- Lesson details
In this series, instructor Sheldon Borenstein shares with you his approach to figure drawing. Sheldon will cover Anatomy in this third part of the series. This lesson will focus on anatomy of the arms. Sheldon will use a variety of teaching methods to help you learn, including a fun lecture, demonstrations, and an assignment.
- Handmade Lead Holder with Cretacolor Sanguine and Charcoal Lead
- Faber- Castell Pitt Pastel Pencil – Light Ultramarine, Cobalt Blue, Burnt Ochre, Chromium Green Opaque, and White
- Conté Charcoal Pencil
- Strathmore Toned Drawing Paper
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Moving on to the legs.
The legs are very important.
It’s how we get around.
It’s how we stand up.
They’re going to have less mobility than the arm, but you’ll find that it’s the same.
It’s just, you know, one bone, two bones, a lot of bones.
When you watch my lectures on the legs, see the similarity for the arms.
The muscles are very similar.
It’s almost as if they designed this they were bored.
They said, well, the arms work.
Let’s apply it to the legs.
So, welcome to my leg anatomy.
Again, I hope you’ll fall in love with the anatomy as I do.
The beautiful rhythms.
Okay, let’s draw some muscles.
Not too much different than the arms.
People born without arms, they draw with their legs.
They write with their legs.
They’re pretty much the same.
They kind of repeat it a lot.
So, you’ll find it to be fairly similar.
Let’s see what we have here.
That’s our front.
Here’s our back.
Then this will be real easy, real quick.
It will be this side.
Alright, here we go.
Landmarks, ladies and gentleman.
The iliac crest, really important.
This will be our anterior iliac crest.
This will be our posterior iliac crest.
Here is our inguinal ligament.
That is your borderline.
That’s where your torso stops.
Here, the landmark is going to be these two dots here, which will be your sacrum.
Right here is where most of the artwork takes place.
This would be your coccyx bone, otherwise known as your tail years ago.
That would be here.
Now, number one rule, and this is something that is real important to me as an animator
and as a teacher.
Do not connect the leg up here.
I’ll tell you why you guys do it.
Okay, I’ll show you.
But first, this bone coming out here is what we call the bone with an ego.
This is the great trochanter.
It says it’s great.
If you call and tell me you’re great, I’ll listen.
Okay, you’re great. Show me. I'll listen.
So that’s your great trochanter.
This is your lesser trochanter.
This is your—I’ll make it kind of short—this is your femur.
On the outside is your fibula.
Inside is the tibia.
This is called your talus.
Then we go down into the feet.
This is going to be fairly loose.
Then when I do the tighter anatomical drawings then you’ll see it tie together.
This is from the back.
Great trochanter, lesser trochanter.
Notice how they go in.
Then into your heel, calcaneus.
Here, great trochanter, lesser trochanter.
Tibula is on the other side.
Heel, calcaneus. There you go.
This will be out of your head, but when I do the more detailed
I’ll have some reference with me.
But you have to have this general in your head.
You don’t have to be an anatomical genius.
I have some students who they got it over me, and I work on autopsies.
But they know all the little muscles.
In the end when I do the demos, man, you’re doing to see a lot of this stuff just going away.
At that point it’s just all about Cal-State cool, Cal-State Bitchin’, and the wave.
That’s where it goes.
Alright, here we go.
The first one, let’s start on the inside.
In the movie Ransom, there is a little boy who got abducted.
He was abducted.
He was taken away.
Our hero’s job was to adduct him back.
If we abduct we take it away.
If we adduct we bring it back.
If you saw my whole body right now, I would sing—
usually in my class I sing New York, New York.
I get on the stage with the model and we do it together.
[singing] I want to wake up in a city that doesn’t sleep.
So, I’m going to bring that leg in and out.
[singing] New York, New York.
I’m going to go abduct, adduct; abduct, adduct.
I’m going to adduct out, adduct it back.
This would be our adductor.
There we go.
The next one will be our adductor longus, which is your right long.
The next one is our industry muscle.
It’s two: It’s the adductor magnus and the hiatus.
Magnus looks like a bat’s wing.
It’s a very long, thin muscle.
It’s really thin.
That’s sort of where term came from.
You hear it all the time.
Hey, Mister, are you glad to see me or is that bat’s wing on your crotch?
