- Lesson details
Expert animal draftsman and painter, Joe Weatherly, breaks down the complex subject of animal anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe explains the critical muscles and bones to analyze when dealing with animal anatomy and explains their relative importance. Joe will draw a horse, starting with the basic forms and skeleton working from the skeleton outwards.
Hardware and Software
- Adobe Photoshop
- Wacom Tablet
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Joe Weatherly breaks down the complex subject of animal
anatomy using clear and easy to understand concepts. You will
learn how to tackle a wide range of animal types and you
will gain a methodology for quickly drawing any new animal
with confidence and force. In this video lesson, Joe
compares the major differences between the carnivores and
herbivores skull. Joe will also analyze the structure of a
large cat skull, working from the skeleton outwards to the
an important chapter in this discussion because the head is
the clue to drawing something to where most of the character
is, most of the expression is now.
The skull is very important for drawing a good head. So
what I'm going to do is block this in a minute with
the horse and next we'll go over to a carnivore which is a
dog and compare the two. So while I'm blocking this in,
going general to specific,
just want to state again that the skull is the skeleton of
the head. It determines the overall shape of the head and
if you don't understand the skull, you can't draw a good
doesn't matter if you're gonna do portraiture just draw heads,
but - or most importantly if you want to draw the head from any
angle, you got to be able to understand the skull. So this
demo is going to break down some of the main bones of the
head and just looking at the planes of the skull and we'll
compare these to The planes of the construction head side by
side with one plant-eating animal and one meat-eating animal.
Okay, so first off
the skull consists of two distinct pieces. You get the
upper jaw and the cranium and then you have the lower jaw. So
I said before from a side view you can picture the
head or the skull as being sort of like a pair of tongs, you
know, salad tongs or something that pick something up. That's
kind of a simplified way to look at it. Now what I've done here
ovoid shape of the brain case in green up there and that is
because that is a very special volume in the top of the head
and it's good for getting
not too big not too little up there. You want to get that
narrowness that - and the most of what we're dealing with
here is face and jaw, whereas the brain case itself, the
cranium which houses the brain is much more smaller and
Also, you'll see me
carving this out so I just carved out the nasal cavity. Now I'm
carving out a little bit of how the jaw works and that space in
there. So if this is a three quarter front view
then it's going to be in perspective and that's the
reason I drew is so we can compare that later on and talk
about the importance of having things line up.
Okay, this is the masseteric ridge. Very important bone.
I'll tell you why in a minute.
And so for the most part now the skull has been laid in, it
looks you know, it has a top, it has a side, has the front.
It's box like and it's ready for a little bit of refinement.
Okay up here we have the occipital ridge of the parietal
bone. The parietal bone is, you know, the brain case so to
And the ridge above that,
occipital ridge, is a bony protuberance that sticks out on
the top of that. You know, it has a midline called the
occipital protuberance and it's important because that's where
there's going to be a separation between the head and
the neck, also because that's where a large tendon is going
to back up into that and support the weight of this
great big heavy skull, of course this a very big head. So the
occipital area is where a lot of big muscles come up and
attach and one big large tendon
that braces the head and the neck together.
Cheekbone, zygomatic Arch, I'm drawing that now. Very narrow on
a horse, very narrow on a human, very big on a carnivore. We'll
get to that later.
But that's good. That's the cheekbone that takes you from
the eye to the back of the ear. So you know where to put the
base of the ear.
Jaw slips through that. So the top of the mandible
slips through this thing called the coronoid process which
comes up and goes - shoots through the zygomatic area.
So I like to look at the bottom side of the maxilla or
mandible - it's got both names - as rounded, as sort of like a
disc shape on a horse. It could be seen as square and it could
also be - it is much more square in certain other animals such
as the deer, the goat. So it depends on what you're drawing
but basically it's where the masseter muscle goes. So it's a
large plane. Okay, there's the masseteric ridge and
underneath that I put some tone. Masseteric ridge is
important on a horse because it catches all that light. It
comes out, sticks out, and faces upwards.
