- Lesson details
Expert animal draftsman and painter, Joe Weatherly, breaks down the complex subject of animal anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal with confidence and force.
Hardware and Software
- Adobe Photoshop
- Wacom Tablet
Discuss this video in the forums!Discuss
Joe Weatherly breaks down the complex subject of animal
anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will
learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you
will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal
with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe
constructs the super facial muscles of a horse and a lion.
Joe teaches you the terminology for each muscle which helps
differentiate between a carnivore and a herbivore. Joe
also diagrams the skeleton of a canine wolf.
starting at the top, going for the brachiocephalicus and
in this particular diagram meets with
the omotransversarius and in the old days and for many years
these muscles were considered to be one. So the upper portion
here was considered the cervical area of the - or the
area of the brachiocephalicus.
I like to see it as one muscle, but technically I guess it's
two, but we'll group it up here as one. So I made the split
right there and the brachiocephalicus again the arm
to head muscle, long, wide, and strap like, okay. Muscle that
passes from the head down and the neck down to the
So the origin continuously along the top edge of the skull
Inserting on the line of the humerus about halfway down the
Okay. So this is very similar to the carnivore except it's a
little thinner and it doesn't have as much
bulk at the top where it starts like on the canine
or the feline or even the ox, we see more of the upper
portion on the top of the neck, but on the horse, it just meets
the back of the skull and comes straight down into the arm. of straight down into the arm.
Okay. Again, that structure is very simple, long strap like,
passing from the head of the arm.
And remember that this muscle is covering the biceps on the
So you can look at it as having an anterior and the posterior
section or if you want to get technical with the newer slang
brachiocephalicus does split off with the
omotransversarius muscle and become two.
We see how it tucks into the arm right there.
Tucks into the arm, going under the humerus.
Or in front of the humerus actually.
Okay. Now this large triangular shaped muscle which has two
portions, the trapezius. Remember it has the neck
portion and the thoracic portion.
So on the horse that originates on a single continuous line of -
line of the midline in the back of the neck up there.
Actually goes on to a big ligament that's attached to the
base of the skull called the nuchal ligament and that's
another really important thing to know about because it helps
the horse hold its very heavy and large head upright and that
ligament goes all the way down to the back of the lumbar area.
And that neck portion there is inserted into the
ridge or the spine of the shoulder blade there.
Okay shape just keep thinking large flat thin triangle.
Okay, as it stops right there, it's touching the top of some
of the thoracic vertebrae above the chest, above the rib cage.
But what's really important is knowing that it kind of meets
with that nuchal ligament behind the skull and that the
thoracic portion is locking onto the spine of the scapula.
The spine being a bony landmark.
Which is why we've given it the dark blind right there.
Okay, so up here at the top part of the neck we have a
mass. If you look at the bulk of the top of the horse, you
see this mass up there and part of that is from this muscle
this is called the splenius muscle and the splenius
actually. It's disappeared behind the trapezius, but it is
really coming from the thoracic vertebrae up there. So it's
origin is the rear end of the cord of the nuchal ligament. So
that's the - right up there on the back of that giant ligament that
butts up into the head.
And you know, technically it's also originating on the
tips of the upright spines of a third fourth and fifth thoracic
vertebrae, which we don't see in this diagram because we're
simplifying it's also covered but check it out in the book,
look up the muscle splenius and you'll see and then
the action of this
large muscle is to extend the head, lift the head, lift the
pulls it to the side.
So it's the cervical vertebrae that provide anchors for the
majority of the insertion points.
Okay, just marking the trapezius there
and few labels here, brachiocephalicus.
Okay, this is the sternal maxilarus muscle. Solaris muscle.
Otherwise known as external cephalicus muscle meaning cephalic has muscle meaning
sternum to head muscle.
So where it originates actually is the cartilage at the front
end of the sternum, which is being hidden right now in the
side view and actually inserts halfway down the rear edge of
the lower jaw. So yes, this muscle is touching the jaw. So
every time the head moves, this moves.
