- Lesson details
In Part 4 of Glenn Vilppu’s Animal Drawing series he focuses on deer, sheep, goats, and other grazing animals. Specifically, he’ll be drawing two-toed ungulates. You’ll see how the structure of their heads, their legs, and the connection between their necks and shoulders are suited for their lifestyle. The last chapter is a timed assignment for you to practice what you’ve learned. Premium members have hi-res downloads of the same references that Glenn uses, plus others.
Glenn’s approach to drawing animals is similar to his approach to figure drawing-– start with the gesture, then construct and use light to describe form and accentuate movement.
Instead of copying what you see, you will learn the skills necessary to draw animals from imagination. Glenn will start with Comparative Anatomy between humans and animals, and then break down specifics of animal anatomy. Specifics such as knowing what an animal eats and its place in the food chain can be discovered by analyzing its anatomy and structure.
By taking this structural point of view, you will be able to draw any animal from your imagination. This is beneficial to all artists, whether their interest is in Fine Art, Animation, Comics or other fields.
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deer, sheep, goats,
basically grazing animals.
And one of the things to note and talk - okay here
obviously this is a goat. Okay, notice really big deal
here is that notice there's no teeth on the upper part.
There's not. And this goes for cows, sheep,
most of the grazing animals.
They don't have any teeth, they're nippers. In other words
you contrast that - whoops, we just lost -
my goodness I didn't notice that before. It's a
protective thing. You can see here how the goat's horns - now that's
different than the deer. This is actually bone that grows
and we had this part that goes over the top of that.
That's the first time I've had that come off. In fact I didn't
know that it did come off. Okay.
Now we're back okay. So
in here this is a sheep skull.
Same thing, no teeth on the top.
Back here we have all the teeth and all of
your grazing animals, they're like for grinding.
Next week for instance we're gonna be talking about horses.
And you'll see that their teeth
are the same thing. Okay so this is the beginning point.
Now I wanna go through and emphasize
the different sections again.
I've talked about this, I repeated this last week but
it's important to be really conscious of the fact that we have
these basic elements. We're talking about okay the head.
Now I start out with a sphere but
you'll find that your deer, your sheep, goats,
that's really the shape - the shape is more like a triangle.
And maybe a
little blunt on the end. Okay so this actually becomes a
and then the eyes tend to be focusing more to the
outside edge. Now the nose is, everybody's
nose is in the same place. One of the
characteristics of the noses on all the animals
now, basically us too, is that
we come to the end of the nose, okay
we have these cartilage here,
like I'm sort of drawing a human now. You can
feel this shape, the end of the nose. And
then we have this center part comes down and
this has like a tail, coming through, and then
our - we have a cup
that comes down like this. Okay. And the
bone, the interior of the bones, is right here.
Okay now, when we take and go to our
goat animals or deer what you're gonna find, you have the same
thing except the end tends to be a lot
broader. And you find that
the nostril now, this will tend to feel that
this actually starts wrapping up around the side a bit like that.
Now so what we have here then is essentially
the difference is between this cup
that we have to what we have this taking and going
back. But that's the main thing. Then they also, they will have
the lips, taking and coming down through here.
Okay. They have a chin.
It comes down through here. So these are the basic elements
so when we're starting out now - and the fact that the eyes tend to
be a bit more to the side. So in other words we look at this
now you can see that the eyes are really to the
side. They're not going forward, they're not -
this is not a hunter.
He's the one that's gonna get hunted. Okay so
but the eyes are to the side and this is also totally
enclosed with bone going around. If you look at the
sheep here, you can see that we have this - it's
completely enclosed with bone.
The zygomatic arch goes back, the ear is here. Okay
the ears now, this guy had - or horns would be
coming out right here. Just like on the goat there. So
these are some of the basic characteristics of how
the big elements and things that we're
looking at. So once we've got this,
looking at the shape coming across, coming
through. The spine, it takes and goes back in.
Now this is what's gonna be really obvious.
I'll be showing you some skeletons plus and doing the drawing.
You're gonna see very, very clearly how this neck
becomes a cylinder type
form. Fitting into the roundness of the
ribcage but particularly the
corners of the
scapula and how this becomes a plane
that we will see very clearly, the neck comes down, this sticks out,
and then we go down. So that this section is a very,
very important element that we take and look at. Then depending on the
animal, how things go up. And particularly
the animals, for instance if we look at some of the goats you'll see well they get
rather broad through here. But today all the
animals that we're looking at will have very clear cut
waist. So then we can see as we're going back in here,
we're going back into the narrow and this sort of a waist
very clear, very, very clear
sense of the pelvis
on the back. So these are the basic elements. And so you look, as
I drew this, you can see that we have scapulas
going this way, pelvis is going that way, and then we have
this in between the waist.
Now all of them, legs going back,
coming down, the wrist and we go into the hoofs.
All of the animals today
will have - are two toed. Okay.
So they're bis. So we come through.
Coming in, following the pattern, following
the pattern that we take and go through in the animals. And then
the tail. Ears, coming through. Find some
variety in the ears but these are the basic elements
we're gonna look for. So this is something you should practice
actually drawing from imagination. Taking
and just learning to take and see the
simple volumes and how we work with
the round forms to a box type form
to, again, a semi box,
and then definitely corners of the pelvis.
And this is really how you take and
particularly if you're focused on, say for instance,
the animation or any drawing from imagination,
or even if you're capturing live animals, drawing
the figures at the zoo, if you can take and very clearly go
through the steps - and remember we're always looking
for exactly the same thing except then
we're looking for the difference. And that will become very clear today.
these are really, really clear.
So I'm gonna take and I'll take draw a couple of these guys here.
So that we can take and compare.
So start with, again,
taking and blocking in the head.
Okay, coming through. Now as I do this, I'm
looking across the form.
Through. I'm drawing the one in the middle.
Head's coming out.
Notice now as I do this, I'm
consciously thinking that this is a triangular shape.
You should be able to see this very clearly, that's sort of blunted
on the ends. Exactly what I was doing
in the opening talk there. Now feel the flow
And it's doing this, I feel it going back in.
Now from here, go down,
again this is very obvious now.
Look at the roundness. Now
these animals here are from the Natural History
Museum in Los Angeles. I take my
classes here on a regular basis.
Now, through, so the neck now is a
cylinder type form. Now
it should become very obvious now as you look
at this you can see the box type
form coming across
the form here. And you can feel - we can feel the spine
pushing up the back in here.
And so you've got the very clear cut corner. Now
in the center here, we come down in the center right here,
the sternum is taking and pushing fairly high in here,
remember they don't have a clavicle. Okay.
As we come through and you're going back
out, through, and this is a
rounded form. And
as we go through here you can see now, go back into this, you
can see a waist. Okay. Legs,
shoulders, all of this is creating a
plane now that's going down, in.
As often as I talk about this now,
about seeing the corners of the shoulders here and the
elbow being back in here, invariably I will
have students that will take and draw this as if it was
going straight up. So you have to take and really
consciously think of this now. So now I'm gonna draw the other guy here,
that's right in front here now. So again you take and you -
he's facing us. We've got this
pull coming around,
you can see the end going right across,
seeing the eyes, coming through.
Got the end of the nose, this is
coming through. You can feel
the side of this triangle. We're looking -
so we're looking at this, you wanna feel like this like a box
taking and going down. So I'm really boxing
Now in both those animals - and those were the ears, right here.
Now one of the ways - and I think I've mentioned this before -
is that drawing the ear, you think of the ear as being
a cylinder that then takes and
So you try to focus on each one of them.
You're constantly and dealing with
the variations on that but that's it. Even later on as we're
looking at rhinos and hippos you will see
the same basic plan. Think around,
the other side
going back, the horns are coming up,
right out of the center up here on the top.
Now we look at the other one, you can see now where the horns are, the
horns are here and the ear
is here. And as you look at the front view you can
feel the shape, this, visualize,
You'll find that that's not so different from, say, a cow. Basically the same
kind of idea. Okay now
the deer, think of the neck now as going back
in, this is a cylinder type form.
So we're going through, in,
coming around, and
visualize now, visualize that fitting into the ribcage
which is going behind,
going through, back in,
Okay now, we can feel
the vertebraes picking up here. They're coming up high
in here. So we're starting to feel this part here as we go back
in. Now again the waist becomes another
element, it's going across, corner, and
then we're seeing the pelvis sticking out. This is the
box now. So now we're taking and this
pelvis is going back in. Okay now
here's where we, again, push,
those shoulders, the clavicles are in front,
coming across the surface.
Now some of the animals are a little bit more tapered,
take and coming much closer at the top. Even here
slightly narrower at the top than at the bottom.
We can feel this and you can see the plane going down
along the sides. This very, very
obvious arrangement now. And so you start to see then,
you've got the legs, the stomach,
coming through, going around
legs are going back in and then we come down.
Now there's another characteristic here that most
of your four legged animals will tend -
most of your four legged animals will tend to fit into a
square - rectangle - from the front to the
back so that the halfway point
on the animal then is like the bottom of the belly.
You can feel this distance in here. So from top
coming down. This gives you...
So we can feel this shape coming down.
So and also as you're drawing animals, try to be very conscious
of the fact if you have a ground plane that they're standing on.
You're visualizing where they are in space.
And forward, down.
Everything's that. So you're constantly working on
this ground, so from here to here, coming in
you can see that we're going back to the elbow
coming down, out, the knees,
and then come down
Now, so this is the basic plan
now. So through, now
let's take a couple minutes and look at the nose here.
Again, feel across
the surface. We can see
that the nostrils - now I started off by talking about this,
the sort of a shape that
takes and goes like this.
Now they're a bit of a cup here now.
And if you look at the one on - let's take and see if we can get in close on this
and see this, the bone actually stops about here.
Okay from here then we
get the cartilage
taking and coming across. It's not that different from us.
Okay so it's not different - the end of the bone's about here,
coming through. The nostrils are not
that - all that different from ours.
Coming down and goes in. The big difference here is that it
goes down along the sides, like this.
The opening is more into here so this is
all coming around and have the fullness
through here. Okay. As we look - you look at these heads now
you can see that they're really incredibly square
along the sides and we actually now -
have a bit of a cheek
here and they have chins that are taking
and going back down .
Okay so this, all of this stuff now. Now you will find
it's all the same - horses,
all the same stuff. Almost all of your four legged animals.
Pretty much the same. Okay so now think of the
skull going all the way around and then the eye
you can see inside that. And we feel
the space between here, we can feel the cheekbone
coming around and then here we have all of the masseter
muscles that are taking and pulling down, through
in here. And so they have a
zygomatic major muscle just like us. We're taking a pulling
from the side, coming down here. Feel the pull
going back in, the eye, the ear
wrapping around, going through.
So as you do your drawing then
if you're constantly focusing on the construction
you will take and
almost calling out the pieces as I'm doing these things.
So you come through. Now
another big element that people have difficulty
is they tend to get too preoccupied with that contour.
