- Lesson Details
In this series, master artist Steve Huston brings you his highly-anticipated advanced head drawing lessons. This second lesson in the series will cover the often subtle differences between the head and facial features of males and females. Steve begins at the lecture board, utilizing a set of skulls to elucidate the structural changes in head shape. With a foundational understanding of the varying “landscape” of the head, you can accentuate your characters’ features to portray them as more masculine or feminine. Steve will do several demonstrations working from photo references, which you can find attached to this page.
- Faber-Castell Polyrchromos Pencil
- Sharpie Permanent Marker
- BIC Ballpoint Pen – Blue
- Waterman Paris Fountain Pen
Discuss this video in the forums!Discuss
Male and female, the proportional and structural differences between both.
They’re subtle but important.
It’s going to be a lot of fun.
It’s going to feed into overall build of getting ever more information and putting
it into great drawing, great painting.
So let’s go ahead and get started.
those shapes and structures set up.
In this chapter, we’re going to try and detail those differences.
It’s really a matter—well, it’s a matter of a couple things:
Proportion, but mainly landscape.
With the male, we’re going to have a lot more architecture.
It’s going to be a more rugged landscape.
It’s going to be smoother scheme as we work with the female.
And then there is a matter of proportions, of course.
With the primates, there is a distinct difference between male and female in terms of size.
It’s 20% or 30%, something like that.
In terms of a male being bigger than the female.
If you look at these two skull, male here, female here.
You can see distinctly that size difference.
It can be a massive.
I mean if you’re a young woman dating a professional wrestler or something it could
be twice as big.
That’s that difference there.
Now, a little caveat, as we’re talking about these, in each of these chapters we’re going
to deal with the differences between expression and sexes and ages.
These are broad generalities, of course.
We can’t pin it down.
In fact, I’m going to point that out as we go.
I’m going to generally say, in general males are this way and females are that way.
Old folks are this way and young folks are that way, but you can find all sorts of exceptions.
For example, typically you think of the male as bigger and more jaw, that rugged, the rugged
jaw, the big lower jaw, the mandible.
But when we look at these, here is our mandibles, this is the female.
It’s much more robust than the male.
I’ve got a set of skulls here of difference racial types, male and female, and I couldn’t
find a—well, I take that back.
Out of the three racial types, European, African, and Asian, only the Asian male had a bigger
lower jaw than the female.
This is the European.
Here is the European male.
Here is the European female.
So, broad generalizations.
When we get into the demo section of this, I’ll point out some of those.
Here we’ve got a young woman but the jaw area or the brow area feels a little bit more male.
Here we have a man.
Maybe the neckline is a little more female.
Keep that in mind as you go.
Of course, that makes for fun.
We’ve got character types in that we can play things up, play things down.
As Robert Beverly Hale said, each artist, really, it’s their job to create their own ideal figure.
You’ll create your own ideal of beauty or of character or of whatever personality trait
you’re after in your art.
You’re going to cobble together from the population what you consider just right for
that canon of beauty that you’re after.
This is raw material, generalizations.
Take from it what you will and look for those opportunities to make different choices that
I might make about what you consider male, female, young, old, all that good stuff.
Caveats out of the way, let’s get going.
Okay, so here we have a European male.
Here’s a European female.
And the differences from skull to skull, skeletal type to skeletal type,
between the races isn't radical.
But in terms of the main male and female skeleton and general, it’s very hard to tell the difference.
Generally, things are going to be what they say is more robust in the male, but as we
talked about with the jaw that’s not necessarily so.
So the brow ridge here, the brow ridge in this area, corrugator muscles, supraciliary
arch it’s called, this is, in general, more pronounced on the male than the female.
You can see with this female and this male that’s certainly true.
A nice, pronouncement here.
Much more smoother line.
Also, this upper frontal area and the frontalis muscle goes over it, but just the bone.
Typically, or even ideally, not necessarily even typically, we would make the transition
from the frontal area into the temporal area and the cranial area
and down into the supraciliary arch.
That’s a handful to say.
And that will be kind of the strategy we’ll use.
For the female we’ll be a little more passive.
We’ll be a little more subtle in the transitions from one place to another.
You’re going to see that in age, too.
The younger set is going to be very smooth transitions.
As you get older the bone structures, the muscle structures will start to
become more pronounced.
As you age, then, those will then do some interesting things in terms of getting more
pronounced and less pronounced.
There is going to be constant transitions between and through a life in between the types.
So, much subtler stuff going on here.
Cheekbones can get very high on the male and the female.
Chin, as I said, and mandible, just generically on the male.
Alright, so on that jaw area, generically the male is going to have a stronger structure there.
This is a male European lower jaw.
This is a European female lower jaw.
Quite a bit bigger.
This is another male that we have, and this lower jaw is the smallest of all.
It’s tiny compared to that.
There is subtle differences between the bone structure.
Not a lot.
It can be very hard even for anthropologists to discern between the sexes.
There are very subtle differences.
Because the types can range so much, we can have a female with a big neck, a big jaw.
We can have a male with a really smooth brow and supraciliary arch.
We can have a strong-nosed woman and a real turned-up little nose on a male.
It can really vary a lot.
It can be hard to tell.
Where the differences really happen, then, are in the muscle structure.
We’re going to have a much more robust muscle structure with males throughout the body.
They’re going to be bigger, fuller and oftentimes closer to the surface.
You’re going to see that muscle structure and even the striations, the fibers of the
muscles that pack it up together and move.
You’ll see it in the chest.
There is going to be a group of muscles here, a group of muscles here, a group of muscles
here, all connecting across this way.
And those groups all have fibrous string like our threaded rope, fibered muscles there.
They can move and separate fiber from fiber and group from group.
You can get it here in the forearm.
We’ll get it here in the masseter muscles.
Those muscles closer to surface more robust and bigger and size generally on the male.
Masseter is a great example of that.
You can see here on our male European with the weak jaw there how narrow the jaw is compared
to the zygomatic arch and then up into the cranium here.
And so this area here builds way out really to here.
We have some, a little bit of muscle and tissue here.
Temporalis muscle is in here.
Fills up this cavity and you can feel that.
If you clench your teeth you’ll feel a little bit of flex here.
Clench your teeth.
Feel a lot of the flex there.
That’s the masseter muscle.
It goes from here to here.
It's quite thick.
It fills out.
I can’t take finger.
I can’t take my finger off because it’s not connected.
It fills out tremendously here.
And so that’s going to be very robust.
Very strong connection here, back.
When we get into profile we see this hollow here.
We’ll see this lovely, rhythmic kind of gestural transition out of the eye socket,
into the cheek and down to the jaw through that front of the zygomatic area.
Bottom of the orbit and into that masseter taking back.
This line back I’ll show you in demos and such is going to be very strong and really
a beautifully designed shape.
I’ll show you that in a second.
So big stuff going on here.
Likewise in here, the corrugator group going over that supraciliary arch.
There is a frontalis muscle up here that fills in and kind of sheathes over and adds to the
prominence of this and also can add to the separation of this area into this area.
Then the corrugators which gave you the stern expression are in here.
So, that’s that.
Then, each of the features will have their own pick of demos from male to female.
I’ll take you through those and we can track.
But generally, bigger, more robust, rockier landscape, more rugged landscape, showing
more muscle fiber, less smooth transitions with the female.
We’re going to want to blend more.
Especially if you’re doing a more idealized, beautiful young woman let’s say, you’re
going to want to idealize a lot.
Every time you add an extra line it’s going to age.
And we’ll see that in our demos and such too.
So, that’s that.
Oh, one other thing here.
I checked the six skulls we just happen to have here, really seven, and this bears out.
I don’t know if it’s anthropologically correct, anatomically correct.
But, in general, in my observation and I’ll give you some good reasons for it here in
a second, the back of the skull here, right in here, we want to make a little higher on
the female and a little lower on the male.
I’ll show you the why’s later.
But if we compare these, it bears out.
A little fuller and higher here drops off here.
Skulls take on massively different shapes from person to person, race to race, age to age.
It varies a ton.
You can see these plates here, these sutures.
Until you’re around six years old they don’t full form, and so those little skulls are
in danger until they, you know they’re not as well protected.
Those plates move around to grow, so a little child can grow into a adulthood, and this
stuff can get bigger in size as it should.
But how those plates come together, almost like tectonic plates where you’ve got the
crust of the earth coming up over the top of the other, and then we get those earthquakes.
It’s that kind of thing.
These things can come together in shape all sorts of ways.
We can get ridges and prominences and asymmetries going on with all sorts of stuff here.
That’ll be something to pay attention to if the hairstyle is not covering it.
Let’s do our male first.
I’ve got a model who is archetypically male.
Real strong jaw.