Its action is to pull the head and neck downward.
Long narrow muscle, again passing from
chest to the neck. Think about the sternomastoid in the human.
Sternohyoid muscle here. We saw this on the - or the feline.
That's the small triangular shaped muscle that I just did
in fuchsia right there.
Good transition from the lower jaw into the neck.
Remember I said almost all the animals are going to have that.
Okay and the sternohyoid originates from the sternum and
then inserts into the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage,
which we don't see in this diagram.
Okay, it's a filling the rest of this gap right here in the
neck between the brachiocephalicus and the
trapezius is a large fan like muscle that has two sections.
This is the serratus ventralis. This is the actually trayless. This is the actually
the serratus ventralis cervicis which means it's the neck
portion as opposed to the chest portion, which we'll get to
later. So origin of the neck portion, sides of the third and
fourth to seventh neck vertebrae. So it's originating
down there on those cervical vertebraes as they go
insertion point is
the deep surface of the upper half of the shoulder blade.
Basically, it's behind the shoulder blade. Anyways, we
can't tell right now, but I'm making some lines here to show
you how underneath the trapezius, this muscle fans out
and creates that gap right there.
So the neck portion is -
it divides into several, I
guess you could call them bundles, to come to the surface
again between the trapezius and the brachiocephalicus right
Okay, now we're on the shoulder area.
This is where there's a little extra section here where things
start peeping through.
Okay, so remember the scapula had two muscles, one on each side
of the spine.
And one was called the supraspinatus, that's in the
front, one was called the infraspinatus in the back. So
going over that is this muscle which is the deltoid.
Okay, it's got the spinal portion meaning it originates
in the spine of the scapula,
underlying the infraspinatus.
And the rear portion originates in the upper back corner of
And the insertion is about one third of the way down the humerus.
So deltoid's in red.
Kind of like a V shape on the horse, much thinner on a horse
than obviously the carnivores.
Okay, that is the supraspinatus popping through.
And this is the infraspinatus in blue back here behind that.
A little bit of that is also showing through on the
superficial view even though it's a deeper muscle.
And finally infraspinatus in blue.
Okay, let's fill the back of the arm in with the giant
tricep, tricep brachii.
The long hair goes up to the rear border of the scapula.
Curved head or the outer head is on the curved ridge of the
upper side of the humerus and the insertion is the elbow or
the olecranon process of the elbow, the ulna
Okay, this is the lateral head I am defining right now. The
one that sits on top of the humerus.
And this is the long head of the triceps brachii.
Going right on up to the backside of that scapula.
Okay, we're going for the
underside of the rib cage now.
Note the shape.
So in the horse is called the pectoralis ascendance
And it's the actually the the posterior deep pectoral muscle.
Okay, it originates on the cartilage of the fourth through
ninth ribs and the adjacent surface of the sternum,
the xiphoid cartilage at the rear end of the sternum and the
surface of the front of the abdomen. It's got a lot of
origination points there. Can only see this on a side view.
And is inserting into the inside corners of the humerus.
Like any pectoralis muscle it's action is to pull the limb
toward the body, toward the midline of the body and pull
the limbs backward.
Okay, if you keep muscle shapes there for the flexors and
extensors just very simplified.
All right, the big blanket of the back here, the
latissimus dorsi a very large thin triangular muscle that
lies on the side of the chest.
But being relatively thin allows some of the serratus
serratus ventralis in the forms of the individual ribs to be seen
underneath. So think about a thin blanket covering the back
here and stuff underneath it popping through or influencing
the surface of it, but it's striations are pulling up this
way because the muscle is inserting
on the inner surface of the humerus,
very close to where the teres major inserts.
Okay now we are dealing with the thoracic portion
or the chest portion of the serratus ventralis.
So this is the serratus ventralis thoracics. trayless thoracics.
