- Lesson details
In this series, artistic anatomist Rey Bustos brings you a fun, unique introduction to anatomy of the human body. In this fifth lesson of the series, Rey shows you anatomy of the upper and lower arm. Rey will begin by lecturing on the blackboard, breaking down each bone, muscle, and tendon of the region.
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be really daunting to a lot of people. What I’m going to do is make it really accessible
to you. I’m going to get onto the blackboard as if we were in the classroom. I’m going
to show you some really wonderful photographs of some of our fabulous models. With all of
that together, you are going to be really be surprised how much you know
about the arm from now on.
Okay, so let’s just get to it.
thing about anatomy is how everything kind of interconnects. It gets kind of tricky to
view everything in different compartments. It’s fun for me, but it’s tricky for somebody
who is learning. I can see the ins and outs of things. Things aren’t butted up against
one another oftentimes in anatomy. They’re interconnected like a basket weave.
The part of the muscles that we’re going to talk about today, like the back shoulder
scapular muscles interconnect with the upper arm, which in turn are interconnected with
the back muscles. So it’s this beautiful little weaving in and out of muscles that
to me is just extraordinary. The good thing about the knowledge I’m trying to give you
is that when you look at a model, when you look at anybody, you’re going to start seeing
these things. The more educated you are, the better your eye is going to be. You’re going
to be able to better discern what’s important for your particular piece of art, whatever
it is that you do. Even if you’re making something up like a creature, multiple arms
or whatever. So the first thing, of course, we have to do—so, if we’re talking about
the upper arm, is the humerus and scapula are going to be incredibly critical today.
I’m going to do I guess the front view first. Okay, so this is the humerus, which is the
upper arm bone. It comes down, you know, there’s obviously the shaft of it. About halfway down
there is like a little raised area called the deltoid tuberosity. The other thing I’m
going to do is I’m going to purposely blur this bone a little bone because I want to
put muscles on top of it. At the bottom end or the distal end of this bone it’s going
to kind of flatten out like this, okay, like a little shovel. This part right here I want
you to remember because that’s what your deltoid is attached to. On a bone sometimes
it’s just very subtle. Like if you have a skeleton in your classroom or in your house,
if you look at that upper arm bone, this is a right anterior view, you’ll see that it’s
like, oh, you mean that? It’s just like this little elevation on the bone. That’s it.
But, at the same time, like anything else, if you had a life of strenuous work, whether
your worked the fields or you went to Gold’s gym or whatever, that bone could actually
be pretty significant because if the muscles get big they activate. They stimulate the
cells of your bone because it’s constantly being tugged there. It grows. It gets bigger
just like your muscles get bigger. There is a little bump here called the tubercle, the
greater tubercle and a lesser one. Together it’s almost like two raised bumps, creating
a little furrow like this, a little channel. That’s going to be really important because
it’s going to lock in your biceps brachii tendon, at least one of them.
Got it? The tubercles of humerus.
The humerus also has what we call the funny bone. It got its name because of
the name humerus. Obviously, ous and us is different. One is a noun. One is a verb. But,
it doesn’t matter. That’s how this little guy got his name. I’m going to hit this
with yellow just cause I want you to remember. That little guy right there is the medial
because as you can see it is medial. It’s closer to the center line. Epicondyle, which
just means little knuckle. I say con-dels, some doctors say cond-del, condyle. Tomato,
tomahto, as I always say. There are a lot of different ways that things are pronounced.
Sometimes I will tell you that’s just not right. In many cases, who cares. It’s not
that important, I don’t think.
Okay, so medial condyle. That’s the little funny bone. I don’t know if this has a name
in any other kind of language because obviously in English humerus has kind of two meanings.
It’s your upper arm bone. It’s also something that you find tickles your funny bone. See
how I squeezed all that in?
This is the deltoid tuberosity. The tuberosity, I will remind you, is a bony protrusion where
a tendon or a ligament is attached. Usually it’s a significant one. If you remember
when I was doing the leg, the shinbone, the tibia has the tibial tuberosity. Deltoid tuberosity,
and that’s that guy right there. Medical epicondyle. Maybe I’ll put a little asterisk.
One of my young students asked me what an asterisk was. They all these things for testing
and stuff, but good old English they don’t know. Asterisk is like the little star symbol.
Over here we have the lateral epicondyle. It’s important to know both of these. One
of these is right here. I can actually feel it. Sometimes it looks like a little wheel
like this. I don’t know if you can see it. The elbow is the ulna so you can see that
the elbow is stuck in this little area. Like my elbow would be the back of my knuckles
here. My thumb is the front of the ulna.
As a matter of fact, there is a really neat little thing about the elbow. It’s that
most of our joints are either trochlear like a spool or ball and socket. The neat thing
about this elbow is that it has both. It’s got a spool here. It’s got a little wheel
and a big wheel. The ulna fits right into that just like this. But the radius fits into
there like a little cup, like a cap from a soda just right in there with a little dip
inside of it. I’m going to put part of that, but I’m going to separate them
just so you can kind of see.
There is a bump here where your biceps brachii is attached. This part
down here is not going to be that important today in this lecture. Now, over here you’re
going to see that there is a little finger like a thumb, and then the back end is what
creates what we call the elbow or olecranon. This is roughly what it all looks like. I’m
just going to fuzz this out. I don’t want you paying too much attention to this because
that’s for the forearm muscles lecture. Okay, so that’s that. Then, of course, the
wrist bones, the carpal bones, there are eight of them. They create like a little tunnel here.
And the hand.
Got it? Like this.
So, what I want you to see that the hand is facing you, like so.
Here is the palm part of the hand. You’re very clear as to what direction
and everything that I’m doing for you. So that’s the skeletal simplistic hand, but it will work.
The other part that’s incredibly important is knowing the scapula. The scapula has this
little finger-like projection of the coracoid process.
The body, inferior and superior.
There is a top part. It’s
divided by north and south. You could say inferior is south; superior is north, it’s
higher. Higher quality would be higher or superior. It’s separated by the spine of
the scapula. On the spine you have a tubercle.
There is more, everybody. There is the acromion process of the scapula and coracoid process.
Okay, so all of these are parts of the scapula that you just have to know. Acromion process. Make
sure you can see that. The coracoid process is this little finger-like projection. This
is the acromion process. This is all part of the scapula. When I draw it—and it’s
obviously kind of simplified—it floats above the ball of the humerus, but there is like
a, like my fingertips are the acromion process. But you can see what leads up to my fingertips
are the fingers. So, it’s kind of like this, if you could kind of visualize that. These
are all part of the same thing. Then the glenoid fossa is kind of like, it’s not really even
a socket but it’s what the ball of the humerus fits into, this little area here. Then here
is the scapula. Okay, and then this kind of—the clavicle is attached to this, your collarbone.
Then over here would be your rib cage. I’m just going to kind of make this very simplistic
rib cage, but you’ll get the idea. Etcetera, etcetera, like so.
Okay, so you see the design of this. This is all bone, so I’m going to fill this in just a little bit so it doesn’t
look like just blackboard. There. Of course, you would be able to see it through here as
well. There is scapula all the way through because the body of it would be around here.
You could kind of see that.
Just want to make this so that you get it. And you will, I promise you.
Now, one of the things that you’ll notice is almost everybody recognizes triceps, even
if it’s just visually. Biceps, pretty easy. But in between there is a muscle called the
brachialis. It’s attached over here on the deltoid tuberosity and does this and it crosses
over to the ulna. It has this really broad kind of attachment point, but it’s almost
cupped because there is a tendon that’s attached to that spot right there. What it
does is it does this. It’s like all these attachments like this. It’s in front of
all of this, so I’m going to blend all this out. Later on I’m going to have to put a
muscle on top of it, your biceps brachii. I need to kind of blend this and make sure
that you remember that it’s there and covers up the joint right there.
It gets kind of folded right in here.
It’s kind of neat because you can actually see it when you stretch out your arm like
that. This is a bicep. I don’t know if you can see this, but there is a puffiness right
in here. My finger is feeling puffiness. If I turn this, and you can see a little bit
of shadow—sorry I’m not built better, but I’m an art teacher, not a gymnast. You
can see that there is a puffiness there. You can even see a little bit of swoop right there.
That is the brachialis. It’s also on the side of the arm. You’re not going to see
it no matter what I do. But this part is going to be important because, remember, that is
behind it. Just like my funny bone is back here, this muscle is in front. It’s going
to be important because when I show you the triceps it’s going to become really, really
important that you remember this. So that’s the brachialis.
Brachii means means arm. It’s Greek. A lot of anatomy is either Greek or Latin. So that’s
that one right there. I don’t know how I’m going to label it later. I might label it
with numbers or just little lines or whatever. Remember, it surrounds the deltoid tuberosity.
There is still a little spot here for your deltoid, you shoulder muscle to fit into.
Got it? Right now we have a pretty good beginning of a big bed of muscle for your biceps.
Now, the other one I’m going to mention is the coracobrachialis.
You’ve seen that word before.
Alright, so that’s this guy right here. The muscle does this. It’s attached
to the bone. But it’s kind of like a hot dog/sausage muscle. I’m going to put these
lines right there. That one is under the arm. A person would almost have to be with an arm
up like this for it to be clear. So, coracobrachialis. The other thing I want to do before I go too
much further is I want to show you a side view of this same arm. I think it will really
be eliminating… Here is that little groove. It’s called the bicipital groove right through
here. I don’t know if you need to know that, but there is a groove right here. What I want
you to see though is this. This is the bone, but what I’m going to do is turn it on its
side as if somebody is going to be doing kind of like a curl at the gym. Okay, so now the
lateral epicondyle is here. The ulna is over here, but the radius is closer to us here,
like this. This might be kind of like what you might see. I want to give this just a
little bit of color so you could see that this is this, and this is here, closer. Hope
you can see that. If somebody were basically like lifting something, this is what it might
look like, like this. You can kind of see that. Maybe like a shot-put or a big ball
that they’re holding up, something like that. So, what you’re going to see all of
this doing that and holding up a ball of some sort. Okay, it’s a crystal ball. The weight
is being pulled up by what we call—kind of like a crane—and it’s a second class
lever, and what we have is we have the scapula. But you know what? You still see a lot of
the scapula. This is that tubercle I was telling you about. This is the superior aspect of
that scapula. Here is basically like where your neck would be and head and all that.