And below it is the great muscle of the masseter, which
we'll get to in the next section, that comes up
underneath that. And when animals are eating, you know,
it's not just the edge of their mouth that's moving. This jaw,
the whole jaw is moving from its hinge in the back, what you
see what you notice when horses are eating is the flexible part
of the front of the mouth, but really it's both, you know
top and bottom.
That's doing the chewing there.
Okay, again getting my center, very important, draw through,
make some cross contours. This is a construction demo. We want
to learn the sculptural qualities of his head. So one
way to do that in a linear fashion is to draw your center
and draw the cross contour around the form, over the form,
in the form.
Teaches you a lot about where to put value shifts,
where to put color changes,
where to is shave out for a sculpture.
And it's really like that. So the skull is not flat. It's
not a contour line drawing. It's very dimensional.
Marking some of the bones here. So we have
frontal, parietal, nasal bone,
and of course the zygomatic arch cheekbone.
So the directions are there, you have a rounded shape against
a straight shape. Very design oriented.
So I hit the big ones, the big planes there. Most of
the major bones.
Didn't hit all the subdivisions. So we're going
general here. Now. I'm going to compare it with the planes of
the head. So I'm laying this in, this is sort of a
box-like structure, top of a horse's head and other animals
is compared to the shape of a kite or a coffin lid. I like - a
little gruesome then you go for the kite. Otherwise the you
know, the side plane is very box like. So you have the top
eyes on the side although on a horse looks like they're sort
of on the edge of being from the front and the side they're
really on the side and
once you get those eye socks in place remember you got to have
enough space in between the eyes going to make them too
Lining them up. So that that is what that line is for.
Okay, that steps down. So you notice that change a little bit,
so you have the center of the forehead coming down a little
That will be a place where it starts to take tone.
So the subtle modeling I'm doing now in the linear
construction is based on the planes
of the skull that I just dug out over there.
Mouth being more of the fleshy part, so when the nasal bone
ends we get to the mouth. On a horse we have a series get a horse. We have a series
of box like shapes that take and turn downward.
And on the side of that I've cut, you know, placed the
nostril. So the nostril is on the side not the front. Lips
wrap around that those teeth, that area is called the
denture sphere on humans
sphere meaning it's - the lips are wrapping around that. So the
actual muscle is the orbicularis oris, we'll get to
that in the next lesson, but
that is what's happening there. So with a horse,
you know, you have the roundness there in the mouth.
The eye is very globular. So it's a spherical form. You
don't want to draw it as an almond shape. You want to draw
it as the mass that it is and then you sculpt around it and then you
put the lids over then you put the lids under it, make it a
globular form first.
All right indication of the zygomatic arch up there, very
prominent on a horse. Like I was saying
how about you can feel the skull. So if you touch a horse,
you look at a horse and pet it it has - you can feel its bones
on the top of its head.
The zygomatic arch
clear as day on a horse.
The muscles of the face are wafer-thin which means the
skull dictates the shape of the face and the head more so than
any other body part.
A lot of bones are buried inside mass. For example, the
femur is buried in your leg. We don't see it but not so
on the head, those most those bones are really out there on
showing things. Okay. So the ear here is behind the eye
above a zygomatic arch, and I've drawn it here
with its base being very round and cylindrical so it's sort of
pop into a socket, ball and socket so to speak. Because
animals ears can move around in many different directions
unlike humans. Humans can't move their ears that way so animals
go forward, back, side ways. They use their ears different ways
for different reasons, you know, a lot of it
has to do with how they're feeling.
So remember that, the ears can rotate independently.
But you don't want to make them too flat.
You got to make sure you have that base that's nice and round.
The rest of the ear is going to come up and open up sort of
like a flower does.
Alright, then there's the masseteric ridge.
You can see the difference or the comparison there with
All right, so making some refinements on that top plane,
that kite shape.
And when we get to the fleshy part of the nose right here, we
got to realize that it's made out of cartilage. It has the
nostrils themselves have two sections. They call it comma
cartilage in the shape of a comma.