Is that a bat’s wing on your crotch or are you just glad to see me?
You know, it looks like a bat’s wing.
It’s right there.
Then this right here is a hole, otherwise known as a hiatus.
For you people who have worked in TV or worked in the industry a lot, you go on hiatus.
People walk up and they go, hey, what’s going on.
I’m on hiatus.
Are you working?
So you’re unemployed?
No, I’m employed.
We’re just on hiatus.
Well, are you getting a paycheck?
So, you’re unemployed?
No, I’m on hiatus.
It’s just a way for the studios to keep you on hold while they’re taking a break.
You go on unemployment, you’re on hiatus.
Hiatus is a hole in your career.
It’s a hole in your paycheck, and it’s a hole in your muscle.
So, that’s a hiatus.
So, this is your magnus which is a bat’s wing.
That’s the hole in it, your hiatus.
You’ve got short and long hiatus.
This one here is pretty cool.
It goes this way.
This one has dual citizenship.
It’s from Mexico from San Diego.
Here is Mexico.
Here’s San Diego.
Every time you hear this you say you’re welcome.
This is your gracialis.
Gracias, you’re welcome.
It goes behind.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
Those are your adductors.
Those go back.
Then coming here is kind of a neat little border.
I’m just going to do all this out of my head.
Okay, I’m not going to look at any reference.
This is the longest muscle in the body.
I heard you.
This is the longest muscle in the body.
The one you’re talking about is not a muscle.
That’s a gland, okay?
Put the horse back in the corral, Mr. Stallion.
You always get one in the class, right?
I’ll show you my longest muscle.
It’s not a muscle.
Don’t give it too much value.
It’s not a muscle.
But this is a muscle, and it’s the longest muscle in the body.
It’s called the sartorius.
This muscle is actually your dividing line.
This muscle divides the leg in half.
This allows you to just cross your legs.
So, everybody sit down and cross your leg over your other leg.
That’s your sartorius working.
Okay, so we have our abductors.
Take the kid away.
Our adductors bring it back.
Our sartorius, and that crosses your leg.
That’s your long muscle.
Then you’re going to have your quads.
You have this big one, rectus femoris, man.
Big freakin’ muscle.
That’s going to go over this.
You have this little bone right here.
It’s a floating bone.
It’s called a patella.
Again, another great name for your dog.
Come here, patella.
A Patella would be like a microwave dog, you know those little supermarket dogs you just
want to shove in the microwave.
I mean if I had a dog and I named it Serratus that’s a beefy dog.
Actually, I work in forensics.
I want to get a dog, a golden retriever and name it Spatter.
Come on, Spatt, let’s go for a walk.
Forensic guy with my dog named Spatter.
That’d be kind of cool.
This is Patella.
That’s the kind of dog you see in the supermarket, and you know just shove it into the microwave.
Okay, so you got that.
Right now, you guys are pausing and you’re going, check this out, this guy says he is
going to put a dog in the microwave!
Woke you up!
This is our rectus femoris, and it’s going to go over the patella, and then it’s going
to come down like this into the patella tendon.
This is your patella tendon that comes down like that.
That’s one of your quads.
Then you’re going to have one coming out here on that side.
Notice how this line goes like this.
This is going to be the same.
Vastus lateral, lateralis.
So, for you sports fan out there, which I am not.
In football, from what I here—I don’t know, I watch like one game a year—if you
throw the game this way, that’s a lateral.
If I was playing football, and these guys wanted to hug me like they do on TV, I’d
go, you want the ball, boom!
I’d throw it to my side and I would lateral the ball.
I would now it’s lateral because of the lateralis, the vastus lateralis.
So, they’d say, Sheldon, what’d you do?
I vastus lateralis the ball.
Because I don’t want to get hugged by all the nice guys.
There you go, vastus lateralis.
Then over here, vastus medialis.
Medial to the middle.
So if I ever say medial it’s to the middle.
Vastus lateral to the outside, medial to the inside.
Here is the rectus femoris.
These are your quads.
Alright, so we’ve got that.
Then over here is a very important muscle on the outside, and that’s your gluteus medius.
I think the gluteus medius doesn’t get enough credit.
Nobody ever says get your gluteus medius in here and sit down.
They always say gluteus maximus.
Gluteus medius is important.