The green - you can see the green muscles above is the same
muscle, but that would be the above meaning below the
That is the cervical or neck portion.
Okay that chest portion originates
at the end of the first eight or nine ribs.
And it's intertwining here with the great external oblique. So
that's what I'm drawing here in the blue.
Okay. So this is the superficial neck and torso
muscles of the horse, very similar to what we did with the
some mild differences. Well, there's definitely some
difference in the deltoid, but
these are for you to compare the herbivore
against the carnivore.
deeper muscles of the horse, the muscles that attach the
forelimb to the torso so to speak and just some of the
deeper muscles in the neck that take and influence the surface form.
Some of these we've covered already but it never hurts to
go over them again. So starting with this one, this is the
that originates on the outer surface of the front portion of
the scapula and the cartilage and inserts on the inner and
outer corners of the top of the humerus right there. So this
one we see
a little bit on the -
exposed on the superficial structure of the horse.
Muscle takes and extends the shoulder joint, draws the limb
forward and behind it, behind the spine of the scapula on the
other side we have the infraspinatus.
Okay, and the outer surface of the rear portion of the scapula
and the cartilage is where that muscle originates, inserting
once again on the humerus on the outside top edge.
And this is a rotator of the arm pulling the limb away from
Next up on the list we have a small muscle
belonging to the external scapular region, and this is
the teres minor. Maybe you heard about this one in human
Small elongated muscle, almost entirely concealed beneath the
posterior branch of the deltoid and
also a little bit of the teres minor which I'm drawing now
covers part of it. So teres minor - or excuse me teres major
in red here is originating on the upper third rear side of
the shoulder blade
and inserting out of the humerus there, short vertical
line on the inner surface.
Okay a shoulder joint,
narrow slightly flattened muscle.
Really only comes to the surface on a feline.
The latissimus dorsi is gonna cover it in the horse and as is
Okay now for the large blankets of the back so to speak see how
I went over the scapula with that. This is the latissimus
Very broad triangular muscle, part fleshy and part what we
call aponeurotic, which means it has a fascia in the back,
which I'm drawing right here, and that is going to
roll over the
well basically takes up the whole cover, the whole top part
of the thorax right there.
So this muscle extends from the withers to the croup think
about it that way, withers meaning the back of the
tombstone back at the shoulders. They're all the way
to the croup which is the starting of the pelvis or the
It also bends in to that hollow flanked
with the oblique muscles near the loins. So when that - I keep
talking about how the loins roll over right there and gets
very cylindrical and the aponeurosis here of this Neurosis here of this
latissimus dorsi rolls over into that as well.
Okay inserting into the humerus
after it joins a tendon of the teres major.
So it's on the interface of the shaft of the humerus
behind the arm bone there.
And again, the anterior border of the muscle overlaps the
posterior part of the cartilage and dorsal angle of the scapula
The scapula kind of tucks underneath it at the edge.
And as it comes down, it's going to pass under along the
head of the triceps, which we haven't put in yet.
Going over the form, showing how it rolls over the edge of the
scapula and creates the tone right there and the fibers are
kind of coming up from the humerus and rolling up to the
thoracic vertebrae across the rib cage.
So again with shapes you want to see the big flat triangle,
but if you want to model it a little bit you want to make
sure the striations and the tones go with the form.
Which is the actual way of the fibers of the muscles.
Okay, I'm giving the aponeurosis or the facial part of Our osis or the facial part of
this latissimus dorsi side a little bit of a different color
to separate it from the fleshier muscular part.
Okay, so going deep inside here onto the spine. I want to go
with the muscles
called serratus ventralis and those are pulling from the -
well, it's there's it's a large fan-like shape muscle we talked
about before and the origin of the neck portion is the side of
a third or fourth and seventh neck vertebrae.