Area above the nostril is called the false nostril and
that area is usually it could be full of you know, mass
because below it, remember when you're drawing the nostril you
have - a horse can have a very dilated nostril, it can be wide
open nostril, could be nostrils closed. So their nostrils can
take on more different attitude so to speak than say
a feline or a cat where the nose is what it is, doesn't change.
The chin is indeed there. So there's a small chin underneath
the last or the lower lip on a horse, juts out just a little
Now this area is - I'm making it green, it's sort of it's another -
I'm going to make it just the same color as the
brain casing up here because it's another oval shape or
ovoid shape. So you want to be aware of that shapes within the
that area is very ovoid. It's roundish. It's elongated. It's
soft and fleshy. That's where there's a lot of muscle filling
in an area. Now the jaw again I said is roundish but it could
feel straight when the muscle's on it. So it's a combination of
both, but that section there is very important for a side
plane. That is the lower jaw,
masseter muscle area.
Doing some refining here, dropping some tone in just a
little bit so we can get some more dimension.
Those three arrows indicate the plane change of the nose, like I
said is a series of boxes that are going down.
It's always good to put a little bit of the neck in and
upper and lower part of the neck when you're drawing the head.
It's a nice transition, gives us something to attach to.
Alright the importance of having your features line up.
That's what this is. So everything should be parallel
to one another. The eye should line up with the nose. Nose
should line up with the mouth, back of the head should line up
with the eye. So everything is in proper perspective. If you want
you can continue this and draw a box around or above the
animal's head. But this is what I like to do. It keeps
everything lined up. That way one eye is not higher than the
other one, nostril's not off to the side, things are the way they
are supposed to be. Front side, back
side, bottom, that sort of thing.
move down and work on the skull of a carnivore. This is going
to be a dog. So we can compare the difference between the
plant eater and the meat eater. Right off the bat drawing and
starting with the gesture and some basic shapes, general to
Okay, and once this is laid in, I can start to take and refine.
Now, I've already got that
round shape there laid in for the brain case. Now remember
it's, you know, much larger on a human. So that's another way to
look at it.
Okay, cranium gets green.
So that spherical shape is also known as the parietal bones and
on top of that you're going to get, you know, a center line
and below it, right below it is the frontal bone.
See how the eyes are - the sockets are different than on
the horse. So we have little bits of the different cut out
sockets going on right now.
These sockets are saying this animal looks forward, this
animal pursues its prey.
And behind them we start to see these massive cheekbones, much
bigger than on a horse.
Which are necessary for large muscle attachments.
So dogs can have a wide variety of nasal planes. Obviously some
have short faces, some have long faces. But whatever you
do you want to make sure you get that strength in the nasal
Again, we're dealing with a three quarter front so things on our
right are going to be bigger than things on the left.
Alright, so now I'm coming in here and just working the
area that takes and gets quite a bit of tone, which is the
corner of the eye nasal ridge.
Now the occipital ridge on the canine and especially the feline
is pretty big.
So I'm putting round round cylindrical lines on the
as it leads into the
maxillary bone in front of it.
And here what's important is top, side, bottom, and then
cutting through the bottom to get to the inside.
So we're seeing it, you know, we're looking inside a cavity.
It does take on tone, but
as the eye socket does,
but it's going to have an inside like that. So we see
sort of through it.
All right going over the top, coming down, cross contour.
Thinking about where the jaw ends, the chin so to speak, and
redefining the bottom of the jaw as it comes up and goes
the zygomatic arch.
Course the teeth are much different than on the horse. We
have - there is incisor teeth,
there's molars, but there's - what makes them much different
is canines and there's going to be four large canines on these
dogs and cats that are absent on the horse.
And now for the drawing of the planes of the head of a dog
to compare to the skull.
Starting off with a box for the
brain area and then eyes going right there in the front
not on the side, come out, elongate the mouth and the
Simplify the ears, figure out what kind of dog I'm
drawing because their ears can be very different obviously.
And start to line things up.
There's the presence of that cheekbone.
Again eyes. Eyes you don't want to put too close to the bridge
of the nose.
There's always a tone in front of the eye, like specially on
cat took a dark black area. Looks like eyeliner and that
really helps to set the eye into the socket more when you
put that in.