It’s the kick a cat muscle.
You can’t kick a cat from the front.
They’ll see it coming.
What you do is you say come here, kitty.
Then the cat comes, you turn to the side, and you kick it from the side.
You kick out.
The gluteus medius is the kick the cat muscle.
They’ll never expect it.
They’ll never see it coming.
That’s right here.
That goes all the way to your trochanter and goes like that.
Then it’s going to come down.
Stop right there.
Here is the one I was most concerned about.
That is why people are drawing the leg all the way up here.
I want you to draw the leg starting here.
Everybody, all you people stand up.
Go to a chair.
Make sure you’re wearing parents.
If you’re not wearing anything you’ll still see it, but it’s a little awkward.
Now, put you leg up on the chair.
Do you see where the wrinkles are?
They’re right below the pubic arch area, or as we call it, the middle body area.
That’s where I want you to start drawing the leg.
Would you do that for me?
Otherwise, you’re doing to have very stiff figure drawing.
We want to keep all the extremities floating.
Then we connect them with rubber bands which are Cal-State cools.
So, we’ve got that.
The reason why is we’ve got this big muscle that goes this way.
We’re going to call this the Starbucks muscle, which is your tensor fascia latae.
Some of our models really work that muscle.
They do a lot of leg work, and it’s really strong.
When you see that muscle it makes you look at this shape here.
You draw this shape as the leg.
You immediately stiffened up your drawing.
By not drawing up to that Starbucks muscle, it will allow you to free up your drawing.
Keep everything loose.
Okay, we’ll do the back.
This right here will be—okay, well, let’s start over here and then we’ll go out.
Again, I don’t have to draw these.
These are our adductors.
If you listen very carefully when you’re in a restaurant.
You can here adductor , table for five, please.
Adductor, table for five.
They’re reserved for the front and the back.
You can actually see these muscles from the font and the back.
It’s really cool.
So, those are your adductors.
Then we’re going to have some muscles coming out here.
They’re going to go this way.
The outside will be the biceps femoris too.
These are your hamstrings.
If you talk to somebody and they say, oh man, I pulled my hamstrings, these are those.
Then the ones over here are twins.
They get along really well.
Semimembranosus and semitendinosus.
The semimembranosus is on the inside because it’s a member with the adductors.
Okay, so they’re all kind of a member.
It goes to the member.
Or you can remember it as the middle.
The semimembranosus, and that’s over here.
The semitendinosus is kind of right behind it.
And I’m going to have all these anatomists say you’re wrong, and I’m going to go okay.
But I work on autopsies.
I wish they were that accurate.
They usually say the fleshy area.
The fleshy area in the leg.
I’ve got to figure it out.
They don’t usually write out that much.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
That’s the front.
Vastus lateralis will be like this going this way.
Remember, we’re going at this angle.
Going this way.
Remember, we’re going at this angle.
Okay, now here we’re going to go like this.
I want a straight line.
I don’t care.
Whatever you’re doing, I want this part to be straight.
If you have to make it up, you put that in.
You got it?
Then this is my straight line here.
Now, over here we’re at the back, this is important.
We have—I can’t forget—gluteus medius, the kick-the-cat muscle.
This one here is real important.
This is your gluteus maximus.
This will come down to what’s called the IT band.
Your Starbucks muscle is going to come down and form…like the military, you know how
they have that line on the side of their leg, that stripe?
That’s actually an external IT band.
They’re showing it on the side of their leg.
Think of that as like the 405 Freeway or a major freeway, the 10 which goes across the
country even through Kansas, I think.
All these other freeways all join with that major freeway.
That major freeway is called the IT band, the iliotibial track.
These other freeways join to it.
That will be your gluteus maximus, Starbucks muscle.
All of those will connect to that track.
It’s like a rubbery kind of a rubber band.
That’s going to be over here.
This, the gluteus maximus comes over and it connects right here.
That’s your butt.
This little thing right here is your gluteal band.
And I’ve got to tell you, I was driving—yeah, it happened this morning—I was driving down
here and I got pulled over by a cop.
I go, what am I doing?
I drive really slow.
I got a lot of speakers in my car.
What else do you drive fast for?
And the guy comes over and he says, Sir, there is something flying out of your back window.
I looked and I went, oh officer, it’s my gluteal band.