Real strong architecture, brow ridge, and small skull, actually big face.
That adds to that all muscle, no mind kind of thing that’s kind of the cartoon stereotype
of the big muscular male.
All those kind of clichés that you see in art and literature, they’re playing off
It rings true, and that’s why clichés become clichés.
There is quite a bit of truth to them.
Short of the dumb comment.
Since I’m a guy I don’t want to cop to that one, but the rest of it is all true.
Alright, so there is that nice brow.
You’ll notice that we want to make sure we get underneath that forehead.
Front plane of the forehead.
Bottom plane of the forehead.
Even though we have this bumper on it going around, we still have to make sure we make
a transition and are clear about that.
It can be as weak or as strong as it wants.
It actually is almost a perfect vertical there.
This is thrusting out this way.
We’ll just kind of mark off our territory here to get a sense of that.
We have a strong thrust forward of that barrel of the mouth structure, and then a nice chin.
He’s got a great chin.
There is that eye socket.
I’m thinking of that head like this, of course.
There is the jaw line going this way, and there is our whistle notch that we’ve talked
about so often, going like so.
This pulls back.
The hairstyle then builds across and over as it does.
Notice with the hair going up and across, this hair we don’t get that high back to
the skull like we’d want with a woman usually.
Again, all these are optional.
They are just possibilities.
Rather short neck.
Strong sternocleidomastoid pulling down.
Alright, you can just see the landscape building down here.
I’m going to do this fairly quick so that we can get through.
Notice his brow, the hair of the eyebrow there starts underneath on the bottom plane of the
Then he’s got these really sharp eyebrows.
They raise up, so for him, this is a slightly more female, feminine idea.
Although, with that sharp peak, the arch of the eyebrow you get that kind of cliché comic
book villain look there, although he is a sweetheart of a guy.
But that distance there is something we’d look for for the female.
There is a touch of the feminine there if we want to put it that way.
And it’s fun to kind of track those.
Then if you’re trying to create the archetype of beauty or rugged handsomeness or tough
guy image or whatever you’re after, you’ll play up those masculine ideas and play down
the feminine ideas.
So there is that cheekbone, high cheekbone.
It’s a quality of both male and female.
Here as it drifts off this way, this is the backside of that masseter muscle as it comes
Usually you catch the front side.
That’s not near as evident.
It’s being lost in some of this area down here.
It wraps around this way but I’ll take it back this way.
There is that zig-zag, that male zig-zag idea.
In a different light we would see that strongly.
The nose, again, will make it pretty quick.
The nose has a bit of a bump, so there is a bit of an architectural, a bit of topography
there, let’s say.
If I play that up and play up the squareness, those are all male ideals there.
And then he’s got a real full barrel of the mouth coming out and pretty full lips.
Real strong thrust forward of the barrel of the mouth, sans lips, without the lips, is
a rather male characteristic.
We’ll see the fuller lips are part of that too.
He has real strong shapes there, and that makes it funner to draw when you get these
real strong shapes.
Male and female, we’ll catch that little corner there.
There is actually a name for that, and I can never remember it, so I’m not going to draw
A little bit of the teeth.
Lower lip faces down as the bottom of the forehead, bottom of the brow ridge faces down.
I usually sketch in some shadow.
I’ll do that just as a footnote.
Notice that the teeth are in here, and we have lips going around it, and that’s useful
because that gives us a feeling of—just think of it that way—the teeth are in here.
The lips go around that.
It’s blocked by the lower lip.
That gives that wrapping effect like the ring of the wrist watch going around.
Having that thickness here is critical for that movement over.
One of the big challenges of the profile is getting us to feel the other side.
We could do it again here where we’ve got the barrel of the mouth and the lip structure,
the philtrum here.
We can feel the nose wrapping around the other side of that mouth
This drops straight out and then notice the square line that instantly says male.
It doesn’t really mean anything, but that’s the convention, and that’s our sense of
Rugged means more corners basically.
Again, by getting that little overlap, we’re doing that wrapping.
I’ll just do this even though it’s not part of it.
That’s that wrapping idea again.
It’s so important to take us around, take us around.
We’re really kind of—we have this stuff going on, but we’re making sure that we
don’t just overlap.
We insert bottom thing into the top and make sure that
top wraps around that insertion.
That gives us the illusion, the illusion that there is a side that we cannot see.
It sounds like the title for a horror film.
This side we cannot see muhahaha.
Look at how full.
By pulling this down this way, if I go too much it’s going to feel like it sags, but
if I make it straight, not as organic, not quite as full.
I’m going to curve that a little bit more than it is, maybe.
Again, that gives that strong jaw look.
I’m just going to simplify this down for time’s sake.
Nice, clean jaw line and a strongly separate jaw line from everything else, again is male
We’ll see that whole line soften progressively as we age the models whenever we get to that.
Then here is that jaw here.
We can see the cast shadow gives us that feeling of that massive plane bumping back.
It actually doesn’t bump back so fully, but the cast shadow actually drops in here
The cast shadow gives the illusion of that greater jaw structure
and pushes us right up against the sternocleidomastoid.
I actually like saying that name, but it seems like such of a silly name.
Not much of an Adam’s apple here.
We can play it up a little bit more if we wanted to play up that masculinity.
And showing that collarbone was usually a male province but that’s changed with modern
times, but in the elder ages of art, Renaissance and such and romantic periods, they would
play that down for the female.
Now it’s not an issue if you do that on a female nowadays.
She just looks young and healthy.
The old days, not so good.
It’s fun to see how fashion has changed.
Also, it’s instructive.
If you look at what was considered very female or very masculine in different eras or different
cultures, it can give you insights in how to shape, literally shape your work.
I’m not going to bother with the ear or anything.
That’s good enough.
Notice if we just did the silhouette, blanked this out, look at that architecture moving
All these kind of insertions and overlaps add to the separation of stuff.
That’s all a big landscape.
Notice when we just overlap we bump, but when we insert we have this big stairstep idea,
and the boxier things are, sharper corners or sharper corners.
Then again, the more male it becomes.
All of this stuff, the quick plane changes, these breaking the contours,
all those things help tremendously.
As I start adding marks here, that’s going to add to that rugged landscape.
It’s also going to age so we want to be careful on that if we’re trying to do a
young 20-something heroic character as opposed to 1 50-something heroic character.
So let’s do our next one.
Alright, now, with this young lady, notice that high skull.
Now, she’s got a lot of hair.
That adds to the effect.
But also, that gives us the line that we won’t be able to see but we can actually suggest.
I’ll show you how to do that in a second.
It’s a real simple little trick.
I’ll just lay in some of this stuff.
Notice the barrel of her mouth is subdued, and he’s got a fuller chin.
There is a lot of distance here.
It doesn’t thrust forward like our male did, but it does stretch and he is full jawed
like that when we saw in the skull.
The female had the fuller lower jaw.
She’s got a very strong, full lower jaw.
We’ll see the differences in a second.
Alright, so notice the clean line.
She has a strong forehead.
And this used to—if you read Sherlock Holmes or something like that, back then they actually
thought that was a sign of intelligence, this full, smooth, and they thought the size of
the skull itself.
There are different sized skulls out there.
They thought that was a sign of intelligence if you had a bigger skull.
It has nothing to do it.
It’s whether you listen to these lectures.
That’s how you know if you’re smart or not.
But this is a nice, clean line.
This would be considered criminal in England.
The beginning of Scotland Yard, that kind of thing.
This kind of line, they would be suspicious.
This guy is clearly of low breeding and, therefore, must be Jack the Ripper or something.
There was that kind of sense of how to look at, rather than looking at fingerprints as
a way to identify.
They were looking at features as a way to classify you are this because of that kind
But anyway, nice and clean.
We don’t have that prejudice of intelligence or intention when we see those kind of feature
differences, but we still do have the prejudice of beauty.
We consider these smooth lines more beautiful.
We consider youth more beautiful than old age.
We consider a smooth lined female more beautiful than a craggy-lined male, or we consider a
woman that has smooth skin and no subtle architectural changes to be more attractive and more desirable
than someone who has some imperfections and variations to their skin tone or the architecture
of their face.
Okay, so bigger eye.
I want to make sure that eye steps back from the eyebrow where the eyebrow is.
We want to come back to where the eyeball is.
It’s back in protected.
And the cheek pushes out.
Again, both has high cheekbones.
That’s fair game for both in terms of our ideals.
Notice the very technique of hatching suggests maybe imperfections in the flesh or age lines,
and that’s actually a rather poor technique if I’m really trying to optimize the supermodel
or the lovely lady or the healthy life-filled young mother or whatever the archetype is
that we’re after.
Okay, and this pulls down here.
Notice we have a strong, it’s strong architecture, but it’s soft edged and softly lit.