This is where the body would be kind of like this. The bone is on this side. You can see
a lot of the side of the, a lot of the body of the scapula from this point of view as
well. This is the spine of the scapula, which is kind of like a shoulder. The shoulder area
there is like a shelf up here, and your clavicle is attached to it and going in perspective.
It’s like this. If you were to see somebody kind of doing curls or whatever, they would
be kind of like this. You could kind of see what I’m trying to give to you, like that.
See that? Just to kind of complete the little picture, there is that. These are the pectoral
muscles, etc., and the 6-pack muscles. So, hopefully you can kind of see what’s going
on with this. When I put the shoulder muscles in then this will start looking more complete,
and you’ll like it. And it’s beautiful.
Let me just fuzz this out, fuzz this out. Serratus anterior interlocking, interdigitating,
and voila, like that. This is going to be important because remember the deltoid tuberosity?
Watch, it’s here. Remember the asterisk? I didn’t use the asterisk. I used the dot.
I’m just going to put a dot right here. That’s where the brachialis muscle is going
to be attached, kind of this and then takes up all this space. But watch, it goes forward,
leaving the bone alone over here. I’m going to leave the bone quite alone right there.
But this muscle is going to the other side where the ulna is. So it kind of spirals out
of the way like this. It creates a bed of muscle. All of a sudden you have this big
bed of muscle for the bicep to lay on top of. So far, so so good.
The coracobrachialis isn’t going to be seen from this point of view because it’s under
your arm. A lot of times you can’t see it unless a person does raise their arm like
this. Or, you’ll see it a lot in old paintings of crucifixions. The old masters always had
to know what was going on beneath the arm because at some point in their careers they
were going to be commissioned to do Christ on the cross, for instance, just an example
that comes to mind. I will draw that for you as well. Then the other thing has to be, of
course, the back view. So for that I need to draw the scapula. I’m going to try to
draw it about the same spot, relatively speaking, as much as I can.
Okay, so that’s the body of it. Then it changes direction, and it becomes the northern
portion of that land mass. Remember, I call this South America. This is Tierra del Fuego.
Way up here is like Columbia. Then there is this little border here—it doesn’t really
exist on a map so don’t worry about—but this is the acromion process. As it comes
forward and does something like this, and it goes into the body. Underneath it there
is a shelf. A shelf comes off the wall, and this is underneath that shelf, and does this.
This goes forward almost like my finger is falling forward. Remember how I used that
analogy here? Well, now I’m doing it like this. So you’re looking at—the top of
my fingers would be that shelf right on top. This kind of disappears on most people’s
bodies. I see it often, though. I see this top pushing through the skin, and you can
see a little bit of it. I’m going to make it very fuzzy because I want you to remember
that it’s not one that you need to know that much of.
Over here you’ll see the glenoid fossa, which is basically where the arm is going
to emanate from, kind of like this. Then there is a dish in here. This is indented. Picture
like a dinner plate, and a dinner plate has kind of like a rim around it, like a flat
area around it, and it’s inset. That’s kind of what this reminds me of. There are
other indents, almost like peaks and valleys. But for the most part, this is it. This is
the scapula, like so. Now, the ball of the humerus and the tubercle. The tubercle is
kind of neat because you can actually see it on some people’s shoulder. You’ll see
that the muscle drapes almost like paper mache over that area. You’ll see this a lot with
Leonardo da Vinci drawings. Then guess what. That’s right. There is that raised portion,
and that is the deltoid tuberosity. Now I’m going to take this down to the medial epicondyle.
See all the terms that you know now? The lateral epicondyle. I’m just going to leave almost
like a little pick-ax of sorts. Now, what am I going to do? I’m going to remind you
that this is the lateral epicondyle and the medial epicondyle. There. Now the elbow, remember
this little guy, the olecranon, which is part of the ulna. It goes all the way to your pinky
finger to here. There is a bump right here, so you have it a little bit more pronounced
than me, but that’s my ulna, and this is my ulna. You’ve got to always know where
it’s at because like pronate and supinate it might throw you off. But the muscles will
follow, so you need to kind of know this.
Now, I’m going to do this lightly because I don’t want all of this to be too much
in the way, but this part is really important to my lecture today because the triceps are
all attached to it. That’s the elbow. The big bump on your ulna is going to have to
be really very important. I’m just going to do that. Over here there is going to be
the radius like this. Once again, I’m just going to do this. In this case, these aren’t
quite as important as they are in the front here, especially this bump here, the radial
tuberosity, because your biceps is going to be attached to it.
So, now you have three views: Front view, side view, back view,
and now we’re ready to rock and roll.
But, just to remind you, you have like the rib cage here like this, and the ribs go up
like this. Of course, we go through like this, like this, like this. You get the idea. Okay,
so you have the rib cage. I don’t want to lose the scapula so let’s get that back
in here. Now, I’m going to do the biceps brachii right now. I’m going to do that
in blue. The bicep right up here, that’s above, like it’s on the socket of the scapula
way up here. It is scapula. The biceps interestingly enough is not attached to the humerus at all.
It’s attached to the scapula in two spots and then goes all the way down to this spot
right here on top of this.
One of the tendons does this. The long head. For some reason it’s called that even though
it doesn’t look like it’s any bigger. Sometimes they even look smaller. It doesn’t
matter. It does this, and then there is a really strong tendon that takes it like that.
The other tendon is attached to the coracoid process, so it will do this. Like this, like
this, like this, and then the belly does this.
Now, there is a piece of aponeurosis that surrounds the arm, but I’m going to leave
this very nondescript right now. It splits off. Later on you’ll see how it comes into
play. But this is the tendon. This is a tendon that’s so strong that when you bend your
elbow right inside here you can feel a big huge cable. But this is the biceps brachii.
You’ll see that it splits right in here.
Remember when I did the front torso lecture? And this is nice and big and round like this.
But over here you can see it splits. Sometimes you can see it. You could actually put your
finger on your biceps and see the split. Okay, don’t worry about this. This is just floating
above imaginary muscles. There aren’t any muscles there right now. I happen to know
that they wrap around your flexors. It’s just like a piece of tape. It’s kind of
interesting. I’m just going to leave it kind of like a little nondescript piece of
tape as it goes around like this. Neat, huh?
So, now, those are biceps from here. Now, this is one of the most recognizable of all
muscles. You’ll see one of the tendons do this, one of the tendons do that, but because
this guy is actually doing a curl, the muscle belly rises, ends, and then the tendon takes
over. It’s laying right on top of the brachialis. It’s like this. It’s nice and big and
it’s round. Right now it’s flexed so it makes the muscle kind of ride up a little
bit like that. Very cool. You can see, again, that this muscle started here. You can see
again that this muscle started here. The brachialis started here, but then it goes forward so
it leaves a lot of bone alone. The blackness of the blackboard is bone. Back here are ribs.
All this is accounted for by skeleton. Same thing here even though this is a dish. I just
want to remind you that I’m trying to make sure that you guys remember that bone has
to be left alone here. Biceps brachii. Coracobrachialis, which is like if you want to look at it as
it’s a small version of the biceps. This muscle is just a little closer to us than
that. This one is attached to the humerus, and it does this. So it makes it look like
it’s tubular. And I did also with the form lines. The triceps, I’m jumping from the
front now to the back.
The first muscle—let me draw something for you because I know that you remember seeing this.
These are the calf muscles. These two are on top of one like this,
and then down here is all of this.
On this side is the side of the big toe, and over here would be the side of the little toe like this.
Remember all that? Okay, cause I’m going to try to make a good point for you guys.
I’m going to draw this again. Remember, there is an Achilles tendon that goes down
to the heel. These are actually called the triceps surae. I don’t know if you need
to know that. I’m just telling you. There are the calf muscles with the soleus underneath.
Now, what I’m going to draw for you over here is the same thing. Okay, watch this.
I’m trying to keep it really clear. Okay, does that look like that? Well, the interesting
thing is, though, is that these are on your arm. This goes in there. This triceps on this
side does this. Instead of a heel this is an elbow. These are muscles I’m going to
go over later. Here is your funny bone. This is where your hand would come out of. How
you like them apples? Then the deltoid would surround all of this. All of a sudden you
can see that’s the same thing. These equal each thing. It’s the same darn thing. One
equals the other. It’s the same thing. To me it’s an amazing part of human anatomy.
When nature hits on something and it works, it keeps doing it.
In this case, sure enough, there it is.
So what I’m going to do is explain these muscles, but one at a time. These are the
triceps. Medial head first. Then long head. Then lateral, which in some books it says
short head. I like this better. Short head doesn’t mean much to me, but lateral reminds
there is one over there. There is one that you see more laterally, one that you see more
medially. Might as well keep them even. The medial head is underneath everything. Like
this soleus here, the medial head is underneath. You won’t see it on the other side because
even this is part of the lateral head. I’m going to color code these just so you remember
that the part that I’m doing in blue is muscle, including that long tail. It’s kind
of weird but it’s true. This is the long head in yellow.
The medial head already has the color.
