- Lesson details
In this series, instructor Sheldon Borenstein shares with you his approach to figure drawing. Sheldon will cover Anatomy in this third part of the series. This lesson will focus on anatomy of the arms. Sheldon will use a variety of teaching methods to help you learn, including a fun lecture, demonstrations, and an assignment.
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My name is Sheldon Borenstein.
Now we get to have some fun.
The arms are really important.
One of my passions for the arm: Keep them away from the torso.
Do not connect them to the torso.
Use your muscles to connect.
They’ll be some parts I’ll just kind of brush over a little bit.
They’re not as important.
There are other parts where I’m going to say listen up; this important.
Look at this part.
You’ll see how the muscles actually move and rotate these arms into all the infinitive
amount of positions that we can do.
The arms will probably be the most confusing part of the body because there are so many
Again, I hope you enjoy the anatomy as much as I do, get my passion and fall in love with
my love for anatomy.
The trick of the arms is we want to keep them away from the torso.
Do not connect the arms directly to the torso.
You’re better off keeping the arms further away from the torso than closer to the torso.
Never, ever connect directly to it like you see in a lot of the books, where you connect
it right to the torso.
Let’s see what we have here.
Let’s do upper extremity with your front and back.
We’re going to do the anatomical view.
When I say anatomical view I mean this.
They’ll be out like this.
Let’s go this way.
This will be anatomical view.
Just laying it straight out like this.
Palms forward, hands back.
That means our bones are straight.
This would be your anatomical view.
This would be an anatomist-type thing.
It looks like he’s grabbing something.
That’s the way the class runs.
This guy is about to grab something.
You know, I have to think of the crazy, disturbing things that I do.
Every now and then you get a gift, so that’s my gift.
It’s like, okay.
A lot of times I’ve got to plan it.
I don’t have to plan that one, so that’s cool.
People ask me, sometimes they go, they go where do you get your lectures from?
You know, sometimes it could take a month to come up with one stupid lecture for a muscle
that is dirty and crazy.
This is your acromion.
This is your scapula right here.
What’s going to happen is really important to understand.
I can move the arm all the way to here without affecting my acromion or my scapula.
As soon as I get to this part and it goes up the scapula will move with the arm.
It’s really important so you understand that when you’re doing the drawing.
So, I’ll do that down here.
So here is my arm as it goes forward it gets to here.
It clicks right there with my acromion.
Once it gets to here then the arm moves up.
The acromion will move with it.
So it’s going to go this way.
So, up at this point right here, you’re going to get a clicky sound.
It goes click, click.
But then when it goes up, the acromion, it would be the scapula, will move with the arm.
And then here it can do whatever it wants.
Okay, you guys all get that?
Cause that’s real important.
Okay, let’s do the arm.
The arm is fairly complicated, but it can be simpler if you allow it.
We’re going to go scapula out this way.
This will be the back.
Then we’re going to go clavicle here, and this will be the front.
Okay, so for the front we’re going to start with a big muscle right here, and it’s going
to go—if this is the bone, this will be your humerus.
It’s going to go over this little groove right here.
It’s called the bicipital groove.
It’s going to attach to the radius.
What’s going to happen is this is pronation and supination, and it’s going to roll over.
So, that’s your radius.
A radius rolls over the ulna.
This is your radius side which is your thumb side.
Okay, so you see right here.
This is the radius right here, and it goes to your thumb side right there.
The ulna stays consistent.
The ulna is really big at the top and that’s right here.
This right here is the tip of your ulna.
And that’s called your olecranon.
The olecranon is going to fuse into this notch right here.
It goes in and it locks.
If you can get your arm to go beyond that, call 911 because you just broke your arm.
It goes this way.
Then right here that’s your standard anatomical arm.
This is your radius; it goes to your thumb.
It’s wider at the thumb area, at the hand, it’s narrow at the top.
The ulna, which is controlling all of your fingers, is wider at the top and narrow.
So you have kind of a law of opposites happening.
The ulna is very stable but the radius radiates over that.
You see it really turns around.
There we go.
So this is supination, and this is pronation.
Right here both of the bones are very even.
That’s something that’s really important.
I’m telling you guys, I’m using it every day because I’m dealing with anatomical
situations where I have to prove.
So that’s what we have here.
The bicep is going to come here, and it’s going to attach to your radius.
That means that it’s a supinator.
You have some deep muscles that are called supinator muscles, which go like this, which
will help you rotate your arm.
A really powerful one is your bicep.
I have a certain martial art that I’m very good at.
You’ve heard of karate and all these different martial arts.
Mine is consheldon.
One of the things I tell my martial arts students is that when you’re grabbing you don’t
want to go this way to get away.
Go this way.
The supinator is much more powerful because we have that bicep which will pull away.
Remember that when you’re practicing your martial arts.
That’s your bicep going this way.
Then on the back of that you’re going to have your tricep which is three.
