- Lesson details
In this series, you will learn how to create your own ecorché sculpture from scratch with artistic anatomist, Rey Bustos. Rey makes the challenging but rewarding subject of learning artistic anatomy easy-to-understand and fun. In this tenth lesson of the series, Rey will finish off the skull, and apply the muscles of the upper arm and forearm.
- Art Alternatives Armature (Aluminum) Wire – 1/8″ Inch
- 24 Gauge Steel Wire
- Super Sculpey Clay – Original Beige
- Shop Cloth
- Super Sculpey (II or III) Chocolate
- Zap-a-Gap Super Glue – Medium CA+
- Baking Soda
- Electrical Tape
- Circular Wooden Base
- Small Wooden Clay Tools
- X-Acto Knife
- Flexible Metal Modeling Palette
- Petroleum Jelly
- Staple Gun
- Krylon Color Master Spray Paint – Almond
- Needle Nose Pliers
- Slip Lock Pliers
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And in this session, what we’re going to be doing is taking that beautiful little skull
that we’ve done.
I’m going to bake it and paint it, basically the same steps we did for the skeleton if
we remember that.
We’re also going to be doing the upper arm and the forearm this session.
Let’s get started.
For instance, now we do have to finish up the skull.
Like I tell all my students, the right side of the skull—you can do a lot of different things.
You can have it like it’s a portrait of somebody like an actual face.
I’d do something in between.
I still want it to be a little skeletal, a little muscle-y.
The left side looks pretty good.
I don’t know if I need to do much more.
It’s just the idea of the skull.
It doesn’t have to be perfect.
I don’t want you thinking that you have to get too noodly about it.
I’m going to separate some of the teeth a little bit more, but now this is going to
be the time to really bear down and get this finished because we’re going to bake it.
Remember, I showed you guys how to bake the skeleton?
I’m going to do the same thing.
I’m just going to bake it for five or so minutes and just keep looking at it until
it looks good to me.
This is roughly what I’d like to see.
It’s not bad.
You know, if I rotate this around I think I could still reduce the skull just a little bit more.
Make it even more delicate.
The X-Acto, I’ve had previous clay on it, so let me clean that up.
The good thing about what I’m doing here is I want to show you if it works better for
you take it off the body.
I’m going to put it back on because now I’ve done what I needed to do, and now I
think it’ll be okay to be put back on.
Little noodly things, just wanted to make this look just a little cleaner.
You push and pull, push and pull, cut, reduce, add.
Whatever it takes for you to get this skull looking as clean as you can without losing
sleep over it.
I don’t want you all of a sudden picking up some weird drinking habit or something
just because this is getting you all frustrated.
I want you to just kind of relax about this.
Do the best you can.
Some people are really good at this.
Some people, no matter what, experiences they’ve had, just cannot seem to do a good skull.
Skulls are very humbling.
As many times as I’ve done skulls, they’re always, it’s always something you have to
They’re not easy.
Just know that.
I like the way the skull side is looking now.
I’m going to make this little opening just a little bit smaller.
I think it might be a little too extreme.
The brow ridge looks pretty healthy.
Looks very masculine.
I don’t mind it.
The node at the corner of the mouth might be just a little extreme
so I’m going to soften it.
He’s got a nice pleasant demeanor about him, so I’m going to leave it because it
Opening of the mouth is nice.
This is like where you just take this to your tastes, you know, or whatever ability you
might happen to have.
If you can do this really, really well then just take it a little bit further.
Cleaning up the lip a little bit.
The one thing it’s missing, though, is an ear.
I definitely like putting ears on here.
But, to not smash this side, what I’m going to do is I’m going to place this back up
on the body.
Just plop it on there.
I always push a little bit more toward the left.
He’s always looking just a little bit more toward the left.
I also want to raise the head a little bit.
It just seems like it’s a little too low right now.
What I do, and if you find this to be the case for you too, just put a little bit of
clay inside the opening, and just redo this and let it go to about the spot that you do like.
For me it’s about there.
I think that looks good.
The ear—so I want to put a little bit of Vaseline, and even though this is soft clay
up here the Vaseline still allows it to stick.
I use my handy dandy pants.
I’m going to make a little tiny ear.
Now, for your purposes, you might want to have like an anatomy book or a book on head
drawing or whatever, and just turn to a page that has a nice good ear.
You have a lot of multiple little parts to an ear.
There is a helix, which is the part that is outside, almost like an inner tube,
I call it, around the ear.
I have a little earpiece on so I can hear my people.
That is the auditory canal.
There is a tragus which is a part that you could push into the earhole so that you can
block out sound.
There is a part that looks like an unmade bed on the inside part of your ear, which
is the antihelix.
