- Lesson details
World-renowned painter Steve Huston will paint a reclining female figure from behind as a quick oil sketch. In this particular sketch Steve will work with his typical palette and focus primarily on the drawing including form, structure, proportions with a lesser emphasis on color.
- Gamblin Artist Grade Oil Colors
- Simply Simmons Paintbrush
- Birch Plywood Panel
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Alright, so we have that.
Now, let’s switch over to, let me switch, actually I’ll
use this one since I have the olive color that we’re not using—at the moment anyway.
I’m going to clean that off, and I’m going to let my darker color come through.
Now, just generically, since I don’t have a color reference that I’m paying much attention
to on the photo reference I’m going to pick up my own. I’m going to let this kind of
warm cool tutor me. I’m going to use some version, a slightly darker version there.
I’m going to make a blue. It’s warm and cool at the same time.
So how do you paint a warm cool?
Well, I’m going to mix my cool blue,
and I’m going to mix a brown. I’m going to use
those three primaries again just like I did for the drawing. I’m going to pick up a
warmer, cooler version of that in just a slightly darker version than what was there.
That feels a little too purple to me. I’m going to shift it. Since I’m going to end up using
a little bit of this olive, I think, since I’ve got it out there. I’m going to shift
this whole thing now to the greener. And so I’m going to pull in a little bit of yellow
so that the olive idea peaks through.
Notice that I just kind of rationalize. I talked myself into a color choice. And I might
end up by the end of this thing, regretting it. Oh my goodness, that is a heck of an ugly
color. But, that’s what these little studies are for is just to work out ideas. I’m not
really trying to—well, I’m trying to succeed, of course. I want this to be the best painting
I’ve ever painted in my life. And so I’m not going to do anything I don’t think is
good, but it’s a guess. It’s oftentimes a guess whether it’s going to be right or
not, unless you’re painting the same painting over and over again. There’s absolutely
a place doing some of that and even a lot of that in your learning, in your studies.
But when you’re doing your own work to grow as an artist you’re trying to make the very
best choice you can with some reason. It could be purely and probably will be purely an intuitive
reason, not something you think out carefully, something that just feels right.
But, it’s going to be reasonable.
I don’t want to be that dark, usually, unless I’m doing
some kind of nonrealistic effect. I want to be more in the mid range in the five, six,
sevens, in that area. Let’s call this a six.
I don’t know what gauge is—it’s a six.
What I did is I created a browner version and a bluer version, and a slightly more olive
version. So I really have three different version of my color, and I have kind of a
continuum of colors. It gets very blue and then a little less blue, and then not very
blue at all. Then the blue is starting to fade out. The red dominates. And so I have
a whole continuum I can pick from. What I did is I came back over, and I went into the
redder side of that mixture because I know those cute little toes, and those cute little
fingers. And your ears and your nose and your lips are going to tend to get redder for blood,
the blood coming to the surface. The lips are actually membrane—it’s a different
material than your skin and so they’re redder and just look natural local color.
So I push those things redder, and that’s the quickest way to make it seem realistic when it may not be.
I rationalize all these color choices, and I did that understanding that—I said
it wasn’t going to be about color, but I still want to make it work on some level,
and so I talk myself into this color idea, and then whatever the heck it is. It’s certainly
not realism as you’d walk around the street and see, but the value holds it together.
The drawing holds it together, and then I push it towards the red blood, the lifeblood
underneath. Whatever, you could make it purple. It could be a green lizard guy, but if you
bring a little bit of red blood into it it’s going to seem realistic because that brings
life into it. That brings that color of life, that red passionate color.
Alright, so anyway, we’ve got that.
Now I’m just drawing back over my painting to
make sure that my little drawing. If I sat down to do a little five-minute sketch from
the model with charcoal and newsprint I’d have drawn the same thing more or less. So
I’m using that same skill set that I use in sketch drawing to sketch the painting.
I’m more conscious of the full silhouette because I’ve got to plug in different colors
into it. But it’s still the same process. I don’t want my drawing style to be different
than my painting style. I want them to be extensions of each other. I’m going to push
this down, this leg down into the olive
and let that fade through.
I’m going to put a third color between
So I’ve got this place pretty well. I’m confident the colors will work.