And so if we were doing a flattering portrait this is a good way to light it.
We’re getting that strong cheekbone that shows that high cheekbone, high birth, again,
there is a prejudice to that.
We’re getting the wide—remember the wide clamping effect of the wider cheeks over the
forehead and eye socket.
That’s what we’re seeing here.
We’re getting forehead and then the wider cheeks.
We get this wrapping around, this wrapping around there.
That’s attractive and that little tone back here is absolutely appropriate to put in to
That lovely architecture, that wide broad.
After all, the wide cheeks are the transition into the wide, big brained cranium up there.
Again, that kind of speaks to intelligence.
Also, notice when things go high, just metaphorically they’re fighting gravity, physically they’re
With age gravity takes over and the jawline softens, the bags under the eyes hang off
the line of the cheeks, all those kind of things.
Metaphorically, being a strong person, someone who is going to conquer life.
Intelligent, robust, all those kinds of things.
All that stuff kind of plays into those ideas of what’s considered correct physically
and what’s not so correct.
Okay, nice long and subtle line from the bottom of the forehead into the nose.
Now, she has a little bump there, but it’s just a little bump in a pretty flawless face.
She’s a pretty girl.
I played up the bump a little bit more.
That adds a little bit of personality.
She might be a good action start.
She’s a pretty girl but she’s got a little bit of attitude.
Maybe she broke her nose beating up her brother or the bad guys or something.
Once you’ve done your due diligence, clean forehead, big eyes, great distance between
the brow and the lid, high cheekbones, high back of the skull showing thick, full, lush,
healthy hair is another reason for that.
This all speaks to health and breeding basically.
By breeding I mean literally animal breeding.
Most of our canons of beauty are based on surviving nasty nature and reproducing.
So, even features, having regular features shows healthy, good genes.
On a subconscious level, that’s what we’re really doing.
We’re saying you will propagate the species.
That’s why I consider you pretty.
That’s why it’ll change depending on the affluence.
If you’re struggling for food, you want a fat, a heavier mother so that she can survive
those parts of the season where there is not as much food.
Being fat for us is fat is a derogatory term.
Notice I put that little mark right there?
As soon as I did that it made it more aggressive.
Look at these sharp lines coming down and the bump here.
I made that sharp.
All of those make a good action star because it masculinizes her just slightly.
It also ages her just slightly.
She’s no longer 18.
She now maybe 24 with that.
And so those are dangerous marks to make.
She has pretty thin lips.
Rajiv actually has fuller lips than her.
This is Rajiv.
That’s in a small mouth.
That could be a problem.
But the fact that they’re not real full—I’m sure she could the Facebook poofy-lip pose
and make them fuller—not real full is mitigated by the fact that they’re so small.
Small suggests feminine, smaller than, and also youth.
Our lips are small and they get bigger as they get older.
This shows that she’s—we know she’s not a little girl from this kind of strong
growth of the eyebrow, the nose, the cheekbone structure showing off, the thickness of the
All that suggests she’s not a little girl.
She has a little girl mouth, basically.
The fact that it’s small doesn’t hurt the femininity at all.
As we saw on the board, at lot of these ideas about youth, about femininity also are true
Less lines, that kind of stuff.
Very full chin.
This is the most masculine part of her.
I’m not going to play this down.
If it was my ideal comic book heroine, maybe, for my next save-the-world adventure, I might
well play that down.
Again, if I wanted to do an action heroine this would be great.
She’s got a strong jaw, kind of Arnold Schwarzenegger jaw, if you guys know who he is still.
He was the action star when I was a young man.
That gives, that’s a maleness.
Notice that we have, whatever character we’re talking about, they’re generally going to
have features that are a little more feminine in terms of the generalities, and others that
are more male.
We’ll each have a mix of those.
It’s that mix that creates so much interest, personality, possible typecasting or whatever
character you’re looking for in trying to create for your art.
There is this lovely long neck.
Notice the low-cut outfit to extend that length.
Hair is not up, but it’s behind the ear to help extend that length.
We don’t have that lovely curve of the skull here to show how thin the neck is, but what
we do have is we have the hair coming from here coming from behind the ear and flowing
That serves the same purpose.
This is not the whole neck.
The neck is back in here someplace, let’s say.
It’s reminiscent of and shows off that.
That gives us and it drops back here.
That’s the archetype.
A little more male, and little more male, a little more youth, which is feminine.
If I made that ear bigger it’d be male.
If I make it smaller, let’s cover it up, more female.
More male, bigger.
Smooth front brow, more male.
Length here without the Adam’s apple, more female.
High back here, more female.
we’ve seen forever in all our various lessons together.
Alright, so looking at these three little quick lay-ins, they’re not a big difference,
but this one I’ve kicked that back of the skull up higher.
It’s going to give a little bit more feminine look by doing that.
You want to avoid getting these things too close to a right angle.
Although, sometimes you’ll see a skull that drops back strongly.
Whenever you get those real strong types you have to be careful that it doesn’t seem
so strange that it’s unbelievable.
Sometimes you’ll see stuff that you’ll go I didn’t know the nose could do that.
But if you actually draw that, if it’s not a cartoon, it starts to get problematic.
So, generally, we stay in these idealized areas.
We’ll play with that canon when we get into expressions in that chapter.
You want to kind of watch that.
Generally, we want this to open up into a greater than right angle.
We have the gesture down for the face.
We have the gesture back for the cranium and the hairstyle, and if we keep those things
nice and curved, we’re suggesting the round skull in there, of course and the rounder,
the gesture down the face.
It tends to curve that way because we have the prominence of that muzzle, that nose and
barrel of the teeth structure that is so important.
You can see that here where the teeth thrust forward.
Of course, the pillowy structures of the lips go on top of that.
It's important to feel that.
Never doing the straights for a long axis if you can help it because we lose that sense
of life, that fluid quality of life.
Everything is curved whenever we can make it curved.
It becomes a curve in terms of fluid wave-like lines or curves in terms of zig-zags.
Always critical that we maintain that design of life and that metaphorical idea, too.
If you’re angry, aggressive; if you’re relaxed, submissive, depressed, defeated,
taking a vacation, more of this fluid wave-like quality.
And so you can actually see, just in stereotypes, the aggressive male and the more nurturing
female, that archetypal idea of the mother Mary idea or the warrior king idea, those
mythological archetypal, metaphorical ideas tend to be based on history and stereotype.
The male was the hunter-gatherer, went out and killed things.
Attacked the tribe because they were 30% bigger than the females.
The females were the gatherers.
The men did the hunting.
The women did the gathering.
Most of the food actually came from the gathering.
If they can get some protein that was high calorie for our big brains.
We needed that.
So anyway, that metaphor, and that cliché really, has gone back through the ages for
real reasons, not that you have to follow it.
Alright, so here is the construction of the head then.
The stronger I can make that jaw the more male it’s going to be.
The higher I can make this back of the skull, the more feminine it will feel.
Now some of that, like I said, I can’t prove that this is true in terms of anatomy.
Through observation it seems to be true.
It’s true for a couple of other reasons.
One, we typically, although the current fashion is not so much, but typically women are going
to have longer hair.
And so you’ve got more hair on the head, and we guys go bald more often than you ladies
I was going to sad to say, but I don’t wish baldness on you either.
Since there is more hair there it’s going to fill up.
In fact, if you go back to like the 60s, the Jackie O, the Kennedy era in America for us
is big poofy styles.
They’d build up the hair in back.
Since you’ve got more hair you’re going to have more lift for that reason too with
But also, by pushing this up higher, if you can see it, and like I said right now a lot
of women have short hair.
Then you can see that neckline.
Or if the long hairstyle is put up.
Of course, by adding the bun you’ve just exaggerated that idea
of a high back end of the skull.
You’re lifting that up nicely.
It plays into that generality.
But by getting that up high, getting the hair out of the way, you can see that the neckline
is going to be thinner and generally longer.
So for the female here, notice I’m keeping that jaw round.
We’ll just put this in so we’ve got a little bit more to work with.
Here I’m keeping that jaw square.
The digastric plane, which is really important to show, and you can see it.
If you’re on top you can’t see it.
But, from underneath this is going to keep the face, especially from front views from
looking like a mask.
If you don’t get that digastric plane, it’s going to feel like those old plastic Halloween
masks that you wear as a kid that just have a surface here that curves a little bit, but
It’s critical to get that.
We come to the chin, go back along that digastric plane and then flow into the neck in whatever
manner is appropriate.
So, for the female, longer neck is going to feel more feminine.
I’m going to give her a hugely long neck just to make the point.
The longer neck and musculature is going to be less robust on the females, so thinner.
It’s going to thin out.
It’s going to be a thinner neck, a longer neck.