So, first start with like the helix, the rounded part, the tubular part around.
I’m just using this little tool that has like a little bit of a rounded edge, almost
like a paper clip, kind of like that.
The neat thing about the helix is—I haven’t looked at my ear too much, but almost everybody
has what is called a tubercle, which is a widening part.
The way I liken it is if you’ve ever seen a snake eat a mouse or a little animal, you
could see the little animal inside the snake, and it creates a bulbous mass.
That’s what it looks like.
That’s what the tubercle looks like on the ear.
The antihelix is almost like a prong, like a fork, forks off.
This little ear.
I’m trying to show you something that’s really, really small.
See the little fork?
It’s pretty cute.
It’s making me smile just because it’s so little.
Then there is a antitragular notch.
All of these things I want you to look at a good diagram of an ear, because I don’t
want you just faking it.
The one thing that people can tell right off the bat even if they’re not anatomists is
when you fake something.
Be genuine with your art.
Don’t just do an ear that’s kind of like the idea of an ear like a Pictionary ear.
Give it a little bit more respect.
There is a concha, which is like the shell part.
That’s what it means, of course.
Some of you that know Spanish or Latin know that that’s what that means.
Okay, that’s enough.
Then the lobe.
The lobe varies from person to person.
Put this big old ear on there.
Remember, I put the Vaseline on there already.
Yeah, it’s pretty good.
You know what?
The ear is an option.
If you do something that’s more skeletal you don’t even need an ear.
You just put muscles.
I’m going to press this into the skull and blend it as best I can, making sure I don’t
lose any of the little details.
I like when it kind of looks skeletal like something from a scary movie that’s part
skull, part muscle man, anatomy man.
The concha on the backside will kind of create a little bit of like a bulbous mass.
What I’m going to do is move the ear a little bit.
It’s also going to help me.
I know this is really hard to show you.
I’m going to try the best I can.
The part behind your ear you can see, it’s concha but on the inside part.
To be honest, I’m using that to help me glue the ear onto the head.
How do you like them apples?
It serves a couple of purposes.
It’s a nice, big huge ear.
I’m going to push it up against the head just a little bit more.
And I like that.
Now I’m going to look around to see what else I could kind of touch up.
You can as well.
He’s got character.
He’s got a nice look about him.
Then what I’m going to do is get my watercolors out.
Remember how we did the hands and the feet?
Well, I’m going to use the same technique for the face.
Trying to do a little tragus, and that’s part of cartilage that you push into your ear.
I just wanted to make it a little clearer.
It’s a little tiny ear so it’s not easy.
Try to get the lobe down lower and the ear a little bit more pressed up against
the head again, just again for attachment, just to make sure it’s really stuck on there.
Okay, that’s not bad.
Now, what I’m going to do is get my handy-dandy watercolors.
Remember, I used cadmium red light, and I’m going to put it on the tip of the nose like
he has a little bit of a cold.
Just brush it on like it’s so faint you can barely see it.
Just bring it up slowly because if you go too fast he’ll look like a clown.
Remember, you don’t want to be faint where you don’t see it.
I see it a little bit.
Lips, of course.
The ear I could away with making it pretty bright, pretty cheery.
Just got to brush over the ear very, very lightly, and little by little it’s getting
more and more color in it.
This is coming to life.
Do you see that?
It’s beautiful on the inside.
The outside of the helix tends to get nice and red.
That really pushed that a lot.
I don’t mind.
A little bit on the lips.
Obviously, you don’t want it to look like it’s lipstick.
Little bit on the cheek.
Even though this is kind of skeletal around the eyes.
The eyelids can be really red.
You can get away with a lot there.
I hope you can see how much of a difference that’s making.
I’m going to really go hard with the lower lid.
Believe it or not, I’m going to get the green out too.
One of the things I notice with looking at the old masters, the painters, the portrait
painters of the 1700s, etc, is that they used a lot of phthalo green for 5-o’clock shadows.
I’m going to try to do the same thing.
I’m going to reduce that zygomatic arch.
It’s bothering me that it’s a little bit too much.
It’s a little too skeletal.
I’m going to reduce it just a little bit.
I also notice that the masseter here is a little weak so I’m going to add more masseter.
I love that chewing muscle.
See that right there?
Again, this is my interpretation of what I want for this head.
It doesn’t have to be real.
It’s more like a study of facial muscles but without just putting muscle tissue on there.
I want to remind you that that is a really nice angle right there.
Now, what I’m going to do is I’m going to put some veins on here like I did with
the hands and the feet or the hand and the foot, I should say.
I’m going to make sure this is really tapered.
This brush is not wanting to taper very much, and it needs to be.
See this nice, beautiful little branches?
This is an option, but it’s a neat one.