Then the triceps tendon that goes to the elbow.
Those three muscles pull on the
elbow, straightening out your arm. That’s why you have to straighten out your arm to
get those muscles to contract.
Alright, so which one’s first? That’s right—the medial head. It’s shaped kind
of like a flat fish. It’s going to also kind of remind you, I think, of the brachialis.
Isn’t that interesting? There are two heads on top of one, two heads on top of one. Have
you noticed that? I hope you have. If you haven’t, I just told you. You don’t even
have to notice. I’ll do the noticing for you. All of these are going to be attached
to the same tendon. Right now I’m just going to let this float here. I’m not going to
see much more of this except for like out here. This is closer to us than the medial
epicondyle. These are closer to us than the medial epicondyle.
The medial epicondyle is right in the middle.
Okay, so the long head of the tricep is the only one that’s attached to the scapula.
So that muscle has what appears to be a tail like this, kind of like when I did the calf
muscles like this. Then there is the belly, and this could vary from person to person
as to how far down. It goes and the muscle fibers end like this wherever you want to
put them. It depends on what you are trying to do. They end like this. The other day there
was one of the cadavers that had this, and it was very irregular. It looked like a stair
step, which means that in life it might have looked like he had two muscles here instead
of just one, but it’s just one. The muscle fibers end here, and they’re waiting for
me to put the tendon that will connect all three of these to the elbow. I need to make
sure that you could really see this elbow like that. That’s the ulna.
Alright, now the lateral head is just that; it’s lateral. It looks like this, and it
has, as promised, this really long, weird tail. The muscle fibers end like this. Sometimes
it’s been described that this can look kind of like a horseshoe if somebody has a big,
big arm. Then the tendon, which is, of course, attached to the elbow. It brings all these
three heads pulling on the same rope of sorts, like you’re tugging something and they’re
all pulling on the same thing. I’m going to put just a little shine on it because I
want it to look like it’s rounded like that. You’ll be able to see the bottom part of
this medial head oftentimes. It’s subtle, but with the photographs that I picked out
for you—there is a young lady where you can see this very clearly, the separation
between the medial head and the long head. That is underneath everything like that.
It's gorgeous stuff.
Okay, so from this point of view what we have is—I’m going to draw all three of the
triceps. This will be kind of like this. It has the tendon. The one that you can see from
this point of view more than anything would be this one. You notice everything ends up
back here. It’s almost like this could be a ponytail. All these muscles get pulled back
like this. This is the muscle head for that one, the long head. This is the one for the
lateral head, the long head, lateral head. It’s nice and big and it’s round.
I'm just going to put little form lines like this
and get rid of anything that’s underneath it, like that.
But you’ll notice that it splits open, and that’s really important because when I do
the forearm muscles, there are going to be muscles attached there. There is a big spot
right here where it’s black. That’s perfect because that’s where the deltoid is attached.
The deltoid is going to attach right there. Your shoulder muscle. That’s the only one
right now that’s missing.
Transcription not available.
see if I can do it. It’s always a mystery. Can he do it? I love this part of the anatomy.
It’s almost like this is the crucifixion kind of pose. It’s kind of a thing, and
the head always kind of really drops down quite a bit. Okay, this kind of a pose like
this. Then the deltoid is just forced up like this. The deltoid and the pectoralis major
have a beautiful relationship where they just kind of pull around the arm. Then the arm
comes up out of here like this, the bicep. It comes out like a tubular form coming out
of a tunnel. I think from this point of view you could even see a little bit of brachialis,
so I’m going to put a little bit of brachialis. You could also see that it’s in front of
the bone like this. I’m going to continue doing this brachialis. Brachialis. As well
as that over there.
Now, what I want to do is I want to show you how easy it is, if you apply yourself, these
muscles, how easy it can be. This is the biceps. I’m going to try to keep this a little simple
right now because of all the muscles kind of like congregating and twisting over here.
There is always a bump right here before you get to the muscle like this. Then you have
the pull. Make this a little clearer like this. This, like this. The muscle is just
pulling. That’s a bicep. What I want you to look at from now on, though, is that there
is a muscle that mimics it like the little brother version of it, and it is this, and
I did it in this color, so it’s perfect. Like this. That’s the coracobrachialis.
You’re going to see it underneath the arm like this.
Alright, what’s the next thing I want to do? Let me just kind of put in this really
basic little arm. Let me just kind of do this like this. A little bit of this like this.
Something like this. Funny bone is right there. Then there is always like this two big tendons.
Alright, first thing I’m going to teach you is really basic. It’s really simple.
First of all, let me put the bicep brachii here and its partner which is underneath,
and I hope you know that that is the brachialis. That is the brachialis. So far, so good. Brachialis
is important because it’s in front. This is the medial epicondyle. This is further
back than the brachialis. Deltoid is twisting and looking for its spot way over here. I’m
going to actually put a little air space so you can kind of see that it is, in fact, looking.
It’s turning and twisting and creating this beautiful shape right in here.
One of the first things I want to teach you, though, is this bone. It’s the humerus.
Remember that? The brachialis is closer to us than the bone, but the next muscle is not.
Whenever you see the coracobrachialis just put another muscle right next to it, and that
is the triceps medial head. It’s always right when you see that. The next thing I
need to tell you is that I have to include the teres major and latissimus dorsi because
they’re attached in between the back muscles of the arm and the front muscles of the arm.
It’s kind of like if you had something like this. I actually saw these at the store once.
They’re bagel dogs, buns. Here is the little sausage.
This is biceps brachii…brachialis…and coracobrachialis.
So, to be fair, for any of you that have ever done any kind of basketball pickup games,
you have to even things out. I’m going to take my bagel dog analogy and continue this
silly drawing because now what happens is these are the triceps. That’s what I see
up there. There are three muscles in front of the bone and three muscles behind the bone.
Teres major. I haven’t done the latissimus dorsi, so I’m going to do that in blue like
this. Okay, so they’re like right next to each other,
but one is closer to the ball of the humerus.
What I’m going to do is I’m going to just draw it up there. The latissimus dorsi does
this. That surrounds the serratus anterior. It creates this really beautiful kind of like
form over here. It’s twisting. It eventually does this. If you remember what I’ve taught
you, this is where the serratus anterior comes out of like this, right? This is like the
rib cage. Basically, serratus anterior, serratus anterior, serratus anterior. Interlaced between
that is the external oblique. So far, so good. Trapezius is over here. I’m going to give
it a little bit more foreshortening so it kind of makes sense. Now what we have is we
have the beginnings of something really beautiful because the teres major comes from way back
on the back, and it comes forward like this, but it changes this contour. You see that?
You oftentimes will see drawings or paintings, and you will see this little indentation.
That’s why the teres major and latissimus dorsi create this shape here. But sometimes
you don’t see two muscles. Sometimes you do, but not often. That’s these guys right here.
They both come from behind, but the latissimus dorsi kind of takes over right there.
Now I can put the triceps long head because it’s behind this, and now it should like
a finished arm. There it is. You can see the deltoid, and now you can see how it interweaves
with the pectoralis major or just like a rhythmic line that kind of is created. You won’t
see the clavicle from this point of view very easily. You can see if I were to put that
ghostly little deltoid where it would kind of do this, and it find its way right in here
and it attaches itself to that little area right in here like this. I hope that makes
sense. It’s pretty amazing, this anatomy stuff. Teres major would be the second bump
that you see over here on this contour. The teres major would come from the back over
here and do this, so you wouldn’t see this any longer. The latissimus dorsi is the one
that kind of takes over the whole area and would be like this. Of course, it has to go
around the serratus anterior. Latissimus dorsi. This is pulled like that. Let me see if I can add
a little dimension to this so you can see the clarity of some of these. I don’t want
you to not see these. This is the long head.
This is the medial head. There.
And latissimusdorsi. There.
going to point out a few things to look for. This is a great view because this particular
model is one of my favorite models. He’s great. The reason is because you can see his
brachialis muscle. You know that the triceps are back here. They’re on the back of the
arm so I’m just going to make a little arrow reminding you just back there. This contour
over here is the triceps. Then, of course, the front are front. In the middle you’ll
see a shadow right here. This is the brachialis. I’m going to draw this right in here.
The deltoid attaches to it here. All of a sudden what you’ll see is you’ll see all of this
is deltoid. You can see that there is a little fossa created by the deltoid which is here,
goes all the way around to the back, and the pectoralis major. It’s called the infraclavicular
fossa. It’s made a little bit bigger here by me because I want it to be really clear.
It’s not quite that big, but you’ll get the idea. All of this is deltoid. This is
brachialis, but it goes forward. This is the bicep which you can see turning the corner,
and of course, its front anterior contour like so. That’s it for that.
The triceps are easy because if you locate the elbow you know that the triceps get pulled
back almost like a ponytail. I’m going to just draw a ponytail here like a girl’s
ponytail. Do you see that? The triceps are pulled back there. This is the lateral head
and it’s got the tail. This back here is the long head. Then this is the triceps tendon.
That’s it for that one until I can explain a little bit more of this when I talk about
the forearm muscles because you’ll see this is the extent of that brachialis. I want to
put little stripes on it just to remind you that is brachialis. It ends and it’s attached
to the deltoid tuberosity just like the deltoid is. There, like that.
I’m going to jump over to the other side. Remember that ponytail? There it is back here
because the triceps are being pulled towards it like that, towards the elbow. The elbow
is the scrunchie of that ponytail. This is the triceps lateral head. This is the triceps
long head. It goes into the body.
From this point of view the other thing you’re going to see very clear is the bubble of the
teres major. It does this but what you can’t see is that the long head of the triceps jumps
in between that and the infraspinatus and teres minor combined, like that. There, like that.