I didn’t finish my arm. Let me get the arm in here. I’m going to use that same olive
green. I’m going to bring a little bit of red in there so that we feel that red blood
coming in. Any of the objects that are smaller on the body, the blood is going to be closer
to the surface, the ears, that kind of thing. Arms and forearms into fingers. They’re
going to get progressively redder oftentimes.
Not every single time, but oftentimes.
Alright, so there we go.
Now I’m going to get the background. The foreground is only correct if it’s in correct
relationship to the background. The light is only correct if it’s in a correct relationship
to the shadow. You can’t say that is a correct color. You can say it’s correct in relationship
to this. This whole thing in relationship to that. So now I need something back here
that is reasonable. So I’m going to base it off this same kind of olive environment.
I’m just going to push it really dark. I’m going to go to my blue. I want it to be grayer
so I’ll add my black in there also. I’m going to get my trusty old transparent orange.
You can see how dependent I am on that. When you mix it up thick you notice it’s so black
it looks black. You can’t tell what color it is. Even the ultramarine blue, until it
thins out you can’t really see what color it is very well. Or until it—because of
the white surface underneath—or until you add white into it you don’t see what color
it is. Really dark colors look really gray. This is a gray kind of umber. It’s a good
noncolor. It’s very typical. You can see now as I thin it out into the background here
just by the spare amount of paint I’m using. You can see it more clearly. This is very
much what a Rembrandt would use and then he glazed back into this many times to make it
rich and deep and lovelier than this is going to be. But this is very much in keeping to
the Rembrandts and the Jan Steens, all that kind of bunch.
There’s another hand here. I’m just going to go over the top of it. I’ll pick it up
later or not, depending on how much time I have and what I feel the painting needs. Notice
that the shapes are distinct. We get a clear torso to arm. A clear back to shoulder to
neck. A clear waist to hip so they’re distinct, strong shapes. And notice each area, this
shape, this shape, a little ear shape, the shape of the whole rib cage, the shape of
this side of the rib cage to that side of the rib cage split by the spine. It gets the
hips into the upper legs. The upper legs and lower legs, on and on and on. Each one is
curved and fluid and organic so they feel like they’re part of the same watery life
design that they are a part of. Yet they are all different personalities. If this is a
story in a movie, a story in a novel, each of these would have a different personality.
That’s what you want. You want them to feel like they’re of a kind of a piece. They’re
a group. They’re a composition. They come from the same source and yet they’re individual.
They’re unique. Each time you go to a new form, a new area, there’s a new personality.
There’s something new to experience. Quite often we do these simple studies in paint
or in pencil, charcoal, whatever it is. It gets repetitious. Everything looks kind of
the same. There are the same kind of clunky shapes. Maybe one has a little more detail
than the other, but they’re all kind of egg-shaped, so it looks a little bit like
a snowman. Or they’re oversimplified tubes so it looks like a store bought mannequin,
and they lose that personality. You think, well, the real problem I just should have
added more detail. It would have been better if I put more rendering time into it. We usually
think as realists if we get in trouble just give me more time and I’ll render my way
out of it. I would prefer you did not do that. I think that’s probably the worst way to
work frankly. You can render. I love to render. You can be a photorealistic renderer. You
can be any style you want. But the rendering goes on top of excellent design. It goes on
top of excellent choices. If it’s not working at the simplified stage, it’s not going
to work at a later stage.
So don’t get in that habit of saying, well, if the teacher would just give me another
half-hour on the drawing then it would be a really terrific sketch. You know, it’s
got to work at that beginning stage. Any painting can kind of, any piece of art can go through
an ugly stage where you gotta fight through some difficulties. But in general, every mark
I put down should ring true. And if it’s not ringing true then there is something wrong
with my thinking process or my mechanical process. I want to revisit it.
Having said that, your style might be one where you just go, wow, you just throw color
at it, throw strokes at it, add clay to it, add pencil marks to it. At the end you bring
it together. So you might have a real kind of chaotic style that you favor because it
keeps the energy going in your piece and it keeps the excitement. You surprise yourself
a little bit each time by being different. All those things are great. But in terms of
learning curve, you’re finding that you’re not creating successful work it’s probably
because you’re doing placeholders. You’re sticking a color in there figuring I’ll
fix it when I render it. It’s not—it’s too pink or it’s too dirty or it’s too
garish. But I’ll fix it in the rendering stage. Fix it now. Know that this will become
more complicated. They’re will be warm and cools shifts.