It’s phthalo green and it’s just tubed watercolors.
You could probably use acrylic.
If you have acrylic paint you could use the same colors I just used.
The cadmium red light or anything nice and bright like that.
Don’t use red because it won’t look right.
It’ll look dirty.
It won’t look natural.
The other thing it’s good for is 5-o’clock shadow.
Anywhere above the lip, if you put a little bit of green, it’s pretty effective.
Around the jaw line on the masseter a little bit.
I also want to put some veins on the masseter just because it looks gnarly because I like
Some veins on there.
Some veins around the temple…forehead…chin… jawline…not veins but like the green.
Great, now I’m going to go ahead and bake that, and I’m going to put this in the oven
for let’s say, like I did the skeleton, 220 degrees, let’s say.
Put it in the center of the oven.
You could even use a toaster oven but then you really have to be careful with the heat,
and you have to just stand over it and watch it.
I’m going to put it in the regular oven like I did when we were in the kitchen, and
I’m going to set the timer for five minutes and just keep looking at it.
It should only take about five or maybe just five minutes.
That’s about it.
You should just look for anything that might be starting to burn.
You want to be careful with that.
Okay, so I’m just going to touch this up, make sure it looks nice.
Once you bake it that’s it.
Okay, looks good.
So, that’s it.
Now we could do—once we bake this we could start with the neck muscle.
Let’s just do that now and get that out of the way, okay?
Well, we baked our little skull.
As you can see, I also painted it.
If you forgot how, remember how I showed you how to do the skeleton and how to bake it
and paint it.
I put the little wood stain, which is just a little added plus.
I think it’s a nice touch.
You could also see just like I did the toes and the fingers, I added a little bit of color
to the ear, the eyes, and that phthalo green kind of gives it almost like a 5-o’clock
All of these are just like little fun options.
The veins underneath the scalp.
You know, things like that just kind of give you that little creepy factor which is I think
really, really beautiful.
It’s up to you what you do with the skull.
As you can see, I’m just going to plop this on there.
It’s already baked and everything.
Remember that we had the pilot hole on there.
Hopefully, it did not close up, and if it does, it doesn’t matter.
If for some reason it did on yours, you can just take like a drill.
Don’t drill it in.
Just kind of use it to bore it out.
Look, look how cool that looks now.
How do you like them apples?
Okay, so in this lesson what we’re going to be doing is we're going to be finishing
up the upper arm.
Remember, we did the triceps.
We had to do the triceps and the shoulder lessons in one lesson simply because they
Because of that, there is just no other option.
Plus, it shows you how beautiful that weaving is.
Now what I’m going to do is I’m going to do the front muscles which are the brachialis
and the biceps.
The biceps is one of those muscles nobody needs to teach you about.
You just know.
It’s very visible.
It’s the first muscle we show off as boys.
Underneath that is a muscle that a lot of artists actually don’t know is there.
If you look at classical paintings, sculpture, drawings you’ll see it often.
It’s a flat little muscle.
It’s like a bed of muscle.
This will remind you again—boy, am I going to repeat this over and over again?
Yes, because it’s beautiful.
Remember, the triceps are on top of a bed of muscle, and that muscle is the tricep medial
When we were doing the triceps of the leg, the gastrocnemius heads over the soleus,
two heads on top of one, two heads on top of one, same thing here.
The one thing I might want to remind you off is about where my finger is, better than a
finger, I’m going to use something a little bit cleaner.
Right here is where the deltoid tuberosity is on the humerus.
The deltoid is going to end there, but that is also where this muscle starts.
Basically, the deltoid and the brachialis touch like this.
That one is really easy to locate on the model’s body.
Even on your own.
Even if it’s really like a little kid or a soft woman or a soft man, soft form people,
you’re going to see that.
Okay, so what I’m going to do is I’m going to kind of size it up a little bit.
Try to remember the soleus underneath the calf muscles, the gastrocnemius muscles and
also the triceps that we did in the last lesson.
When I straighten out my arm—let me just show you something for a second.
When I straighten out my arm, this is my bicep.
The bicep is pretty easy to understand.
You can see that pretty clearly.
It’s that rounded form.
It’s this soft area.
That’s the brachialis.
It’s also on the side of my arm.
You’ll see that because I’m going to make it three-dimensionally, which is really wonderful.
I’ve seen this on cadavers.
I’m making a little notch here.
Now, don’t worry about these little tiny nuanced things.
I’m making a little notch.
Do you see that?
The deltoids going to fit right in there.
It’s almost like I’m making a V-shape cut that its partner is going to fit right
It’s almost like a male-female kind of a thing.
What I’m doing is I’m flattening this out and keeping it pretty flat.
The other thing I need to is make sure it’s going to be long enough because it needs to
reach over here.