See, I’m 55 years old.
It doesn’t work anymore.
My gluteal band had severed itself.
This gluteal band holds your butt up.
Mine stopped working years ago.
This gluteal band comes around like that, so now this gluteal band is flying outside
the back, and it wrapped around the officer’s neck.
He was all shocked.
What do I do?
I said, I think it likes you officer.
Just stroke it a little bit; it’ll love it.
That’s your gluteal band.
It’s just kind of floats, you know, keep your butt up.
This would be a leg that’s straight.
We’ve got the weight on it.
This one here will fall down because there is no weight.
The gluteal band will show you the way.
IF you’re looking at the front you can look and see the pelvis and the hips with the back.
The easiest way is to just look at the butt and see where the straight line is.
We have a straight line, that’s where your weight is, and then the other one kind of
So, here is your gluteus medius here on a side view.
That’s going to your trochanter.
Then this right here is your poh-poh, your gluteus maximus.
That’s going to Cal-State cool beautiful with your quads.
It all comes down this IT band.
I’m going to have round S, straight, and that’s the design of your leg.
I’m going to have round, round, S, straight, and that’s the design of your leg.
These are your honey-do muscles.
This is for everybody out there who is married or have children.
As soon as you sit down and you go to sit down, you’re going to get called.
You know, Sheldon, get up here.
You need to give the kids a bath.
You need to put them to bed.
But you want to see the TV.
You know, it’s the only one part of the TV that you want to see.
It’s like, you know, Fugitive.
The guy is going to jump, you know.
You’re at the point where he’s like Richard Kimball do you want to get shot.
He’s going to jump.
Right, and then you’re sitting down.
You’re going to watch it.
You barely sit down and Sheldon!
You’ve got to stand up.
I’ve got to give the kids a bath.
The gun comes out, and he’s going to jump.
You’ve got to watch that part.
You’re a guy.
You’ve got to see that stuff.
It’s like crazy.
So, you’re about to sit down.
You stand up, those are your honey-do muscles.
So the honey-do muscles are how your gluteus maximus works with your quads.
You got it?
Then the quads are going to Cal-State cool with your calf muscles.
Look at how pretty that is.
One, two, boom, boom.
It just guides your eye right through it.
Really, drawing a model is like a ride.
It really is like a ride in a theme park.
It’s like one of these rides.
You just riding these Cal-State cool and these waves and the anatomy does it for you.
It’s fun, you know.
It’s really fun.
Okay, so now we’re going to come down here.
We’re back to Pinocchio muscles.
I’ll draw those out for you.
I just want you to think about those as more of this kind of a feel right here.
We are going to have these long, these are extensors.
Not a lot of them.
I’ll draw them for you in the next stage.
You have your pollicis you inducis and that other stuff.
They’re just boring.
They’re just Pinocchio muscles.
The big thing is that we’re going this way.
You’re going to do the same right here.
The calf shows up on the outside.
It’s on the back and it shows up like this.
And there you go.
When you get to your ankle, though, you’re going to reverse it.
That’s what I want.
Everybody, wake up!
This is where you get your reverse.
It’s going to go this way, this way, this way, and then it’s going to go opposite.
This is going to be low and this is going to be high.
Now, over here we’re going to do the same thing.
This is called the gastrocnemius.
These are important ones.
The little ones, you know, I’ll draw them for you in the next session,
but don’t waste your time.
Not as the artist.
Even in my career in forensics I don’t need them.
They don’t need anything for me.
For a surgeon, yeah.
Even with that they just kind of move it out of the way.
They now it’s there.
They just move them out of the way.
So here we go.
This is going to be your gastrocnemius.
It’s got two heads like that.
I’ll draw them for you.
We’ll do some real pretty drawings.
They’re going to go into a tendon, Achilles, onto your calcaneus which is an important one.
You’re like that.
Gastrocnemius, kind of a silly name for your leg.
You say gastric, you think if you have a gastric it would be in your stomach.
I don’t know.
I didn’t design it.
This way, this way, bring it down low.
Then you get down here.
Boom, go opposite.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
There’s a little muscle in here.
I’ve got a question for you.
Are you listening?
Okay, you guys got it?
If you have a muscle that is so powerful it could make a woman fly,
what would that muscle be called?
None of you got it.