Focus on the form, not the contour.
So as we see this coming down in here,
going out of your way to see the overlapping
on the other side. So in fact we start to think of the scapula
coming up, it's on both sides with the vertebrae in the center,
so you can start to visualize how these elements
take and build. Now as you think of the
scapula coming down, okay here's the end of the bone.
Okay. The scapula is
a triangular shape, paddle,
that does something like this.
Okay there's a spine in that just like we have in ours.
You can see as I'm drawing that. Now
so what you get then here is that you can see
there's changes that take place. The trapezius muscle
coming across the top here. You can actually start to
feel where these muscles are. You can see the plane,
plane of this muscle as it comes back down to here.
But we also can take and get very, very conscious of the fact that
there is different levels in here. You can feel the
side going down from here, we have the spine coming
across and we actually feel these forms as we're drawing them.
We start to see -
you will find that the more you know, the more
you will actually see. So we can feel these points,
planes taking and going down. In here now
in the neck okay we're gonna talk about the sternum sticking out here.
Okay this became -
start becoming your pectoralis muscles in here. But we also have the
muscles coming down from the neck, just like we do.
Coming down and fitting in
at this point. So again we have a change in direction as we go across.
So it's always - and analyzing the
form. Now for the fullness, the fur
and stuff that's taking and coming down, coming through,
through all of this in here and then so you have to look to where
is the scapula on the other side. So we're talking about
overlapping planes. Now
from here, the muscles now, if you look you can see what's
happen - so if you look at the photograph you're going to see this takes and
comes down, the muscles are coming off of here, they're coming down here.
The triceps now, teres major,
you feel the shape and so as these muscles are
building here. Leg is back, you get the feel
all of this building up. So there's a plane
being created in here. The leg is still going back
in here and these are gonna come down and be fitting into
this. The elbow is now sticking back
into here. So these again are planes
that are taking, going back, and then we start to pull
through the knees, coming through,
then we take and work our way down. Now
look at the feet.
Okay, as we come down we have
one bone, one bone, then right in here
what we actually get - where we have
many bones, they have two. And those
now are taking and pulling into the hoofs
coming through. Now depending on
on the kind of environment that they are involved in,
whether they're really wide or very narrow
or flat, it all depends on the kind of
territory that they tend to function in.
So we're always looking for that. Now as we go back
I'm gonna feel the spine pulling from behind
and we can see the ribcage now.
We can feel the ribcage coming over the surface,
feel these forms coming off of the shoulder here, going over,
those will be their serratus anterior muscle.
As they take and go back.
And feel the pectoralis muscles, I'm taking and coming underneath
down here. So we
build, we got the corner of the ribcage here, coming through
and then we're building up into the waist
and it's coming across through here and finally the pelvis
behind. So we look - first
we go through the big pattern, what we're talking about
these major elements and then we slowly start to
break it down. Okay. So let's take a look at some
of the skeletons. Now
as we look at,
I guess would be an elk,
look at the configuration now.
Very close to the same angle that we have now.
So what you're seeing as we look at the
I'm gonna draw this up in the corner here so we can take
and focus on this thing a little bit. So again
starting out very, very - even when I'm drawing skeletons I start off very loose.
Thinking of the volumes,
you can feel the horns.
I'm not gonna bother to take the time with that but you can follow
those. Now you can see the spine,
neck, come down. Notice how it pulls up
so that we look here, so if we're seeing that you can see that it's pulling
this coming over. So we're taking
and coming through. This coming down.
Now look at the ribcage,
notice how one of the
points that I've been trying to make also, look at how narrow
it is in front. And then you feel as you come up
you can feel the spine lifting up, lifting up, lifting up.
And then we're going to go back in, coming around,
through. You can look at it and see
the shoulders now coming across
through here and that the paddle
of the scapula coming through.
So we're seeing - you're seeing - these are all the elements underneath
that create these forms that
we've been drawing. That make up this box.
Okay so we come through, then we go back. Now
as you go through you can see how the leg
goes back, you can see from here,
going back down, in, and then we're feeling the
heel sticking out. Then coming down
we have a break, come down.
Notice now as we come to here
at this point you actually have now two
fingers, coming down to the hoof.
They - on a skeleton
what looks like the hoof is not really the hoof.
On most of your animals they will have -
like on a horse it's referred to as a coffin bone. You have this sort of
hoof shape inside here
but the real hoof is something that's on top of that.
So now we build -
we build - you're always looking for these corners.
Looking for the corners,
here we go. Now so that's the big thing at the beginning. But notice
again at how clearly we see the
where the horns are, the fact that the eyes
are very clearly to the side
and then the nose comes down, there's a very clear cut
plane across this and then we will feel
these forms comes forward,
he's just a nipper, no teeth up here,
the teeth then are on the bottom
or they can take and pinch stuff up against the upper.
So that's the essentials. Then the ear
would be coming out in here. Okay let's take
and look at goats. Now what we have -
here is from the Los Angeles Natural History Museum.
Now what we have is again a goat. It's very clear
so as I start I'm gonna draw with the first
this sanguine here. So
again I'm thinking round
forward and the nose
now we're starting to become familiar with the kind of pattern
that this creates. Coming through,
underneath, and it's coming through.
the flow, okay so I'm going around, over,
focusing on the gesture and taking, coming
down, going around,
legs stretching back, so
as I'm doing this then we can see, right away that
we're talking about a cylinder. And
we can pick up the corners of the scapula.
Now in this particular shot you can see that the sternum
is really pushed out
in here. So don't confused that with the corner. The corner
of the scapula is here
in here. The sternum is pushing out
with the pectoralis muscles taking and coming down.
But what we see here is the strong muscles that
take and build, coming through. We can feel the scapula in
here. We can see - we look for where the bone goes.
Drawing down, the elbow is over here.
we feel the fullness of this belly now, taking and
going down, through, here. And you can see
the shape of the ribcage, coming through.
So you're analyzing, okay, the pelvis.
Okay the pelvis is coming through, right here.
Okay feel the line and we're going down.
The bone is taking and coming from back in here
and going down. I'm gonna look at a different view.
Okay so we're getting all
over the stuff, same basic stuff now. Coming through.
In, take here - the ear
is now in this case it goes back. We can see through the center here,
this is like the
goat that I showed you the skeleton of.
The horns are encased in here
and taking, coming back, tricky
angles to draw. Okay. You feel,
follow the line, don't just copy the contour.
You feel the flow, which way it goes.
feel the surface, going over the surface of these forms.
as we take and follow the leg, coming down,
taking and come to the
knee. Come down, ankles,
and finally the hoof.
Follow the bone, coming through
now, good. Okay.
And then the leg is stretching back, the muscles through, coming in
to the knee, going back.
The other version is over here, obviously it's a male.
So now let's take and I'm changing
color here so that we can push the
differences here a little bit. So now we think of the
pit of the neck that's in here. You really feel
these muscles now pulling out.
The sternum is again gives the corner
a feel that's coming through. These muscles
now are going underneath and you feel the skin
pulling across over here. Right here you're really
picking up the supraspinatus muscle
taking and coming off the top of the scapula, the
trapezius up on the top.
And then we feel these muscles coming down
and we can see the elbow.
So what I'm trying to
communicate is that as I'm doing a drawing
I'm thinking of the muscles
and bones and how they go and I'm not
taking and focusing on copying that photograph.
I'm using the photograph as a reference but I'm trying to
analyze the volumes that we're working with
so you're over the surface. From here you can
see the trapezius as it comes down
and then we're fitting in the ribcage now, it's coming through
in here we can feel the waist behind that.
The waist is coming down and then we feel the pelvis coming out.
So then we get a really a fullness of this
ribcage as we're coming around. Okay let's look at some
different ones now. Actually I wanna take and jump
okay this is basically - this is again
this is a really - let's do a very quick, very, very, very quick
drawing of this because what you see here
again just blocking in really quick, we have the eyes to the side,
very clear mouth, you can see
the shape of the nostrils coming across,
lips here. Ears coming
up right behind, coming through,
then the horns and the configuration of these horns
going up. Okay. But the main
thing here is that this shot shows
so clearly we can see, feel the neck
is going back and try to think about the spine three dimensionally
taking and going back in, going up.
Okay the neck, the head is turned so what we have -
is a cylinder type pull coming through.
Okay visualize now
and a ribcage inside here.
see this volume coming through.
Now why I've stopped at this photograph here
is that two things. One we get such a strong
clear sense of the end of the
scapula here and that spine taking and going back.
And the other side would be here. Remember, the scapula
moves with the leg. Waist being pushed up on
top of this. And now
we can particularly see if we move back
the corner of the scapula.
I mean the pelvis going across here.
And we feel the spine going up through the center.
So this hole from here
okay then we're seeing the ribcage, we can actually even,
picking up the pectoralis and then the trapezius muscles as we come down
along the side you can feel the waist
really clear. Pulling over,
this dropping down we feel the ribcage coming through
then we feel the pull. This would be the
infra - I mean the
external oblique going over. Okay then we get
the end if the knee coming through here.
So these elements are so clear. You can really
feel it and you can feel the pull. Now these muscles coming off here
this is taking and coming forward now.
And come to the knee and then
stepping down here. Okay let's
keep moving on here.
But what is particularly nice about this now
is you can see clearly
the placement of the feet,
the fact that this one's got his foot off the ground
that you can take and see what's going on. So now
I'm gonna approach this exactly the same way now.
Gonna go through
See I'm looking at that head, it's basically a triangular shape.
with the eyes, the eyes to
Now, feeling the pull of
the neck and going in and try to visualize. Now this.
We're going back in space. So this is where basic drawing
skills now. We're talking about, as we're going back in
in other words we're talking about, thinking about horns that just
this. So it's an important -
now, what we're dealing with is two different things.
We're talking about analyzing
then we're talking about anatomy
structure but that means absolutely nothing
if you can't draw. If you can't
describe the form, you have to be able to describe the form. And that's
where we're talking about going over the surface of the form.
Okay so now, coming through, and this is what
happens in regular anatomy classes. I've had many
doctors in my class who
obviously knew their anatomy
that didn't really help them that much because they didn't have
the drawings skills. They didn't have
the basic drawing tools that we have. So now here
we get the vertebrae sticking up in here and
now that animal is coming towards, what you're dealing
with - I started with going over the surface this way
then what you're talking about, next thing is that we're dealing
with symmetry. We're talking going from one side to the other.
We're talking about forms that are going back in space.
We're talking about overlapping forms in space
and how we're fitting into this. So
the idea of using symmetry again as a tool
and taking and doing the drawing. So now we're going back in
looking at the base of the skull. We're going from one side
to the other. We're talking about the line that comes
through and the socket is taking and coming out over here.
And as we do that,
the other side you can see, even here, you can
feel the way the light is coming down and through and
the eyeballs are inside that. Now this comes down,
we're taking and seeing the end. Well the bone stops about in here.