And so we’re going to get this magnificent from that full skull with whatever hairstyle
is on it right down into that neck.
The 7th vertebrae is the last of the neck, 8th vertebrae first of the ribcage.
Then we flow in, making sure—you guys are at the advanced stage here—so I don’t
need to go through all the 101 stuff, but I’m going to point some of them out because
they’re so important and so easy to forget.
Making sure that the back of the neck comes in or the ribcage comes in high to meet the
back of the neck.
And in front at the throat area the ribcage comes in low.
If you put a collar on a shirt or a necklace, notice how the shirt falls down.
That’s not tailoring.
That’s the nature of your structure.
You’ve got a full high torso beginning here, and the full torso is dropped down and lower
there, and so it’s doing this.
If we get a collar tight or a necklace tight around that, we’re going to feel that low
to high, critical to feel that.
That gives us a chance to feel that lovely length in front.
With the male then, you can play this way down.
Andrew Loomis, what he would do in his lovely books, the guy drew just beautiful, idealized
That whole group kind of created the epitome of the male type and the female type for 20th
And he would actually use a perfect ball in here.
The ball would come way down here.
He’d do a ball like this and then give a bull neck, kind of a Superman neck to it.
That’s not accurate, but very seldom are you going to get a perfect ball.
It’s not going to come down this far.
He used that kind of idealized bold neck of a man, you know, the rugged Hollywood hero
or a superhero in comic strips.
Then the female, he used the same thing, which creates all sorts of problems except he covered
that, that inaccurate connection with the hairstyle so you never saw it.
But, if we’re going to show that true connection of how the skull and neck come together, we’ve
got to be aware of that egg-like shape, how high it sits up, how high it comes up into
here, and make sure that we don’t blow that.
Alright, so thicker neck, longer neck.
The jaw comes in front of the ear always.
Jaw has to be in front of the ear.
If we came behind the ear, when you ate or talked your ears would wiggle like that.
It’s got to be in front.
When you get a real rugged male character, and you’ll see this in some of the character
types when we play with it, you’re going to get that digastric plane here.
It’s going to be thick.
Rather than cutting straight across, rather than beveling in, it can bevel down.
We’ll see it in some of the reference demos.
Bevel down like that.
Rather than just stepping in, there can be a full plane here where this is the end of
the jaw in front of the ear at that sideburn area.
Because of this really thick musculature here, the masseter, and all the flesh that attaches
It builds way out and it comes and wraps over, and so that plane going back can take us back
It can actually look like you’ll get a side plane that will roll into a subtle back plane,
and in here against the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
It can actually look like the jaw does go behind the ear.
You may well see a big jaw, thick jawed character where it pulls back like that.
But structurally, it’s in front.
Again, all that added mass, that added robustness if that’s a word, is going to say male.
Also, since the male is 30% bigger, had I drawn this right I would have drawn her this
If you’ll just take the strategy of making the features, most of the features a little
smaller, specifically the ears and the nose.
If you make the ears and the nose—now we’ll see some character types where the woman has
a big nose, the man has a small nose.
It can vary a lot.
If you’ll make the ears a little smaller, that’ll seem more feminine.
That actually is a wild stretch.
You’re not going to find any real evidence to that, I don’t think.
Ears are ears.
But they come in all sorts of shapes and sizes.
If you give that young lady, that idealized woman, which we’re really talking about
here for time’s sake, the idealized version of the sexes, make the ear a little smaller
and it’ll seem more feminine.
Likewise, with the male, bigger.
Notice here, let me do this.
And here too.
Again, these are just kind of little generic drawings, but it’s going to give
us the understanding we need here.
Notice how if we come off the cranium, the frontal lobe here, down the frontal area and
over the frontalis and then into the supraciliary arch that’s in here.
With the corrugator muscles over, the corrugator muscles attach this way, and they constrict
in, and you get the furrowed brow, the frown lines there.
Notice how powerfully those structures can separate.
Look at that landscape.
You’ll find males where you don’t get that, but that’s archetypically female—or
This is going to be more female.
It will also—you’ll see this quite often—since it’s all about the rugged landscape or the
smooth pastoral setting, basically, the subtle rolling hills rather than the jagged peaks.
Subtle rolling hills is female, jagged peaks is male.
But also, subtle rolling hills is younger.
Jagged peaks is older.
Quite often, as you add more architecture you might be in danger of aging.
We’ll see when we get in the aging chapter how that happens exactly.
In general, you’re really just making it more rugged.
If you’re going to really make a rugged male with all those architectural features
popping out and separating strong jaws, striating muscles, ridges and all that kind of stuff.
It’s going to look a little older.
You’re not going to make that male look like he’s 19 doing that.
He’s going to look like he’s 30 or 35 doing that.
You’ve aged him a little bit.
He’ll still be in the peak of life.
Dante said 35 was the peak of life.
That’s because he was 35 when he wrote the Divine Comedy.
Anyway, kind of watch that.
More critically, when you’re doing the female, if you play up those types, those types of
architectural features and show any kind of lines adding any extra lines at all, it’s
going to age her very quickly, especially around the eyes, but anywhere in the trackings
of the mouth and such.
You’ve got to be very careful.
Generally, as you’re drawing the pretty woman, it’s going to be a very young woman.
You’re going to play down those lines because that’s the fashion of the day.
We find youth more beautiful than age.
It’s just the way things are at the moment.
Not every society at every time didn’t feel that at all, but we do right now.
So, watch those things.
But now, look at the rugged landscape here.
The frontalis, the supraciliary coming down onto the nasal bone that ends about here.
Then the nose, the wedge of the nose coming out.
If we make it more of a hook nose feature or a bumpy nose, anything like that, you can
feel more male, making it bigger, more male.
If we make it a straight nose, or just barely hooked, smaller nose, or turned up nose, or
this slopes as a concavity rather than a convex structure, turned up meaning this slope tips
up a little bit.
It’s going to look more female and a little younger.
We can give a little stronger nose, but if we turn it up a little bit then it’s going
to feel still appropriate for a lovely young woman if that’s what you’re after.
Also, if we make it squarer as opposed to rounder, it’ll be more male as opposed to
more feminine female.
By chiseling that nose out here, that’s making it more male.
If I take it and allow it to have a little bit of a hook, which is slightly male but
rounded off nicely, then it will feel appropriate for the female.
That’s not going to feel as appropriate as that will.
Alright, so noses and ears make bigger for the female, I’m sorry, bigger for the male
and smaller for the female.
Those two features we want to reduce for the female, expand for the male.
But with the eyes, we’re going to do the reverse.
We’re going to make the eyes bigger for the female and smaller for the male.
Notice that the fashion, and this has been fashion for a long time.
You’ll see it in ancient Egypt.
Makeup goes on the eyes for the female.
It did for the males in Egypt too.
Doing makeup is going to make them look bigger because you put the dark eyeliner around,
and that’s going to show the whites of the eyes, and they’re going to look bigger.
So, there is a lot of work done in makeup to make those big eyes even bigger.
But, in terms of feminine, a bigger eye—of course, that’ll include more lashes—is
going to be more female.
A smaller eye, less lash is going to be more male.
The male also is going to have a thicker facial hair and that includes the eyebrows, typically.
In fact, a lot of women, if they have heavy eyebrows they pluck them so they’re lighter,
When they pluck them the eyebrow starts on the inside of this brow ridge here.
It comes up over the brow ridge on the outside a little bit.
If we track the top, the top will start right here and come up high.
The bottom will be down inside and may cover this and might even go over it a little bit.
If it’s a woman, we’re going to want the bottom of the eyebrow to sit up here.
Notice by doing that, by having the bottom, this is all eyebrow.
The bottom of the eyebrow sits up.
We’re allowing some of this structure rolling down and then tucking under and meeting the
This distance here, if I want it to be a lovely young woman, I want to extend that distance.
Make it higher.
In general, the higher the whole eyebrow goes above the lids, the more feminine it will
be, especially the outside section here.
The greater distance we have here, the more feminine it will be.
Okay, so we’ll do this maybe with the male brow.
We’ll do that with the female brow.
We’ll let it come up high like so, whereas the male brow we might go straight across,
or we might go up just not as high, or it might even drop down and be heavier here.
What we’re looking for is this area having lots of space there, a lot of space between
the bottom of the eyebrow and where the actual eyeball, eyelid structure starts.
Again, in the demos I’ll point that out more carefully.
So, bigger eyes for the female and smaller eyes for the male.
Greater distance from the eyebrow to where the eyeball or eyelid starts, the upper lid
starts, and opening here.
If you do a la cage aux folles—I was just watching Tootsie, the old Dustin Hoffman movie
from the 80s or 90s, whenever it was done.
He was turning himself into Tootsie.