Okay. So what I'm doing now is I'm throwing some tone and
below the eye, in front of the eye, and these areas you can see
why the skull sinks in. So that is going to be a big plane
change in a drawing or a painting or definitely a
Now the fleshy part of the nose,
the nostril, well that is what is leaving -
well, let me say this. There's a thing called the nasal septum,
which we'll get to.
And the septum is transitioning into the nostrils.
And that's going to support the framework of the nostrils.
So you can see where the nasal plane has ended and the
cavity of the nasal bone. Then if we get to the fleshy part,
which is the nasal septum, and then we get on to the nostrils
themselves, the common shape nostrils, basically,
also known as the wings of the nostrils. One on each side.
And again much different on a carnivore than it would be on a
horse, very fixed so to speak. Very well, you know, if you
touch a dog's nose, it's going to feel a lot different than a
horse's, much firmer.
Coloring in the nasal septum.
Now the mouth on dogs is a little bit tricky. What you want to
really strive for is making sure that the mouth is not too
close or doesn't go up towards the eye too much, into the
mouth. And one thing you got to get in there is what we call
the whisker bed and that is the basically the form that sits
on top of
the area I'm drawing right now, which is the maxillary area. So
there's a whisker bed that is just you know,
an area that is very ovoid, again similar to the brain case,
and it takes on the whiskers, they are implanted in there. And
then the mouth kind of juts out to the side below that.
So more roundness here, very tight masseter muscle, very
I like to indicate this very important form.
And that is the determining factor of where the mouth stops.
That muscle is called zygomaticus. We'll get to that on
the muscles of the head but it's important because it gives you
this line from the cheekbone down to the edge of the mouth
and then you know where to stop your mouth. And if you just
bring the line of the mouth all the way up towards the top,
looks like a cartoon character, which is fine if you're making
a cartoon character, but for a naturalistic animal you got to
know where to stop that mouth, how it's constructed.
Okay, just kind of restating the box shape of the skull
Redefining the ears the ears are very different in dogs.
They could be very rigid and cartilage like
and they can be very floppy. This is I guess the floppy
So these ears actually fall over one another.
Or the upper part falls over the lower part.
All right keeping the features lined up
as compared to the skull.
Okay, so just to restate for bones of the head, remember
is the the skeleton of the head. It dictates the shape of
the face more than you think it does. You gotta know - you gotta
draw skulls a lot and you want to - you want to own some skulls.
If you can't own some skulls to practice from get to a museum
and draw some skulls, even if they're prehistoric mammals.
They're still going to work. It's going to help you out
quite a bit. It's no different than a figures on. And figure
drawing, the skull is studied and that's when good head
drawing starts to take place. Now if you want to draw
these animals heads from your imagination you definitely got
to understand the skull along with the planes of the head. So
it's a combination package there.
All right little zoom in
gonna do here is a tiger and I'm laying it in as a gesture - a
combination of gesture and quick shapes, just to get
something on the page. Thinking about the position, what I'm
going to be doing with the legs, very important to me. I don't
want to be static. So I push one back leg out more, one
forward, come up to the front, spine's joined everything
together and one leg's going forward, one's going back. So it's
sort of in a walking position.
And this is three quarter back so I have to keep that in mind with
everything in perspective. What's, you know, how much of
the head are we going to see, is a head tilted back towards me
a little bit, is it going forward, things like that. Now
the thing about the tiger, like I said before the felines, it
doesn't matter what kind of cat you're drawing, they all have
the same sort of build, it's just much bigger and more
impressive. I guess you could say on something as large as
All right. Anyways,
I go really light in the beginning.
Whether it's drawing on this Wacom tablet and Photoshop or
drawing with pen,
paintbrush ,doesn't matter. You don't want to kill it until you
know exactly what you have. So I'm just laying in - I usually like
to go in after I lay it in, get a little bit of the head design
because the head is going to give you the canons of
proportion for the rest of the body. So once the head is the
size I like, and then this case it could be a little bit
smaller because it's three quarter back. So we're seeing more of the
pelvis, little bit less of the head as it goes away in space,
minor, but you know, it's not very much pushed. It's almost -
it's close to a side view but it is three that are just three
quarter back. So getting some of these features laid in
in a very general way. Cheekbone right there,
And what I'm doing is going to be like sort of a series of
moves that I'm making to construct this tiger.