It’s the Mary Poppins muscles, the popliteal.
That’s right here.
There is this little tiny muscle.
It doesn’t do anything, but it’s just kind of cute.
Over here, again, these are going to be your quads.
These are going to be your hamstrings.
That’s going to be your IT band, so it’s kind of pretty.
This is your patella.
Everything Cal-State cool.
This is your gastrocnemius here.
That is your Achilles tendon, and these are your Pinocchio muscles, just like the hand.
Remember, if the pelvis is a female, the stomach will come out like that because the pelvis
is tilted forward, it’s going to push the rectus abdominis out.
And it’s beautiful.
It’s a very pretty shape, very feminine.
You’ll have your pelvis here, and then you’ll have your rectus abdominis here, and then
you’ll have your external obliques like that.
That’s the leg.
The more important part of the leg is going to come out when I draw it for you guys.
This is a pretty good time—there are certain fat deposits on the body.
Men have no fat deposits.
We’re very lean.
The female has some fat deposits, and one of them is right here.
I really like the 60’s beat poetry when he goes “woman, you’ve got some fat, nothing
wrong with that.
It’s what makes you look smooth.”
Students usually throw things at me at that point.
So, you’re going to have some little fat deposits coming out.
Again, men have no fat deposits at all, perfectly lean.
The other parts will be in the breast area, abdomen area.
Easy for you to say, Sheldon, you’re perfect... I know.
Okay, let’s move on.
This hip is low.
From here to here it’s the same.
Pubic arch right here—I want to start the leg right where the pubic arch is, so we’ll
go from here to here and go a little bit longer.
Don’t be afraid to measure.
Okay, so that’s that one.
Then the back is going like this.
See, when I do my drawing I go like this to that.
And I go forward and back.
Okay, she’s really pushing forward.
That’s our lay-in.
So, here we go.
We’re going to go pubic arch will be here.
S-shape, S-shape, S-shape.
We’re going to go S. See the legs are really beautiful Cal-State cools.
Let’s start with the front.
I want to start the leg always here, so if the pubic arch is right here what we’re
going to do is bring out this bone way up here.
This is your femur.
It’s a really big bone.
The knee is actually not here.
It goes way out here to way out here.
That’s your femur.
Then here is your patella.
Then your fibula is on the outside.
Your tibia is on the inside.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
Yeah, this will be fun.
What we’re going to do is start out with the little one here.
Adductor brevis, real small.
Then the adductor longus.
Then way deep in there is your—I don’t see it on the anatomy so that’s kind of fun.
You're going to have the magnus.
I’m just going to do this my way.
Way down here.
This is giving you your shape of your inner thigh.
Hiatus right there.
Then you’re going to have your gracialis.
I just like to say gracias.
That’s going to go all the way down to the bottom here.
That’s going to finish it off.
Then you’re going to have your dividing line, which is your really long muscle.
It’s going to go all the way down here.
It’s going to wrap around, allow you to cross your leg.
Okay, then we’re going to go to our quad.
Our rectus femoris.
It has two heads.
It’s a big one.
It’s going to go into connective tissue.
It’s going to go over your knee.
That’s your patella.
On the outside will be your vastus lateralis.
Remember, everything is going at this angle.
The inside, vastus medialis.
That’s the top.
Okay, now these are going to slide down into your Pinocchio muscles.
Now, you’re going to have a bone that shows.
That will be your tibia.
It’s going to go all the way down there.
I guess when you hit your shin that’s pretty much it.
Now, focusing on the outside we’re going to have our tibialis anterior.
Next to that, the extensor digitorum longus.
They’re all kind of going in to the foot.
Again, all you need to really focus in on this is that these are your Pinocchio muscles.
These are going to make your foot go up like that, which would be called, let’s see.
This would be plantarflexion and dorsiflexion.
So, there you have your tibialis anterior.
And another digitorum.
And sticking out from the other side is going to be your gastrocnemius, which is also going
to go to this angle.
We’ll put that in blue because it’s on the other side.
Once we get down to the bottom, you’re going to go opposite this way.
This is this way.
Then up here we’re going to go to our Starbucks muscle, which will be our tensor fascia latae.
I can do this without the books.
We don’t need them.
Okay, so we’re going to go here.
