- Lesson Details
In the Foundations of Composition video lesson series, world-famous artist and instructor Glenn Vilppu offers you a rich understanding of the complex subject of composition in fine art. Glen lectures, demonstrates, and analyzes the Old Masters in his usual straightforward and concise style as he digs down to the practical tools of composition and how they can be applied to your own work.
In this seventh lesson, Glenn explores how to organize groups of multiple figures within a single composition. You will learn how to relate the figural groups to one another, and how multiple figures can combine to create compositions that are much more than the sum of their parts.
- Faber-Castell Polychromos Pencil – Sanguine, Black
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world-famous artist and instructor Glenn Vilppu offers
you a rich understanding of the complex subject of composition
in fine art. Glenn lectures, demonstrates, and analyzes the
old masters in his usual straightforward and concise
style as you dig down to the practical tools of composition
and how they can be applied to your own work.
In this lesson Glenn explore how to organize groups of
multiple figures within a single composition. You will
learn how to relate the figure or groups to one another and
how multiple figures can combine to create compositions
that are much more than the sum of their parts.
That way is part of this group, you can actually break this
In this section now we're talking about groups of figures.
This actually creates a lot of problems for students in that you
inventing, you're inventing -usually you're inventing groups of figures.
Unless you're taking it and copying some kind of photograph or something.
Also a good way of doing this is of course studying is to take
and look at the old masters and
see how do they deal with groups of figures?
Let me give a simple way, to take and deal with them.
When I'm out sketching, I typically - people you can, groups
of people are, they're not going to sit still for you obviously.
They're moving all over the place.
I'll usually pick a figure and begin with that and then start
to add to it and develop it.
And so I'll do the same thing and bring up some of the problems that you'd
have to deal with when you're doing this so that you - and this is what
DaVinci talks about, take a sketchbook, or he called the blank book and go
into the market and capture actions and people doing things in real life.
That's what you need to do, but you're not going to capture them all in one place.
You're going to do, they're going to be moving all over the place.
So what I typically do, and I'm just going to give you a little, let's say,
create a market scene or something where you got a group of figures.
So I'll take and not necessarily but not starting out with a frame.
I'm just starting out with the figure.
See if, see somebody leaning over and he's typically drawn very very small,
like say I'm just taking something okay leaning over see this is like
a market, let's say open market.
Some figures leaning over doing something with a fruit stand here.
So now that person has probably gotten up taken and give his stuff.
You got somebody behind who's going to be taking, or maybe let's see here,
I'll take this and somebody next.
So when I start picking, I'll see somebody doing something and then I'll
take and place it with this figure.
So the - even before I do this, the
biggest problem is that when you start placing figures, the tendency is to
start treating them all as individual figures set side side by side.
So that theyre you have to focus on getting overlapping, being very careful
about the distance between the figures.
So I've got this figure here
well, maybe I'll take and we got a figure that's closer.
That way I can do - he's got this stand behind here.
And first of all, deal with somebody back in here, who's going to take
and looking over so we got one figure and this one's looking leaning over
maybe taking and picking out something for a person here in a fruit stand.
Now these two are really separate.
I could take and add in here also.
Oh, that was just kid, child taking and holding on and coming through.
So I'm inventing.
I have to think about where are we at on the stand down here.
We're over size.
So we're dealing with a little bit of perspective here.
We have to figure out how that figures going to fit in.
Maybe we got another, I'll say what would happen the natural tendency
is to taking stuff, putting another figure, putting it right there.
Well, that wouldn't be good because what you're doing is you're
getting this distance or equal.
So I want to take and work with another figure here.
But I want to take it and put it in so that I got some
sense of something going on.
So I want to put this other figure right here.
So I'm going to overlap it and this one's going in.
Well, I'm going to take a turn this figure is actually going out now.
Oh, I could see where I can take and doing that.
I could pick up this leg coming through.
So we've got actually got a group of figures now.
So now actually I've got a group of figures here.
Now we can expand on this now.
But I saying, well, just get a simple frame start with here.
So I'm starting to create this group.
Now it can be in a big frame, small frame.
I'm putting in fairly tight here.
And kind go over to here let's say.