They’ll be light and dark shifts.
But, if it’s not working now, if you don’t get that sense of light now, if you don’t
get that sense of form and proportion, if you don’t get the weight of her hanging
over the top of this supporting structure that’s poking up into her, if you’re not
getting that dynamic then work at the simple stage.
Stay at the simple stage. Don’t move on.
If you get flustered start again.
Just take this off. Leave it as is, begin again.
This time I’ll make the colors less muddy. I’ll make the values more dynamic. Or you
might think, God, this is really turning out beautifully, and I don’t want to muck it
up because I don’t know the next step. I haven’t figured it out. So stop here. Begin
another one and bring it to this level, and then take it farther. Then compare this one
to that next one and see if it did get better as you added more stuff, or did it get worse,
and if so why. You can create your own kind of how-to booklet, kind of a sketchbook of
process, how to make it all work at an ever more refined level.
Firming up my drawing a little bit.
And kind of, this is my first date, really, I’m getting to know this person here.
And so I want to—and getting to know the painting. One of the problems that I always
keep in the back of my mind is when you work from life, especially if it’s a healthy,
beautiful young woman, heroic young man, you feel obligated to that beauty, to that health,
to that health to that likeness to the personality that’s in front of you. You end up copying
and oftentimes you’re spending most of your time thinking about what the model needs.
That model takes a break and comes and looks at it, or the other people come in the class
come look at it. Are they going to be able to see that it’s her? Did I do a good likeness?
And that freezes you up from exploring what the painting needs. She’s going to be gone
in 20 minutes and two hours and eight weeks or whatever time you’re going to have her.
She’s going to be gone. All that’s going to be left is you’re painting. The painting
is going to have to say it all, and so it’s the painting that you want to work.
Okay, so notice what I was doing here as I was yakking away. I’m starting to kind of
anchor the forms. I’m trying to draw back into it. Clean up the foreground/background
relationship. Soften up the light and shadow
relationship and just get a feel for whether it's working.
Notice that I did the light and I did the shadow. They’re the colors
they are, and then I added a third color between, and it was a different temperature than the
two. It was much yellower than that. It was much browner than that. It was more intense
than this. So it bumped up and a little more intense than that. Every time I changed the
value I tend to want to change the color so that it feels true because that’s what’s
going to happen in real life. In real life every time the value changes the color will
change. You don’t have to do it every single time, but it will tend to happen every single
time. If you’re finding that you’re colors are a little muddy, a little boring, a little
predictable, a little whatever negative you want to attach to it, that’s probably the
case. You’re just adding more and more white to make it render up into a light side and
more and more brown or whatever you’re using for your shadow side. You’re just adding
more to that. The color becomes unconvincing.
I’m just playing with shapes here.
There's a little sacral area. Notice how most of this rendering is just gradation and then drawing
on top of it. That’s the way I do the sketches. If you look at Sargent and Zorn and Sorolla
and even Rubens’ sketches, that’s what
they all did. They were draftsman who painted,
and so they would do their color notes, their value choices, and then they’d draw right
back over the top of it for a lot of the work.
So notice I’m just anchoring things. Notice also as I start using this bits it gets kind
of spotty. It starts to destroy that simple statement I had before. I’m going to have
to watch that and probably do some corrective work on it. For now, this is kind of anchoring
things. It’s showing me where the buttocks, where the spine accepts the torso. I’m getting
a lot of good work out of it, a lot of good information out of it that is going to help
me make my decisions. Should it be longer
or darker or whatever the heck I feel is missing
or is waiting to have happen. Let me get rid of that. Alright, so now I have, I’ve kind
of come back and anchored my drawing. I’ve played a little bit with my rendering. There
is not a lot more I have to do. There’s nothing I have to do on top of this, but what
I would think is it could use a couple things. It could use a head, although I’m known
for not putting heads on my paintings oftentimes with boxers and such. But it probably use
a head, a hint of a head, the hair and such. And she floats in this world right now. She’s
not anchored into it because I just laid in a middle value. Let’s get rid of our blue
little notes, talking aids there. I’m going
to add in a little bit of darker value here.