Then the deltoid is attached way up here, and you can see it going all the way around
the trapezius to the front. The bicep is here. What’s implied, though, is you have to know
that the brachialis is here and then the muscles for the next lecture take over here.
Okay, now, let me show you another image. In this image, of course, we have a female.
There is a couple things I want you to see. They are so sweet in this particular view.
One of them is you can see the tail of the triceps lateral head, and the little tiny
belly. You can see the shadows go in and out of that little belly. But this is the tail.
This right in here, this bump is the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The head is way
up here, and the tubercle is here. That’s why it looks like, to me a lot of times it
looks like a kneecap. Do you see how like on this particular female that looks like
a knee and a kneecap coming toward you? It’s because of the head of the humerus and its
tubercle. The other thing you’re going to notice is this shadow here will remind you
that this is here beautiful, graceful, and long deltoid. As all of this is. Even that
big bump there. The triceps are back here. This is that little bubble of muscle that
she has, and then the triceps long head and its tendon back there attach to the olecranon.
You might, if you’re very, very good at seeing things, see a little bit of the brachialis,
but it’s barely visible on this particular young woman. But the biceps, of course, is
small and lean, as stretched as it is; it’s still the contour. So that’s easy to see.
You can see muscles that we’ve talked about already. The pectoralis major sternal portion
which radiates out kind of like this underneath her breasts and pectoralis major clavicular
portion, which kind of does this and it creates, of course, the infraclavicular fossa right
there. You can see a little bit of the acromion process right here of her scapula. That’s
what creates that little bump. Then the clavicle takes over here. Of course, look how clear
it is on this particular woman. You only get to see the clavicle very clearly underneath here.
When I look at this other image across the way, one of the things that you’ll see is
the shading right here. Do you see that? That’s the triceps long head. The other shading,
believe it or not, is the triceps medial head. You know because it goes behind the medial
epicondyle. Later on when I teach you about the flexor muscles, the flexor muscles are
here. The biceps is here, and the brachioradialis, the extensor carpal radialis are way on the
other side, way over yonder. This is going to be fun to teach you about next time.
This is her infraspinatus. Here teres major is very, very slight, and it’s underneath here.
It goes under the arm. Her deltoid is twisting and circling around to the side of
her arm. Her acromion process is poking right out, and her deltoid is all over this area
right in here. Infraspinatus, teres major. Don’t even worry about the teres minor.
This is where the head of that beautiful, elegant, and very sweet little long head,
and there is the lateral head way back there. Then the tendon would be this. Okay, it’s
barely visible. That’s why I picked this on purpose because a lot of your models are
going to be very, very slight like this, very thin, perhaps. The spine of the scapula. Medial
border. You can see her trapezius here and here and here.
Right below it it’s going to be the deltoid.
Okay, let me draw these muscles for you and do an analytical drawing for you.
First of all, you have to kind of identify what certain things are, like the acromion
process up here. You can see where I’m kind of drawing it a little bit darker. As it meets
with the distal end of the clavicle, which is here. The other thing to look for that
you can see very clearly right here, is the infraclavicular fossa. I’m going to fill
it in because I really like that. I really like this dimple. You can take your finger
and actually find this on your own body. It’s kind of neat. It’s a space in between your
deltoid and your pectoralis major clavicular portion. The bony landmarks are actually really
important because you can see especially on this individual how the muscles really radiate
from those spots and how they create new bumps. They aren’t muscle.
The whole idea of like this anatomy is that you don’t want to just make lumps and bumps,
you want to know what the lumps and bumps are so you know how to render them. I don’t
care what the medium will be a hundred years from now, you still have to try to create
form. The bottom part of this deltoid is here because this is the deltoid tuberosity. It’s
halfway down, roughly from the humerus. You could see a highlight right over here from
the ball pushing through.
Now, you have to remember that you have to account for the fact that there is a lot of
subcutaneous fat on our bodies, and a lot of times we have to kind of fudge around certain
things because there is a bubble here, and it’s subcutaneous fat. When you kind of
move your arms around you’re going to get lumps and bumps that aren’t either muscle
or skeleton. They’re just bunching up of subcutaneous tissue. Skin, fat, things like
that. Sometimes even little anomalies. But this is the direction of the muscle fibers.
The medial section of the deltoid or the area I’m drawing right now actually has a very
different pattern than what I’m doing. A lot of times I tend to draw this in a very
neat way compared to like a real cadaver, which the striation of the muscles are not
this clean, like brushed hair. It’s just the style that I implement stylistically.
But it still shows you the direction of the muscle fibers.
But what’s interesting is if you were to take your fingers and interlock and look inside
your palm and look at your fingers, that weaving is basically what the muscle fibers look like
here. They kind of do this and do this, do this and do this, do this and do this. But
in the center section, the section that will have basically have the ability for you to
extend your arms outward from your sides like this. There is this really beautiful interweaving
that happens. It’s almost like argyle socks or something like that. It’s like these
little diamonds. But then the rest of it turns more striae then just like we’re used to
seeing. Little lines. Little muscle fibers that follow a certain pattern like this. This
is your deltoid. And it surrounds your bicep.
Now, at the bottom part of your deltoid right in here is the brachialis. Whether you see
it or not, it’s just there. Typically and classically the old masters would actually
draw this on males every time, just about, because it makes them more heroic. On this
particular person you can actually see it. The muscle fibers go like this. They twist
towards the ulna or the pinky finger bone area. Do you see what I’m trying to show
you like that? Then the deltoid has a really good strong contour back here. The biceps
is nice and tubular. I’m going to make a really strong delineation here so you don’t
get confused between muscles. The biceps has a split down the middle like this, but just
a little bit. You’re not going to see it on too many humans. You see it just a tiny
bit on this guy. This is one of my favorite models, and he happens to be really, really
in shape. Very lean. You can see all these pretty clearly. The muscle fibers go in this
direction. It’s obvious. Why would anybody draw lines going across this muscle unless
you’re just showing form? Then this is the border.
The deltoid also—I’m going to jump around a little bit because I have to. You’ll see
that it’s really bundled. It almost looks like little fingers like this. I’m going
to try to show that a little bit, where they’re attached to the clavicle and on the back on
the spine of the scapula. I’m going to try to get this border really clear for you so
you can see that this is in fact a border between deltoid that’s almost like the borders
between countries or states or regions. Make sure it’s clear. That’s very bundled.
You can see it there. You can see it here. You can see it here like that. It goes all
the way around to the back and the spine of the scapula.
This is a nice tubular muscle that comes out from underneath a tunnel, and that tunnel
is pectoralis major, which I’m drawing a big fat line right there like this, and the
deltoid. So because it’s a tubular muscle I’m going to try to give it a little bit
of form. The triceps go back—where is the elbow? The elbow is here, so you need to go
back like this. Remember the ponytail analogy? This is the belly of the lateral head of the
triceps. Here is the tail which is actually muscle. It’s not a tendon. Sometimes it
looks like a tendon but it’s not. It’s muscle. You can do this too if you want to
do like a curl or something and look in a mirror. You can actually see that. The far
edge is the long head. Here is the tendon right here,
which I’m just going to do dark right now.
The other thing I want to do is really separate the triceps from the brachialis. It’s going
to be important because when I add to this, I’m going to use these same images for when
I do the forearm muscles. I’m going to use these two, plus I’m going to get a front view.
I’m going to make sure that this is clear to all of you. There are muscles that
fit into this void right in here. This is the biceps. Biceps, biceps, biceps. Right
in here. I tend to do this too quickly, but you’ll get the idea, and you can definitely
see the separateness of the muscles. This is a split that’s all still biceps brachii.
I have to say biceps brachii because, remember, there is a biceps femoris that I’ve already
lectured about of the leg. I’m going to try to get this a little bit better and clear for you. Get these muscle fibers
to work. Alright, got it. It goes into that tunnel and just kind of disappears. Because
it’s attached, remember, to the scapula. It’s a little scratchy but what the heck.
Now, jumping over to this back view, one of the things you’re going to see is that beautiful
teres major. Look at that. Now I’m going to show you what’s going on underneath the skin.
The triceps long head goes through—you know, there is skin and folds and all that,
but the triceps long head actually does this. You could, I think, if you look very carefully,
that might actually be the teres minor right there, that little swatch. Whereas the scapula
is here. I can tell because that bump is the acromion process. All of this, the shadowy
area is infraspinatus.
But there it is. That’s the infraspinatus. The deltoid covers it up. That’s why this
gets all kind of discombobulated. I can see a shadow there which reminds me of where the
deltoid is. It winds around, like going around like this S-shape like this. Then it ends
really abruptly right here at this tendon. There is a tendon that attaches this muscle.
I just saw this on a cadaver, and it’s really beautiful. It’s long a really strong little
attachment point there. Then that’s how I know that behind it is the triceps lateral
head, and in front of it is the brachialis, and then that’s it. The brachialis is this
little spot. This is the biceps tendon. This, of course, is the contour of that muscle.
I’m going to leave that like that. I’m going to put a border here because these muscles
underneath this line are going to be for my next lecture, which I’ll get to momentarily.
You’ll know how to put all this together. This is the triceps lateral head. It disappears.
Of course, you won’t see it because there is a lot of subcutaneous fat, a lot of skin
and all that, but this is basically it.
This over here is the triceps long head. That’s the one that I’m trying to show you. It’s
going in between. The teres minor and infraspinatus are closer to us. But this is teres major
and this is further away from us than the long head is. I have to draw the long head
jumping in between all of that. Then the teres minor and infraspinatus go underneath and
they’re tucked under the deltoid because these are attached to the ball of the humerus.
This is the border right here of the deltoid. There is a bulbous mass of the teres major.