So we've got this figure, maybe holding, holding a basket or
something or picking out things.
So we've got the thing now.
I am trying to think well what can I do?
We got this, I want to take and as we're moving in so we
have this unit in a sense here.
I'm gonna come in with another figure coming in.
Well, it could be a rather large figure because I want it coming in.
So the scale, all the heads essentially are lined up.
I'm assuming that as a viewer, I'm standing up in this group so
all of their eyes are lining up.
All the heads are lining up.
So maybe it was started in the typical Tintoretto type thing.
Gonna take the figure comes in right off the frame
and maybe turning.
So now we've got this figure turning and we're going off.
So now we're encompassing this whole frame here.
Now from here, we could take and add another figure behind coming
through here, and they could even add a third figure over here.
So this is a, now I've got this as a group here.
These two figures is a group, this is a group.
Now, I'm going to lead us over into that group.
So now I'm taking and we have here and I'm making this gesture,
maybe this person's dropping something and this person's basket, right.
So now what you can see is we have this group, we have this
group, but this is the transition.
Now notice what's happening here.
This now works well with a transition.
We've got this arm to that arm.
Your eye sees that transition.
That really - I like that idea now, so we could take and
coming back, got through here.
Now actually, we're not going very far off this way, we can take and maybe
even have another group here, add to this group, add another kid, child
here who's taking and maybe leaning over, looking at something down here.
Now I can figure out an idea.
He's taking in giving something to a dog or petting the dog in here.
So now we're getting this thing going here, taking it
to the edge of the stall here.
We could actually, as it comes up, we could actually have a, this is like a
regular banner to the top of the market.
What we've got here, this can be very conceivably be without
too much difficulty a painting.
Now so as I go into this, I start to work with this.
Now we're creating a movement.
So now I'm going to go in and turn this into a female figure.
So I'm going to take and give her a ponytail, coming through.
I should have turned it over a little bit farther cause I want her head - I want
to feel that she's looking the other way.
So I'm pulling,
stretching it from across.
We could have a line or blouse, you know, the gesture.
And now say the dress then becomes a great way to pick up more lines now
that I can use to take and lead the eye and coming back, arm coming back she
possibly could have a bag in her arm.
Or on her arm or we have a - over her shoulder, I think and she's
turning and talking to somebody who's maybe actually talking, going over,
looking out of the frame this way, or she's just watching you then.
So we got this arm now coming in.
Now I've started this idea of the arm coming across.
It's coming across and arm's coming down.
I could take it at this point then this could be - used her - have
another arm coming through.
So now, I've created the whole pattern of these arms taking
a going across and leading.
Yet this is definitely, you could be thinking of these two as a group.
Maybe I need to do something more of this figure here it's really a
transition group, because the reason that it's transitioned is that
spatially it's considered to be back.
It's not in the same space.
So now what the figure here is we're actually putting
diagonally into the picture.
So the movement, so we could actually, this figure here is like
slightly going back to like turns.
We feel this way, the pulling, the gesture, her arm coming out, head
looking back in, that figure there.
Then we're moving in here.
We have - we're leaning in and here we can take and actually play a little bit.
Let's take and make this into a really rather substantial figure.
And if we wanted to play with this a little bit then put shorts on her.
Now, the reason that I was just thinking of the shorts is having this leg here,
got this arm coming here, that the shorts that will allow me to take in
more clearly show this leg leaning in
as she's bending over, picking up.
And I even make the head go down a bit more now.
And we could even at this point, I just thinking, cause I was having to give the
idea of a dog coming through in here.
That I could have this head slightly turn, even though she's dealing
with the guy over here looking.
At what the kids are doing over here, but she's actually looking back down
to here and it would take a little bit of work then, and I'll give her sort
of a French twist type of hair do.
Going over, put a scarf on her, even could be a, we could even turn it into
an ethnic type of thing, a marketplace.
She wouldn't have shorts then.
Well, contemporary, I think working in here, they got the girl here coming
through, taking and trying to play with this and see now I'm making her lean a
little bit this way and then throwing the boy, actually taking and leaning out.
Coming down, giving something to the dog and we could have the child
maybe with a skirt or at this point, maybe just the vertical and
the boy leg coming off over here.