And now it comes through we can see that the
nostril's now taking and going to the side.
Going through. The lips are taking and are split
coming through. And we can see
the side here, now the mouth is going to be going back in
and the lips, looks like
he's sticking his tongue out. Okay. But you can see just
by analyzing what the forms are
doing, we take and get a certain sense of realism
and character to our drawing. Now in this case,
the ears now coming from the same place, right back here.
But this guy's got floppy ears. So now we have to take and look
at the ear and how it's taking and coming around.
And pulling down and
So you find goats have many, many different kinds of ears.
Okay so now let's go back in. So as I'm drawing this
I'm thinking okay, visualizing the esophagus
as it goes back to the neck. Then I'm coming down and I'm seeing
now, I'm drawing this as a cylinder. Okay.
And as you're doing this you can start to see behind the
neck you get that pinching and this is coming around
this way. Now, come down to the sternum.
Okay we've got this whole ribcage going. Now taking
the idea of the scapula. Okay the shoulder now
is taking and coming through in here. The other leg
is coming forward. He's walking. This leg is coming out
this way. This leg here is down on the ground
holding onto the weight, pulling through,
Okay so, you can feel the corners. So now again, he's walking
so we're actually getting a shifting
through here. The same thing that you have if you were walking here.
So now we can feel from here, we're talking about the pectoralis muscles.
Well these are pulling over to the leg.
So we start to understand that and we can see now we're pulling
from here. The leg is coming forward. We go over the
joint. Coming through.
Okay so now we take and feel this coming down,
going through. Okay.
But try to visualize the joint is
actually being sort of squarish, this way.
going on through in here and that the
bone will tend to come this way, tend to go that way.
Okay this gives you much of the look
that we see. As we come through
and are drawing this now. Now we take and feel the pull
now you can see the
next joint here. And at this point now you can see
very clearly the two bones taking and coming
from here to here.
And we get a -
like a thumb in the back there, coming down
and then the hoof. See the hoofs here now are quite different
from the deer because these are working
with basically hard rock, grounds,
surfaces. Now we come through. So now as we come in and start drawing
the other shoulder here, I'm taking and going over
the surface. Okay and I'm feeling the corners
that are coming across. Okay so
I'm constantly going over here we can feel the muscles, the trapezius
is being pushed up, scapula's going up into here,
feel the trapezius muscles coming down and here I'm
talking about symmetry. I would make a point by taking this and feeling
the other side. So I'm pulling this stuff, coming, wrapping around.
So you're working over the
surfaces, coming through.
You feel it coming across, forward, and
here now we're picking up the elbow, coming in
you can feel the muscles pulling
down here, coming down
and fitting in. And so you actually start to see now corners
and coming down you can feel the fullness
of the muscles as they come across in here and you feel the pull
of the pecs coming over here and you have
two layers, the ascending and descending
taking and pulling, going back underneath. So
now we're starting to see we're building
up this figure. Okay then I come down
the knee, again I draw - think of this as really
quite rectangular. You can feel the joint
in here. Through, down.
Goats spend a lot of time on their knees so
they can be really quite
May be the best term to use. Now we can feel,
see the pressure's on that.
Okay this guy's
got the thing off the ground so you can see the shadow.
Go through, going over
And as I take and come back in I'm gonna feel the
trapezius coming down, you can see these muscles now pulling down
through that surface.
Okay so the spine then is taking and coming back down.
you can feel - you look, you can see the pelvis here.
You can see that this comes down to the pelvis.
Pelvis is now coming out,
through in here, and going back down
this way. So you're constantly, you're
again looking at how - what's the configuration.
Okay so now from here the bone
is pulling from there, coming forward
into here. So
as we look at this then you can see the
waist, notice very possibly a pregnant
goat here, I'm not familiar with this gal here.
But it's coming through
and feel the fullness
through here. So we can see the
ribcage going up to the spine,
feel this coming down, knee
is in here. And we can feel the muscles
going over, coming through to here. Now if this leg goes back,
we're taking and looking at where we're going into
the heel and coming down, through. The other leg
is going back behind, in here.
So now what we're getting - this is actually taking and
confusing with the light - is taking and coming down.
These muscles now are pulling off of here, coming down, forward,
we can feel the real fullness at this point,
here, coming down. This is all turned
away. But the shape that we're seeing in here is the other leg.
Coming down through here.
This is just taking, going down into here.
Coming down. Okay. And
feel the end of the pelvis and we're getting the tail
that's taking and coming out.
That gives us the
idea here that I'm trying to get across. It's not just
knowing the look of something or having a good photograph
but it's actually, your drawing
tools that we use to take and describe it,
that's gonna make your drawings come through. Okay let's look at
something else here. Okay now
in this figure, it's very difficult to see.
because of all of the hair. Okay so let's
take and I'm gonna see if we can take and get this
coming across a little bit more. So again, but
again you have to - what
makes it difficult is of course that you can't really see it.
But if you know what you're looking at,
you can see it. Okay let's see if I can clarify that.
Okay, now start
triangle shape again, notice. Really triangular.
Okay, got the eyes to the side.
Hole of the nose, coming through, mouth.
The ear, this really floppy ear
coming out towards us in here.
And then the horns taking and coming up out of that.
Okay now, take and feel, try to feel the spine.
Coming through. Okay.
So I'm taking, carry all the way back in here.
And you try to get the big things, coming through.
See where the sternum
is, the ribcage,
coming around, his stomach
you can feel - so I'm thinking of where the pelvis is at
So I was saying in most of the four legged animals you tend to
fall into a square. So that
the front to the back is equal
to the top, the withers, to the bottom of the feet.
And that applies pretty much here too. Now so we can see
the goats, coming through. So I'm just - the first step is
just following the pattern.
Okay got a tail coming out. Now
I'm gonna draw in a way - actually maybe I'll
come in and add a little bit of wash to this as I'm doing the drawing.
I wanna take and focus a little bit on the rendering here
and how we use the rendering as part of the tool for
taking and describing the form. Okay first we have the ridge,
nuclear ridge, pulling from the back of the skull, over to the
vertebrae. Now where it attaches to the vertebrae, which is
in here. We can feel the vertebrae sticking up.
Okay. And so he's got this really shaggy,
shaggy, shaggy thing. And he's also got I think
if I'm not mistaken I think that that is a
bit of a goatee there. Okay so now
as I try to draw now I'm thinking
all of this fuzziness now, so I'm thinking, thinking
of the volume through the form. Now I come through,
looking where the horns are, coming around,
feel the form.
Also notice the way
I hold the pencil. I got the pencil down, that allows
that I'm pushing lines that I'm necessarily using
the side of the pencil like this very much. I'm pushing the lines
and I see the other side, coming through.
Now as I come over,
I'm taking and consciously thinking of the bone is
pushed to the side so you can feel the center, the
eye then is in here.
Coming through. I think of the space behind
the ear, behind the eye, visualizing
coming down, feeling the pull. In here I'm conscious
of - I'm thinking of as I'm drawing this now, the bone
then we're coming into the nostrils.
The nostrils are coming down and they're pulling along the side.
So I look at the photograph,
I can't really see much. Okay but I know
this is where, if you're drawing what you know,
then you're gonna actually see more.
So as I'm coming through I wanna feel the corner
in here. And that ear is coming out
and I'm pulling from this is
where I started out with the idea of coming out of here, going out
we can feel the skull behind
and then, as this come forward
we can feel the turning .
See so I'm picking that leaf thing I talked about here,
this is stretching forward and coming around
and then we can feel this going
underneath. Okay. Now
the neck is coming through and
it's gonna be attaching now, attaching up in here.
And so as I do this now I'm going
over the scrawniness of the neck
that takes place in here. You feel that
scrawny part and we can feel the fullness now
as we're coming through and we're coming over to where
the shoulders are. So you can see how
it's - you can barely see any of this now.
As I'm coming across, feeling the tone underneath
so I'm drawing - I'm drawing based on what I know now.
So now I'm picking up
fur, fullness coming down underneath
and now that shoulder is coming out.
So but I'm gonna think it's a triangular shape
and it's on both sides so I'm talking about symmetry now
see so as I'm taking and coming over you can feel this
now I'm taking and we come down here,
I'm gonna take and using lines that like
are going over the fur. Okay but I wanna
feel the overall big shape
of that scapula as it comes down. So in other words
I'm - as I come through here I'm dealing with the corner
and we can feel these - the corner here
coming out and the neck now is going down
underneath this front here.
Here we're coming down into the sternum, which is sticking
out this way.
And I'm going underneath, build,
Feel the muscle, the shape.
The muscles coming down, feel the elbow,
full roundness here, coming
down to the bone. The other leg
is pulled back a bit farther, it's coming
Okay. You could - you can simply deal with - a lot of this
is just a silhouette. Coming in.
Going over. The other leg's behind.
So now, visualizing this roundness
in here. Again we're taking and going
through. Pick up fur sticking out.
Much of dealing with textures - and that's what we're
talking about here now - is to mimic
the look of a texture
copying everything. Okay, coming through, and
getting a sense of that and I can take and block a lot of this
into tone because what we see - and this is again
a sort of a basic element is what we see is the contours
that take and
we make our judgment from. So in other words, all this hair sticking out,
coming out we can feel the pelvis now is
being pushed up.
So as I'm coming through,
come across, the pelvis is roughly straightish.
It's really coming out. You can really feel
the pull into the end here.
Now as long as I'm drawing this now,
coming through, thinking of the waist.
Now I don't really see that
I'm thinking of where the bone is coming off here, I'm gonna
come down, we can think of where the leg's at. The heel
is in here and so we feel
pulled lines. Okay so I'm leaving areas
of light within the thing, coming around,
around the end of the knee, coming across.
Now pulling down.
See but at this time see we know what the shape
is. And the other one's behind. See
the silhouette - you can see where his tail is coming out.
The flip. So now if I
come back into this and add
just again I'm gonna use a wash
as a way of taking and describing some of this. And so now
the eye is all in shadow. I come behind
and you can feel the cheek.
Now I'm gonna leave that ear out
so we're taking and tone is going underneath
and we can feel the roundness of the mouth coming through,
nostril coming around, feel the lips.
So here we take and feel the base of the skull.
Okay as I'm going
through here, I'm adding more tones
at the same time I don't wanna lose
the basic elements - I'm gonna add the curliness,
the feel to it.
You feel the pull. So I'm leaving the tone to show the
edge of the scapula.
Push the corner
in here. Coming through
leaving some tone to show the fullness of the muscle.
the way I'm doing the drawing,
if you didn't know that I was taking and sitting here working from a photograph
it might not be so obvious.
Because the way I'm approaching it
it does not correspond to
what we would normally be
seeing if we were copying the photograph. I'm
constructing, I'm building the drawing
and I'm emphasizing all this.
That are a bit more
I'm showing more, in a sense, than the photograph
actually work with a couple different colors.