I’m going to pick up—and I almost never use just dead black. So as I add this black
now or darker colors I’m going to use it to reinforce the simplified outline of the
figure, presumably that’s a bit of the cast shadow across this covered piece of furniture
that she’s on. I don’t have to be very
accurate with that. In the reference there’s
nothing to be accurate about. It’s just fade to black, so I’m just giving a hint
of the environment. It’s not going to be any true environment. It’s just going to
be a value system that supports. And the bare hint of structures that support. All of my
work, as simple as this painting will be, is in the figure. And so if I just give a
hint of an environment, kind of non-environment, environment is the way I think of them, just
like I’m giving a hint of the hair, the black hair going into the black environment.
Again, we see that in the reference.
I’m just giving a hint of this value range that’s
supporting my little value and color study here.
It doesn’t have to be anything more than that.
If you look at the typical Brown School painters, the Rembrandts I always mentioned,
Van Dykes. Velazquez was actually famous for this. Manet took this from Velazquez, creating
these non-environments. They just fade to a gray-amber kind of thing. Rembrandt had
just kind of a smoky environment, a smoke filled room. Everything just faded to umbers
typically. And they would have great depth as this has some depth you would glaze over
transparent paint over transparent paint. And I’m scrubbing this earn tone over that
faded image that’s underneath, and so I’m getting a little bit of a glaze effect. It’s
showing in person great depth here. If I were to build it up over layers I’d get even
more depth. But it’s getting a nice sense of space back there just by the quality of
the paint. I’m using this background also to correct a little bit of the drawing.
I'm not too concerned about that at this stage. It’s just a simple color and value notes really.
The drawing doesn’t have to be anything spectacular. I’m going to remove some of
this old paint now from my palette and then
remix my colors here.
I had this—I have
a burnt sienna color going on, and then I mix that with the blue. I’m going to add
a little bit more red into that and a little bit of the transparent orange. That’s a
little too light. I had a little bit of white on my brush, so we’re going to mix it down
in value, adding my orange, red, and black.
Add a little bit of white over to my blue
to get more of my blue over there. Bring it over. There’s my cool to warm transition.
Now I’m going to force that foot redder again. There we go.
Now, I’m just going to take it this way.
Now, what I’m trying to do is create a gradation from the red toes
up to the kind of faded slightly olive-yellow skin. It’s still a little too pink, so I’m
going to go back into my blues here, take it down a notch.
I added more transparent orange.
My warm yellow, more blue, so now I’m in that green-olive and now back to
the red to get that blood to come through. You can use either red. It just depends on
the feel you’re after.
I’m going to zigzag this way. The disadvantage of that is I’m going to cut potentially
into the background colors and drag that dirty color in. Since this is a fairly muted color
and it’s in that mid to dark-range shadow, I don’t care too much if it gets a little
dirty. I have a lot of earth tone in this color anyway. If it was up in here it would
be a real potential problem. So now I’m just going to fade this up. Now I’m going
to add more brighter orange, and I’m going
to use the other red just to make it more
of a sunshine red. I’m going to add a little intensity here as I head down here earlier.
We can see that kind of, more of a sunburned bronze now is in there. I’m allowing that
to go up into the light area. I need to bring
my light area back down in. So I gradated
up that way, and then I came back down this way to make it a relatively smooth, yet painterly,
let’s make it a little painterly transition there. It can be as careful or as carefree
as you want. What that does it is drops off.
Notice how poor the drawing is here. I’m doing this, squiggling up that surface, and
I’m not trying to weave around the intricate silhouette of that foot into the ankle. I’m
going to use my drawing tools as I did in here and here to correct that. I’m going
to use my background to correct. To make this silhouette work
I’m going to use the surrounding silhouette.
I’m going to switch to another brush here. Show you that. Typically I just
stick with one brush. As I get into a painting I forget, if I got—this brush goes here
and this brush goes there. I’m going to be able to work a little faster by doing it
this way, so I’ll be a good kid and do it
as a lot of masters would say you must do it.
Respect your tools and use the right brush.
Now I’m going to pull that way and just
pick that out. Notice one of the things I did here, let me bring my image back, is I
put a couple different lines there. There are a couple lines for where the ball of the
foot meets the toes. A couple lines at the heel. Three or four faded lines going along
the side plan of that foot compared to the bottom plane. I’m going to let you pick
which one is right. What I’m most concerned with is the gesture. There is the outside,
the heel of the foot into this outside edge of the foot that connects the heel to the
little toe. Then there is the inside where the heel goes through the arch into the planting
ball of the foot, which takes most of the support. So notice each side has its own character.