It’s one of my favorite muscles. Maybe you can see why. It’s just beautiful, and it’s
very distinct. It’s a bubble at the bottom part of the scapula. It can look really quite
beautiful with a lot of people. It definitely looks beautiful on this particular individual.
It’s big. It’s bulbous. He’s a very fit man so it stands out quite a bit. It goes
to the front of the humerus.
Okay, so there are the muscles. Triceps lateral head. Triceps long head way over here in the
darkness. I’m going to put a really strong shadow like this or a strong line, and I’m
also going to put a line here reminding you that all of this is the muscle. Of course,
you can see the contour of it. The elbow is going to be important because that is what
everything is attached to. The tendon, the triceps tendon goes to it. Then these are
even little muscle fibers right in here. See the muscle fibers? They go in this direction.
They tell you which direction that muscle is pulling. What I need to do is remind you
that these are really big bundles.
Remember what I said about the medial portion, the middle section of the deltoid? It’s
kind of like interlaced with muscle fibers so it doesn’t look as neat as the way I’m
drawing it. It’s kind of complicated. The only way I can explain it is that it does
look like your hands are interwoven, and when you look inside your hands it looks just like
that. This goes around to the front. I’m going to put a little line here separating
the trapezius from the deltoid. I want you to see that it cups around almost like a claw
from a crab. This reminds me of Mr. Krabs on Spongebob. It kind of just goes around
like a little claw. Do you see the claw in here? That’s the deltoid. It’s attached
to the tubercle, which I’m going to draw for you, of the spine of the scapula.
Here is the acromion process right in here, like the donut hole of the deltoid. If you
keep raising this arm this will stay down, and the whole muscle will kind of engulf that
look like a donut hole. You can see where the trapezius would be attached. The trapezius
here. You can’t see if it would be here. I could see it on the other side. That’s
the trapezius. If I could see it on side then it stands to reason I could find it over here.
Over here I’m going to put a line just to remind you that this is the triangle of auscultation.
This is medial border of the scapula. This is the spine of the scapula. You need to be
able to see that. Sometimes you can see that there is a dimple or a hole right in here.
That’s where the tendon, all of this, where the trapezius kind of surrounds that area.
These are the muscle fibers going like this.
This is the direction of those muscle fibers.
These are just straight down, but these are at an angle. Now, let me show you on the female.
this image or these images is because she is so lanky. She’s six feet tall. She’s
very thin, very lean. A lot of times people will tell me, oh, I don’t see any anatomy
on her or him. This is full of anatomy. You can’t get away from it. Let’s look for
the obvious. Right now it’s this. You could start in many places, but the infraclavicular
fossa right in here. I love that because then right below it you can see the pectoralis
major clavicular portion way down here. It’s implied that this is pectoralis major sternal
portion. It’s way underneath her breasts. You’re not going to see anything else once
her breast is on top of her chest. But now you can see the border of her deltoid.
The other thing you’re going to see, and I hope you see this; this bump right in here,
this lighted area, is her acromion process. This is the distal end of her clavicle. But
I’m going to actually draw the clavicle because I want you to really see it. As clear
as it is I’m going to make it even clear. Then there is the pit of her neck. You can
see she’s got really beautiful sternocleidomastoidus. This is omohyoid, wow. You don’t see that
very often. It’s a little cord-like muscle. Interesting. Anyway, I digress. That’s even
part of this week’s lecture. But remember that; it’s kind of cool.
Her trapezius is coming from way in the back. As I told you, this is where it would end
up right in here. Why? Because that’s where the deltoid is. The deltoid comes around here.
You could actually see the tubercle of the humerus. You can even see the ball of the
humerus. This is very much like a Leonardo da Vinci drawing, seeing this woman. You can
see that basically the muscle looks like a kneecap. You probably never saw that before,
but now you’ll see it. It’s something I just saw as an observer of life. I’m going
to draw it, and I’m going to leave the lighted area alone because I want you to really appreciate
that as much as I do. Then this is the deltoid attaching itself to the clavicle.
You now know—I’m going to jump to the other side just briefly and quickly. This
is the scapula on her. You can see because there is an indentation right there. Then
this is the acromion process right in here. Hope you can see that right there. It creates
that little bump. The belly of the muscle does this. I’m going to go back to the front
view. Sorry, I don’t mean to jump around so much, but I get overly excited about this
stuff. Watch, this is where the deltoid ends. This is where it attaches to the humerus.
It’s really nice and long. She’s got really long, lanky limbs, which means that she is
going to have long, graceful muscles. Look at that. Look at that deltoid.
Isn’t that just gorgeous?
Now, whether you see it or not, and it’s kind of hard to see on her, it’s her brachialis.
I’m going to put the triceps lateral head first because it’s so clear. You can even
see the little lighted area of the tail of it. The shadow is reminding you that that
is the muscle belly. You can also see here part of her humerus, but over here you’ll
see that this is elbow. That’s ulna or olecranon,
but the other one here is humerus.
Okay, right there.
The other one that you should know pretty easily—you already know that this is all
pectoralis major right in here going over—that’s right, the bicep. It ends and then those other
muscles are going to take over that I need to talk about with my next lecture. This is
the brachialis right in here. I’m going to give you a big strong border with all of
these. That’s triceps. This is brachialis. I’m going to have some color for you, and
the biceps is here. This goes forward and all of a sudden the bicep kind of takes over.
How do you like them apples? It’s a tubular form, so I’m going to try to show that.
It’s this deltoid that I want to make sure you guys can see really good like that.
Alright, so what I want to do is I want to jump over to this side and show you that her little
teres major is just that. It’s very delicate. It’s very slight, and this the teres major
going underneath her arm. Her infraspinatus is all of this area, but I need to draw the
deltoid because the deltoid is covering all of this up. It’s going around to the side
of the arm. The triceps long head is here. That’s what this shadow is. Remember when
I was just diagramming, not really drawing this muscles? I need to really show that this
is the long head of the triceps, and the muscle fibers end here on her. Then the triceps lateral
head takes over. On her it’s really, really long. It’s amazing but it creates this bump.
Then the tendon takes you all the way down to the olecranon, which is the elbow, which
is part of the ulna.
Remember, this muscle goes into her body. I’m talking about the lateral head of the
triceps. It’s attached to her scapula. It’s the only triceps that does. I hope you remember
the similarities between these triceps and the triceps of the leg, the soleus and both
heads of the gastrocnemius. It’s really an important part of my education for you
guys, educating you on anatomy. This is the triceps lateral head. This would be the tendon.
Notice that there is an area over here I haven’t drawn because that’s the medial head. Believe
it or not, that’s the medial head. That’s the one that basically mimics the soleus and
does this. They’re all behind the funny bone. Since you can see the funny bone really
clearly right here on this individual, this is where the ponytail would be in. Of course,
this is the olecranon. So it’s those two bones that will remind you of where you’re at.
There is that and then the triceps.
I want to separate the triceps from the deltoid. The deltoid does this. It goes around to the
side of the arm especially since he’s twisting, so it’ll look like you’re twisting a towel.
I want to make sure that you could see how big this is and how twisted all this is.
It's fabulous, fabulous stuff. Biceps is in front. This is the pronator teres, but this shadow
in here is the brachialis. This one here is biceps. I think everybody knows that. It’s
wiggly on her, but that’s it. I want to put a distinct border here so you guys could
see the difference between these muscles. This is triceps long head, triceps medial
head, triceps tendon. You can even see a little string of that lateral head.
This is all deltoid. She’s a very long individual. Like I said, she’s one
of my favorite models. It’s really, really great to work with her. She’s just fabulous.
I’m really proud of this because we’re just giving you such an in-depth education,
and it’s what I live for. Even long after I’m gone, I’m hoping people can learn
from me. That’s the whole reason I’m working so hard for you guys is to make sure that
this lives on. It’s beautiful information, and it’s incredibly important to me to leave
something behind. It’s information that was given to me by people that have long since
passed, so that’s one thing that we all have in common. We’re all marching towards
that one day when we’re not going to be here any longer, so while we’re here we
need to make a difference. This is the way I think I can, to just add to the many people
that love this as much as I do. We all try to teach it. But there is all the Santa Clauses
around Christmastime. That’s what we do. We can’t be everywhere
so a lot of us have to do this.
I’m just trying to strengthen the borders between these muscles as if they were countries
or states. I want to make sure that you could really see the clarity of what I’m trying
to teach you. Over here to see that there is a tendon up here so that this will end
up looking a little rounder. These are like fingers like bundled. Once again, I’m just
trying to strengthen the border. There, in the infraspinatus. All of this right in here
is infraspinatus. This is the tendon right there from your trapezius. This is the tubercle
of the spine of the scapula.
Tendon right in there. You can see that.
Long head of the triceps.
It’s like that but the teres major is underneath it. It goes forward.
This one right here is teres minor, that little sliver of muscle. This is teres major right
in here. It’s a little scratchy but I think you’ll get the idea.
down the arm. We’re doing the forearm. Now, one of the things about the forearm, and I
hear this a lot for my students is that, oh my God, it’s so complicated. It’s this
and that. I guess it can be. What my job is for you guys is to make it easier for you.
Basically, the forearm muscles are the ones that activate your hands, so they extend your
fingers. They flex your fingers. When you make a really tight fist your muscle get active.
All of them, actually. If you feel like when you make a big hard fist like this, you’ll
feel all the muscles of your forearm get hard, but the ones that dominate are the flexors.
The flexors are basically what allow you to make a fist. Your extensors, as it’s obvious,
extend your fingers like this. Then you have these other muscles like the one that’s
going to help raise that. These biceps and triceps and all that are basically flexing
this lever system, straightening your arm, flexing your arm. Now what we need to do is
do the same thing but for the hand. Okay, so those muscles are over here.