I think you can start seeing some of the things but then we'll go back and maybe
do some deer again. Okay now
start out exactly the
same thing, dealing with the pose.
This guy's got his head down
Feel going back in.
Now as I do this I'm really conscious of
the body shape
type thing. So again I'm going around, over the surface thing.
And following the configuration,
consciously thinking of the proportion.
Visualizing the neck, fitting in
the shoulder, pretty straight up.
Coming through, and from there
we're turning and going back down to the elbow.
Feel the flow. Okay
we're getting a foreshortened view so I'm thinking the ribcage
and I'm thinking of the waist
as we're pulling over and then the pelvis.
So the legs are going across,
seeing in perspective here,
is back behind.
Now, as I go back into this
I'm focusing again on symmetry, coming across,
over. The eyeballs
So eyes to the side
through. Now nose,
Now in this case what we get is a
really strong sense of the
masseter muscle, the jaw here. Really full.
Or I take it back, that's not
the masseter muscle, that's the ear flopping
forward. Okay. Excuse me.
Okay, coming through, coming around, through.
Now from here
we're going back in. And I'll do this.
I'm very conscious of thinking over the surface.
you're always - we're looking at where it's coming out of the skull.
Configuration, going up
and going across, over
the surface of the form. Going through, there's a turn
take and back. So
basically I've got the thing fairly well blocked in now.
So from here what I do is
to take now - keeping that blocking in,
we take and thinking
of where we're going through the spine, spine is coming through,
vertebrae is sticking out and we feel the
muscles now pulling from here, coming over here, and
what we get now, you can see this - if we draw over the surface
you can feel this
volume here. Okay so
you can feel the tension, the pull, coming through,
roundness now as you come through, feel into
the ribcage so you're actually seeing now the different folds
taking place at this point.
You can see how this is - it's all about trying to feel the line
that I wrap over and around the figure.
Now from here
sternum is really pushing out
in here. And so
the scapulas now are across from here, over
From here is again the corner. Now
as this goes back in you'll see
you can actually see this now, you can see this
scapula pushing up. You can feel these forms
now that are being pushed up. This is your trapezius
being shoved up, that scapula there. And
going back down and fitting into
Now here as you're coming down to
the elbow, which is in here.
Okay you can see the muscles
coming off of the bone, taking and
coming down to
the joint in here.
And you can feel the pull is in the infraspinatus
and your triceps.
Take that, probably be teres major. Okay
Now, teres major you get, going across
to the other side. Excuse me this is gonna be your triceps, coming through here.
Okay now feel the pecs pulling underneath.
Okay so you can start to visualize
now how all these forms overlap one another.
And coming through
Okay here this is the ribcage going through in here.
Going around, over
the surface, coming down,
And from there, from here we can see the stomach is
taking and going down, back in this way.
Then the knee is in here.
And as we come up
here we can see that now we have a
coming through, coming through. Spine.
We can pick up the pelvis on both sides.
A very big part of everything I'm doing
is talking about symmetry. So you're constantly going from one side
to the other. Okay so now
from here we can feel the pelvis
and this is going back in. Now
the knee is coming forward into here.
the muscles now come down here.
Heel sticking out.
Coming back up, these will be your
semimembranosus and tenuous muscles.
And the pelvis, behind, these are coming
And we pulled down.
Okay come to the full leg now now, let's go back -
the joint. Now as I'm doing this,
put a reminder that
the - you're drawing your joints,
the bones are coming in here,
elbow would be sticking out
and the same thing with the heel, you've got the heel,
this is taking and coming off up here. So that the
muscles that this is the point where the leg
bends. Here's where we feel the tension
pulling down to it ,
on the back will be your Achilles tendon.
In the front here that will be your triceps.
Part of all three. Okay. So
now so we come down we look at the corners,
this is sticking out, muscles are pulling out in here and then
we come down, through this.
Maybe a little long there. And then come down.
A bit too long.
A little bit shorter.
Okay so we come back,
this thing, sternum, in here and then the leg
is coming out here.
feel the volume, it's a little bit long stick. Basically we've got
our goat. Now part of this, this looks awkward because what
we're actually seeing, this is coming out.
And these forms
are going down and going in.
And it's - the corner of these forms,
the muscles are pretty strong coming up and
feel fitting into this.
And all of this now is coming behind
and we can feel the roundness, the serratus interior
muscles taking and pulling over
this is sort of - I don't know if I mentioned in the last class
whole weight of the -
of all your four legged animals, rests
upon the way -
it's like a sling. You think of the ribcage here
Okay because the scapulas are nowhere
attached. There's no joint so you have
the scapulas coming up here this way and this way.
The muscles are coming off of the
the scapula, your serratus anterior
are coming down and coming and attaching in here
and so this is like a big sling that is holding,
literally holding the body.
So the scapulas are here,
they're completely - they're only attached to the body by
muscle. And so
you have - as we look at that in other words, the
back of the scapula, this same muscle that we have now
on the back of the scapula we have the serratus anterior coming forward.
And then also in the back here your rhomboid
and more serratus muscles going up,
so this works like a big sling that this is all fitting over.
So I'm gonna take and use some wash again
in this and then we'll go back into that
a little bit more. So
get the ear coming down.
Through here you can really feel the skull
and the eye underneath in here.
And we can feel the bone
coming through and then we have the side
coming through in here. Feel the nose
coming through, going forward.
And here you're feeling the skull
coming down to where the bone is at this point
and then we come down.
This shape here was - and I was getting confused, is the
ear. Okay now
I'm gonna go back here and add some more tone here in that one,
wanna feel that this - you can feel the muscle
in here. So this is a really corner
coming through. And this is coming down and you wanna feel
the esophagus fitting in and coming down
into all of this. So
this'll be where the
nuclear ridge. Then we start to come down,
feel all of this now is dropping down.
And you can feel now the
couple layers of the muscles as we come over to the scapula and the scapula
now sticking out, coming up and you push the trapezius
up on top, the trapezius is going back down.
So all of this now is coming forward.
going out and
this is coming back down
and that should be back farther
over this way.
Now come from underneath, feel the ribcage
now here is where - it was right up there but I'm ignoring that.
I wanna feel the basically the underside of the scapula
is coming through and the ribcage
is going this way.
Trapezius coming down and we can feel
the spine, pelvis, that's coming down, coming through.
And we got a tail, which I don't see,
here trying to feel the pull.
that looks sort of goatish. Okay.
now let's take and emphasize
some of this stuff. So the minute you've got this much, then
you come back in, you can take and
give a bit more. As I come through now
corners. Carrying in a bit farther.
Try to feel
the base of the skull, giving a little bit more information.
And particularly here now, coming through, you're really thinking
of the bone. Now what I'm talking about, think about the bone
I'm thinking and saying okay, coming through, here's the
ridge of the bone right there.
And then the eye and lid is below that.
And this guy's sleeping and we can feel
that's here now there's actually a cast shadow being cast on that
from the ear. I think of the ear
turning around. Feeling the pull.
So the drawing starts
way more detailed once I start to take
and just give a little bit more information.
When I feel overlapping here
and we feel the ear coming out from behind.
And we can feel the base of the skull. So as I'm doing this
I'm constantly going over -
over this surface of the bone.
Feel the fullness of the nose, feel the
and the muscles now that come down along the side
to the mouth.
Feel the nostril coming back
and feel the pull.
we have the same kind of muscles and stuff, the pull inside the mouth.
They've got a few
extra muscles than we do but
pretty much the same. Here I wanna feel this
part. Now I feel the nuclear
ridge taking and coming across -
nuclear ligament I should say.
So now at this point I'm feeling like the trapezius
pulling off that
over, you feel the building of pushing -
so again I'm taking and emphasizing symmetry so I'm
overlapping. I don't really even see that.
I'm getting the other side of the bone, coming over the surface
And we can feel this bone pushing up now through here
going back down, this is the trapezius again. Going back
down, over the surface.
We're going down here, then building this up.
Here we come down, feel the end of
Gonna pull the
muscles are coming across from that and I've left that right there
to show this is taking and really full muscle
coming down. Coming through.
Over here we're coming from the sternum, sticking out
and we can feel the pectoralis muscles,
both sides then taking and coming back down
granted I'm drawing a lot of what I know here,
adding to this.
Through, feel the pullness
of the forms and turning around
Here we can sense the
where the ribs and this'll be
arch edge. You can feel the pull,
the forms underneath,
so as I'm drawing this now
you can sense, coming through,
coming across, going around.
Tail. I don't see
the tail or maybe there's something brushing up here
that's taking - they have a rather -
pull - they have a little brushy sense to their tail.
Where the corner obviously is coming through,
feel the muscles
and feel it coming up.
Feel the end of the knee.
Okay now coming in here
through the two bones and hoofs.
Other leg, over here I had to move it
Okay that gives us a fairer sense
of what this goat - I'm going
through the whole thing is taking and developed
from analyzing it
and building it basically the information
that we've already been taking and
covering. Okay. Plus a bit of
more understanding of the
and the muscles. Okay let's take
and look at what...
old. So as we look at this now we can see -
starting out we can see
with the idea, okay, the head just a simple volume.
Now coming through. Everything I do
is three dimensional. So
I come across I'm thinking across the eyes but then I'm -
right away I'm seeing the side
of the head and so as we look, come through here,
we can feel this is behind
this part here and we can see the nose
fitting in and we got a muzzle coming across
and then we got a triangle going down. So there's a very clear -
a very clear sense of the
side and a top. Okay,
ears coming out here.
And coming through.
feel the pull coming back.
Feel the pull. Okay.
And we're going back in
through, so all of this now going back
and instead of just a line on the outside
think of this as then, right away, I'm going to be going
across the form. So
I'm visualizing this as round,
going around but you gotta follow through.
Now one of the things that people were having
difficulty with was that they were taking and seeing
or I should say you were seeing the pieces but
you were drawing, emphasizing the fragments
as you're doing, and we've been talking about - and obviously I've been talking
about feeling the overall and getting down and breaking
down it to the parts that you
have to take and deal with the parts in relationship to the whole.
So I'm coming through
and I'm thinking okay the scapula in here, coming down
and we can see here now in the light, where the light's shining
on the model here, you can see the corner.
That's really, really right there.
Alright. And now you can't really
see too much but I would take and hint right here.
And then feeling
the body going underneath but here
some of you were having difficulty with this now. You've got to take and
the bone goes. It's going through here,
in this case it's coming forward
and it's got a slight bend going back and then we're coming into the hoof.
Okay now you're taking and
looking at where we're at on the ground. You're thinking of where the
bones are in back, coming forward,
So then taking and pulling through. So I'm
going through the pieces now you feel the overall
sense of the volume in here and here
this is where we say okay well the corner of the pelvis
is here, the other is on the opposite
side. If you think about it, even if you can't see it,
you think about it because when we're looking here you can sense
now just that very subtle change in the tone,
we can see this is pushing up against
the pelvis. And then we can see the way the light is, we can see
it through the corner here and then we can get a sense that the back
is going down into here. So
we're - you're drawing what you know.