Tri, three origins: One here, here, and one along the bone.
They both stop right on the end of that ulna right on the olecranon.
There is your tricep.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
That will work together.
Then, of course, your deltoid is on top.
Over here we like to do a little borderline so that will be your brachialis, coracobrachialis
Then your triceps is back here.
So, you’ve got that and your pectoralis is going to go here underneath.
It’s going to go over your bicep and under your deltoid, and it’s going to pull up.
When he arm pulls up like this the breast will go around.
It is more of an oblique like that, and the nipple will be the same.
Then here is one that’s more round, which means that arm is down.
You can tell if the arm is up or down, male and female, by looking at the breast.
If it’s round, it’s down.
If it’s up, it’s more of an oval.
So you’ve got that.
You’re going to have a little brachialis here, kind of one on the front and the back.
Then we’re going to come this way.
Another important one is going to be called to the brachioradialis, and that’s along
I just want to do the major ones right now to get you to understand how it works, and
then we’ll do more detail.
It goes like that.
Okay, that’s a big one.
That’s a flexor.
Then on this one here you’re going to have two.
These are flexors, you go like this.
These are ones that will help you grip or to flip somebody off, you know.
You have two of them here which roll on top of each other.
Be careful because if you use these muscles in the wrong spot you can get your butt kicked.
These are wonderful birdie muscles that will allow you to flex.
The other ones are pretty simple.
I call them the Pinocchio muscles.
What they do is they go like this.
Take your hand and put it up like this.
I’m going to draw it out for you.
We’ll go like this.
I just want you to understand it.
These are flexors, okay, so these flex.
We’re going to take our hand and put it like this.
We’re going to have this one here on the ulna side, this one the center, and this one
over by the thumb.
These are going to pull like this.
This will be a flexor carpi ulnaris.
This will be flexor carpi radialis.
That’ll go boom.
Then the center one, this one, will be flexor carpi digitorum, and that will bring in all
our fingers in like that.
The other side, just the opposite.
You’re coming in this way.
It’ll be extensor carpi radialis going this way, extensor carpi digitorum going this way,
and extensor carpi ulnarius going this way.
You’ll notice that there are more flexors than there are extensors.
The flexing is where you need the power.
I like to consider these muscles the Pinocchio muscles.
It kind of takes us back to the olden days.
You know, I’ll try to get you back where the Pinocchio character turns to his father
and says, look father, I’m real.
I’m a real boy.
I’ve got no strings to hold me down, to make me frown.
I’ve got no strings on me!
Hi, ho, the derrio, I’m happy as I could be.
The father says, no, you’re not a real boy.
You’re made of wood.
I made you.
Look, I’m real.
Hi, ho, the the derrio.
I’m happy as I could be.
Look, father, I’m Pinocchio.
So, you’ll find a lot of these muscles.
They’re very long and they just pull like a marionette, like a PInochio.
You’ll have your, your extensor muscles will be going this way
all the way down into the hand.
This is another kind of cool name, and it’s like a rubber band and it holds everything in place.
It’s called a retinaculum.
Another great name for your dog.
Come here, retinaculum.
Get off the carpet.
Retinaculum, come here.
So now we’re going to have here on the palm, though, that’s the flexor.
You’re going to have real deep, you’re going to have your digitorum superficialis,
digitorum profundus going all the way to your fingers.
Then on top of that you’re going to have your flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis.
Your flexor carpi, you know, your other digitorum.
Then you’re going to have your pollicis, you know, right here over the hand.
You have your little one here.
We don’t really worry about those.
I’ll draw them out for you, buti really wouldn’t worry too much about those.
We really want to have the superficial ones.
When I get to the demo part you’ll see.
It’s really fairly simple
But there are your Cal-State cools.
Just remember, once we get to the muscles, when your arm goes back like this, just as
a little FYI, your deltoid flips around the back.
We don’t really see that much of the deltoid.
It’s back here.
It flips around to the back.
We will go like this.
Look at those beautiful Cal-State cools.
Then you use the wave to get from one to the other, and then just score going back to the
beginning of the lectures.
Okay, that’s pretty much about that.
You know, when you’re drawing the arm you’re pretty much just dealing with shapes anyways.
Okay, let’s move on.
This will be the head, neck, forward, rib cage, pelvis.
Head, neck, rib cage, pelvis.
The trick is you can repeat the drawing the same way.
That’s the whole idea of sequential drawings.
Storyboard, comic books, oh God, animation, anything where you have to do the drawing
over and over again.
The arm is going to go this way, and it’s going back, and then it’s going back.
Then this arm I’m going to have to tweak a little bit.
It’s going to go slightly back and then it will go pretty much in a straight line.
She’s got a leg there.
You’re just telling stories.
On this side I need it to be the back side of her hand.
We’re going to bring her hand out like that.
Then here this arm will be going back.
It’s like an arrow.
Just point what direction you’re going.
That’s your lay–in.