The way I study anatomy is I had a doctor read the names into a tape recorder, and that
was the way I learned to pronounce them.
I accidentally recorded over it, and so I kind of panicked.
I found these medical tapes, they’re very fresh dissections.
He’s really boring.
I just watched them every morning.
I got on an exercise machine.
While I was on the treadmill and elliptical and everything, just watching these videos
over and over again. So dry, so boring.
Then I just made up really stupid stories about them.
I was talking to someone once, and they said did you study in England, and I said why?
They said because you use English pronunciation of the words.
I said no.
It turns out the guy obviously had studied from England.
The more you study it, everybody’s got their way.
Luckily enough, you’ve got different people teaching anatomy here.
Just take what works for you.
But don’t think it’s just one way when it comes to the anatomy.
You’ll drive yourself crazy.
This area right here is really important.
We need to talk about it.
There is not a whole lot going on right here.
This is the femoris triangle.
Everybody wake up.
This is where you hide your M&Ms.
Airport security will never find them.
When I try to sneak my M&Ms because I fly a lot, they always steal your—they confiscate
M&Ms from you.
I put them right here in my femoris triangle.
That’s why the M&Ms always had that saying M&Ms will melt in your mouth but not in your crotch.
They stay right there.
It's an empty area, and it’s called the femoris triangle.
Okay, so that’s where you’re going to hide your M&Ms.
Alright, on the inside here is really the same stuff except over here.
So, we’re going to draw the gastrocnemius here, and it’s going to come in this way.
What you’re going to get is your gastrocnemius here, which is kind of a box shape coming
down into the tendon, the Achilles.
On the inside there is a bump right here.
That’s the soleus.
It’s like a gastrocnemius behind the gastrocnemius.
That’s pretty much the same thing in a way.
I’m going to get people writing me all kinds of emails.
It’s like right behind the gastrocnemius.
All you need to know about it is that when you’re drawing somebody who is really great
shape you’ll see it as a little bump there.
Over here, I’m going to do a couple of things.
I’m going to twist this leg a little bit.
Now, this is your gluteus maximus.
That’s going to go all the way here to what’s called the iliotibial track.
It’s like the fascia.
It’s like a connective tissue.
Here’s this poh-poh muscle here.
Remember, people usually have two of them.
They come in pairs.
There is your gluteal band here.
I’m going to turn this leg.
Okay, so this is going to come.
I’m going to do a little animation here.
We’re going to go off the photo a little bit.
It’s going to go like that.
Then over here it’s a gluteus medius.
That’s your kick-the-cat muscle.
Don’t kick cats from the front; they’re too smart.
They’ll catch you.
Call them over.
Turn and kick them from the side.
It works every time.
That’s right there.
That fits inside your iliac crest right here.
Oh wait, we have a question from Kansas right there.
They want to know if I’ve ever kicked a cat.
Have I ever put a dog in the microwave?
Do you even own a dog?
Have you ever owned a dog?
Did you put it in the microwave?
Why are you doing it?
To keep us awake.
I want a straight line here, and then you can pull out there the shape.
What percentage of your lectures are completely full of crap?
Are they based on reality?
Use them in the studios.
How will I know?
Now what we’re going to do is we’re going to turn this a little bit.
We’ll have these two bones.
The one on the outside will be the biceps femoris.
The one on the inside will be the semimembranosus and semitendinosus.
Popliteal, Mary Poppins.
There are your quads.
The most important part is the rhythms.
Gluteal band will tell you what direction the leg is going.
If I go like this the leg is coming toward me.
If I go like this the leg is going away from me.
If we go like this, got to make that leg fit inside.
Now, let’s just draw the leg.
This curve, let’s go to this curve.
This is your structure right there.
That’s really important.
Here you go.
Let’s do just the leg right here.
Start the leg here.
This rhythm has an S-shape all the way into the shin.
Those are your rhythms.
So that’s the most important part.
And that’s your leg.
You’ve watched what I’ve done,
and now I’m going to ask you to do the same for yourself.
Find a master drawing that you like and put some tracing paper over a drawing or a book.
Or, if you have electronic media just put a layer on top of it in Photoshop and trace over it.
Remember, we here at New Masters Academy have the most extensive model library, and if you
want just go in there and pick out a model and draw from that.
The whole idea is that you understand the assignment and you get to now do it yourself.