I've simplified the neck so I'm not counting the vertebrae
right there, but it's very close and the chest portion
will talk about later that goes from underneath the latissimus
the - part of this can be seen on the superficial muscles, so
the neck portion also pulls the upper end of the shoulder blade
Not only does it help hold that big neck up, but it pulls the
blade forward, it goes underneath the blade. You can
see I made those yellow strokes going to its -
to the area behind the scapula.
So when it comes to the surface, it's between the
trapezius and the brachiocephalicus.
And if you look at any superficial muscles of the
horse in a book you always see these projecting structures
going this way and between those areas and that's what
that is is the serratus ventralis, older books known trayless and older books known
as the levator anguli scapulae. scapulae.
Okay, this muscle I'm feeling it now, very deep.
I'm making it just one big colored shape. It's called a
subscapulo-hyoideus and it's a thin wide muscle situated
deep in the neck obviously
and the only place it really shows, which I'm not drawing, is
the throat area.
It emerges between the two branches of the sternomaxilaris
muscle. And kind of covers the upper end of the
windpipe, but we got to fill in the space here with something
to you know, make the neck full and that's what's happening
it's a muscle that helps control
the hyoid, how the horse swallows and then back up here
we have - above the
serratus ventralis is the bulky round shape of the neck.
That pretty much could be seen fairly well from the surface
and that's the splenius. We talked about the splenius
And on top of the splenius
is the rhomboid. And the rhomboid originates
the side of the lower two-thirds of the nuchal
ligament, which is that strong ligament that holds the horse's
head up that goes all the back line of the body. down the back line of the body.
And it also is attaching to some of the upward projections
of the thoracic vertebrae
and intervening with the ligament at the seventh
thoracic vertebra, so the top few vertebrae and
then it comes down
and inserts itself on the inner surface of the
cartilage of the shoulder blade. So right behind the
the rhomboid is attaching itself.
Okay helps to pull the upper end of the shoulder blade
forward, upward, and against the body.
Really pointed in the front end and again consists of the two
parts, the neck and the chest parts. It's continuous, one big
muscle, but the chest chest portion is
long and narrow.
Okay this muscle is the sternomaxilaris muscle.
In front of the subscapular hyoideus muscle there. Ohio. Yes muscle there.
Originates at the cartilage of the end of the sternum and
pulls up into the rear of the lower end of the jaw, which we
don't see here.
Just naming some some of these muscles again that I talked
Below that you have the splenius.
in red in the front.
back to the deep posterior section of the chest.
So the posterior deep pectoral muscle also known as the
That's what that shape is originating on the cartilage of
the fourth through ninth ribs.
And obviously the adjacent surface of the sternum. So
basically the sternum
including the xiphoid cartilage and inserting on the inner and
outer corner of the upper end of the humerus. So inside of
Okay, so it's a large area of attachment
on the lower portion of the rib cage.
Pulls the limb towards the midline of the body, also helps
to pull the limb rearward, backwards. Okay.
Other part of the serratus ventralis. rayless
This is the chest portion.
So these muscles, you know at the tips they have
angles that kind of looks saw like. Hence the name serrated alike. Hence the name serrated
or serratus from the serrated edge look.
And remember these are going up all the way to the top of the
rib cage. So behind the latissimus dorsi.
If you look at it without the latissimus dorsi it's even more
obvious it's a fan-shaped muscle connecting the upper end of the
shoulder blade to the side of the rib cage.
And the part we're seeing now, which becomes superficial, is the
lower rear portion, just under latissimus dorsi.
Okay, external obliques. That's the
that's the most of the mass here
intertwining with these muscles.
And where it's originating is the rear end of the outer
surface of the last 14 ribs, the fascia between the ribs,
and the side of the surface of the spinal muscles in the
lumbar region, so it goes all the way up to the lumbar area.
Inserting to the midline of the abdomen the linea alba.
From the sternum to the front end of the bottom of the pelvis
or the pubic bone. So similar to the abdominal tunic which is
External oblique also known as a great oblique.