Remember, this is ulna right there.
The side, the bone that’s on the side of the little finger.
I’m trying to make this nice and even only because I want to be kind of careful with
The other thing about this muscle is it needs to come over here and touch the triceps medial
head right there.
So you see, I’m trying to cover this up.
Basically, it starts on the middle of the side of the humerus, but it’s going to cross
over slightly to this radial tuberosity, okay, what you’ll see right here, right over here.
This little spot right there.
Okay, so let me actually do that.
There is a little spot on the ulna.
The radial tuberosity will be for the biceps brachii which is right there.
But right now, what we’re going to do is go from here to here.
From here to here.
Okay, so we’re going to try to end up over here.
Alright, I almost forgot and I hope you didn’t.
We need to put little petroleum jelly on this.
We want the muscles to stick.
This is the magic formula.
It’s our secret so please don’t like tell everybody about this.
It’s a really neat little tidbit of information that really, really helps in making all of
I’m putting just a little layer.
Remember, you don’t want to put too much.
Basically, it’s about as much as you would put on your lips.
You don’t want to gob it on.
Just want to make sure that there is enough on there.
The other thing, if you remember, is I like to take it off my finger so that the clay
doesn’t want to stick to my fingers.
I’m going to take my little paper towel and just do this.
And you do the same thing.
If you don’t care about your pants you can just do it on your pant leg, if you have pants
that you paint with an all that.
It’s just petroleum jelly, for Pete’s sake.
It’s not toxic or anything.
It’s made to be put on your lips.
Alright, so here it is.
It’s about like this.
You’re going to notice something really wonderful.
There is going to be an A-frame, like a capital A space here exposing bone.
It’s very important that you the same.
Let me make sure my fingers are out of the way.
I’m pushing this clay.
Pushing it, forcing it, pulling it toward the ulna.
Do you see how I’m basically forcing the issue.
See that big gap?
Got to get rid of that so I’m going to push it.
The good thing about clay is that you can really manipulate it and make it do what you
want it to do.
What I’m trying to do is push that right up against, right up against those muscles
so there isn’t going to be a big gap there.
Okay, excuse my fingers, but once you see it without my fingers, you’ll see what I
There is a nice little butting up against those two muscles.
Do you see that?
This is the bed of muscle that’s underneath your biceps.
I’m just going to blend it in a little bit.
Leaving this open right there.
See, there is like an open spot right there.
I’m going to make this a little thinner because it got a little too fat, too much
I’m just going to reduce it down like that.
See, what happens is if it’s too thick then the bicep comes out too far.
I think this is pretty good.
I lost that little notch.
Remember that little notch?
I’m not sure how important it is for me to put that back in.
I just wanted to get a different tool.
This tool has like a little curve to it, and I think I’m going to use this to just take
a little bite out of that.
I want to remind you of how beautiful this is.
If I put a notch here like a V-shaped cut like that, you can see that the deltoid is
going to fit right into that little nook.
So I’m glad I did that for you because I lost it when I was pushing this clay around.
Neat stuff, eh?
You can see it from the front.
I’m just going to blend this out and make it disappear.
You do not want to lose this.
That’s your funny bone.
The medial epicondyle.
This little thing that you hit tables, and it feels like you’ve got an electric shock.
There is the ulnar nerve that goes over that so when you hit it, it’s just like an exposed
nerve as if you had an exposed nerve in your mouth like on a tooth or something, and you
bite into something and it hurts like heck, well, it’s the same thing here.
The ulnar nerve goes right over that hard little protruding bone.
It’s going to be important that we leave that alone because we’re going to put the
flexor muscles of the forearm are going to be attached to there.
Look at that.
So, let’s review.
This muscle is underneath your bicep.
The bicep is one of those muscles everybody knows.
The triceps go back toward the elbow, and they are, but there is a little space here.
It’s like a big capital A. See that right in there?
That’s really important that we have that, that little opening right in there.
We don’t want to lose that.
There are going to be muscles that fit right in there just like a puzzle piece, right here,
one, and right there, two.
And it’s these muscles, which I call the twins, brachioradialis and extensor carpi
Okay, now we’re ready for the biceps.
The biceps are two heads.
They actually start off to appear up here where my fingers are, and then they blend
together and become one, and they’re going to be attached up here to the radial tuberosity
this side of the thumb.
So remember, this one crosses over like that, the other one, the biceps is going to cross
like this like an X and go to there.
Beautiful little design.
Isn’t that amazing?
I’m going to make a bicep and because the arm is supinated a little bit, see as you
supinate—watch this you guys—as I supinate my arm, watch my bicep.
I’m not making a muscle.
It just happens.
It rides up.
Since his hand is supinated like that it might ride up even a little bit.