He was a male actor pretending to be a female actor.
One of the things they did is they pulled the skin up here so this raised up here.
As soon as you do that—and they plucked the eyebrows underneath to get more height
That’s the point of the plucking.
You don’t pluck from above.
You pluck from below so that you can tease up, have a thinner eyebrow, thinner patch
of hair there.
It’s more feminine.
Thicker is more male and, again, older.
Then by plucking from below you get that nice distance there, and that’s going to seem
Then the makeup, all that whatever you call it, the eyeliner is here, whatever that’s
called, that coloring and makeup there is to accent that distance from the lid to the
We color that with makeup to, again, expand territory.
Because of this powerful masseter muscle, we not only get a square jaw and oftentimes
a fuller jaw that can extend well back beyond its usual territory, we’re going to get
that masseter coming right off the zygomatic arch, bottom of the orbit, right of this little,
you can see this little valley, this little ravine.
In a western you take your ponies down there.
You go right back along that masseter.
This way, and it take you all the way down here.
You can feel that all the way down.
Let’s do that again.
This is getting a little messy there now.
You’ll see this a lot in dramatically lit work.
You can see it in Titian’s sacrifice of Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac in the biblical
You see it in Frank Frazetta and comic book artists, fantasy artists all the time.
It’s archetypically male, and it’s a real powerful statement.
It shows mystery and danger because of the dramatic light, the dark side as opposed to
the light side.
If that figure is about to betray his friend and prove that he’s really the villain and
not the ally, you might shave him here as he’s plotting or beloved hero’s demise.
Notice this zigzag action that happens here.
Zigzags are aggressive, so that’s typically male.
Look at how the lighting can add to that masculinity.
We can also feel with the frontalis area, the frontal area of the cranium with the little
bit of muscle, little thin pillow of muscle over it, we can feel that frontalis separate
from that brow ridge.
Again, showing, look at all the rugged architecture now.
Think of the jagged evil mountain where the trolls live or whatever.
That’s dangerous, aggressive, male, masculine.
And so we have a rugged architecture there.
When we get that chiaroscuro, sculpting the form in light and shadow, that’s going to
show off that architecture more strongly.
If we use soft light, diffused light, ambient light, that’s going to soften
all the architecture differences.
It’s going to feel more female.
We can see even in the way we do the lighting, the way we do the lighting, we can play out
the masculinity or femininity as we might like.
But anyway, we get that very strong—instead of the orbit wrapping around as it does, the
actual rhythm of information takes us back that way zigzagging.
We come off—notice where this breaks.
This is all front.
This is the frontalis.
That’s the front of the head.
This is all front of the head.
This is all side of the head.
All the features are on the front of the head, except for the ear which is on the side of
That lighting does a nice job of showing the front planes from the side planes, so we can
the architectural position, our dynamic position.
But, what we’re looking for is that maleness in that masseter as it’s so strong.
When you chew it flexes there and gets stronger.
That’s going to be a very male thing to do.
We’re going to want to play that down.
Okay, smaller eyes, as we said, for the male.
The mouth, the structure of the mouth in terms of the skeleton is about the same.
But the lips can be quite different.
I’ll show you those separately.
Men are going to tend to have thinner lips and women more pillowy.
Again, the makeup tells the story.
Look at fashion and you’ll see what the society considers female or male.
For example, if a woman is dressing up for a night out, they’re going to wear high
Not to get as tall as the man, not to make up for that 30% difference, but to extend
the length of the legs.
They might do a high cut bikini or a split in the dress or something to show the length.
Now we’ve got a higher leg going all the way up the hip rather than stopping here.
We’ve got a longer leg because the toes, rather than being flat, have extended, and
so the shin comes down into that angled foot and toe in those high heels and extends that
flesh, that length of leg.
That’s more feminine, that long graceful, thin look, rather than the lumpy, bulky look
of the bouncer they go past as they go out for dinner.
The woman will have the low-cut gown to show the breasts partly, the feminine breasts,
a big difference obviously.
It also extends the neck, lengthens the neck.
Notice she’ll maybe wear a pearl necklace or something.
That drops of the pit of the neck down lower and it extends too.
She’ll put her hair up and have maybe a low-cut gown hanging off the shoulders behind,
again to extend the neck, lengthening that neck.
Then she’s going to put makeup as we talked about, and due to her painful plucking to
create more length here, coloring that length, dark accents here to make the whites of the
eyes bigger and to make this difference between relatively dark eyebrows and the eyeliner
here, extend this distance again.
Then she’ll play down any subtle variations.
The landscape is going to be smoothed out, more pastoral here, so she’ll do makeup
to play down any imperfections, the bags under the eyes or little wrinkles or little variations
as the architecture moves from muscle to bone and such.
Play that down.
She’ll usually powder her nose to play that down.
If you look at any fashion photography shot, it’s lit so all you see is nostril.
You see almost no nose, usually.
Big eyes because all the dramatic makeup.
Only makeup to blend it into the cheek so you don’t see the nose pretty nose.
Then big lips.
Big, red lush lipstick to play that up, to show the big pillowy structures of the mouth.
The male will play down that.
In fact, sometimes he’ll put a mustache on there to play that down.
So, lips then.
Not the barrel of the mouth itself, the structure of the mouth, but the lips get thinner.
Again, you’ll find all sorts of men with fuller, pillowy lips, but
thinning those out is going to be a better strategy.
We’ll see that happen with age again.
Young children have very big pillowy kewpie doll lips, very full.
Some women will play up the makeup towards the center to do that.
The geisha girl kind of look.
They used that in Star Wars.
For the first remake of Star Wars they had that kind of center of the pillows was how
the lips were defined in that movie.
Kind of angry lips there.
Maybe she’s a femme fatale and is about to get the guy from some 50s comic book or something,
but fuller pillows there.
Then we color code them to make the point so we can’t be fooled with the intention
You’ll see on Facebook, the social profiles, a lot of the young women, I’ve notice, will
kind of purse their lips, poof them out to make them look pillowy.
They’ll kind of do this or something—I can’t do it.
They’ll Photoshop this, make it look great.
They’ll kind of do that, that fashion shot where it’s I’m a beautiful feminine woman
Part of that femininity is to make sure you don’t do this.
Clint Eastwood will do that when he’s looking tough.
The action star will do that.
They’ll be a tight line.
In a novel it will be a slash across the mouth.
It’s a violent shape for that rugged, aggressive, dangerous male.
The lovely nurturing female, that cliché is lips are love.
Give me a kiss on the cheek if you love me mommy.
So those lips are full.
So anyway, we get that kind of a thing going on.
Beyond that, then if we play up this, we have this whole barrel of the mouth structure that
I’ve talked about in other lectures, and I’ve picked out some shots here to help
make that point in the demo stage.
Let’s shade this down here now.
If I play up that structure—again, notice I’m starting to get zigzags.
If it’s played up a lot it gets kind of pouty.
You’ve got to find the balance there.
What happens that is so nice…let’s do that.
That chin area, and we’ll see it better from a front and three-quarter, it inserts
up in, and so the pillow is drooping over, and that chin goes up in there.
Again, that’s a very like that.
The chin intrudes up in and almost like tucking in your shirt and having it hang over a thick
You’re chin pushes up towards the center of the lower lip, and the barrel of the mouth
and all that material falls down.
There is this little line here that we’ll get on both male and female.
The more you play that up, the more it ages.
It also caps off the lips and can give support to that lush, full-lipped look or that young
kewpie doll motif.
Here, notice another way that adds to the full jaw idea.
If I really don’t cut across, but give this full.
You know, that pillow is packed with stuffing kind of feeling for that digastric plane.
That, again, is going to be a very strong male idea.
Of course, the chin, push that chin out father, again male.
Play it down and round it off.
If it’s female, same with that digastric plane.
You can even play down the jaw line so you don’t pick up the jaw line all the way across.
Again, it feels like a softer transition.
Always looking to soften that landscape.
Then the female will just get this lovely roll right down to the collar bone.
The male we will get the Adam’s apple.
That can be incredibly prominent or completely gone, but the archetype, the cliché of the
male is that Adam’s apple, and it is there.
They have the Adam’s apple.
The female does not have that.
If you’re doing the man in drag that’s always a problem.
In Tootsie, I was listening to the extras on the Dustin Hoffman movie.
What they did is they did high-colored outfits so it would cover the Adam’s apple.
If you’re doing a la cage aux folles you’d want to somehow hide that if you can.
The sternocleidomastoid, it’s this muscle here that pulls down and to the front there.
That’s going to be a much stronger statement as well.
You’re going to get a clear architectural change for that male.
If you see him, the type shows it.
In the female it’ll be completely gone is the ideal for that.
We’ll just do the neck and we won’t show that at all, or again if we show it ever so slight.