The action of the external oblique is to compress the
abdomen and flex the trunk.
Mostly the lumbar area.
Okay so what I'm doing here is trying to make make these
muscle fibers in a very general way with this painting in
Photoshop here, kind of converge into the direction of those
Okay. So underneath this greater oblique we have the
abdominal tunic and that is just basically the bottom, the
stomach, and where the ab muscles are going to go below that.
Okay I want to refine a few of the design elements here of -
redefine, I guess you can say, some of the contour of this
Okay, once again be thinking about clear shapes, shapes that
you can memorize and locate and that's what's going to help you
to make the anatomy come a lot easier.
color coding is not a bad idea too, I like to draw -
I'll do these in pen, I'll do them in pencil but sometimes
when you put color in them, it helps you to memorize and
at least you can do it in groups like sensors, flexors,
things like that. So you have an idea of how to separate them
in your mind and better learn them. Okay neck and torso deep
muscles of the horse.
muscles of the neck and torso.
So it's always good to have the skeleton here too and the
general proportions to start anatomy drawing like this.
what I'm starting with here is a very large muscle, very common
in the neck region that's on the surface and this is the
brachiocephalic, maybe a more common name in the old
days or in some books is the mastoidohumeralis or the
cephalic humeral, but just think about this one as the
main bulk of the neck and how it goes down into the humerus
bone here. So,
anyways, it's got different portions. It's a complex
muscle, but it's one muscle but it has sections that go
up into the
cervical area and some go down into the arm area. But
brachiocephalicus means arm to head muscle. So it's a long
wide strap like muscle that passes from the head down the
neck and basically in front of the elbow in that region.
Okay. So on the feline the origin is midline on the back,
on the front half of the neck to the top of the neck there So the top of the neck there
it also attaches to the base of the skull on the feline.
Inserting in all the way down here on the inner surface
of the humerus just in front of the ulna.
So this muscle is covering the biceps.
Actually this muscle - this muscle pulls the entire forelimb
forward, also extends the shoulder joint. And this is the
muscle that pulls the head and the neck to one side.
Sometimes you see horses, you ride a horse, pull their neck
and head to one side with the reigns. This is the muscles
responsible for that little line I just made
in front of the scapula is actually
where the clavicle would have been. So that tendon right
is representing the vestigial area of what could have
been a clavicle
which is absent on this animal so that tendon separates that
area runs across the muscle like that.
And is actually thicker separation in the cat than it
would be in the canine.
Okay, so in front of this
this one you can probably relate to with the human
anatomy. It's - again this a muscle is being partly
concealed by the brachiocephalicus, the whole
muscle is the sternocephalicus, has
sternum to head muscle. It's got different stages
or different areas on different animals, but on the
starts up at the base of the skull behind the ear hole
or the mastoid process
and inserts itself down there on the
top of the pit of the neck.
Or the sternum. Okay, that little throat muscle there,
that is a good transition into the -
from the neck to the body and that is the sternohyoid muscle,
originates in the deep surface of the front of the sternum and
the front edge of the cartilage of the first rib, but it
inserts up into the hyoid bone, which is in the throat.
Just think about it as a triangular shape that you
got to get on the side view is a good transition from the
bottom of the jaw into the neck.
Good outline shape for the neck itself. Okay. So moving right
along to a very important muscle from the
top of the neck under the scapula here. This is the
And on the cat the trapezius originates midline of
the lower portion of the back of the neck.
And also on the front portion of the thorax, so it goes
starts top of the neck and continues all the way down to
the top part of the thorax or the front half of the rib cage
so to speak.
And that gives it two portions so you have the neck portion and
then you have the thoracic portion of those are separated
by the spine of the scapula. Insertion of the neck portion
is the upper three fourths of the spine of the shoulder blade,
spine of the scapula.
And the thoracic portion
of the feline
inserts a third of the way down the spine on the
thoracic vertebrae that tips there.