Without having it really do anything, the bicep is going to just pull up because it’s
The bicep is not only just for doing curls, it’s also for supinating, like you’re
turning a screw with a screwdriver.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to start with this shape here, but remember, it’s
like a branch.
It branches off up here, so I’m going to make a little line down the center but not
all the way down.
I’m very lean people.
You could actually see this sometimes.
There are tendons to this but I don’t need to do them.
I’m not going to, and you don’t need to either.
I will explain them.
This little bit here is basically like tendon.
But let me also make sure that the size is going to be okay.
These two little appendages—I’m just going to break off, because they’re going to be
hidden underneath the deltoid and your pectoral muscles.
I’m going to take a rounded stick to make sure it doesn’t look like there is just
like a cut.
Round sticks are great because they soften up both edges of both forms.
I’m even going to roll it a little bit.
I don’t know if you see what I’m doing, but I’m turning a screwdriver like this.
That makes it look like it’s two forms rather than one form that was cut in two.
Use your sharpened sticks.
I mean you don’t have to buy something like this.
You just put something in a pencil sharpener.
It’s fun and educational.
Use it as an anatomy tool, a little tool for this.
This part is going to be tendon-y, and I’m going to taper it.
These are actually attached to the scapula.
One to the coracoid process and one just above the socket, which is called the glenoid fossa.
Let me just look at this for a second.
I’m just going to let it sit here for a second.
I’m going to look at it from different points of view and have you do the same.
This is where you eyeball.
You just look to see if you like it.
If it’s too big you reduce it.
If it’s too small, you increase it.
Now, this is interesting because when you look at your own arm, and if you look at my
arm, okay, so let’s just look at this for a second, if you look at my arm I’m just
like average Joe, you’ll see one contour which is biceps and triceps back there.
You don’t really see that middle one.
That’s what makes drawing that muscle more heroic.
It’s bringing up a muscle that is there.
The old masters would actually show it and make the men’s arms look more masculine.
Now, this particular little appendage doesn’t end there.
It would actually be a tendon that goes all the way to the radial tuberosity.
I’m just going to blend it out like this.
Now, once I put the forearm muscles, there is little strap that’s attached to the biceps,
the biceps brachii that wraps around here.
If you look at my arm, everybody, you’ll notice that there is a little indentation here.
There is a little strap, almost like a piece of tape underneath my skin that pulls on this.
I don’t put that on my ecorchés because I just don’t think it’s pretty.
It’s a neat thing to know and know it’s there.
It’s kind of like the Band of Roche.
I showed you the effects of it, but I don’t necessarily have to put it in.
I don’t like to put that one in.
In some anatomy books the Band of Roche is there.
Sometimes it’s not.
You have to know it’s there, but you don’t have to describe it.
Now, these I’m going to blend out.
Even though you know that they’re going to the scapula.
Now watch this.
What you have now is you have an empty space here ready to accept new muscles, right?
You have a big empty space there.
I’m even going to clean this up so you can see it.
You can see the bone.
Look at that.
Look at that.
It’s going to fit like a puzzle piece.
It meaning the deltoid.
The deltoid is going to come in there like that, and voila, your shoulder muscle.
You have to love that.
I mean it’s just a graceful, beautiful, elegant little design.
Look how beautiful this stuff is.
So now this is what I was telling you about.
Okay, so that little spot is this little bump right here.
This little soft area.
Not your bicep because you can actually feel your bicep.
It’s that right there.
I really, really extend my arm.
I can really see it.
That’s that right there.
Pretty neat, huh?
I’m going to try to simplify this.
As I promised, I make things a lot easier for you guys to understand.
What I have done is I have edited the extensors, which are back here and the flexors, which
are here and here, to just four each.
Please know that there are more muscles than that.
I even simplified them a little bit further, but what I need to know, first and foremost
is this. I want you to understand why I’m doing this.
If I had paint, I guess just paint a swatch right there, but I don’t necessarily need
to have you guys get paint and do this.
I’m just going to put as if I was painting a little bit of this color
because this represents really deep layers of muscles.
I’m not doing it very neatly, and you don’t need to either.
I’m just almost like painting this arm with a little bit of muscle.
If you actually use paint you can.
In my classes I bring acrylic paint and I just try to match that color,
which is pretty easy.
I use red oxide and ultra marine blue.
Red oxide is kind of like a brick color.
The ultramarine blue darkens it up.
You can get it to match this pretty well.
At the same time, you don’t have to match it.
It’s just like underpainting.
All I did here, everybody, was put some of the deeper layers.
The reason I’m doing that is because I’m only going to talk about the superficial muscles,
the ones that actually push up on the skin.