In past, now the fashion is a little more athletic female models.
Sometimes a lot more.
For a long time—they’re starting to get out of it finally.
I think it’s a good thing.
The rail-thin female.
You know, the almost anorexic female.
That was nice for the designers because there was no landscape to the body.
You didn’t have full hips.
You didn’t have full breasts.
You were just a coat hanger, and you could hang the drapery of the costume off the female.
It was lovely for the fabric.
The fabric fell as it was intended, as opposed to having to go over barrel chest busty woman
or God help us if it was love handles on the model.
Any of those things that go out this way, front and back, side to side, are going to
catch the fabric as they come down.
They’re going to spoil that clean line.
The designers didn’t want that, so they get these rail thin women.
Now they’re starting to do plus models finally, and it’s refreshing to see different body types.
Probably a little healthier too.
But, it’s going to be a completely different problem for the designer to cloth that in
a way where those drop folds, like hanging a towel off a clothesline or diaper swinging
down, they’re going to catch architecture as they come down, and that’s going to break
So, looser fabric that falls and drapes is going to be a different challenge for them.
Anything that plays that down.
If you look back at light Ingres, Ingres’s work, he was head of the French academy right
before the impressionists here.
He was part of the time of the neoclassical movement, but it was not really neoclassical.
He’d give no collarbones at all, and that was typical of the ear.
If you look at—we watched the Pride and Prejudice that was the BBC special, and they
dressed them in those early 18th century, I think, or mid-18th century outfits, and
it was off the shoulders for the women and the look was to have no collarbone.
And so the artists would take it out or you find a model that’s a little fleshier in
here, and to keep the posture such that you’re not showing those collarbones.
That’s a nice and smooth again.
The landscape has been reduced.
You might not even see collarbone, but with the rail-thin models and the more athletic
models, and our more active lifestyle, you’re going to see those quite often.
Male, no problem at all.
Show them off all you want.
Alright, so if we take a look real quick at that barrel of the mouth idea, just so we’re
clear on it.
Now, high cheekbones where you’ve got the cheekbone wrapping around that eye structure
as it does, the eye is going to be in here.
The cheekbone with the temporalis muscle and all the flesh will be out here, and so you
can see this rhythm here that goes back.
Zygomatic arch around the orbicular area, the orbit, back along the temple line, temporalis area.
Here you have this lovely rhythm.
And so the cheeks kind of frame, and it’s almost like a wrench on a not from below really.
The forehead structure is here and the cheeks go around it, and the whitest part of the
head, so we’ve got the cheeks here that are wider than the forehead.
The forehead with the eyes will break down, key lock down, call it an interlock, this
structure in here.
There is the frontal area.
This is the supraciliary.
Right here actually is the supraciliary arch structure there.
With the corrugator muscles over it that contract in and give us that zigzagging frown line.
The eyebrows come here and come up more or less depending on the male or the female.
More if it’s a female.
We’ll make this the female here.
May be a little strange, but we’ll make this a little more feminine.
So, the cheekbones can go way up high on the female, and that will look very feminine.
Give a heavier brow here to make it clearly male.
Or the cheekbone can go way up high around the male and it’ll look very male.
You can have high cheek-boned men that look very masculine and high cheek-boned women
that look very feminine, and it won’t matter a bit.
You can do both of those things.
This is the female.
We’ll do this with the nose in here.
This barrel of the mouth in here, we’re going to have the line of the mouth
and just put in real simple lips here.
This is not the interesting point.
The interesting point here is the chin pushing in here, intruding up in there.
And the barrel of the mouth, those pouty structures or the orbicular area there wrap around.
Chin thrusts up.
These guys sag around that way.
Playing that up is going to give a stern, it can be a sad or an aggressive sternness,
but kind of a locked in and kind of a standing off kind of expression.
That’s a little more aggressive, a little more male.
As we said, when we add extra lines, and that includes separating smaller architectures
from each other.
It’s going to make it more male.
It’s also going to age it.
We want to be very careful when we’re doing that kind of thing.
This is the male side here.
All this kind of stuff.
The nose comes off onto the cheek.
We get a little hollow here.
That’s where we get that zigzag that we saw in the profile.
We go over the zygomatic arch and it swings back this way.
Brow ridge goes around into the temporalis muscle, and this fades back this way.
All those kind of subtle architectural changes there.
Nose ending mouth beginning, nose ending cheek beginning.
Nose and cheek framing with the brow, the eye socket with all the stuff going on there.
All of that adds information, adds mark making.
Adds landscape structural changes, and that’s going to make it more rugged and more male,
and as I said, aging.
If you do that, it’s not going to look attractive.
It’s not going to look young.
It can be a real interesting character, but it’s not going to be the idealized young
woman that we might want.
Make the eye bigger.
Make the distance higher and the cheeks higher and wider.
Nose turned up.
It’s a little smaller.
All that stuff says female.
Alright, so let’s stop there.
We’ll take a break, and we’ll go do some demos.
I’ll show you with reference as I draw how this stuff plays out, and then you’ll get
a chance also to do it.
We’ll see you in just a second.
It’s a profile, we’ve got the three-quarter, of course.
I didn’t have to say that, did I?
You probably picked up on that, the smart art students that you are.
So, I kind of think of it like character actors.
If you’re a character actor you get to play all sorts of parts, ideally.
Sometimes you get stuck, typecast, I suppose.
You don’t always have to play the strong, silent type or the emotional heroine who cries,
begging for help.
Characters get to play all sorts of things, and they get to be characters.
They get to be kind of quirky.
They can have strange habits or inconsistencies, that kind of thing.
We have this ideal of what it should be to be correct, healthy, attractive, whatever it is.
Then if there is any little variation off of that, then we go, no, wrong, I can’t cast you.
You’re not the right type.
As artists the draftsman here, it’s funner to draw more interesting shapes.
She has a real interesting, in fact, somewhat male—I’m going to make it more male—chin and jaw.
Remember, we talked about how that chin thrusts up in, and the pillows of the barrel of the
mouth come down around each side.
That’s what I have here, that insertion in the pillow on the side.
That’s considered a little more male.
She’s actually got very feminine lips.
They’re thinner but they’re exquisite proportion, and they’re full enough.
There is a volume.
They’re full enough and small enough that they feel like a lovely, young, feminine girl
as she is, a woman.
Now, she’s got that nice kind of turned up nose here, but there are a couple little
bumps to it.
It’s very feminine in character, but in detail it starts to get a little quirkier.
Those are funner to draw.
At least they are for me.
She’s got a much bigger nostril, big nostril there, which, again, adds to the character.
It’s not generic.
To me it’s a lot funner to play with these things.
She’s got huge eyes, archetypical beautiful big eyes.
We’ll make those like that.
She’s got the eyebrow that starts low but doesn’t go up way high.
It stays fairly low in here.
That’s not archetypical either.
She’s got nice cheekbones.
You can see also this whole structure pulls over.
I’m going to do it and it’ll be instantly a mistake if I’m trying to idealize her
because notice how now the landscape has lost its smooth, we want these smooth, big structure
We’ve got to have a cheekbone there.
That’s a big structure.
We don’t want these little structures.
They confuse and add inconsistencies, subtle variations that all click off on our biological
reptilian brain and say, no, not even enough.
Not perfect, not a perfect beauty.
Maybe not a perfect choice for children, to get my children.
Same with guy.
She’d look at the guy, well, geez, his chest is a little small.
Her reptilian brain would say he won’t be able to run as far to catch that deer.
Now we have this really great—with the hair up we can feel.
It’s hard to see in the photograph because it drops out, but we can feel that really
great long neck, beautiful long neck.
Showing collarbones but that’s okay because she’s not emaciated.
She’ll survive the next drought or the next famine or the next winter.
She’s just athletic.
Then the hairstyle plays up that high back to the skull.
Anytime you do a bun or a ponytail up high like that, it’s going to play into that
Okay, notice how doing that really mars it, and if I do this, showing where the eye socket
and the eye structure meets the inside of that zygomatic arch, once again it detracts.
If I move that brow in closer it starts to suggest the corrugator muscles and shows that
she is not happy.
All those things, every little bit of that is trouble.
This is a great ear to draw, but it wobbles, and that’s going to take away from that
clean kind of Barbie doll assumption there.
Okay, so let’s just quickly get this in.
Okay, so she has that archetypical nose.
Notice the clean forehead, clean line of the forehead, back under and then swooping into
It has the barest little straightening.
It’s not a perfect turned-up nose, but it’s a really beautiful, clean-lined nose, and
that does the trick.
And so that is very feminine.
Notice if I push out this wing of the nostril a little farther than hers is, which I did,
now that take a little bit away from that idea.
It’s still very much in character for the feminine.