Okay so - or what you hope to know -
okay we're coming forward. Now the knee
is coming up into here.
Okay and then we're going back
to the heel and now we're taking and coming
forward to where the feet are.
Okay then we - from back here, we can feel
the muscles now are pulling through.
And we get to feel the heel and pulling it down a little bit forward and farther.
Coming across. Coming
through. Now with all that
fur it's a little difficult to take and see.
if you get an opportunity, look at some of the other reference
deers or sheep that we have
where you can take and see
a little bit more clearly. Now the tail
turns up, coming through.
So now I've gone through this. Now as I look at
my drawing here I say well I made the legs a bit too long.
So we come through, you're stepping back
and looking at this so I can see well I'm just
getting a little carried away in the direction here.
Now when I go back in and start to render
this or see I can clarify it, I'm looking to see okay
here is the bone,
it's in here.
Coming through. Okay you can feel
the bone on the underside, I can feel
the center coming down.
The pull. You can sense this whole thing
pulling out of here. We can feel the bone
coming through. The nose
side, the lips
Okay now from here
we pull underneath, you can
feel where the jaw is, we can feel the sense here,
feel this coming in behind, up to the ears,
fullness through here and as
it grows and starts to get horns, you would find them
in about here. Other here.
So coming through.
as we pull in we can start to see okay the fullness of the neck.
Now we don't really see this, we got so much fur and it's a very
young animal now so it's not really
extreme but we can sense coming around, we can feel the way
the fur - and I use the fur
as a way of taking and helping to go around, over the surface
of the form. In here see I would go out of my way to make this
coming in front of that.
And it's barely visible, you can barely see that
coming through on the knee and going over
surface, coming in, feel the form pulling down.
And this is going back, up,
scapula pulling down
through in here. So you wanna feel this is a corner.
And really the fullness
and it's coming through so the leg now is coming back,
muscles are coming down, the
elbow is up high, back in here this is
taking and coming down and now we can feel
the pull through.
Really - goats tend to have very knobby
knees. Part of the thing is that they tend
to spend a lot of time like on their knees
using it to sit on them, or kneel. So your
short - I started out making a little too long.
Now we can feel the hoof
split, coming through.
The other one's forward.
Here we can feel - we can see the muscle
now coming forward.
Okay now, come back, wanna feel the
pull from - this is coming across
and full belly.
Now goats - these are really young goats now
and so the belly's not
really all that full but you can see
right here already you can see a waist
and we can see the forms now
coming around and we start
to build. Goats tend to have really
Coming through. Okay now as this goes
back over, the spine will tend to stick out
but we still wanna get an indication of the pelvis.
Okay we can see the way the light
coming over that surface.
Now from here we can feel the pull.
Now the extra skin coming over to the leg,
knee stretching down to the
heel and like I took
a bit too long in the forms here.
And then a feeling,
forms going back to the tail.
Okay, that's not too
bad of a goat. A young goat.
So as I'm going
through the drawings now, you can see I'm constantly - and this
is strategy is to
basically talk to yourself. Just pretend like you hear my
voice in the background, taking and going
over the different parts of the body as
we're taking and drawing. Well this is a good session, we got - one of the
things that was particularly nice was that some of the reference we had
with the horses that are really moving.
I find that a lot of times the very polished rendering
is - tends to lose a lot of the sense of
action as you're doing the horse. But anyway, as you're going through the
drawings, focus on the construction.
Follow through but you cannot lose the sense of how the parts relate
to each other. You feel the lines, you feel the flow
through the thing, and then you're taking and focusing on
the construction. As I said in
drawings here that what I teach is an analytical
construction. Okay so you learn to
analyze, analyze, analyze, and take and talk to
yourself, going through the drawings, taking and repeating,
okay here's the scapula, here is where we go, here
where is the elbow coming down to the knee, and so forth and so on.
Talk to yourself. Okay. And that's the thing. Okay
as I mentioned next week - we'll take and go back, I -
there's some more horse stuff that we'll just take and start hitting and maybe we'll do a little bit more
rendering type thing I wanna take and
there's also some different kinds of goats and we'll start working into some of the African
animals. Okay, this has been a good session, take care.
So I'm just breaking down, I'm
primarily gonna focus now on the analysis and we're gonna look at
some skeletons and stuff at the same time here. So
as you look at the animal here now, we can take and
okay the deer, antelope
notice that the same things apply now.
Just taking this as the very, very basic - you can see the head.
I'm really sort of blocking that head in. So you can see
it, a box form is the way I'm approaching it right here.
Now of course if you're drawing animals from life
you focus on the flow and the gesture
of the animals. I'm gonna do both deer here because there's slightly
different angle but the emphasis now is to
see clearly and these, in the photograph
this is really clear. Now one of the things,
the difficulty that people have been having,
is that they tend to
get lost into fragments. See what I
teaching is a constructive
analysis of the animals. That's what allows you to draw many animals
that are quite different, that you don't know anything about
but the first is the gesture and the flow, so I'm sort of
following the pattern of the bones
as they take and they go through. And I said we're gonna look at some of the bones a little bit
but I wanna just emphasize first here. So if you're
thinking about inside here, you've got a ribcage
inside, you can see the scapula,
the effects of the scapula on the surface
and then repeating, I've said over and over
the shape of the scapula
as it fits over
the ribcage, it's really like a box now.
And we can feel - we're going back,
the bones going back in here, going back in
then we're coming down,
the thickness of the knees now - I've been making a point
this really applies to everybody, you can see a thickness
coming down, where the hoofs are,
the digits. Okay now these are really broad
hoofs. Coming down.
Now, in here you can see we're going back
and the corner of the pelvis,
I'm gonna block in the other head here because he's taking and in the way here.
So let's go back here for a second. Look at the head.
You can see the eye sockets, now there's
typical deer type thing, they're more to the side than they are
to the front. Not predators.
So you can see the mouth is very squared across the front.
You can feel the cheeks
coming down, very full, coming
forward and the chin coming down.
Ears are just exactly where everybody else's ears are.
and from one species to another they will vary
in size. We were doing horses last week, horses much
bigger ears and a little more pointed than the deer.
And horns are coming right out of the top then, up in here.
And this guy's got a broken horn.
Now come down and feel
the pull, the esophagus going underneath,
then we start to go down, come down to the sternum
that is pushing out in front. Then we feel the
thickness across the shoulders. So this is
pretty much what we were looking at with horses and even goats.
See we can see all of the here, we can see the elbow
coming down, coming through. This is basically
halfway from here to here to the bottom, pretty much
standard. See most of your four legged
Okay now, going back now the other
deer here is taking and coming through.
Now you look at, compare the two. One, if we
had a perfect profile here we would see that this
fitting a basic triangle shape
that we're talking about. So here when we look from the
Now we can see that
as it comes forward. And notice what I'm doing is I'm drawing
this very box like, okay that's coming forward.
That gives me a clear
indication of where the corners are.
If I was drawing a cow here you would find
very little difference between the cow and this
deer at this point. We can see the shape,
now if you're looking at, as this goes back in
we can see the neck,
the cylinder now, I'm gonna taking in and try and feeling
how this goes back in and I start to take and
come around, think of the volume, it's going over the
surface of the form, going back in. So now
in this one we get even a clearer sense
of how the neck
is fitting into this box that's
created by the scapulas.
That's really obvious now, you can really
you can't get much more obvious than that. Okay
then we're going back in to where the elbow would be.
Sternum. We've talked about pectoralis muscles,
we have the same thing as the horse, coming through.
Now from here, this is going back in.
As you're dealing in perspective here, this is a cylinder
going back and what comes through now is you can
see the corners of the pelvis,
taking and very clearly sticking out, and we get a sense of the waist
and we can feel the ribcage sticking out and coming through.
Then we're taking and coming down again.
Legs, coming through, knees.
Okay look at the hooves now as we're taking
in here. Look at how broad - now this is something that varies
with animals depending on the kind of
land that they're used to being on. They've got large, flattish
hoofs so they work on, they walk on a lot
of tundra, mushy
grounds, soft ground, so they have feet
that take and allow them to take and
work in that. So we go back to the other one here, we're taking and
again we're just getting a hint of see the pelvis
coming through and then
leg will be going back.
So we build on the elements here,
take, coming through. Now it's gonna take a little bit more
here and then we're gonna go look at at some skeletons. But I just wanna - using some
tone here now to take and we can see
this stepping down. We can see how obvious
this is now. That's what you want to be
so conscious of, of that very, very clear
stepping down of the
neck, pelvis. This is actually the pelvis and trapezius
muscle that's going back. Then back here we have
the waist, which will be coming, fitting in
at this point, coming down. So you've got the corners, you've got the
feel coming across, and over. The face now is
the front, is the very, very box shape.
We can feel the cheekbone coming around, feel the corners
coming in. So as you look at these animals now,
you start to get a - and to the point now, we've done
enough of this that you could actually start to take and
look at any animals that you don't know
and start to see the basic configuration
that pretty much applies to everybody.
So he's feeling, pushing down,
we got corners of the box.
So these are the points that we
take and we're working on. We wanna feel, feel the
change in the direction again. So let's see
again going back and looking at the skeletons and see exactly
how, where this derives from.
As you're looking at that, you wanna feel,
feel this corner. In other words I'm gonna - it's different, opposite
angle here but you can see the scapula and I'm just gonna draw
this in, even though we've been drawing a deer
and not a horse, you can see now how all of this
you can see the pattern, comes through, the next thing
is going down. You can feel
the bone going down in, you can see
the elbow and we can see where the bones are
coming forward. So this is the basic pattern and we're coming
down. Now in this case the skeleton up there is
a horse. We come down.
So with the horse now we're coming through
and we're getting the hoof. Now remember we talked last
week that the horse started out with three toes.
Okay so now this is where actually
the deer before we were looking at. Now you can see,
as you look at this a ribcage,
we can see the pelvis taking and sticking
out. Okay the head, all this, but mainly
I'm focusing on the pattern of
the bones and what causes or what creates,
you can see where the neck will be pulling down,
inside and the ribcage inside, in here.
Now one of the elements that you can see
if we look at a little bit better, the variety -
the vertebrae - sticking up as it's
coming out of the back. Now with the deer and with the
horse, even with the deer, maybe even more. As we look at the
shape of the way that neck comes down, we se
how clearly that was fitting in, you can see how clearly
this is fitting in. Okay that's because the ligament
that is pulling down is attaching down in here
and then these are coming up. So
we get the building, we're building on these forms. Now I wanna
take and go to a - looking at the
skeleton of a buffalo, then we'll take and do some drawing of a buffalo.
Okay, now the buffalo is
almost an extreme. I've been making a point of talking about these
vertebrae sticking up. So if we look at the buffalo here, now okay
let's just go through some of the steps here. Got the head,
head is here, coming down. Just a
variation on a deer. Okay you can see
the vertebrae taking and going through,
pulling back, and you get a sense of the
ribcage right here.