Because of that—there are only four—if you didn’t put this, those four muscles
would look kind of sparse, and you would be able to see the color of skin or the paint
underneath and it would look unfinished.
So now I’m going to put the flexors in.
I’m going to do them as a group.
If you have an anatomy book handy, this is always going to be helpful to you because
the four major muscles of the forearm, the flexors, all start right there at the medial
epicondyle, the funny bone.
It’s just at the bend of the elbow.
They’re not affected by you bending your arm at all.
You could bend your arm very easily.
I’m going to tell you what those four muscles are, but first what I’m going to is I’m
going to make the shape of them, which is just like a chicken drumstick.
I’m looking at this and I’m going to be putting it on there.
That looks pretty good to me.
Those are the four flexor muscles.
Now, what I’m going to do is I’m going to press it down.
There is one that goes over the radius.
The others go toward the wrist and hand.
They do, in fact, allow you to make a fist.
As you can see.
All I’m doing is this chicken drumstick first.
This one happens to be a contour muscle, so I need to make sure it has a good shape to
it, which means that this little arc needs to be there.
What I want to do is just take a sharp stick and separate the muscles, the four.
There is one little short muscle, three long.
The same thing with the extensors of the back of the forearm.
That looks pretty good.
You can even see that it’s making an effect on the back view here, and that’s important.
That muscle, flexor carpi ulnaris, goes right up to the edge of your ulna.
One thing I’m trying to do is make sure that you could see what I’m doing.
I’m making it look like a nice little forearm.
I’m pushing the clay towards the ulna.
I like that.
Okay, so remember four.
Four, four, four; that’s it.
There is one short—it’s almost like drawing a cartoon character with a thumb and three
fingers. The thumb muscle is called the pronator teres.
If you look at any of your anatomy books you’ll see it goes from the funny bone, it goes across
like this, and there it is like that.
I just want to do it simply first.
I want to take the rounded stick.
Remember how much I like the rounded stick.
Just kind of go in between like that.
Help it along.
Just cleaning that up.
Basically, what you do is you take any of your good anatomy books, and you’re drawing
as if you’re drawing on a piece of paper.
This time you’re just drawing with a sharp stick or sharp implement, and you’re drawing
on the clay.
The next one is flexor carpi, which means wrist, radialis because it’s on the radial side.
It’ll look something like that.
I also have this nifty bullet point and it’s rubber.
Don’t worry if you don’t have any of these fancier tools.
It’s not that big of a deal.
I’m just showing off.
I have these beautiful little tools.
This is just a sewing needle.
I’m making this so you can see it better like that.
Then the sharpened stick, which is not fancy at all.
Okay, so now there is another muscle.
Now we have the pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis.
Now the next one is easy because it says something about what it is.
It’s called the palmaris longus.
It’s this one right there.
See how it goes right through?
I want you to look at my arm.
I’m hoping that you can see this.
This is the flexor carpi radialis, which you already put in.
This is palmaris longus.
It looks like it’s going right to the palm.
It’s a very weak little muscle.
When I see this on a cadaver it’s amazing how small it is.
Literally, it’s about like my X-Acto knife here.
Then the rest of it is tendon.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to draw that one.
Because I’m putting a line in between two muscles, it actually describes both muscles.
Palmaris longus and this one over here at the contour.
It’s called the flexor because remember it’s a flexor carpi ulnaris.
Remember, this is flexor carpi radialis because it’s on the radial side.
That’s flexor carpi ulnaris because it’s on the ulnar side.
Those are them.
Now, if I want this to look a little bit more like there is a gap between the tendons, I
could actually dig this out just a little bit.
See a little bit more of that digging out between those two muscles like that.
And to make it look prettier, I’m going to take my little rubber bullet and just do
that and kind of clean this up a little bit.
I don’t want you to get too noodly about that because in real life, all those muscles
actually end up looking like one ball of muscle, one drumstick mass.
It’s really quite beautiful and elegant.
I’m just smoothing this out so it looks pretty.
Take a little brush maybe and clean it up on the inside because your fingers are too
small to go in between those little tiny cuts like in between bricks, so it’s like that.
So now I’m going to do the same thing on the backside.
One small, three long.
Now this time instead of using the medial epicondyle I’m going to hop over to the
The extensors I’m talking about are going to be attached to the other side.
That’s on your humerus so the humerus is way up here.
Let me go that way.
I don’t know if I need to actually put that layer like I did before.
I’m going to try to do it without.
I did put Vaseline on there, petroleum jelly, so it should be fine.
What I’m trying to do is make sure that there is like a little point going to that
spot like that.
I’m going to smooth that out and get this flatter.
These are four muscles.
These are the four main extensors.
Do you know what I’m going to do beforehand because I want to be able to explain this.