So, there are going to be certain muscles, like the hand shaking muscles right over here.
You can see how I activate right here. One of the best things I can do for you is just
try to simplify this as much as possible. First of all, we already started with the
medial epicondyle or the funny bone right in here. You’ll notice I took off the bicipital
aponeurosis from the other lecture because it needs to be left off because I’m going
to put the flexors on there. Basically, that’s what creates this little bubble right in here.
It’s that piece of tape that’s this little aponeurosis that will
basically wrap around your flexors.
Now, we have the deltoid in. We have the deltoid. All these muscles are ready now so that we
can put the finishing touches on this entire upper limb and make it look nice. The forearm
is going to start with yellow and red. The neatest thing I could tell you is right now
I’m going to start with the flexors, the flexors of your arm. The flexors of your arm
are the ones that will allow you to make the fist. There are four of them. You have to
remember that in artistic anatomy we eliminate a lot of the unnecessary muscles. What I’m
going to do for you is break up the flexors and extensors into two groups of four. Remember,
I did the same thing with the upper arm. I did three and three; three triceps and the
three muscles of the front. It makes it a little easier for you to remember. There are
only going to be four flexors that you need to concern yourself with when it comes to
the forearm. That makes it a little bit easier. The same thing with the back of the arm right
here, the ones that you can see activating when I wiggle my fingers.
Okay, so the other thing I’m going to tell you is that it’s color-coded. I don’t
know if you can read this as yellow, but it’s the light color yellow. It’s going to correspond
with that, the medial epicondyle. The same thing here. Since I made an asterisk, I’m
going to make an asterisk there as well. So, here we go. The extensors, everybody, will
correlate with the little pink spot. It’s on the lateral because these muscles basically
start like this. Watch, this is how easily I’m going to do this for you. That is that.
If I took this dot over there or that dot over here it’s the same thing. It’s one
short like this, three long. One, two, three. Those are the flexors that you have to know.
How’s that for easy?
Alright, you actually want to know the names of them. Okay, fair enough. I’m going to
start off with the most basic. I think it’s maybe the most basic because it seems the
most obvious. It’s the one that goes right to your palm. It’s called the palmaris longus.
Palm will remind you that it goes right to the palm. Longus. This is a really weird muscle
because it’s really weak. It’s really weak. The muscle is not much longer than my
piece of chalk. It’s basically about like this. It’s almost like a thin finger. Then
the rest of it is tendon. I just saw this—when you see this on a cadaver it’s really pretty
amazing. Some people don’t have a palmaris longus, but it’s an important one for us
artists. Not so much because of the muscle, but because of the tendon. Watch what I’m
going to do. The palmaris longus is actually this one right there. Sure enough, all of
those are going to start here because they start there on the opposite side of my blackboard.
So it goes like this. Then underneath you can’t really it. It’s almost like a triangular
flyswatter of tendon. It helps pull your fingers together like this, and it also pulls your
fingers. It’s a very weak muscle. That’s the palmaris longus.
The next one—I’m going to put little numbers. The next one is flexor. That should be obvious.
Carpi, which means wrist; radialis, which means it goes towards the thumb. Or the radial
side of the thumb, the radialis. This is the radius, so that’s flexor carpi radialis.
Watch this one. This one is obvious also, I think. It goes like this. The thumb is on
the radial side of the bones. The radialis like this. The radius kind of dictates, reminding
you that the thumb is going on the radial side. The radialis muscle, flexor carpis radialis,
just kind of tells you something about it. What’s neat about those two, and that’s
the second one up here, is that if the palmaris longus allows you to do this, then the flexor
carpi radialis pulls my fist towards my face. When I do both watch what happens. Look at
this: It’s the tendons that I want you to notice. I’m making a fist and I’m pulling
my fist towards me. There. Palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis. Those are kind of like
comic book tendons. Peter Paul Rubens’ tendons, action tendons.
Now, the next one is this one, pronator teres. Basically, it goes from here, across the other
way, and it twitches your arm. It goes like this. It’s kind of like this nice, bulbous
muscle. You’ll see it on our model when I draw over his arm. You’ll see it like
that. Let me wrist that done. Number there is pronator because that’s what to pronate
means. This is pronation. This is supination. Remember, the teres major means round and
big? Well, that’s a pronator and it’s round. So all of a sudden you’re going to
start getting this idea that you know the language of anatomy already. Pronator teres
is just that one. Then the last one is a contour muscle. It’s flexor carpi ulnaris, so it
goes to the ulnar side or the pinky finger. Flexor carpi ulnaris. And that one, because
it’s a contour muscle, I’m actually going to draw the contour like this. Like this.
This tendon is visible oftentimes as well.
Now, if I haven’t told you this before, I’m going to tell you again. This is origin
or the beginning of the muscle, and this is insertion or the end of the muscle. Insertion
is where the action takes place. Basically, it’s like this. The action is over here,
so the origin of these flexors are up here. Right in here. The insertion is way over here.
The tendon is short on the origin, but it’s long. It gives you that recognizable, beautiful,
graceful line. You can see over here it’s short. Then the muscle belly and then the
long tendon. You’ll see that throughout your body everywhere. I’m going to write
origin, short tendon. That’s a little helpful hint like that. Insertion, long. Okay, so
insertion is going to be long tendon, short tendon over here. It gives you that really
nice graceful look. Because this is a contour, so is this. Even from the back you can see
this. Okay, like that. This is the ulna, so that’s your elbow so you have like this
line of bone, and then the big knobbiness of the ulna right there, the styloid process.
And this muscle comes from the front and comes back to the back and creates a furrow right
in this little area. Then over here it is, of course, tendinous.
That’s flexor carpi ulnaris.
Now, guess what? When it comes to the extensors, okay, so now it’s the extensors in pink.
There. I’m going to do the same thing. One short, three long like that. So, which one
am I going to start with? Well, I’ll start with this one way over here. I could start
pretty much wherever. That one is pretty easy because it butts up against this one, and
it has a similar name. Extensor carpi ulnaris. Okay, now that I think about it it’s a good
one to start with because I just put the flexor carpi ulnaris. The FCU. So right next to it
is one that has the same name as a last name so they’re like brothers. That one does
this. It butts up against its brother, its neighbor, and it does that. The next one is
an extensor that definitely is recognizable because it creates those four tendons on your
fingers that you can see wiggling. That is this one. Extensor digitorum. Or, I call them
ED. Extensor digitorum, and that one basically does this. It splits off into four directions.
There is an extensor digiti, meaning my, right in here, but you’re not going to see it
on too many people. I’ve seen it. I can even see it on me sometimes when I do this
and wiggle around. I’d like to keep things as simple as possible. What I’m going to
do is I’m just going to do that with both of those. Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum.
The next one is this one: Extensor carpi because it goes to the wrist, radialis brevis.
Extensor carpi radialis brevis. I know, it’s a mouthful.
That one basically does this. It starts there. Muscle is pretty
pronounced over here, and then the tendon goes towards the middle finger. But you don’t
need to know that. You just need to know it kind of does this right there like that. That’s
it. Now, there is only one more, and that’s a short one. This one is the one that looks
like a Dorito. I’m going to write that down too, just like I do for my students in class.
That’s the anconeus, the Dorito or the little triangle. Maybe I’ll start doing Dorito
commercials. That one looks like a Dorito. It does this. It actually kind of covers up
some of the bone. It’s this one right here. I’m going to put little stripes on it just
to remind you. You can see that it actually changes the look of that furrow. Here is my
ulna, and all of a sudden I have to bounce around that one little muscle.
So one short and three long. That’s it.
two twin-like muscles, brachial radialis—brachial, remember, means arm. Brachial radialis and
remember the extensor carpi radialis brevis? This one is the extensor carpi radialis longus.
Extensor carpi radialis longus. Those kind of look like this. From this point-of-view
they’re going to look kind of like this. Okay, now I’m going to make two lines on
this bone. One way up here and one way over here. Do you see these? I want to remind you
because that’s where I’m going to put those. You can’t see the bone too much from
here, but you see a little bit of it here and here. They’re going to get covered up.
Over here you can’t see it, but they’re over here on the side of the bone. From this
point-of-view is where you’re going to see the most. They do this and then the tendons
go underneath like to the hand, one towards the thumb, one towards the index finger, and
they split like this. They always look like one muscle. Every once in awhile you’ll
see a model and you’ll both of them. But you have to be pretty lean. What I’m going
to do is I’m going to put a little line just to remind you that they are separate
right there. They’re like the handshaking muscle. You’ll see them most clearly when
you’re doing this and somebody is pulling down on your hand a lot.
You’ll see it even right there.
Okay, so far, so good. I want to split these muscles up too. The brachialis from the biceps.
I’m going to separate all of these now because now it’ll be clearer to you what’s happening.
Here is the bicep right in here, and there is the deltoid, which basically ends right
here. It goes to the back right there. Do you see how it’s all happening now? The
muscle fibers of the brachialis go this way, like that, and it disappears into this little
area because it’s on the other side of the arm. The extensors will be visible here. Watch.
Here is the tendinous area, but then over here it gets kind of bulbous like this, and
then straight because then there is a bone. Your elbow is right there. You can even still
see the humerus. These are all your extensors. Now, it’s starting to look like something.
Over here are going to be the tendons of your flexors. Way on the other side you’ll kind
of see that those are your flexors. There. Now it’s starting to come together little
by little, so it starts looking kind of like this.
Then we have what I call the mini twins. How’s that for adorable? The mini twins are your
pollicis muscles. Let me get down here really low. Abductor pollicis—which means thumb—longus.