Pelvis coming in from here.
And the legs going down. You can see the scapula,
now here's where we get a really
contrast, look at the - this is like a big
sail up here. This is
coming down, coming through in here, into here.
The scapula is
pushed way up into here. Look at how long that scapula is
as it takes and comes down. Okay.
And then again, just like what we've been doing, is
that we get in back, you can see
the strong heel, or elbow in this case, come down,
the bone coming down, coming through. Oh by the way
that - I mentioned this with the horse a bit - this right here
is a P bone. Pisiform.
It's a sesamoid bone, as humans we have the same thing.
Okay in your hand, if you can feel it,
it's the bump that sticks out.
Now here you can see the ribcage coming through,
build really full in here.
But the neck as we talked - what the shape is we're gonna
look at the buffalo a little bit, is the shape here is being caused
because the ligament from the back of the head are taking and
attaching in here. So that creates this
huge bump that we got going here.
The pelvis, the corner, notice that there's a waist here.
Coming through, come to the ischial tuberosity back
here, the tail is coming out in here,
then you can see the way the knee comes forward,
pulling into here. And so we're constantly
taking and it's just the pattern, it's a pattern
we feel the pull, the stuff coming through.
But this, the same thing, the only difference between the buffalo
here and the deer or horse here
in part is the size, the size
of these things raising up.
Okay so now we've
got this contrast. Now as you look in the back
this is a - one of the - when we
talk about cats and dogs, we were talking about pelvises
that were basically rails.
But apparently - now
with the horse then with cattle,
deer, what we find is a little different now. We look at the,
like a cow, we find that the pelvis is really
quite broad as it comes back.
It's full, you can see the tail
is coming out, up at the top up here.
And so as we go from here, now you can see
the hip bone coming out here
this is pulled out, coming through,
and we go from that point there, then we're coming back
again and the heel
is sticking out.
Like this. You can feel where the joint is, coming through.
Now from here we're taking and
going back down, going in. Look at the number of
bones, rows of bones in here. Two rows, just like us.
And we're coming down and then we're coming
into two toes. Okay.
But look at the - and this is the important part - look at the
roundness of that ribcage.
round, round, round. And
again we're picking up the vertebrae, going all the way in the tail here
and this is lifting up, like a big sail.
Taking and coming through, moving on, feeling the
scapula, again, in here. Coming forward,
going down and building up. But just the
idea here, looking at the bones,
everybody's the same now. So now let's take and
look at the buffalo itself. Okay now
as we take and go through again. So when I'm looking at the
animal, other than the skeleton, I'm still drawing the skeleton,
I take and I try to capture
first a sense of the flow
of what the animal is doing.
And buffalo is very, very, very round.
So feel the flow coming down the head.
here's where you - most people have a difficulty
is that when you're looking at a large animal
like this, like elephants for instance, or a rhino or a hippo,
you have difficulty taking and
seeing that scapula side there.
So you have to take and actually you draw -
you don't see it until you know it's there. And we know now that the scapula
is there and it's taking and going way up into here.
So I start off by a little bit of indication,
I feel the neck going back and we're seeing now how
are raised up, going back in,
and you're just talking about the pelvis now with the corners, the corners of the
pelvis in here. So we can feel all this, we saw how
the vertebrae take and pull right into the tail.
There's a corner, remember we just
looked at and saw there's a waist, so I'm indicating the waist
already and as I'm coming in I can feel
going back, thinking of where the elbow's at and then
going back, thinking of where the elbow's at and then
looking at the actual gesture then of the animal.
,Where the feet are
okay the big head
come down to the ground.
So we build -
like I'm taking the, thinking of the corner of the pelvis here
taking where we're pulling from here, where
the knee is, where the heel is,
where we're coming down. So this again, the basic zigzag
pattern. We're going through.
and the other leg is just sort of hidden behind there a bit and...
Okay so now, when it comes in to start rendering
this or just drawing it, I'm
taking say okay we have this really strong
these vertebrae. But as we saw, that this a
plane, this is a corner that's taking -
this surface is doing this.
So you're always thinking three dimensionally. So as you look at the
different animals here now you can see - remember the
scapula was coming way, way up into here but these
are heavy, very muscular animals.
And so that the surfaces here now are really
full. The muscles of the scapulas in here
this way. The muscles are taking and pulling from
here, they're coming down. And this is a sort of
rounded but you're still looking for that corner of the pelvis
and we try to feel the muscles as they pull through.
Round, full, forms.
So now as I'm just blocking in a rough
tone here, you can se how
all of this now is taking and building
in. We look at the roundness now and this comes down,
you have the whole roundness of the ribcage
so thinking of the form is
simple, three dimensional volumes, is a critical
element in actually, in giving the look of the
animals that you're drawing. You have to think of it as three dimensionally.
Coming through we can feel
here we can feel the corner of the pelvis. We can see
where this is stretching down, so as that goes down we look for that ischial tuberosity
back there. We can feel the fullness of
this as it comes over, we can see the corner here
and we can feel the pull of the waist
inside and how all of this now, the waist is coming up, we can
see the roundness of the stomach area coming out.
Then the muscles pulling off of that - so again you're drawing
what you know now. Coming through,
Now, by looking at the head, what I'm
taking and first dealing with is
that the horse - or this buffalo - is
slightly coming towards us. In other words if I draw a
ground point here, we would see that this
is taking and coming forward
this way. So as I'm
doing that then I'm thinking of the neck. We're looking a this
as fitting - so this section here now, there is a corner
here, this thick muscles are
pulling back into here. The head is
really big, it's like
a box type form here now coming forward,
the ears to start with. Where everybody else's ears are
then the horns coming out of that.
Now one of the characteristics of
course of the buffalos are is the massive amounts
of hair or fur that
we find on them. And
that's where you made great blankets.
Okay feel the muscles
building, coming through
lots of fur
coming down, around the legs,
which is sort of
hiding a lot of the joints fairly short
but actually it looks - if we look at the photograph it looks like
he's wearing short pants.
let's take again and just
do what we did before. I wanna emphasize
See we can really feel that coming through.
We can feel this coming around, we can see
the neck is fitting into this,
coming around, shoulder,
the roundness of the ribcage.
So the only thing that has changed now
from what we've been looking at is the
general volumes, the shape of the
different parts but they're really all the same parts. So their
head really were always, like I've been repeating,
was looking for the same thing.
Okay now I wanna go through some other
animals here that we can take and
still you'll see the same elements that we've been talking about
Now so as we look at this we find
the same elements again now.
Through. Now here
this is a really good example here. As you look at
the way, the way the neck -
now remember all mammals essentially
have the same number of
Also we can really feel, feeling a building up, coming through
and try to feel, following, going back in,
pelvis is pushed up
coming through, feel it coming across the shoulders.
Feel the elbow going back.
Now this is a -
I have taught in the animation industry for many years
and as we talk about animals,
these are the things that the animator
has to absolutely understand that that's what takes and moves.
These are the things that we use
to take and work
to make something move we have to know the parts
that move thoroughly. So coming through.
So you can see how I already -
at this point now we're getting a lot of the basic idea.
See you can feel
we go back from here, take and a little bit more
detail we're looking through the back of the head,
come forward. Now one of the
things I've been trying to emphasize as we've been working with these things,
that the deer type animals
the eyes are more
to the side. And so that when we're looking here you can
see how clearly now the nose is
coming forward. We can feel
very squared off again. You got lips,
you can feel the chin underneath, notice
I'm saying all the same things that I was saying and talking
about horses. Now here we get
a much different configuration for the ear than we had with the
buffalo. Much larger, much
going out. But again we come down we can feel the cheek
at the side of the head and get the bar just like
in the horse but the nostril here now I need to make this a little
more clear. The nostril really on the side, coming on from the front
around to the side. Which is again very typical, they have lips
chin, feel the side,
coming around, behind. So now
all of this now has taken and come in really clear again.
Now we can feel the neck coming down,
round. Now we're getting a slight three quarter front view,
so what's happening is this neck is coming back into here.
We visualize this as fitting in
to the surface here. Now
many deer take and have a lot of extra
material that comes down, along through here.
And it makes it look a bit more curved than it actually is.
But what you see here now is notice how the vertebrae
are sticking up here. Notice how this whole
shape now, you can see the scapula
is taking and coming up along the side
in here. The ribcage is down through here,
going in and we can feel the ribcage coming through
in here, this part. The vertebrae now
are lifted up and going back
and we can feel - and one of the things in talking about the horse
I talked about the fact that we have several
lines that are coming through here. Like the
vertebrae - the scapula looks something like this but the muscles
are coming through here. So we get trapezius muscles just like
we do on a human, coming in. We can feel that those trapezius muscles
pulling back into here. Get the roundness
of the ribcage coming through.
Here the elbow is going back. So what we're seeing now
is you can really see the muscles.
Those will be your triceps, taking and pulling back
to the elbow. You can feel the pull.
These things coming through, in,
the fullness in through here. So all
if you take and think about your own muscles, that helps you to
understand exactly what you're looking at.
Coming through, full, compression this corner
to the form. Feel the 3D
coming down, the squareness
of the knees. Again this is consistent with
everything that we've talked about now.
split hoof, typical antelope type.
The ribcage is -
you can feel the sternum is down in here. The pectoralis
muscles pulling across to the other side.
this is going up, you can see a very, very strong
sense of the pelvis up here now. Coming through.
And the ischial tuberosity is really pushing out and
in back here and the tail is sort of tucked
in the back. The knee is coming here.
Okay so as we look at this we can feel the muscles now coming
across so when we go down, the heel would be down in here,
you can see the fullness now, these
muscles as they come down, we get a sense of how they're
pulling off of the pelvis here. You can feel the pull
of these forms coming down. Look at the knee, they have a patella
just like us. You can feel the skin pulling across,
focus on the roundness of the ribcage
fullness of the forms under and you get the corner
in the pelvis, we can see this is in tone, building
then we will take and come through, down to the heel.
Through. Now this is all - this is hidden in the bushes there.
Okay we come through, it's basically the same
for everybody. So in other words, once you've got
that basic pattern down, you can pretty much extrapolate
from that what the animal is gonna take and look like.
So we work these forms, we take and
pull through and around and over the surface.
Okay now let's look at some of the others.
Looking at this now I wanna
focus on - part of the difficulty that people have
is that - particularly now that we have this sort of profile
shot and quite a few of this stuff - I prefer to
draw like a three quarters, the head is three quarters but
the - let me get a different pencil here - that...
Okay let's take and I wanna focus on just the front
part here particularly. So we take with the idea,
okay you got the head, again, the same thing now. And start,
basic round, coming forward. Now
here's where we get a really nice
conception of the fact that notice how the eyes are really
so obviously to the side.