Even though it’s a pretty crude, very crude shape, it’s still characteristic. The heel
has a definite back. The little toe side has a definite sweeping gestural side. The big
toe side has this lazy S-curve that gives you that kind of hang-ten like you’d see
a footprint in the sand. So that’s characteristic of what’s going on without getting detailed,
getting into the detail of what’s going on. So gesture and simple shape do a lot of
work for you. And then you don’t have to spend the time designing the actual shape.
If you can come up with a shorthand of the
basic information, that’s all you need to do.
the side of that foot into the ankle.
Just searching for the right color here, something dark to show the
Achilles tendon coming up into that ankle structure.
Then I might want to respect the
roundness of that calf a little bit. So now I’m going to come over here and do a gradation
across this way. Gradated down that way as it dropped out of light. Now I’m going to
gradate this way as the form itself turns out of light. It’s doing different things
for different reasons, and I’m going to deal with them incrementally in this case
because it’s easier. When it doubt simplify. I’ll do one thing. Deal with one problem
then go to the next problem. So if I can have a process that I can keep, breakdown into
manageable steps, manageable increments it’s going to make life much, much easier.
Now what I might do is say that in my world as things go back in space they get more and
more umber and so I’m going to maybe take
a green umber and I’m going to let these
lighter areas of this closer leg are very yellow. These lighter parts of this farther
leg are more in the kind of blue range. As
they go back into this cooler greenish environment,
I’m going to push them really green. So this umber-yellow-brown-green is now catching
a gray-yellow-blue highlight, a cool highlight,
so it’ll sit back. The lighter area to be
clear comes forward. The more middle range goes back. The darkest goes back farthest
in this case. The warmer color comes forward. The cooler comes back. The environment has
a lot of blue and yellow in it, and so I’m making this darker highlight or lighter half-tone
area more blue and yellow. I’m allowing the color to tell the story.
Little areas for my brush there.
Now we can come back and do a couple little accents. I’m going to anchor the form, which
means I’m going to push an accent at the deepest darks and potentially at the lightest lights.
Lightest lights we’re not as concerned with.
So I’m just drawing back into that,
and that’s going to allow the fold to the leg and the buttocks shapes to come together
and go deeper and separate without having to render.
That’s going to be a little bit
of the tendinous hamstring separating them from the calf structures and all that kind
of stuff. There’s a little bit of overlap in the reference. When you look at it you’ll
see that. If you look carefully in here, and I’m just giving a hint of that.
Then I’m going to allow this Achilles tendon.
I’m going to get that darker to overlap.
Now three or four times, whatever it was, to get that
just right or as close as I get it right value
and color. Just to give a hint of that tendinous separation there.
So there we go.
Part of the flavor of a sketch is it allows things to flow through. So this leg, that
little move I did started to take the foot and the ankle and start to swing it up into
the swell of the calf as it hides behind here. It actually overlapped and cut into the painterly
silhouette of this front calf. But that kind of ghosting is suggestive because the eye
is going to want to do that anyway. The viewer’s eye is going to see this cut off, but they’re
going to subconsciously imagine that continuation of that calf into that knee and thigh connecting.
If they can’t feel that then they’ll be disappointed and they won’t believe this.
So actually drawing a line that cuts through that you’re actually showing the visual
process they go through, and so they’ll accept that even though that’s in terms
of realism wrong, in terms of the spirit of the form in the
spirit of the gesture exactly right.
Okay, and then I’m just going to come off this little hint of the cheek there.
And the chin is actually poking out underneath the arm.
There is a hand over here.
I’ll just give a hint of.
Then there’s a little tattoo. In a sketch like this, if I’m planning to
do a big finish on this, you know, do a bigger piece and really doing her in this position
I may be planning for that tattoo to be a big part of the painting. So I’ll give a
little hint of that tattoo there. Usually when I’m doing that, I’m not trying to
do the drawing of the tattoo. That would be saved for a more ambitious piece. But I’m
trying to give a setup, my understanding of how I would render that. And so as that tattoo
goes around that arm it might well get bluer on that side, a littler yellower on the other.