I’m going to throw in these muscles right now that we need to do anyway, but because
this is 3-D it’ll be easier for me to explain the pollicis muscles.
Abductor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus.
Excuse me, abductor pollicis longus.
Extensor pollicis brevis and extensor pollicis longus tendon.
Together, when you pull—there are two tendons here, one there.
They create a hollow here.
I don’t have much of a hollow, but some people when they extend their thumb, it’s
amazing how much of a hollow that is.
I actually put the hollow in there already in the hand.
Okay, but what I need to do is put the muscles in.
The two main muscles are abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis.
So, what I’m going to do is I’m going to cut this little thing into a triangle.
Let me show it to you.
See that little triangle?
These are two muscles.
Right now I’m going to make them look like it’s one.
It’ll just be easier.
Let me shorten it up a little bit.
Part of this is already in the hand.
I’m going to put that right over here and blend it in.
If they’re actually attached to the radius and the ulna, but they’re underneath the
I want you to see what I’m doing before I put the extensors in.
Because we’re working three-dimensionally, I was able to show you this much more clearly.
Okay, how do you like that?
So, the pointing to the thumb.
There is two of them.
You’re wondering, well, how come you’re doing one?
Because they’re going to be split in half, and it’s easier to do.
With little tiny muscles like that it’s easier to actually do them together, and then
you put the split right down the middle like that, splitting them into two like that.
Those are the pollicis muscles.
How do you like that?
I like that.
I’m going to blend this in just because they are underneath the extensor, so don’t
worry about this right in here.
You can be messy about that.
Just blend it until it breaks in your fingers or disappears.
Now I can start looking at what I want to do with this.
This is the general idea like this.
The only problem is it doesn’t look real pretty just yet, but it will.
I need to just shape it.
Remember, the most important spot is right in here because the extensors are attached
there, and they spray out almost as if you took a towel and you pinned it on a wall,
it’ll be flaying out from there, draping from that little spot.
This over here is just way to thick.
I’m going to thin this out.
There is a lot less subcutaneous fat on the back of your arm than on the fat.
Let me just show you something with my own arm.
I’m not real clear with like my definition or anything, but you can see little things
moving. Those are my extensors.
But over here, it’s a lot chubbier, so you don’t see the separate muscles quite as much.
Because of that, I need to remind myself to make this a little smaller, a little thinner,
a little bit closer to the skeleton.
I’m also trying to make it broader.
It’s almost like you’re trying to size something up for like a dress pattern or something.
You’re trying to make it fit with your figure.
What I’m trying to do is make sure that you don’t see any like little empty spaces
I think I got it pretty good.
This is too fat over here.
I can just tell.
See now, it’s narrow.
It has to narrow down to the point where you should be able to feel the bones over here.
If it’s not quite happening you need to do something about that.
There is one muscle, extensor carpi radialis brevis, that goes underneath those little
muscles, the thumb muscle, so I’m going to put a little line.
That’s one of the first lines I’m going to do is that.
That’s extensor carpi radialis brevis right up there.
Again, I highly recommend that you get a good anatomy book as well.
You can pause anytime and just really see what it is that I’m doing.
Now, over here I’m going to draw a little Dorito.
See that little Dorito?
Just that one little muscle right there.
That’s the anconeus.
It does kind of look like a Dorito.
When I extend my arm I can actually feel it.
Extend it out a
little bit more.
Then extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum.
All I’m going to do is one more line.
What I want you to see is that we’ve got them now.
We have four: One small and three long.
Extensor carpi radialis brevis.
Extensor digitorum, which the tendons go to the finger.
Extensor carpi ulnaris as opposed to the flexor carpi ulnaris, anconeus, and that’s it for
the forearm muscles.
See, it’s much easier if you edit and you just do the essential muscles that you will
actually see on a person.
Sometimes you’ll see this little tiny extensor digiti minimi, which goes to the pinky finger,
but that starts getting a little bit too much into minutia.
You can learn that little by little as you progress through your anatomical education,
in which this was a great part of it.
So, what I’m doing is separating those muscles so I can really, in fact, see, that there
are four different muscles there.
It looks pretty good.
Now, remember the muscles of the thumb—you have these two muscles that look like that.
I call this the little mini twins, and the big twins are up here.
Remember the space I told you to leave empty.
Watch what I’m going to do.
I’m going to do a big version of those little thumb muscles.
Remember, it’s kind of like a little wedge, almost like a triangulation.
I’m going to try to do this really carefully because it is pretty neat to see.
I’m trying to create a wedge that fits right in there.
These are also two muscles.
I’m going to do them as if they’re one.
They’re going to go to the back of the hand over here.
The tendons disappear into the rest and metacarpals.