She’s got this nice clean line to the brows, the hair of the brow.
They lift up some.
The thicker hair often is more masculine, but the beautiful line of the eye is feminine,
and she’s got lovely big eyes.
Just going to do that here.
It’s kind of a heavy-lidded look.
The makeup obviously and the lashes add to that.
We’re going to play down any inconsistencies or details in this area because that’ll
We’ve got lovely big cheekbones.
That’s created by the highlight there rather than any tones, but we could pick up a little
bit of the structure there.
We have that nice high clamping effect of cheekbones getting wider.
Here it is here off the highlight.
Getting wider and that brow ridge, this bit here and here, I’ve actually made it wider
than this side.
I should have made this higher up too.
That, again, shows that beautiful high cheeks, long distance of that upper eye structure.
You can see how smooth and clean the shadow shape is, and if you track a cast shadow or
a core shadow, that’s a great way to track the topography, to know how lumpy and bumpy.
How rugged things are.
Here’s isn’t at all.
It’s a lovely, young, clean line of brow ridge and frontal area, cranial area.
All of those things.
You can hear the architecture, nice and smooth.
Then nice full lips.
We’ll do those pretty simply.
She has a strong chin and fairly strong jaw but not overly so.
She’s a little fuller in that jaw then we had up here.
Not as full as here.
It’s right in line with a pretty young woman.
Nice smooth curve rather than—let’s make this a little more cornered.
You can do it square again.
That’s going to get a more sterner look, add to the anger like she’s clinching her
jaw and flexing that masseter muscle.
This is a nice smooth idea.
Then we don’t get the long neck because that neck is articulating the head into this
She has the small ears.
I’ll make them a little smaller just to perfect—the small ears, again, adds to that
idea, the feminine ideal.
Alright, here we have a young man who is in his mid-twenties.
He looks younger, especially from some other positions, and that’s because there are
real smooth lines and kind of a fleshy lower face area.
Notice it’s almost a turned up nose.
He has big eyes, which adds to his more feminine and/or more youthful.
He’s got such a strong—look at this really square brow—again, he would be considered
by Sherlock Holmes as a bright man, smart young man, maybe a young Mariolatry in the
making who is going to get in trouble.
But, look at that strong corner and the eyebrows, the clean line of those eyebrows beautifully
track that front plane.
The side plane, the arch of the eyebrow creates a wonderful corner.
He’s got thick hair.
That adds to it too.
As you get older your hair thins, so having really thick hair is going to, is one way
to make it feel like you’re younger, not in your 40s or 50s or even 30s, but 20s or
So, a pretty short nose, and this position, of course, adds to that.
The perspective position adds to that.
We won’t muck around the eyes too much.
Just enough to get them in there.
Notice that he has pretty high cheekbones, but here it’s wrapping around there, going
over the zygomatic arch, but we don’t see the strong cutout like we did here.
You had that strong architectural cutout where it caught shade there.
We get that strong kind of hollow under the cheek.
He is full jawed which can add to the maleness.
That makes him more male.
Also, it’s not sharp jawed like this is and like these, especially she was.
She was also full-jawed and a little softer, a little more fleshy.
And that fleshiness—if you’re in your 40s, say, and you go on a big diet and lose
a lot of weight, it actually makes you look older because that fleshiness softens the
And being much thinner.
If you’re working out for an athlete and you’ve lost a ton of weight as a 22 year-old
woman, you’re going to look maybe 32 when you lose all that weight in a really cut,
as they say for…
The little bit of the jowl area also adds to the youth.
That step there.
We can see it in here, that pillowy area.
That gives that kind of pouty look which is a youthful pout in here.
Doing that starts to age it a little bit.
You want to watch those lines.
Breaking this—notice we have clean lines here, clean lines here.
This is not as clean a line, and that can make it look older.
We started losing that jaw line as we get older, but in this case, it gives us that
slight fleshiness of a young boy who is growing fast and taking in a lot of calories, and
so will in turn look thinner and fleshier as the calories come in to support the energy
of that growth.
And a long neck which is feminine and so youthful also adds to that idea.
Actually, the ears kind of wing out.
They tip out to the side, and that’s also kind of a stereotypical youthful character
with the growing into your ears kind of thing, growing into big shoes.
Oftentimes, a puppy dog or a young boy or girl will have really big feet, bigger than
their body suggests they should have because they’re going to go grow into them.
That’s true with ears too.
They can get bigger for a younger look and they can kind of stick out a little bit as
There is a little bit of an awkward stage before they tuck back in or pin back in closer.
Then this line here is feminine as well.
There we go.
I want you to go ahead and take five minutes and draw our first reference photograph that
we’ve provided for you.
We’ve got the male here.
Try and look at what’s a little more feminine, what’s archetypically male.
If you want to play that game you can kind of push things a little bit, but just try
and capture it for now.
Where is the landscape that shows this male?
Where are the corners that show it’s male?
Where is the bigger proportions to those key features?
How can we show this character with a few quick lines in five minutes to be what he
needs to be, to say what you want to say?
Alright, I hope you enjoyed that.
Now it’s my turn.
I’m going to go ahead and sketch.
I’m going to use a little fountain pen here.
Now, he has the long hair and that means nothing the last many, many years.
In the early days and nowadays most males are keeping shorter hair.
But, we can kind of put that longer hair to a more feminine idea, I guess.
I’m not sure about that.
Let’s say yes so I can move on.
Alright, we’ve got a pretty clean brow here, but he’s got a nice corrugator and supraciliary
There is a subtle separation of the brow ridge from the temporal line.
Running around here is the temple.
Her is the brow ridge and the frontal, I should say, the frontal area here pops over and then
goes back this way.
All that is fairly male.
This kind of architecture where you get these zigzagging shadow shapes, so maybe we want
to play that up.
He’s going to end up being a little angrier, a little more aggressive in his attitude.
That’s going to say male in a real simplistic way.
There is very little distance from the eyebrow into that orbicular area, the top of the brow
ridge and then into the eyeball itself so that eyelid structure pretty quickly hugs
Fairly feminine nose because it’s straight and it turns up a little bit at the end.
It also has a long reach back, which is a little more male.
It’s a little bigger.
Separating that inner socket from the cheekbone is going to age him a little bit and make
him a little more male, given heavier high brows notice and a little more arching eyebrows
can add to that aggressive look and to that masculine look.
Having a little brow ridge bump playing up the bump is also very male.
Every little mark can add to that character, that expression of maybe thoughtful intensity
or plotting evil deeds or whatever it is you’re after.
Then he’s got the facial hair here.
And it’s fun because it’s carefully tailored.
He’s got a carefully trimmed mustache.
That’s going to track over the architecture and do a lot of descriptive work.
See the section on hair for further clarification.
That’s all very useful for showing us what we want to see in terms of the architecture.
There is that pouty area and that gives us a strong chin.
Again, he’s got the facial hair.
That’s going to add to the strength of the chin.
Notice how the facial hair tracks right around that chin in an interesting way and kind of
It’s that kind of thing that builds over the chin.
That gives us a nice tracking.
We can feel the true landscape of that chin there because it tracks over like a ring would
around the finger.
We have some pretty strong lines going on here as this pulls back
and short neck because of the position.
Sternocleidomastoid separating out.
Shoulders coming in higher.
All of that adds to the not a long neck, not a girl idea.
Alright, let’s stop there.
Alright, on this one we have a young girl, and because we’re on top the perspective
actually affects the proportion.
We’re looking down on this it makes the jaw seem a little smaller, and the skull a
We all kind of grow into our skulls, and so it gives her a bit of a little girl look in
that sense, younger girl.
She’s got a nice, full, clean line to her brow, forehead there.
She’s got nice lift to the eyebrows.
They lift up, kind of cat eye eyebrows so that gives us a nice—even though we’re
down on top, it gives us a nice length of that orbicular area, which makes it seem more
feminine to our eye or our mind.
Then the eye is in here, and we’ll make this pretty quick.
Alright, so in my five minutes here, as you had, you probably took six or seven, I bet,
and sometimes I do that too.
Nice high cheekbones.
This pulls down.
Notice how it’s narrowing, going in this way rather than building out.
That’s going to make it more feminine.
And because we’re on top, as I said, it’s going to reduce this distance.
As that face tucks under, it foreshortens away from us.
We don’t see as much length.
And so that gives us a little face to a big skull.
Hairstyle adds to that.
That suggests young and actually girlish young, but other things will mitigate that.
Okay, so her bottom of her ears is right along the eyeline, the ears sit back on the side
of the face, of course.
That helps keep the size of them down.
Not that they’re big to begin with, and that, again, is more feminine.
If we kept them rounder rather than squarer, that would also add to that ambition.
Notice we don’t have the long neck because of our position.