Alright, here we go.
When you’re dealing with the rib cage, I like to put the potato chips over here.
I like to put a hard line right there on the sternum.
I like to go a little rounder on the back.
A little flat on the front, rounder on the back.
Every teacher is going to be different.
Just grab what you want from each one.
There is one that is the end all.
This wraps around.
The neck goes out here.
The top here.
It’s going to be the deltoid.
The deltoid is going to go from the front and the back.
There is that straight line here from the acromion.
Trapezius is going to go like that.
And that’s where your clavicle is going to go here.
Okay, deltoid actually wraps around the front and the back.
Nice little box shape.
We go all the way down to the humerus.
Okay, so it’s a nice little box shape.
Then we’re going to go to bicep on this side.
The bicep is two, so one part is going to go to what’s called your coracobrachialis,
which is way deep in the side.
The other one is going to go over the top of your humerus, which on the bicipital groove.
Then they’re going to come out underneath here from the deltoid.
And again, by two, and it’s going to come down and it’s going to connect onto the radius.
Okay, so that’s that.
You’re going to have between the biceps and the triceps this little brachial muscle,
I like to think of the biceps and the triceps.
The biceps is one child, and the triceps is another child,
and the brachialis is the parent saying break it up.
It’s right there in between.
Okay, and then peaking out the backside is the triceps.
You’re going to have more flexors which will be on this side then you have on the
other side which are extensors.
Think of it as three to one.
It’s more important that you flex than extend.
Okay, so that takes us to that part.
Now we’re going to go to the palm.
You’re going to have these big muscles.
My favorite one is the brachioradialis.
That one is really long, so it’s kind of like the gracialis.
It’s kind of got like dual citizenship.
You have like one up here.
It’s going to go all the way to the thumb.
I’m going to bring her arm.
Let’s see I’m going to turn it.
It’s going to go on the other side.
It’s going to go around like this because she’s got her arm.
The arm at this point becomes a dyslexic’s nightmare.
Most artists are dyslexic, so I’m really careful.
It’s fun because in my line of work there is a lot that goes on with that.
You know, what position the arm was in.
You know, I’ve really got to be careful, so I have my students act it out for me.
I do all kinds of stuff.
I act it out.
I see it in my head too.
I close my eyes.
I can see it.
That’s your brachioradialis.
It might be in the right spot, but it goes to your thumb side.
Okay, so we’ve got that.
You’re going to have these extensor digitorums.
They’re just Pinocchio muscles.
Really that’s all it is.
Just think of it as a bunch of rubber bands.
Let’s see, this one will be extensor digitorum.
Okay, so now we got you all set up here.
This is your olecranon here.
That’s a condyle.
So, this is your olecranon.
Right next to it is a condyle.
Condyle means it’s that little bony part and the round part.
Then we’re going to pull these muscles down here.
Remember, we talked about those: Extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, and
They all come on down into the hand, which she’s got turning here.
Then you’ll have a supinator coming around this way.
They all get held together with the retinaculum, which is a rubber band.
Then your pectoralis is going to go over your deltoid.
When you’re drawing the pec on a female it goes inside the breast area like that.
This is all muscle up here.
Then you’re going to have the gland go around and tuck underneath here.
Then the trapezius back there.
Your serratus here.
On the inside the top is the same.
All you’re going to do down here is you’re going to go from the condyle and you’re
just going to pull down the same.
You’re going to have these big ones on the inside.
Digitorums, profundus and superficialis.
Coming all the way down.
Let me show you.
Then coming around the top of those are going to be your flexor carpi radialis
and flexor carpi ulnaris.
In the center will be your digitorums.
Some are deep.
There is your brachioradialis.
Mostly rhythm is what we’re dealing with.
Okay, let’s draw it.
Coming down from the back of the neck.
First landmark is acromion process.
Square off with the deltoid.
Look for that turning plane right here.
Light side of the plane.
First Cal-State cool here, second Cal-State cool here.
Nice little straight.
Come around to the core shadow, feel the triangle shape.
Come around to the background.
Straight through the triceps.
Really overlapping here.
Nice clean curve against straight.
Square it off with a straight.
Then you have Pinocchio muscles pulling down.
There you go.
It’s all about rhythm.
Structure wrapping around.
I’m going to go clavicle.
I’m going to animate these lines.
Everything has to flow.
It’s more important than everything.
Okay, so you can see how you get that nice rhythm.
This actually will talk to this.
When I do here I’ll go to here.
That really ties the drawing together.
This comes to here, here, around here.
Okay, so that’s your arms.
Now I’m going to ask you to the same for yourself.
Find a master drawing that you like and put some tracing over a drawing or a book,
or if you have electronic media, just put a layer on top of it in Photoshop and trace over it.
Remember, we here at New Masters Academy have the most extensive model library.
If you want just go in there and pick out a model and draw from that.
The whole idea is that you understand the assignment and you get to now do it yourself.