Extensor pollicis brevis, and then the tendon of extensor pollicis longus. That creates
your anatomical snuff box. See there are two tendons here because there are two muscles.
You can see one. Abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis
longus tendon. That creates the anatomical snuff box. I don’t smoke. I don’t like
anything about smoking. I don’t drink or anything like that, but one of the first people
to smoke in Europe was Peter Paul Rubens. He had a friend named Sir Walter Reilly who
brought back tobacco. Before you know it, it went out of control and everybody was smoking.
But for awhile, only a few elite people got to put a little tobacco into a pipe and smoke.
I think somebody in the 1700s thought it would be kind of neat to try and get more of a rush,
so they dried tobacco, ground it up, and they created what’s called snuff. They would
put it in that little nook and snort it. Go figure. So ever since then it’s been called
the anatomical snuff box. Isn’t that interesting? I think it’s kind of interesting. Weird,
but people like to feel a little weird or get in an altered state,
so anatomical snuff box. There it is.
Those muscles look like little mini versions of those. They come from deep in your arm,
like the interosseal membrane of your radius and ulna. They basically look like a little
mini version, like this. I’m going to try to highlight these a little bit. They cover
the extensor carpi radialis brevis, but not the extensor digitorum. Then the tendon of
the extensor pollicis longus comes in like that, so between the tendons over here of
these muscles—they activate the thumb—is a hollow. That is the anatomical snuff box
right in there. From these points of view this is what the twins and all those look
like. First of all, let me just ball this up because these muscles combine to look like
a bulbous mass. They don’t really need to know all the different muscles. Just remember
that they ball up, create a mass, and you can see the major tendons over here. The big
twins do this. They kind of like do this. Then they disappear. The extensor carpi radialis
brevis, though, kind of pops through. This is the ECRB. Therefore, you’re going to
have two bumps. You have the major bump here of both twins and then this other one. That’s
extensor carpi radialis brevis. You can see that. So you have the recognizable two-bump
system of that little area.
Then it kind of tends to plateau out a little bit. But then guess what happens? The mini
twins take over, and they create like a riser right over here like this. You’re looking
at it from the front side. You’re going to see that sure enough there is a little
riser. So one bump, two bumps, flat low plane or valley, then a riser. You can see that
right here very clearly. Flat plateau and then a riser. Then the tendons are, of course,
way on the other side like this. This part of the arm is clear. But when you look at
it from this point or view or this point of view in particular, the muscle that it doesn’t
go over is this. So in between this two right in here is going to be where the little mini
twins come out like this and cover this up right in here.
And if I take my handy-dandy black, see that these
are left alone. These spray out almost like drapery, and this is the pin. Do you see that?
Just like that.
Then these go out like this, but now the big twins take over, and they change the whole
look of this whole area right in here because they basically dominate and take over like
this. Then the tendons go underneath that tendon. Basically, what we have is we have
this whole area of these twins doing this. Extensor carpi radialis brevis is right in
here. I’m going to try to like make it a little clearer for you by just trying to split
in between those two muscles. Don’t forget about the bump of the extensor carpi radialis
brevis. You’ll see it here as well. These muscles go over all that, and then the tendons
go underneath like this, like it’s coming out of a tunnel. Does that kind of make sense?
Like that. You actually see these muscles. You can see them on me. See that right in
here? That little shadow. Then the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus comes out
like that. These are the combined tendons of the pollicis muscles up there and the hollow
in between the anatomical snuff box right in there. There.
How do you like them apples? This is the split. Now you can see the clarity of what I’ve
been trying to give to you, I hope. When you combine everything you can see how beautiful
everything is. This, of course, is tendon, so I’m going to make it really taut. It
really pulls towards the elbow. Then the elbow disappears. The ulna disappears and then you
can see it again over here until you get to the bulbous mass of it like that. Oftentimes
you can see that this actually creates a deep furrow right in here, and the drapery comes
out from underneath here like that. You can see that right here, that bulbous mass. These
can even fold up so it creates like a donut shape. If you look at the back of the arm,
like if I were to draw this; watch. Kind of running out of room, but that’s kind of
typical for me. I’m going to put an arm that’s going back like this. Here is the
elbow. If somebody puts their arm behind their back kind of a thing. Here’s like the fist.
Like this. Got it?
What you’re going to see is the funny bone. What’s the funny bone? That’s the beginning
of all the flexors, so they’ll do this. These are the flexors. The basically emanate
from that spot, so they create this mass. Right? Okay, so far, so good. You have the
elbow, which means that these are triceps. This is deltoid. Alright, now, what color
did I use? I used this for the triceps, which all go behind towards the elbow. This is the
long head of the triceps. This is the lateral head back there along with its little tail.
That’s why it has kind of like that little dealy-bob right there. This is the tendon.
These are the triceps from this point-of-view when you’re doing this.
Then you have the flexors over here and the tendons, remember. So far, so good. What’s
missing is a bicep. Bicep is in blue. From this point-of-view, in case you’re wondering
where I am at, this is the body like this. Got it? The body is kind of doing this like
that. It’s somebody just kind of putting their arm behind their back. The bicep is
in blue, so I’m going to put the bicep like this, and then it straightens out like this.
I need to remind you that right now, from this point-of-view, the flexors are closer
to you. The other muscles I need to put are the twins. They finish up the look of that
arm like that. These, from the other side of the blackboard. Here are the triceps. All
of a sudden everything starts making perfect sense. See how all that works?
Isn’t that beautiful?
So this is the bicep, okay, which is in the middle. The twins are furthest back. The flexors
are closest to you, the viewer. Over here it’s the other way around. The twins, then
the bicep, and the flexors were on the other side. See how everything starts actually making
perfect sense? At least I hope it does to you. It takes a little bit of a while for
your brain to kind of like absorb all of this, but it will happen if you practice. No matter
who I study it’s one of the things that you always run into, it’s like they had
really good anatomy teachers, really good perspective teachers. All these old masters
just really knew a lot about what they were doing. So there is that. All of these are
attached to the lateral epicondyle. They basically radiate out from that spot just like you can
see here. They radiate out like this.
Okay, alright. I think that’s it.
I’m going to move on, and we’ll get to the next step.
about the shoulder muscles and the upper arm. The deltoid is the most obvious. That one
is fine. There it is. Where it ends the brachialis is going to take over. The neat thing about
this shadow here is that is also deltoid. So if you follow its path, it becomes very
apparent as to where it’s going. It’s going around the whole shadow and gives you
that kind of crab hand. Okay, there.
Behind it, of course, are the triceps. This is the triceps lateral head and its tail and
its belly. The long head is way over here, and the tendon. Alright, good. The brachialis
is the muscle that you guys probably didn’t know before you met me, and the biceps, of
course, is the muscle everybody knows. In between here is this brachialis muscle right
there. Got it? I need you to see that because then when I do the next series of muscles,
extensors—remember, I told you that the extensors are underneath where my little cursor
is right over here, right underneath the twins. These are the twins. You can see that. But
what you may not see is that they go all the way up here like that. Now do you see that?
Now, on a cadaver, this little spot right here, I almost always have to take my fingernail
and kind of cut into that so I can so my students that the brachialis and brachioradialis are
actually two muscles. The other thing I’m going to do for you—see that little indentation
there? That tells you that the twins split right there. So this is the brachioradialis,
and the other one is—I might as well use that same arrow—is extensor carpi radialis
longus. There we go. The extensor carpi radialis brevis is right over here like that. ECRB.
The anconeus is that little Dorito muscle. You can see that all you have to do is radiate
those muscles out, and those are the extensors. You don’t even need to remember all the
names. The flexor carpi ulnaris creates the contour that you see that creates that nice,
fluent beautiful line right there. Flexor carpis ulnaris.
Then look at the twins. The twins are beautiful because they create that nice border. They’re
in between the biceps and the brachialis and the triceps on the back right in there. That
one disappears. This one goes into the body like that, and then you can see the bulbous
mass of the teres major. Now, when I jump over to the second image here, now you have
the flexor side. Once again, the beautiful muscles that you see here are the twins. Then
they disappear. I’m being really careful because this one is the ECRB. The twins split
right over here, but you’re not going to see it very clearly on anybody. The other
muscle that I think is beautiful and that you can see very, very clearly—by the way,
I’m going to write this down; cubital fossa. That’s that little triangular, kind of dead
space in between the twins and the flexors. The one that I think is really pretty apparent
is that one. That’s the pronator teres. The other flexors tend to just ball up right
over here. Do you see that? All you have to remember is just to ball this up.
On this particular individual, this muscle just happened to be very, very clear, so I
had write that down. It’s the PT, pronator teres. What you will see are the tendons of
the flexor carpi radialis and the palmaris longus, and even the tendon here of the flexor
carpi ulnaris. That’s a tendon. So, there we go. So flexor carpi ulnaris. That’s it
for that. Obviously, you can see the bicep really nice and clear and the coracobrachialis.
Then the triceps medial head, triceps long head right there. You can see how they go
underneath the pectoral muscles and the deltoid like that.
Alright, let’s go to this last image. What’s nice is when you rotate the arm like this,
the deltoid tends to look like you’re wringing a towel, and you can actually see the fibers
right in here. But what’s remarkable about this individual is you can see the brachialis.
This is the brachialis right there. But what’s really beautiful is you can see the twins
very clearly on this particular person. Look at that. They’re twisting and turning and
there they are. Then the triceps go behind. Always looking for the elbow. This is the
head of the lateral head. This is the head of the long head in there, and then that’s
the tendon. You can see that the deltoid is straining and pulling to find this little
spot on the body right there. Isn’t it gorgeous? Then this is the bicep right there. The bicep
is nice and tubular. What’s nice about this particular model, and very few models show
it as clearly as he does. You can see the brachialis muscle. This muscle is not seen
on most people. The twins right there, and then this is where the extensor carpi, ECRB,
extensor carpi radialis brevis, then the plateau, and then the mini twins.