We have almost no neck but it’s very thin, and that’s helpful.
She’s got a long, strong nose.
That’s going to seem older, more male, but everything else—the thick hair is put up,
thick hair, small ears, high eyebrows.
Long distance in that orbicular area, actually big eyes despite the way I drew them.
Of course, you can add to the effect by longer lashes, and they pull up beautifully in a
way I didn’t really take the time to capture, the kind of cat-eye beauty.
Nice high cheekbones, which is attached to healthy, handsome, healthy, beautiful in both
Then the mouth goes down here.
She doesn’t have a lot of fullness to her lips because that upper lip was on top.
She has a pretty nice full lower lip.
We’ll play that up on the bottom and then I’m going to minimize the chin a little
I maximized that nose, I guess, didn’t I?
Sneak that up a little bit here.
Okay, younger man again.
Being underneath it maximizes that jaw.
It makes it seem bigger than it is, much more male.
Now he’s gotten a little older and a little more heroic.
With our young lady here it minimized that, and especially if I keep it rounder that made
it more feminine and younger, especially for that hairstyle and head there, so quite a
Then that kind of the—the sweeping bangs of youth kind of thing, that’s suggesting
Or it’s not pushed back way from the features but hangs across that youthful…pretty clean
Pretty clean transition.
Then the nose has a bit of a bump to it, and it looks more masculine here too because we’ve
got that length coming out pretty well.
It’s the barrel of the mouth, and then that massive chin from this view.
Squarish ears, again, adds bottom plane, back plane, top plane, forward plane.
Keeping it squarer again gives us that ideal male.
If I play up that cheekbone coming back more male, this kind of pouty lower cheek coming
over the lip is more youth, and so that’s going to translate into a little more feminine,
as we’re defining it.
And then let’s go ahead and make that a strong nose with a strong bump and square
it off instruction.
And again, that’s all going to read as male.
Minimal-sized mouth, again, youthful.
Chin will play up squarish as well as large.
We’ll give that full digastric plane so that big massive chin structure, again, very,
Bring that back and really play up the corner.
Now notice here, we lose the length of the neck because of the shoulder.
That’s absolutely good.
We’ve got big shoulders that block the neck, so it’s short neck, big shoulders, all male.
Also, notice that rather than doing this, this contour does this.
It is convex.
It is bulging.
Bulging muscles as opposed to binding things, skinny youth or young feminine.
This cast shadow also is fairly masculine because it’s rolling over that landscape.
It’s separating the back of the sternocleidomastoid.
And then the hairstyle is young so that’s a little less male.
It’s kind of a little young.
A lot of back of the skull.
He’s got a pretty full back of the skull.
That also is young and is more feminine.
We can correct that a little bit by adding a thicker neck or trimming the back of the
Also, the way I’ve got it this is high.
That’s more feminine.
Bring it a little lower which is really is, and then that kind of sweeping is also more
The young boy out playing rather than the executive, well-groomed for his job.
That being pretty low.
The eye socket is also more masculine.
If we played up that ridge, more masculine.
Alright, so we have a young girl.
She’s got full makeup on, pretty much.
That’s going to soften.
The makeup is meant to hide the imperfections and minimize the architectural, the landscape
differences that we’ve talked about.
She’s got a thicker eyebrow.
We say that more facial hair is masculine, but there are also many times in fashion over
the years—I don’t know where we’re at at the moment—where you’ll see, you know
in the 40s, you’ll see very, heavy, thick eyebrows.
Then they’ll get pencil thin and then they’ll get heavier again.
American Joan Crawford had very thick eyebrows.
Then in the 70s or 80s, Brooke Shields, again, as a young model had very heavy eyebrows.
And then other times, as I said, it will go to the thinner, even pencil thin, pencil line
of the like roaring 20s, it was pencil thin.
Okay, she’s got a turned-up nose.
That little turn up at the end which I’m exaggerating on her, and rounding off at least
the bottom of that, if not the top.
Here is a little corner.
That says feminine.
Having a smooth brow and not a big bump says feminine.
Notice that this line comes well below the hair of the eyebrow before it starts to tuck
Then the eye in here, that gives us that length that we’re after.
So when we get that eyebrow, that eyebrow wraps around kind of like a ribbon.
That can actually draw it.
Then the forehead goes behind that.
And so we get the forehead going from front plane to bottom plane at whatever speed.
This wraps over that, goes around it, and oftentimes has a thickness of its own because
of the hair and takes that around.
It's important to find that, and then that’s that distance we’re after.
Then as it drives back in, that’s going to go back into that insertion of the narrower
forehead into the wider cheek here that we’re talking about.
Alright, so they’re all very subtle architectural ideas and refer to the earlier head work that
we did together to refresh yourself on that because it really takes constant refreshing
and reacquainting, at least it always has for me.
Big eyes here.
I’ll keep these very simple for time’s sake.
We’ve got the lovely lashes.
We’ll give a little bit of that.
Then a lot of distance here.
It looks like she’s plucked some eyebrows to get that nice and thin here as opposed
to it being thicker here.
When you pluck it’s from underneath, I can’t say that from experience, but from observation,
nice, full cheek.
If I add too much of that kind of stuff—if I pick up the little mark in here, that’s
going to age her.
This gives that kind of apple of the cheek, and you can see how she’s put red makeup
here and then put—I don’t know if it’s her doing something or it’s the camera,
but it’s nice and shiny here.
And so the red and the sheen creates that apple of a cheek, which again
adds to the blush of youth, as they say, having the color in the skin as opposed to pale.
You can’t really see the top of her hairstyle too well, but I think it’s put up like this.
She’s got small ears and nice with the way the light is and the
way her makeup is, very clean lines so you don’t have to do much editing.
Very full lips, and of course, the makeup is meant to accentuate that, so we will accentuate
And then this makes a slow, subtle transition off the lips down towards the chin.
There is no pouty marks in here at all to disrupt that fine line.
That’s considered more youthful and healthy.
You’ve got a fairly strong jaw mainly because we’re underneath her again.
These perspectives play with that, and it’s fun to put them in there and try and maintain
the aesthetic that you’re after and not let the fish eye lens or the vanishing point…here
you can see the full jaw goes behind her ear.
That’s that male idea, but here it’s on her.
We want to feel that transition.
We can play that back a little bit to ease the size of that jaw.
And there we go there with the hair coming down in, whatever it does.
I guess it does this, swings down.
Okay, so that’s that.
Our last five-minute.
Alright, Fernando here.
I picked this one because we had that nice zigzag action happening to show the maleness.
In here just for fun I’m going to track the shadow shape and let the proportions,
the construction build off that.
Look at that nice zigzag eye socket created by the eyebrow on top.
The pinch of the lower lid or the landmarks, but we’re really just wrapping around that
orbit, you know that orbit eye socket is dropping into shadow.
Then we pull back along that masseter.
I wobbled that.
It adds to the complexity of the landscape.
It ages a little bit, but it also makes it a little craggier and a little more male in
I’ll play up.
There is not much there.
We’ll play it up.
Pretty straight with a little bit of bump there, little bit in here.
That gives us enough to feel that stronger convexity rather than turned up concavity
of a youth or a more feminine nose.
Very flat upper lip.
Thin, thin little bump of a lower lip.
It gives them kind of a grumpy set to his mouth in a way, which again adds to the maleness
and more age.
He’s got a little bit of the pout, continues down here.
A nice strong chin.
I’ll play up a little bit.
A little bit of the digastric plane under that
and real strong Adam’s apple.
That’s the strongest we’ve seen.
Fairly small ears.
That’s a little more youthful, more masculine.
Let’s get that chin in here.
There we go.
This goes a little bit behind the ear again, and it bumps right into the sternocleidomastoid.
We kind of get that action going.
We don’t see the back of the neck so we don’t see how thick it is.
But all this real aggressive—look at the zigzags going on there and the big bumps,
zigzags and bumpy architecture everywhere gives us that—this is a man kind of information.
That’s what I can give you in the time we have, and that’s most of what I have to
give you. There is a lot of information.
I recommend you look at this more than once.
Look at it a lot of times.
Go back and work on those lessons, those demos.
Do your own drawings from the reference we provide.
Have a lot of fun.
I hope this helps take your drawings up a notch as we move along through all the special
courses, the special chapters in our advanced head drawing lesson.
Thanks for joining me.
Free to try
1. Preview Chapter34sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Anatomical "Landscapes" of Female and Male Skulls12m 36s
3. Demonstration 1: Rajiv and Amy26m 12s
4. Making Artistic Decisions Based on Sex51m 21s
5. Demonstration 2: Jade, Ashphord, and Brett19m 3s
6. Assignment and Steve's Approach29m 31s
7. Review and Sign-Off33s