It's not the same every time but it's usually pretty close.
Working my way down, I got the neck
laid in as a modified cylinder
and I'm working the the tombstone shape of the
shoulders and that, you know, that is - when you look at it
from a three quarter back view it's a little bit different in the
front but what's important in this particular case is that
the scapula is higher on our right. Because that leg - well,
actually the scapula is fairly high on both sides. So you want
to know which way the shoulder blades are
pushing up is how that dictates, the top shape of the tombstone.
There's the dip in for the spine, coming out for the loins.
Now the three quarter back view we deal a lot with the pelvis.
So it's important to understand this shape as it is which is a
cube or a box like shape that's narrow on the top that
tilts down sloping downward because that's what the pelvis
is doing with the skeleton.
And then how the legs are going to push off that. So I'm going
to lift this leg,
lift one leg, lift one foot, push one onto the ground.
Okay, so it's general to specific. We went
first laid in the action, skeleton, the gesture second,
constructed very simple forms on top of that.
And then third would be to really draw it out, make it
organic. However, since this is a demonstration on
construction, I'm going to emphasize the shapes and make
it very diagrammatical.
Okay, so I want to find the center of that because that's
going to give me where the hamstring pulls off of that
shape. So I'm pulling the hamstring, the back of the leg
mass down and going into the front with a quadriceps are
and tying that into the top of the pelvis again.
Keeping in mind where the planes are. Where is the back
So the corners of the form are as always very important that
this leg as it pulls back
leaves that pelvis area but it's the same shape as the one
on the right it'ss just changed to accommodate for it being pushed
back. Got to keep that in mind. Little circle I made there is
going to be for the Achilles tendon heel area, and then the
tail has to unite with the rest of the spine and flows from the
And I want to see the tail as something that's very
At this point - well it is but also you don't get flat with
Okay, so working my way down, the front of the tibia
that is - there's some muscles there that create that curve
onto the ground for an animal which is walking upon its toes.
So you got, you know, you want to feel that the phalanges
of the toes pressing onto the ground. But remember the cat
has a very short foot compared to a lot of animals,
you know the cannon bones very are - the calcaneus
heel bone is very short.
And then we have a lift off there for the paw and I might
indicate some pads there to show that direction of the
Okay, don't want to get too busy there, want to move forward. This is
the loins we talked about this on the other feline
demonstration. The lines are arched.
I'm sort of over-emphasizing that a little bit here to show
you how it turns in at the base.
So that curve is there,
dips in and it shoots back up
for the shoulder blades. That's tipping down, that's the
Okay slow zoom in here and let's work on the pelvis a
little bit more, the top of the pelvis
is that is the
crest of the ilium. That would be the landmark there at the
Find the center, very important.
And it's angled down slightly, so you see it was a flat plane,
but really this the sacral bones push up and creates more
of a triangular shape there.
Okay, ischium, very important landmark there. Those are the
And that's the back corners of that box.
So I 'm kind of indicating the pelvis and I want to know
whether the femur is so I just mark the great trochanter
Alright, so let's go in with
a different color and loosely indicate
some of the skeletal structure.
So the pelvis needs to fit into the box we created
in a three quarter back view.
And we're looking down on the subject so to speak, so it's
more or less a down shot.
Those bones move on an arc. So if the bone of the femur comes back,
it's got to stay in the same ball and socket arc radius
as the one on the other side.
So what you do is find your pivot point
of the where the femur attaches to the pelvis and rotate that
Okay, some shade here to indicate
the box form even more.
By doing that it also shows us where the back of the
in relationship to the side of the hamstrings.
Get this shape. This is the calves.
Achilles tendon is
locking on to that calcaneus bone and leaving that tendinous
shape that I'm shading in right now underneath it. The top part,
very diagrammatical, is the gastrocnemius muscle.