Trapezius is thicker in the dog and the feline that his in the
even more so in the feline.
This muscle gets very developed and the thoracic
portion is thicker than the neck portion actually.
So it's good to think about, you know, if you're - when you're
drawing this muscle how it really lodges onto the spine of
And it's a landmark the spine of the scapula.
This muscle is
seen on the feline from the side view.
And it's called the omotransversarius, also known as transverse Arius also known as
trachelo acromialis because it goes on to me Alice because it goes on to
the acromion process there of the scapula.
Originates on the lower end of the side of the first neck
vertebrae, which is hidden here,
and also the base of the skull. So it goes way up into the base
there and inserts, the lower end it goes right there onto
the spine of the shoulder blade and also the surface of the
Okay this little area right here that I'm adding some of these
orange colors to is
barely noticeable, more so on the equines, but this is
the serratus muscles.
The serratus ventralis muscles and those fan out
across the neck and the thoracic vertebrae. You really
got to do a deep layer diagram to get the idea. This green
one I'm putting in right here is a little bit of the
supraspinatus which we covered with the shoulders peeping
through right there. So you do see a little bit of that muscle
on the feline and the canine.
You know, this is the muscle that we've covered
before but we are going to put it in again, never hurts to go
over it many times, this is the deltoid.
And the origin is you remember has the acromial portion the has the acromial portion?
and that is the lower end of the spine of the scapula and
the spinal portion.
In the feline this final portion originates from the
lower two-thirds of the spine.
Spine of the scapula that is.
Okay inserts all the way down to the outside of the humerus.
Deltoid flexes the shoulder joint, pulls the forelimb away
from the body.
note the shape.
Okay, big muscle.
Big muscle that extends the elbow joint, flexes the shoulder
Originating about half or two-thirds of the rear length
of the scapula.
And inserting on to the acromion process.
Excuse me, the olecranon process of the ulna there. So
the elbow essentially.
So you'll see actually the two shapes of one above another,
that's the long head.
And then the lateral head is the big one below that,
laying across the top of the humerus.
What I'm going to do is come in here and just darken this
shape so you again start to see this
as a shape that you can visualize, memorize, and not
just, you know, be something that's a confusing mass which
sometimes it can be in an anatomy book.
Got to boil it down.
Think about it in terms of shapes and volumes.
Few highlights that pop the form.
Okay. So now we go for the large muscle of the back, the
This is like a big blanket that goes across the rib cage
here. Very thin muscle.
It actually has a wide tendon behind it, which I will draw in
a minute, that starts in the lumbar area and that is - it's
actually part of the muscle as well. So you can compare it to
human anatomy. You can see how the wide tendon in the back
goes all the way down to the pelvis, covering the lumbar
But it does insert on the inner surface of the humerus
approximately one-third of the way down the bone right near the
Which has been hidden right now, but think about this large
back muscle going all the way into the humerus just like it
does on a human.
Okay, getting these striations that go over the ribs.
Just stroking them sort of up and over.
Think about the direction of the form.
What the latissimus does is
does flexes the shoulder joint, pulls the humerus up and back.
Okay, think about it large thin triangular muscle lying on
the side of the chest and again because it's relatively thin it
allows some of the muscles and forms of the individual ribs to
be seen from underneath.
Okay, there's the outline of the shape.
And I'm going to extend that all the way back to the origin,
which is the surface of the spinal muscles
through the lumbar region.
Basically the tips of the vertebrae in that area.
So the pink area is the wide tendon of the latissimus dorsi
going over the lines.
Okay, so coming along the bottom of the rib cage here is
the pectoralis minor, otherwise known as the pectoralis
profundus and it originated on most of the sternum except from
Coming over and asserting itself onto the humerus which
we don't see covered by the triceps.
So it's seen in the lower side of the portion of the chest.
Upper edge directed towards the shoulder joint in the feline.
Because it's the pectoralis major that's in front of that,
which we only see from the front view.