And so I mixed a slightly bluer version, this to this. This is the body of the tattoo. I
had a couple strokes of this bluer version here and here, three strokes I guess to show
how it may be turning towards that darkening arm. Then that’s going to be a setup for
my rendering. When I render this beautifully drawn, beautifully hyper maybe realistic tattoo
on that model I can render the heck out of that and know that it’s a blue tattoo, and
that it’s going to go from a darker bluer blue to a lighter greener blue.
And so there we have it.
And so that’s it. Likewise, I might well know that there is going to be some deep,
dark accents that I’ll sneak in here and maybe get very blue, and they’ll be some
other areas where reflected light comes in, and I’ll get a little redder. I’m going
to lighten that up so you can see it on camera there.
And so now this is a very blue-black. I just put a couple of strokes that have nothing
to do with any kind of form, but I might well want to show this structure in volume in the
finish, and I might do a more careful lighting. I might have let this be shot to black because
I don’t know what kind of environment she’s going to be in. Maybe it’s going to be a
woman set in a specific location. I’ve got somebody who’s got this great couch with
a beautiful oriental rug behind, or there’s a window out to the landscape. I do this kind
of non-background, and I can plug this figure in later into something else.
Same thing here. I’ve now got three, actually four colors. I put in that body of the shadow,
and then I did this oranger-brown color, and then I did a slightly darker, redder version
of that, and then I put a fourth little mark that was redder yet. Again, those are notations
now. Notice that lighter, middle, middle-dark, darkest part of the shadows. Now I’ve put
in four different values in that area, four different colors. Each time it went from bluer
to oranger, from oranger to redder, from redder to more intense red. As it changed value,
it changed color. Those, again, become little notations for when I do carefully render that
form, if I’m planning to. Then I know the steps of temperature that will happen as I
change the value. The problem I’ll have in rendering from a sketch like this is I’ll
do something very simple, and then I won’t know how to get the dark shadow from blue
up to the lighter light of yellow. And so I put the little notation of a richer kind
of golden rusty color in there, bronze color in there to show that transition. Now I know
as I go from dark to middle to light there’s three temperatures that happen throughout.
So those are notations. So those kind of things are really important. They add life to sketch
itself. They ring more sophisticated. Maybe since I’ve got it red down here this is
going to pick up a little bit of a red reflected light in there for that overlapping hip or
something. But those kind of little notations really set me up nicely for the finish. So
then I can render off those with my model coming back week after week, and I’ll know
exactly, hopefully, what I need to do to get from this value to that value, from this shadow
to that light. From this foreground to that background. Notice also how the highlights
are always keyed to the half-tone. So when you choose a half-tone make sure it’s dark
enough that the eventual highlight can really pop appropriately. Here I want it to pop a
lot just for fun. There wasn’t much going on in here. It’s off the center of interest.
You know, even the drawing is pretty crude. So I put a little pop of value there just
to make it exciting. Here the highlight doesn’t separate out near as much because I blasted
her out here, so that popped out as a whole silhouette. So the highlight is going to suffer
for that reason. Here we’ve got other little highlights maybe showing off here that are
subtler also. I might want to do a highlight on the hair, for example. She’s got blue-black
hair, let’s say. So that might be a highlight in the hair. That is much darker. Look at
the difference here. Highlight, it’s darker than the darkest shadow there, isn’t it?
And so what’s relatively light in one area would be absolutely way to dark in another
Now I have to fix my painting here.
So I screwed that up. I have to adjust it, and by adjusting
it I left a little bit of the cool in there. That’s going to be fine. That’ll get a
warm and cool vibration going on, and that can actually be very cool, literally,
and cool as in neat.
Okay, so that’s that. The funnest part, well to be honest, it’s not the funnest
part, actually. The obligatory part is you do a little study.
Each of these are not ambitious,
but at each level you try and make it ring true. You try and make the shape have character.
You try and make how the paint comes together, foreground against background. Light against
shadow. Line against mass. Make it interesting, how they come together. Each area tells a
little story, is descriptive, is surprising or at least engaging, let’s say.
That's how you make something that only takes you an hour, let’s say, possibly frameable.
This might be something that we could actually put in a frame.
You can see how sometimes you just can’t stop yourself from going.
At this point, I’m not making it any better
so that means I’m probably geoing to make it worse. So I’ll just let it go at that.
And I will see you next time. Thank you.