Now everything is
gonna be pretty much the same except it really is different
in that it look so different but the pieces are
all the same. In other words we come through, the nose is
still on the same spot and if we - taking -
I'm gonna take and draw a little bit here. We can see the - we got the eyes
on the other side here. The nose, the bone is
coming through here. Now as we come out here
you can actually sense now where the bone
is stopping. You can feel
the bone would be stopping someplace in here. Okay.
And as this part comes down here, now
you can look at this and say wow, he's got this
huge nose that is coming out here.
And we can feel the nostrils on the side ,
pulling over to where the opening would be in the
bone. And we can come down and we get this
end, this really square
off. We can feel the center coming down,
coming through, and the nostrils on the side. Now
pieces are the same, except it's different. And we
look for the differences now. But we can see that it comes down,
it's got his chin underneath there, just like.
And we can see where this will be pulling back into
where the bone is and he's got a bit of a -
a bunch of extra
fat and stuff building up around and you can see we get these little
wobbles that take and come down. So all of this now
are not really that different. See it's all the same.
As we come around we can feel where the hollow behind the
eyes, we can feel the bone coming through.
We can feel the side coming down,
we can see where we're building into where the nostrils are. Okay.
Now he's got his ear in here
right same spot as everybody else.
Okay look at the big difference here
is that the - now his ear has got the
horns coming out here. The ear is underneath. Okay.
The horns - the big difference of course is the horns.
that's what makes us see buffalo.
And so these are round forms, really
coming out of here. And the ear
behind here, in this case it's the ear, is taking and
sticking out from behind, inside, in here.
Okay. Then the horns continue on
in this huge rack of horns. That's what makes this seem
buffalo. Okay so this big, flat -
not buffalo, excuse me. Moose.
Okay now at the same time, we come
down and as you look at this you can see that the
neck and just exactly like what we're doing with the buffalo,
with the deer, you've got the vertebrae sticking up.
These will be in here. Now if you look
carefully, okay let's just sort of extrapolate here. We've got the neck
coming through and it's taking and coming back here into where the pelvis would be.
And we can see
the vertebrae sticking up, really clear there.
Okay now if you look carefully you're gonna see the scapula
is pushing up in here. And the scapula is coming
across to a corner, in here.
is down here. The big muscles, the pectoralis muscles
are underneath in here. The shoulder
is here. The bone is going back into here.
And we can feel the fullness of all
of this coming through. We can see - look at the -
look at the plane here. You can see the neck, you're coming down
down to - is in here - this is a surface that's pushing
down, through. Now
as you continue to look at the things and analyze,
you start to see all of the basic structure
taking place. Feel the corners
we get here, sternum is coming down, we're not seeing the
scapula on the other side here it's just around the corner.
Okay but we can feel where the elbow - we can see where the
masses of muscles are taking and coming down.
So we're getting
all of these things, basic volumes,
building into the form.
But it's a totally different look
than what the other two that we've drawn. Yet it's still
the same. It's not really that different.
It's just that the pieces -
the pieces take and take slightly different configuration.
So once we start to take and visualize
these volumes, so that you start to take and break it down
into the pieces, it's pretty
basic, pretty simple, straightforward. But you have to look
at what makes the
difference. Why does it look different? Well in this case
it's horns. You can take and look at
the cartoon Bullwinkle. It's all about the horns,
all about the horns. Okay. So that's the thing.
Now let's take and do some drawing, more drawing, but we'll
carry things a little bit farther.
Now as you look at this, the one in the
back there, you can see that this is
the - even is just a very, very quick -
then I'm gonna come to drawing the one in the front here. It's very, very
quick indication now
of - okay.
Everything now - now it starts to really - ears.
going back. Not quite so back as we had before.
You can see it coming in, the cylinder of the neck.
Very clear, fitting into the volume
of the scapula, coming down.
We can look at this as the whole - visualize the whole
torso - as a simple volume.
It's like a cylinder. It's going back in.
That we're picking up the corners so we can see the neck
coming down, fitting in.
You can see the whole scapula area, again
this really becomes the box and as you're drawing
this then, the box remember
that these corners of the shoulders, but we still have to take the
arm and push the arm,
upper arm, is going back. And so we can
see that this is a plane now, dropping back in
and then we're taking and coming forward with the knee.
tend to be - we looked at goats last week - they tend to spend a lot of time
on their knees. This way they're sitting and sleeping
so they have fairly knobby knees.
Now look at the ribcage.
We can see now - this is where you take and
draw what you know. Seeing the ribcage coming down,
we can see the pelvis coming out from behind.
We can see that
point, we can see the scapula taking and going up.
We are pulling around from underneath,
okay and then we take and
go down. Knees,
or I should say knee.
And then we're going back to the heel,
going down in here. Then we're getting in both sides.
This guy's standing a little bit. And that's the basic now.
Let's look at the guy in front. In a pose
like that, you have to spend more time now in analyzing
what the actual action is. We've been doing all these standing
poses. Now we've got something that's
taking and doing something totally different. So in approaching this
then, again, see the eyes
you can see they're coming through in here.
Now, you have to feel the neck,
body is going in. Now in drawing this, what you need to
be able to do now is visualize -
visualize the overall sense that the animal is
actually I'm gonna diagram this here - the animal is actually taking
this. It's taking and maybe even more - maybe it's even
doing more of this, so that we sense
that there is maybe a twisting of this box
idea as we're looking at it. So it's really
going in. So as I'm doing this and I'm coming through
I'm trying to sense, sense what this is happening.
Going through. So even though I'm doing this, I'm drawing a
a volume, thinking of the ribcage,
feeling this thing going back, I'm
conceptualizing in my mind that this is a box that's taking and twisting.
Coming through. So
in this case now the leg is coming way up, the pelvis
would be hidden under here. The leg - the bone would be going up
into here and then comes back down and going through
in here. And it's sitting up. So we don't see that pelvis at all.
But it's still - this is part of that. So as I'm
drawing this is what I'm seeing up here.
That's in my mind, that's in my mind. So now as I'm coming through -
so as I'm coming down, drawing, just sort of
sketching thing, feeling, where the ischial tuberosity on the corner of the
box would be back here see. Coming in,
legs coming forward, coming off on here. In the front
is really turned in this direction.
So as you look at it you see that the necks
is taking and coming around this way.
The scapula is coming across from here,
we're going back in this direction. So I'm coming up
over the surface, I'm taking and feeling now
where the elbow is taking and coming back down.
Okay we got the shoulder. I need to pull this up even a bit farther.
Shoulder is in here,
the elbow is coming forward.
So I need to cut down on this guy's leg a bit.
Okay then bent
leg, coming through, and
bend in here then going and tucking underneath. The other side
we can see where the sternum now as we're coming through
in here. We can feel the shoulder on the other side here
and then the leg is taking and coming out and
is got going over something here.
Okay the neck, the neck is
pulling out of this thing. So again we got the box here.
We can see - as we look at this we can see the corner
We can feel this form,
feel the volume, coming around,
coming in. We can feel the muscles coming off
Through you can see the neck. Now he's twisting -
or she - is taking and twisting. We can feel
the forms coming around, turning,
Okay let's take and add this head
the eyes behind.
See the nostrils on the side.
Pretty much like the moose. Or all the other
deer that we've talked about, goats.
Has a chin.
You can feel it coming down inside, you can see
the eyes, the eyes are to the side,
the back of the skull goes behind.
You go feel the side.
All I'm doing is pushing the sides down, you can feel
the bar and the cheek coming forward.
Coming through the jaw. And again are
simple triangle type shape
that we're building on. The ear taking and
coming out. Look at the
configuration now we're feeling the neck stretching
down, coming through. Feel the fullness
into the center, down to the sternum. You can feel
the - where the edge of the scapula
and here we're getting underneath the neck.
Through. And here we can see
a fullness now. You can feel these forms pushing down
from the scapula, in. You can feel the stretching of the muscles
Pull - these forms taking and going back down,
in. Going over the surface.
Feel the fullness of the stomach,
lying down, now we can
here pull back a little bit on the knee. The knee is coming up
Feel the fullness of the muscles now back down to
The muscles are coming across,
look at the joint,
And we're coming into the hoof.
So all in all as I'm doing the drawing,
all I'm doing is basically analyzing
the form that I see
in the context of everything else we've drawn now.
And I'm just looking for the subtle differences that are
shown, the way the light happens to be falling on it.
Come across. Notice that
when again, look at the knee.
You come across and you can really feel there's this thickness
coming across through the joint.
It's this type of a joint.
And so when it's bent you've got those extra layers of bone
Goats - goats are some of these
best to take and
draw from because they're so clear.
About the sheeps
and so they're really good to
take and learn from. So
any chance you have of drawing goats you should
take advantage of the possibility of that because they are marvelous.
I know in m own community we have
a very strict fire rules
and we actually have a
some of the local ranchers taking and
sticking theirs goats out in areas that need to take and
again just using a simple expediency here.
as a side note, sometimes you'll find
that drawing with the brush
actually allows you to take and be more precise
in terms of detail and stuff.
And feeling the wrinkles.
Now pushing the corners.
Very little difference here from,
a domestic sheep or goats.
It's all pretty much the same.
You can see how I developed this drawing here, I'm
going from very, very loose,
just feeling the gesture. Everything I've been talking about now
is essentially one of analysis.
Analyzing the forms as we go through. So I come back
into this and let's see,
I can even get
more detail just by taking now and going back in.
Now you can see how little it's taking
to take and give it a little bit more
precision to the look.
what I'm adding here is more through
just understanding that when somebody bends their leg like that, is
coming through, you're gonna get more compression. So I'm taking and
adding what I know would normally happen.
Even if it's something that I can't
necessarily see right away.
And this is often when you're drawing, when you're drawing
animals, live animals particularly rather than just photographs,
or even in the case of photograph, where things
are not regularly seeing
is that you can take and create
just by taking and drawing what you know
would be normal, what would happen.
See now I'm adding folds and wrinkles
and a little bit of fullness to some of the forms. But I can't actually
see. I'm taking and building
there see now that I'm putting in. I just
get a hint of it looking at the model, or the photograph,
is the part of the trapezius - not trapezius but the tricep
muscle. And I start to feel the pull,
feel the forms,
here we can see the way the material
is taking and compressing as we go over
Okay let's see what else we can work with here.
have a different look too but this sort of
see the - with the baby
what have you. So I'm just gonna take and first
block in this whole group.
Or part of it anyway, I'm drawing a little
Starting light, the idea is I'm gonna come back
over this a fair amount. Just trying to
block it in.
Often it's in drawing the juveniles that you really see
a lot of the basic stuff, you can clear.
Now this case here
we get the baby on its
knees so that it can take and
what I'm doing here is I'm taking and just getting
a sense of the ground plane as it goes back in space.
Now so I'm going
to the one animal - actually it's a nicely composed group
but I'm like what I'm gonna do is add to this, as
I'm doing it I'm thinking as this goes down I'm taking and
building this up. So I'm just giving a little bit more
consideration just to the staging then.