If you look really carefully before I draw on them, you can see that there is a shadow
there. That’s because that’s where the mini twins are. Then they disappear. That
means because this next mark I make is ED, extensor digitorum. I’m going to draw four
strong lines to remind you. Extensor digitorum. This is extensor carpi ulnaris and anconeus,
or the Dorito. So one, two, three four. They’re all accounted for. Flexor carpi ulnaris is
on the other side. How do you like that? It seems a little simpler now, doesn’t it?
So the flexor comes around to here because the border between flexors and extensors is
the ulna, and you can see the ulna there. Okay, so ulna, ulna. Then there is a break
in the action right here because of the anconeus or the Dorito. I’m going to just kind of
shade that in very lately. Then there is bone again, at least the furrow. Okay, that’s
it. Now, let me draw for you these muscles individually and a little bit more clearly.
What I’m going to do is just basically pull out the muscles and draw them
as if we took off the skin.
The first muscle I’m putting on right here is the anconeus. That’s the one that looks
kind of like a Dorito to me. Don’t worry about the fact that we’re going into shadow
here. Those are going to be the flexors. We have multiple images anyway. That’s the
anconeus. It comes out from underneath in the lateral epicondyle of your humerus. Basically,
what happens is there is almost like drapery. You could almost picture a pinned up towel
somewhere like sometimes in a drawing class they pin up a piece of cloth or something,
and you have to draw it. Same thing here. What you’re going to see is the four muscles.
You already have one so there is two. There is three. Here is the fourth. These are the
ones that come out. Then you can see the mini twins right here. Look how clear they are.
Isn’t that amazing? They come out from underneath. This is the extensor carpi radialis brevis.
But, they don’t cover this one, the extensor digitorum. This is the one that goes to your
four fingers like this. I hope you can still see it in the shadows there like that.
So that one is ED. This is extensor carpi ulnaris. I want to make a really strong delineation
there. Extensor carpi radialis brevis. Guess what? One of my favorite sets of muscles,
the twins. The basically do this. They go underneath this little tunnel, and they go
way up here like this. But when you see that little indentation you can actually see the
shadow. This is a separation between the brachioradialis, which I’m drawing right now, and extensor
carpi radialis longus right in here. They create that deep crevice, and then all the
muscles, kind of like the extensors, radiate from underneath them like that. Isn’t that
pretty? Here is the triceps. So this is from the last lecture, of course, but I need to
kind of fill this in just to kind of let you see the relationship between all of these.
Here is the tendon with the triceps like that.
Then here is the deltoid. There is a relationship between all of these. They’re all related.
That’s deltoid also. It’s twisting around. Then the brachialis. I need you to see this
little spot right in here. It’s not a bicep. The bicep as you know is way over here. The
muscle fibers of the brachialis go in this direction like that. All of a sudden it’s
deltoid. I want to make sure all that’s really clear. This brachialis almost blends
in with the brachioradialis right at this area. Even like on a cadaver it almost looks
like one muscle. For a long time I do have a feeling that Leonardo himself that it was
one muscle because early on he used to draw this and this. These two, brachioradialis
and brachialis muscle is one continuous muscle. I think at some point he discovered that it
was two. That’s just my assumption from studying his drawings, is that for a while
he drew it one way, and then he corrected himself. That’s what you do. He didn’t
have Google or the internet or fancy anatomy books. He just learned the old-fashioned,
hard way with cadavers and just taking a lot of notes.
So these are the mini twins, the pollicis muscles. You can see how strong the tendon
is of the extensor pollicis longus right there. Then this is the hollow that would be created
right there, the anatomical snuff box. This muscle is closer to us than these all going
underneath the tunnel like here. I think that’s clear. Again, when I colorize this it’s
going to look beautiful, and you’re going to like it. The colorization is going to just
make things pop. You’re going to like it.
Okay, so now we’re looking at the next image, and we’re doing the flexors. First of all,
let me just draw the twins. The twins to do this, do this…There is a little fossa right
in here, a little triangle right in here. I’m just going to leave that like that because
it butts up against the pronator teres, and that’s what that is. These muscles are wrapping
around from the side of the arm coming in like this. Then they spiral and they go back
towards the back of the hand. This one over here is ECRB, extensor carpi radialis longus
and brachioradialis. Brr, the cold muscle. I need to show you the split. I would and
here it is. It’d be like this. Then they disappear. They create just like a combined
mass. That’s why I call them the twins. This is to remind you that you can ease up.
Over here, this little riser is the pollicis muscles. Then it comes down and creates a
flap plane like this. I’m going to exaggerate just to remind you. Over here you have two
tendons that will also remind you of something. There are two tendons really close together
right there, so you know that one of them is the flexor carpi radialis. You’re not
going to really see these singly too easily, especially this one. This one is the palmaris
longus. It’s barely a muscle at all. It’s almost all tendon. Underneath all of that
it does this. This one goes underneath the twins. The pronator teres, which I see that medial epicondyle.
That’s what you’re going to see. Of course, the last one—there are only four of them
I’m having you guys remember. Flexor carpi ulnaris. If I were to give these muscles some
striations, there they are. This one barely has muscle at all. The palmaris longus is
barely a muscle at all. It’s mostly tendon. But the flexor carpi ulnaris actually surrounds
the whole arm to the back, towards the back. There. That’s it for that one.
you of how the deltoid is spinning. Do you see how it looks like you’re wringing a
towel? It’s beautiful. It’s going like this. It’s twisting, twisting, and looking
for that spot in the center of your arm. What takes over? That’s right. It’s the tag
team of the brachialis. On this particular model, whom I just really adore, he’s just
so good. What’s nice is that you can see his brachialis so clearly. That’s it right
there. The baton is handed off from the deltoid to that muscle. The one that we all know is
the bicep. Now, these are from the last lecture. Don’t worry, I need to integrate them, though.
Then the brachioradialis takes over, and that’s what this bubble is right in here. Do you
see that? It’s twisting. Then this other one is the extensor carpi radialis longus,
and it’s twisting around like this. It follows the thumb. These two twins follow the thumb.
Since the thumb is way over there, the muscles also have to twist again, like wringing a towel.
The tricep lateral head can see plain as day especially once I draw over it, and the triceps
long head on the other side and its tendon that connects all of them to the elbow. You
can see the ulna back over here again. Okay, so take a look at that for just a moment.
Now, let me continue. Every once in awhile I have to pause so you can really see this stuff.
All of this is just really elegant to me. These are attached to the bone right
here. These all go away. This kind of disappears toward the front, and then the bicep takes
over. I’m going to put a little shadow over here where the brachialis disappears to the
other side way over here. Got it? This is extensor carpi radialis brevis,
and the pollicis muscles right in here, and the tendon.
You can’t see it from this point-of-view, but the tendon
is right there. Then the hollow in between is the anatomical snuff box.
Now, it’s the one that’s next to the ulna, extensor carpi ulnaris and its tendon. Sometimes
you can really see a strong tendon there. I’m going to bring it out just a little
bit more just because it’s beautiful. Sometimes you see the little muscle that goes to the
pinky finger, extensor digiti minimi, but I don’t want to confuse things. So, this
is communal. This is just all of them together, all of the finger extensors right in here.
The finger extensor muscle, extensor digitorum. A lot of your anatomy books will include or
exclude the extensor digiti minimi. Then this is extensor carpi ulnaris. You can always
tell because it goes to the ulna. It’s kind of like right up against the ulna, and then
the anconeus, remember this one? This is the one that looks like a Dorito. It’s a triangular
muscle like this. It’s really nice and clear and big on this particular individual. All
of these are going underneath the twins. I want to make sure that that’s really clear.
You can even see I’m going to put little shadows as if this is like casting a shadow
onto these muscles like that. You see what I’m trying to do? Like that. Then the flexor
carpis ulnaris, of course, is on the other side. But this right here is the ulnar furrow.
That’s where you can actually feel bone. Then all of a sudden you don’t feel bone.
Then you feel bone again. Bone, bone, bone. This is all bone. Right? The elbow. This is
where it ends up—way over here. So that and that. And that’s it, kids.
How do you like them apples?
Twist, twist, twist. When the arm is twisting like this and going around like this, then
the shoulder muscle, the deltoid twists also. You can see the infraclavicular fossa right
there, so to one side of it is the pectoral muscles. To the other side it’s the deltoid.
And above it is the clavicle.
I told you that the arms weren’t going to be quite that scary. So, now what we did is
we got the arms out of the way. That’s a big hurdle. Now what we’re going to do is
with the next lesson we’re going to go up north to the neck and head, so I hope you
join me then. Please come back and see what I have to say about that.
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15m 15s2. Bones of the Shoulder and Upper Arm
14m 58s3. Muscles of the Upper Arm: The Brachialis
15m 55s4. Muscles of the Upper Arm: Biceps brachii, the Triceps
13m 41s5. Muscles of the Scapula
13m 52s6. Raised Arm View of Upper Arm Muscles
8m 27s7. Diagramming Key Areas over Photo References
17m 57s8. Ecorche Muscle Drawover on Male (Model: Rajiv)
16m 11s9. Ecorche Muscle Drawover on Female (Model: Catherine)
16m 56s10. The Forearm: Flexors and Extensors
17m 13s11. The Forearm: The "Twins": Brachioradialis, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
17m 5s12. Diagramming Key Areas/Muscle Drawover Over Photo References (Model: Rajiv)
6m 31s13. Diagramming Key Areas/Muscle Drawover Over Photo References, cont.