But animals - since the way they walk, I mean that is always
catching light. It's facing upwards so you can really see
very strong, especially on
you know cattle and horses where it's just sticking out and very
very taut against that calcaneus.
Doing it again over here again getting the
tone underneath the tendon and then leaving that roundish egg-
like calf shape on the top as it wedges into the back of the
Okay, so think about this and almost every animal, especially
the ones we're talking about in this series, for the pelvis. A
box, a narrow box tipping downward. Now if that was going
to be an equestrian animal or a bovine animal then that would
be a much more broad box, more like a square.
Because the pelvis is wider because the animal travels over
long distances shey don't have such a narrow pelvis. Whereas
the cat has a narrower pelvis for maneuvering, leaping,
It's not a bad idea to fan the toes out with some directional
lines, kind of like the top of a hand when you see the tendons
kind of flowing out towards the knuckles. And then there's going
to be, you know, four pads,
four small pads for the toes in the back.
Okay back to the loins.
Shading that area in, that is the lumbar area.
On a nice sunny day you're going to see that tone there on
most of these big cats.
Okay, so going back in with some purple for the skeleton.
Three quarter back view of the rib cage, we can see how the rib
cage opens up.
Sort of teardrop shaped, much more narrow at the front, gets
wider as it comes back. I want to show some directional
strokes for the ribs.
And this is all hanging upon the spine.
Okay, we talked about this one before, that is a transition
that is transitioning the quadriceps or the legs or the
back half of the animal into the torso.
Very important kind of thin skin fold muscle.
And that stretches, so if the back leg's going back that
really stretches out.
Okay, just some directional lines saying it's not flat.
It's got some form. some directional lines saying
blade moves up and down so gracefully as it's not really
attached to the rib cage.
So I'm indicating that and remember the scapula is sort of
an inverted triangle. It's kind of rounded off at the top and
the humerus has a curve to it, so
arm is very stationary. There's the ulna.
And on top of that is the radius. Remember this arm
can rotate, it can supinate and pronate, much more so than a
Alright, so now I'm trying to, I guess, make a little more of an
organic statement here, but still drawing through to
complete this shoulder shape.
Notice how the neck is a little bit shorter at the bottom and
longer on the top, has something to do with the perspective but
also because the way the muscles attached to the back of
Tricep shape, back of the arm, and that's going to attach to
So you see the triceps are wrapped, it's bulky and then it
wraps around the back of the ulna, just like on a human.
You remember the forearm is basically just a modified
but you have it more of a curve across the front and more of a
straight across the back. The paw kind of fits into that as a
wedge. So I'm going into the the carpal area and wedging
that into the forearm and coming down with some of the
fingers to create the paw.
Paw on the other side, little trickier, three quarter back
we're seeing - I've got a twisted out a little bit away
from us. So we see more of the back side of it. So it's good
to practice drawing hands or paws or hooves or whatever you
want to say in different positions. Got to make a lot of
studies so you understand them from not just side view, not
just front view, but every view.
Okay. So now I'm going to come in and refine or make shapes
out of some of these features,
first being the back side of the ear.
Zoom in a little bit on this.
So the ear I have sort of facing forward. So we see the
back of it as a shape and other side we see just an
of the ear itself. Remember the ear being behind the eye
and behind the zygomatic arch cheekbone.
How much eye do we see? Not much but it's got to be in the right
spot. So indicate that and cats have that dark shape in front
of their eye. It's a good directional line towards the
So the box kind of tips down right there and then we get
into the nasal area. Now that nasal bones's very prominent and
then it gets real fleshy as it gets to the nostrils itself.
Okay, so there that plane turns down and we takes on some tone.
So we're carving into this stuff just like sculpture.
With that mouth, just like we did in the canine, you don't
want to have the mouth going up too much. It stops at a certain
point and draws back like that. Obviously, I mean cats walk
with their mouths like this open quite a bit. It could be
closed. But still it can't - the line can't - of the back of the
opening can't go up too far.
And then there's the chin, so that needs to fit into that
shape if the mouth were too close up.
It juts out quite a bit like that.
And it's never bad to throw some whiskers on there.