Probably just gonna take and deal with just the three of these.
Now as I go back into blocking it in a little bit
more, take a little more time here
vertebrae that's sticking out.
Really trying to visualize the roundness.
Slowly adjusting sizes.
I'm thinking of the trapezius, the scapula.
And feel the neck, the neck is coming down,
Back of the head.
Scapula on the other side.
We're actually getting and feeling the pull of the neck
down. And so
as it's pulling down, around, the scapula
is pushed out over here. We can feel the
compression that's taking place in the neck. So again
it's very subtle but I'm taking and
drawing a partially of what I then would
expect to be happening.
The head is coming down.
You get a really nice sense of the
shape, eye sockets,
down. It's a really long
sense of the nose here
of course the really long
I wanna get this - the baby.
Scapula. Now the leg is going
Come back. So the
where the knee would be back here
then we're coming forward.
Just like the goats now.
And these guys
spent a fair amount of time on the ground, on their knees
Now as the baby's taking and turning
Ears going back. The neck
and the scapula - what we're seeing now
of the scapula is
on both sides, this is taking and going forward
this way. Then
we're going back to
the elbow. And then from there it's
going down to what we
would call the wrist.
And the ribcage now is taking
and coming through. And what comes through here now is
the pelvis. And most
deer pelvis are not quite as wide as say, for instance, a horse.
They tend to be a bit more rail like.
And so you can see the bones sticking up.
And the vertebrae then taking and coming down.
Coming through. Tail, in this case,
dropping in. And you can feel
from here we can feel the pelvis, bones coming forward.
We can sense the waist in here
and the ribcage
coming around. You can see
the pull of the muscles down, up to the heel
the Achilles tendon
is very young, still nursing, so
we got the very thin.
Now I can feel the edge
of the scapula - or of the pelvis.
Then we can feel the vertebrae from the top.
Nice and full coming down.
We can see stomach coming out.
In drawing this now
I really focus on
this goes for everything. Take
and use your lines
and going over the surface
You've got - you can feel the
neck as it comes down.
Through. All of this now
the muscles are coming across in stages
to the scapula and we can feel the muscles
building in here. the neck.
This is rounded form and we can feel the sides.
The muscles as they pull down.
Here's the ridge. Now the scapula will
just like on everybody else now, takes and has
we might say because you have the infraspinatus, supraspinatus,
the muscles that are coming off, the trapezius muscles going back.
The hind quarters are hidden behind.
In most animals, including us,
you know when you start getting into the fingers, things like that
there's actually not that much muscle, it's mostly
We have basically in order fingers we have really no -
we have no real muscles, we have fat pads,
that's primarily tendons. And so you look at your
four legged animals, it's pretty much the same thing. Lots of
tendons but not real muscles, that's where the legs
really quite thin.
Now as I'm pulling this down into the
neck, the head, you can
do a lot of the sort of the characteristics of the animals
then come down to the patterns
pigmentation. It's like giraffes do
not look like giraffes without spots.
Or zebras. A zebra without a spot
just sort of is a - start becoming nothing
more than another horse.
This is interesting, what I'm just doing here is
when you look at
any of the animal's eyes
you have the bone
coming through, then the eye
lid. The eye is inside of that bone so we see
of the bone, then the shape of the eye lid.
Again, that's pretty much the same as us.
So what you look at this thing is, if you can see this light
area, you feel the bone
behind, and also just like we have
behind that we get the temples of your head.
Tends to be a little bit hollow. As you get older of course
even more so, which is also characteristic of
all your animals. That as they get
older, they get more hollowed out
behind the eyes.
Feel the nostrils.
Now here the
ear is down the side here, behind
So just like in the last animal we looked at, the horns, like when we're looking at the
the ears were coming up behind because of the angle,
were coming up behind the horns.
That's only the angle that you're looking at.
Let me just take and
talk about that just for
a second here. I'm gonna take and look at the other
animals. The one on the far right here, we got the head
you can see as we come through we've got these.
Even his nose, I block that in real simple. And coming and
drawing the head, just that really triangle shape again.
Now as we look at that you can see where the eyes
the ear, just like where everybody
else's at the end, just behind where the jaw actually tends
to come up. Here's the ear, is coming out,
And then the horns are coming out
of the top up here.
So when it looks like - and that's where
it was a little confusing when we were looking at the moose that
where the ears were but it's very consistent, it's exactly
where everybody else's is.
So breaking this down
so we actually go three views here that we can take and look at at the same time.
Now this tends to be fairly straight, nostrils on the side
again. Or goes to the side, it's not on
the side really. Going back, see this
blocking in in the -
here we're taking and looking at different views here.
You can see the colorations.
And how it takes and comes through
and effects the look
that we have. So as we look at
that what we've been doing here, we got several different views
here and you can see the neck coming down, you can feel the pull
feel the vertebrae sticking up.
You can sense the tone here, all pretty clear
you can see now the volume of what we're fitting in.
Scapula pushing out,
the sternum a bit lower, scapula on the other side,
and we're going back. And we have really -
notice how delicate the legs
actually appear. Very, very delicate.
In terms of, we can see where the
corners of that leg going back and this is
and this is lifting up.
So just again, just following the pattern.
Let's get the guy in between here, he's looking at us.
Eyes, looking straight forward.
Although we're still on the side.
Feel the big
flap of the ears.
And remember the
basic formula for drawing the ears was to think
of a cylinder as like a flower that's opening up.
And everybody will then be variation on that
So I think cylinder.
And going down, side view of the
side of the cheek. And then coming forward. Now
you can see the look,
dark nostrils, the muzzle,
And here we can see the dark
on the side we're seeing that in perspective.
Horns, building up.
The pull of the neck now coming in.
Scapula coming across.
When you're dealing with this, you're visualizing the whole
fullness of this ribcage that's in here.
When you're doing that,
when I'm doing this, I have to keep in mind that
it's part of like a barrel
so that you're actually visualizing
this thing three dimensionally in space.
And it'll be a little bit narrower in front and then
gets fuller as we go back.
But you're taking and working around over that surface.
Now scapula, again, coming forward.
Now it's got this leg turned
so that the elbow is going back in
away from us.
And we can feel,
try to get a sense of the twisting of the neck.
Now here the light -
what you're seeing it's not quite so obvious. I'm making it more
obvious than it is.
Feel the trapezius pushing, creating that
triangular shape going back in a way.
Scapula, filling in, pulling in.
Feel the forms going underneath.
As you go back in, feel the spine
then seeing the corner of the pelvis.
And you also get then a sense of the waist
The muscles or the skin
that pulls across from the ribcage.
Back of the pelvis
Then we're going back down into
the heel, Achilles tendon.
Now notice here that
which hasn't showed up particularly but right here
you can feel they have this little addition to the back.
Keep in mind that the joint is not
at the end of the heel,
I've been talking about that quite a bit.
Now there's another deer here showing
the hind quarters with his head peeking out here
I'm not gonna
redraw but we can take and
because it's useful here to just see that you're seeing the end
of the pelvis as it's coming back,
through into here. And then we feel, pull the tail
is coming up on the top here
Think of where the knee would be here.
So again, it's useful in that you're seeing the same
pattern through everything that we've been drawing.
Now that's not to say I can't - that's exactly
what you do when you're drawing a human
There's a - one of the quotes I
used in my drawing manual is that
by Hokusai is that
by the age of 80, I think it was
80, something like that, or 75
he had learned the pattern of the
birds, animals, insects, etc, etc.
It was the idea that he learned the pattern.
And that's really everything I've been talking about now.
has been learning the pattern. It's the pattern
that we go by. And once you understand the pattern
then you can take and work with it. Now I'm gonna go back
into here and now use the tone
a bit here to take and then we'll go back at that.
Now all this is in
shadow so I'm gonna take and
and here we can feel
So in coming through I can feel the waist.
Usually treating -
drawing you take the
limbs and things that are behind and just treat them
as simple silhouettes.
Here I'm gonna take in the scapula
pushing this going back
this behind in just a simple silhouette.
So I do use, taking and actually trying to
get the pattern of the
And go over.
You have to take and
going through, feel the thickness
of the form. This
has a ridge like a horse that if
we can come up and put our hand on the
top of that you would find that it's just a big - you can
actually grab hold of it. So that's
what I'm trying to do there is to create and then feel
the corners of the pelvis. Feel the center part it would be rising
up a bit.
Push, even more so
than what I can see.
See how I've done the drawing here. Started out very loose
and progressively through
analyzing and constructing, making it more
Corners pushing back.
I guess the foreleg
is tends to be dark. It seems strong, dark.
Here in the back now you can see -
you can see that pelvis as it comes back
and all of the muscles then are pulling
off of that. And stretching
take and do a little bit more detail.
Now you can see how the
horns or the bony part really building up
The bones - the horns
I think have a little bit of a
rim shape or pattern
going up all the way of course.
The ears tend to be
You can see how quickly it takes on
the more finished look.
Although I'm not really trying to
particularly finish the drawing but we can take and we can pick up some of the tone.
And the feeling.
I go back, I'm constantly pushing the corner,
and we can think of the bone itself
through the folds
of the skin as it takes and
try to feel them going over the center. Now
this will take and pull in.
the form pull under.
Even here, even though I can't
see it very much I can sense the way the
muscles are taking and pulling back. The serratus interior muscle
pushing back in
Coming off the back of the scapula.
I tend to sort of extrapolate a lot
from human anatomy.
Now in here I really
but I can take and
mentally just take and sense what's going on here
If you know
the basic patterns that we've been talking
you can pretty much get pretty close
reality that's there, even though
we don't necessarily see
everything. They're all
I've been trying to emphasize, everybody's pretty close.
So we're progressively taking and...
Now we can go to this guy, he's -
look at the bone.
pattern along the side.
Feel the bone going behind the
eyes. Feel the
you can look at the coloration, you can see
this building up on top. Even to feeling
Fitting over - constantly focusing on overlapping forms.
The same as I do on the figure. Human figure.
Feel the nostrils.
That coloration plays a big part.
Lips and chin.
Coloration going down the side and
most animals have a bit of
fur and hair within the ear.
Different places around the world have really good
natural history museums.
London is really good.
Paris. Paris has
a building that is just -
it looks like a parade in the center,
with all of the skeletons of the animals,
taking and going down. Then there's another - another
separate thing where they have all the stuffed animals.
and the Paris Louvre is very nice, they have a great place
for the - I've taught classes
for animal drawing and
I think maybe this year again I'm not
sure what my schedule is here.
Now there what I'm doing is
I'm putting in a lines for where the muscles would be
coming from behind the ear. The equivalent
of our sternocleidomastoid although
they don't have a sternum. They actually - the muscles actually goes all the
way down into the full leg.
Feel the muscles coming from underneath
these will be your pectoralis muscles pulling under
and then come down.
bring the shade.
Transcription not available.