The big twins are the top one here, the superior one is brachioradialis.
The lower one is extensor carpi radialis longus, which will remind you of the extensor carpi
radialis brevis right there.
What I’m trying to do more than anything is get the shape of it right now like this,
and then it’s going to disappear and go underneath the little twins like this.
I could have them disappear.
I want to look at it first before I do much else.
I realize I want to put a little bit more bulk lower.
The other thing I want to do is just sharply define that attachment.
See how I put a big cut on that?
The reason I wanted that is so that it fits in there really snugly because it’s attached
to bone, not muscle.
It’s also this really nice form.
See this second bump.
That’s extensor carpi radialis brevis.
These two are brachioradialis extensor carpi radialis longus.
It’s going to create that nice big bubble.
They’re up really high, and because they’re up really high, everybody, way up here, right
in here, when I bend my arm they fold, and they create that nice little donut around
They go like this, and then they go underneath the tunnel.
I’m just going to make the shape.
I’m going to try to kind of like pull them so that we don’t see any bone here.
They give you the look of the arm.
That little debris out of there.
See how this is all kind of looking…
Okay, it looks pretty good.
Take my rubber bullet.
Fix that up a little bit.
Clean it up.
That’s all I’m doing.
Remember, those are two muscles, and I haven’t done them yet.
I haven’t separated them yet.
We need to push this in.
My fingers are too big to push that in and really make it look like they’re in there.
And then the tricep lateral head here.
That’s pushed up all against there.
I don’t want to see any kind of bone showing anymore.
Now I’m going to split those muscles and make them two.
First I want to shape them a little bit better.
This is like that little nook that you see on the back of your arm.
See this, everybody?
Those are them.
Look at that.
How do you like them apples?
Do you like that?
Even on an art teacher you can see some of these muscles.
That’s what I’m trying to show you here is this kind of change of direction.
It creates that hollow, that nice defined hollow.
These go underneath that like that.
All of sudden it should start looking pretty neat, and I think it does.
Soften that up a little bit, the anconeus.
I really like that.
Now I need to split them.
Right in the middle like this and follow that same pattern.
Take my rounded stick or my rubber bullet and voila.
Very, very cool.
Can’t do the deltoid yet because what we’re going to do with the next lesson is we’re
going to be doing the neck muscles kind of quickly, actually, and the front torso, and
it will cap everything off with the deltoid.
But look how beautiful this is.
What’s nice about working three-dimensionally, everybody, is along the way you get these
really wonderful, lucid moments where it’s like, oh my God, I get it.
I get it.
It’s so beautiful.
Oh my goodness gracious, I can see why Rey gets so excited over this stuff.
It’s just so elegant and so beautiful.
If it starts looking like an arm you did something right.
If it doesn’t then you kind of have to figure what it is that is not quite right about your
What I’m going to do is I’m going to contract that muscle a little bit more, and I’ll
talk about the biceps brachii.
To my eye it just seems like it should end a little bit more abruptly.
I cut a little bit of this off.
Look at it from the side now, it looks like, in fact, it does kind of finish.
It contracts so it’s riding up a little bit higher.
Remember, there is a bicipital aponeurosis or a little strap of tendon that wraps around
here that we’re not putting on here on this bicep.
So, there is the long head and the short head of the biceps brachii.
This up here actually goes all the way to the scapula, but I’m going to just end it
there because you’re not going to see that.
Once you put the deltoid, it covers all that up.
Okay, do you see that everybody?
All I’m doing right now is just kind of shaping this, making it look prettier.
Over here make sure those two heads become one.
I’m blending them in like this.
You can striate the muscles if you feel like it because it’s easy.
Just give it a little bit of a comb.
My clay happens to be pretty soft and bubble gummy, so I have to be careful because I could
just rip this apart.
Just come in the direction of the muscle fibers as you see in your book.
Usually the same direction, especially with these directional muscles, the same direction
that you see the muscles going, that’s going to be the direction of the muscle fibers as
they all minutely pull.
These will disappear into the hand.
I am going to just take off a little bit of the debris with a softer, nice little paintbrush
Something I don’t need any longer.
And that’s until the next lesson, kids.
Hope you’re happy with this.
It’s a lot of learning, but it’s worth it.
Look around and see if there is anything that you don’t like, and you just change it.
Okay, so next time, remember, we’re going to be finishing this up.
We’ll be doing the neck muscles, the front torso muscles, and the deltoid.
Alright, so Rey Bustos, over and out.
See you guys next time.
Okay, so, well, I’ll tell you, the forearm and the arm wasn’t quite as tough as you
thought it was going to be.
That part usually scares people.
So, well done.
Next time what we’re going to be doing is the neck and the front torso, and that will
finish up this whole ecorché.