Alright. So anyways, this is just locking down a few the just locking down a few
things to make it look more like a lion and this is the
muscles of the neck and torso of a lion, which is a feline.
And notice how I've made everything simplified color
coded and shape driven.
One more for the road. Let's fill in this whole area with a
muscle that's called the external oblique.
And the external oblique,
which covers quite a bit of the ribs there,
originating on the last nine or ten ribs
and inserts on the midline of the abdomen, which we don't see
from a side view.
So it's going over the rib cage
and creating this - well, it's almost like it does in a human.
So it's the side, the flanks. Canine skeleton. Gonna take a
photograph here of a wolf and knock in the skeleton with
a simplified Photoshop brush here.
All right starting with the skull. Now I want to see how
those eye sockets opened up in the front right here because
we're dealing with a carnivore, not an herbivore.
And following that back
up into the top here. First - well, secondly, I want to find
my center, should have been the first thing I did. Find the center and
work out that roundish
braincase shape and the ridge of that, which is the occipital
ridge, at the top coming over to the other side, finding the
other eye socket three quarter front. We only see the edge of it.
And how does that nasal cavity open up, leaving just enough
cartilage there for the nose, the nostril, and the fleshy part
of the septum.
Okay this is simplified, we're just knocking this in as a
stick figure, basically.
Good exercise to do, there's a zygomatic arch, the cheekbone.
And the jaw. Ask yourself how much jaw are we really seeing because
this is sort of a down shot of this wolf. So we're not
seeing quite the full amount of the jaw. Some of it is tucked
underneath, the malar region, zygomatic regions and you know,
there's some mild foreshortening going on here.
Okay, moving up into the long chain of vertebrae known as the
There is the opening
of the rib cage and I'm trying to come back and find where I
think the back of it is, the last rib, floating rib.
And then sitting this shape into that dog's torso, so
gotta save a little bit of room for the vertebrae, but that's
about the volume of the rib cage right there.
All right jumping around a little bit. That's the ulna.
Comes down into the pisiform bone and in front of that we get
These bones don't rotate as much as they do on a feline,
but they're still separated. Pisiform bone right there.
Carpal mass simplified and those are the very simplified
metacarpals and carpals.
Excuse me metacarpals and phalanges. Okay up here we have
the upper arm bone buried inside the trunk. This is the
Okay scapula on the side of the rib cage.
Tilting back slightly. There's spine in the middle. And then now
we can see where that junction is in the point of the shoulder
there where the humerus hits the shoulder blade.
Curving, coming back down, and gliding into the ulna or the
Continuing the spine into the curved lumbar area.
Here I'm just thinking about cylinders, thinking how round
Giving us some simplified vertebrae across the top there.
Some projections of the dorsal vertebrae.
And that is a simplified stick figure for sure of what is
happening with the arm on the other side. I just want to get
that direction. Do it all the time when I'm drawing animals.
I don't need to draw the full bone. I just draw the direction
of a couple of simple lines to indicate what's happening with
the humerus or something with like, in this case the would like in this case. The
neck is in front of that bone. So
we don't want to just guess, we want to you know, draw through.
Okay back here on the pelvis and the femur coming out of the
That leg's lifted so the femur is dropped a little bit on the
sides of the left.
Kneecap, and then we're going to go into the crest of a tibia,
tibia there, fibula behind it.
calcaneus bone and the metatarsals.
Then the toes.
Okay, some directional strokes on the rib cage and
that's going to do it. So keep this in mind. It's a great
exercise to do. Pull photos into Photoshop or you can even do it with
tracing paper and draw a skeletons from. Great idea.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview50sNow playing...
Watch the whole lesson with a subscription
2. Neck & Horse Superficial Muscles21m 0s
3. Superficial muscles continued18m 37s
4. Large Cat Side View12m 23s
5. Large Cat Side view & Canine Diagram12m 5s