So this fur is - this is a tiger and a lot of times they'll have
this fur. I'm just going to indicate this, this is a
construction drawing so I'm simplifying the
fur into a mass, but I want to show some of the fringes of the
Now what I'm doing now is just is more sub shading so to
speak, modeling the form more.
So you get an idea of, you know, the different ways, there's
value shifts to create three-dimensional form.
Based on the anatomy that's, you know,
underneath the skin.
Alright then so we'll zoom back out
and take a look.
All right. Well anyways, it's a tiger so some stripes to
indicate the form, not a bad idea.
The important thing about cats like this is if you're going to
put this the pattern on, stripes are spots or rosettes, you
really want to understand what's happening underneath the
form and that's what anatomy does. Anatomy gives us a me doesn't add any gives us a
solid understanding of the structure that is important for
us to make these kind of choices. So things don't get
Okay. Now let's take the feline three quarter back view concept
and a photograph in a tiger and a very similar position than
how it was drawn in the construction demo
do a really loose simplified skeleton inside. So first thing
I'm thinking right there is head of the humerus, head of the humerus,
and that is a landmark and that comes back, has to come back and
gives us the connecting bone, which is going to be the ulna.
So that bump in the elbow
is going to be the ulna
right there and that -
this is a very foreshortened view here that could - there could
always be some distortion in photographs,
never forget that
but still the legs going forward and away from us, those
a little bit short.
So we got to keep that in mind as we draw the ulna.
Down to the carpel mass.
The idea here is just to be very quick about it and just
you know, you can take out a anatomy book of a side view of
a cat skeleton and then take a picture that's not a side view
and just try to see what you can do. Where can you - where do
you think the skeleton goes based on looking at the side
view? So it's just another learning exercise. Again fanning
out the phalanges into the toes.
Drew the radius.
And now coming back up to the scapula shape. Okay. Well
scapula is going to be more relaxed on the left side
because the arm is released
from the ground. And whenever the arm drops, the scapula
Rib cage is gonna
open up again just like it did on the three quarter back
view but first I just want to think well where is it and
where does it start? Starts in front of the scapula. Spine's
going to be in there somewhere so it can't go all the way to
And it's foreshortened, it's going to go around the spine like
Again, feline rib cage, sort of teardrop shaped. Small at the
start and wider as it goes down. And then just a very quick
gestural line for the spine, all the way down to the tail.
Okay. It's got a little bit of the C curve in the neck, it is
somewhat of an S-shaped spine.
There's the occipital ridge of the skull. So behind the ears
is the back of the head, frontal bone, maxillary bones, might be
kind of hard to see now.
There we go.
And then very important, the cheekbone, zygomatic arch,
and the jaw. Being able to see the jaw past the fur.
Eye sockets, nasal bone, going over the occipital ridge again, the
And the thoracic vertebrae. Let's put some of those in.
That's the vertebrae that stick up in the dorsal area.
All right remember the pelvis, we just did this in the
construction demo is very box like so that's a great
simplified way to think about it and the corners are very
important. We have the corner of the iliac crest right here.
One on each side,
opens up in the middle, let's the sacrum come through.
And there is the ball and socket area where the femur is
going to go and the ischium is back here.
Bones all the way to the tip of the tail.
So I'm finding the kneecap first,
then I'm going to come up and know where the femur is going
to be and lead it into that socket right there
of the pelvis. So that's the greater trochanter of the femur
right there. Femur is not that long. And then we have, below
that you're going to find the crest of the tibia
all the way down.
And the fibula is going to go next to that.
Into the heel bone right here. So that's the calcaneus and
those are the foot metatarsal bones.
There's the fibula.
Okay. Anyways, good exercise to do. I suggest you try this one.
Doesn't take a lot of effort, just bring a photo into
Photoshop and try to draw the skeleton over it.
Free to try
1. Lesson Overview47sNow playing...
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2. Herbivore Skull Construction17m 37s
3. Carnivore Head Construction15m 29s
4. Side View Cat Construction14m 58s
5. Side Cat Construction & Tiger Skeleton Diagram17m 36s