I set this down.
I’m just going to lay it on here for just a moment because I need to see.
You can see that I need to stretch it.
It’s a little too short right now.
It’s also too thick.
I could do both at the same time.
Straighten it, thin it, and stretch it.
Let me see how this is going to look, kind of like this, like this, and is that going
to be long enough.
I still need to stretch it, and I’m going to until it almost breaks.
I’m straightening this out because it’s a little crooked.
I’ll just give it a straighter edge.
This is really, it’s pretty thin.
Look at that.
It’s going to be attached to the bone, just a little bit lower to its partner.
And still, of course, covering up the biceps brachii.
I’m trying to make it less of a stair step, and I think it is.
There, and because that was so rough, I’m going to soften it up and try and clean it.
Get all the debris off of there.
Just do a little housecleaning.
I’m going to just put a little indicator as to like where the nipple is, just because
it’s a neat little landmark.
I’ll remind you that when you’re drawing, when you make an arch from the pit of the
neck like that and go through the nipple that you hit the ends of the digitation of the
Alright, well, it looks like we’re finished, right?
That’s right, it doesn’t.
We need the deltoid to cap everything off.
Now you’ll see why we have to wait until all this on there before we can finish this
off with the deltoid.
Let me make this vein a little bit less obvious.
Rub it in a little bit.
It keeps like sticking out too much.
The deltoid I do in three parts.
If you exercise, you’ll notice that your deltoid—there are all sorts of different
exercises for this shoulder muscle.
One of them will be if you’re pulling something down.
If you’re resisting and you can feel it, and there is another one where you can pull
down this way, it’ll be the back of your deltoid.
Then there is one here.
There is also something like if I was grabbing onto something this, pulling down like that,
then that’s your center section.
Knowing that, I’m going to divide this into three sections.
Front, back, and side, or back, front, and side as long as the side is last.
Now, just like my hand, the thumb is short, the fingers are long.
That’s basically how the deltoid is going to cap off there.
Reminding you of where the trapezius ended, I’m going to put the deltoid right here.
It should create a hole between it, the deltoid, the front part of the deltoid and the pectoralis
That will be the infraclavicular fossa.
It’s a little hollow between your chest and your shoulder muscle.
Let me just size this up as I like to do with everything.
That’s part of it.
It’s like a weaving of muscle fibers on the center one along the side of the deltoid,
but the font and the back are a little bit straighter.
It makes the side one really strong for its size.
Okay, so this is the front part, basically.
Sure enough, there should be an opening right over here.
I need to push this a little bit further so that it’s closer to where the trapezius
is, like that.
It should almost look like an extension of the trapezius.
That’s when you know you have it right.
Then I’m going to put in the back one.
The back one goes in further so it’s going to cover up a lot of the shoulder muscles,
the deeper shoulder muscles, like the infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major.
Again, remember, they’re going to this little spot right there, the deltoid tuberosity.
Sizing it up a little bit, making sure it’s going to reach.
I just kind of lay it on there first.
Look and see if that’s something I like.
I like it.
I’m going to stretch it, though.
It’s like a big teardrop.
Let’s see how this looks.
It looks pretty good.
Once again, I just want to make sure that it’s not too big.
It’s looking a little big so I’m going to pull on it.
Covering up a lot of those muscles, but that’s just the way it’s designed, you know, it
covers up a lot of that.
The center section, you could see how you have a big gaping hole right there, so it’s
going to be attached right there at the acromion process down to that little empty spot.
And this looks like it’s attached to muscle, but it’s not.
It would actually go to bone.
Now I need to do the side and cap it off.
Let me just do a look really quickly, see how that’s looking, rotate it around and
see if there is anything I don’t like.
Shape it so the thing fits in there
That’s pretty good.
This is the part that I told you, the center section, that the muscle fibers kind of like
do this so it makes them really, really strong.
It makes an argyle sock.
Right there where it meets up with the brachialis.
You look around and just make sure it looks nice to you.
Blending them together a little bit more just so it doesn’t look like they’re separate
muscles, because they’re not.
It’s all one big system, one big, beautiful team that makes up the deltoid right there.
One big muscle.
A lot of like individual parts to it.
It’s very bundled.
Sometimes you even see like another big bundle like in here like this.
Okay, let’s take a look how those shoulders are looking.
Does it look elegant?
I think it looks pretty good.
I’m doing exactly what it’s supposed to be doing, it looks like.
I’m taking the time to put a little bit of clay in between these two because I don’t
like the fact that they’re just too separate.
They look a little bit too much like there are two different muscles there.
What I’m going to do is blend that in a little bit.
I’m just trying to make the shoulder muscle more cohesive.
How do you like that?
I’m not going to do the little argyle thing on the side of this muscle.
I’m just trying to blend them together a little bit, more than anything.
Do the housecleaning, remember that.
Right in here.
The brachialis muscle, the muscle fibers go in this direction, because they’re going
under the arms.
I need to kind of separate those from the other muscles like that.
There is just a little tiny bit of tendon that holds those two to the bone.
I’m going to put just a little bit of tendinous tissue right in here at the deltoid tuberosity
to remind you that that’s a different muscle.
And that’s it, everybody.
I hope you are proud of yourself.
It’s not an easy project, but it’s an elegant one, and it’s a beautiful one.
So, there it is, everybody.
As I said before, what you need to is just let it dry a little bit, meaning like maybe
two days from now.
At the same time, look at it and see whatever it is you might want to fix.
Then you just put a layer of white glue on it, you know, a nice thin layer of white glue,
just regular old school glue.
You can hand-paint the base.
I usually just use black acrylic paint right out of the tube, and just paint it black.
Once every year, maybe, instead of cleaning it, I just paint it again.
You go carefully around the feet, and the thing will just look like a thing of beauty.
Because mine is on a lazy Susan you can even put cheese platters and stuff like that on
This is a beautiful project.
I hope that you enjoy doing this with me.
I hope you learned a lot.
Well, that’s it.
We did it.
I am so glad that you came along.
I hope you enjoyed that as much as I enjoyed giving you these little tidbits in anatomy.
Don’t forget the little helpful hint about putting white glue over all of the muscles.
Just put it on a paper plate.
Damp brush—don’t put water in the glue—and just brush it almost as if you’re putting
Don’t worry about the fact that you might put some on the skeleton.
It’s white glue.
It’ll look white at first, as I said, but it will dry clear and it’ll hold all the
By no means--I’m going to repeat this—do not heat or bake this again.
Just leave it alone.
You just put the white glue on.
Anyway, I hope you enjoyed this series.
Have fun and keep learning.