So all I'm doing is I'm looking for lines and he's taking the.
Apple or whatever he's offering, she's giving to him to put in a bag.
And so then we got this guy up here is the merchant with an apron, coming
through, and this could be any kind of character we want coming through.
Can even have a big, long beard or something.
So this is actually pretty carrying the thing, whole thing through now.
This could take and work really quite well without if I must say so myself.
Now you got this figure here.
We got the one in the background here, walking through, coming over,
and we're taking and she's taking and dropping something in the basket here.
That's going to be another female and he's taking and
holding something for her and taking and this figure's coming in while
this figure then coming out this way.
And so he'd see triply opposites, just constantly playing opposites
as I go through the day and I'm still holding onto my wine.
I'm just adding another element of within the thing.
And the thing would be to come in and start to play with differences of shape
that we could take and work with.
That's part of the thing is I make a rather slender gal here, rather hefty gal
through there, we could take something, the one back here, foot coming forward.
I would have to sit down and try that one for a few times.
We got the counter coming back here behind the counter.
You have another counter next to that, another stall.
And so we started to create a whole environment of this
going back through here.
This does give you an idea.
This is sort of how I work.
I just, most of the time, I haven't got a clue what I'm going to do.
And it's sort of a play.
It's what I enjoy.
I enjoy this aspect of creating the thing rather than the actual labor of painting.
That to me is work.
This is really the fun part.
This is really the intellectual part where you're playing with
things, playing of opposites.
And as you develop the drawing and it can be it's, it's a thing in itself.
several things you can do, but it would be more interesting if you
can take and develop your own group.
She could go back and look at groups of old master paintings
or drawings and pull groups.
But if you could take and start with say go sit in a park and just
do a series of sketches of figures.
Now the trick is - I shouldn't say trick.
Let's say if I take and start out a drawing and I get a figure,
okay, I've got it.
I got this figure here.
Now, again, these are just capturing very quickly.
Now what I do, it's something like this is no, this is people
are moving or milling around.
It'd be at a train depot.
It could be anywhere.
You take that, that figure and then you take, and you add another figure to that
but in doing this, you are already now composing this figure to that figure.
So maybe this one is taking and moving in this direction could be even holding
something or carrying or shopping.
You could be doing this, it could be inside of a shopping mall.
But you could take and you build a group of figures then, you've
been working, you're taking you have another group over here.
So you end up with say many many figures that are sort of the raw material,
the raw materials for something.
Maybe we got a child here being put up on something, maybe shopping cart
since I was talking about markets there and we have another figure here.
So let's just say now we've got a couple of groups of figures here and I've had
to be very careful in doing this, that I don't make everything equal distance
apart which is the natural tendency.
We tend to draw a figure then we draw another figure and then we draw another
figure and he said, Oh, but he said, get overlapping, get things behind.
So then you put the next one right in between halfway.
So you want to avoid - that's what you want to avoid.
So now let's just say we've got some figures going here and this
rough idea here and things, now, it could have been done independently.
They could have been done days apart.
Then you say, okay, I'm going to make a composition into this.
I'm going to come through and use this.
Now I can take, say, well, the assignment is at least two groups of figures.
How do we get the eye going from one group to the next group?
How do we lead?
How do we tie these things together?
Well, obvious thing would be to take and say, well, we have some kind of
elements in the background that ties in together that ties them together.
But I'm talking about taking in possibly maybe I would take an change
if I want, if we got , maybe I would take this figure here and add a child
who's taking and tugging at this one.
Now I have tied these two groups of figures together.
There's an obvious movement and play and going to it.
And also I would be taking and very clearly thinking about what
kind of space the figure is in it.
Once you've got something started like this, then you can come back in.
And for instance here now I could say, now that I, and I would go back over
the sketches and change them then.
Say come through here,
well, okay, this figure is now looking over here.
Maybe this figure is this - we've got the action of the child here too going across.
Maybe this figure is turning its head to look in that direction.
And it's dealing, adding its subjective element, which we will talk about later
then through, but then I can take and have the figures behind here and moving.
So now I noticed I've moved.
And so I've got this figure taking and actually looking.
So we've got the figure here looking that way.
This one is turned looking that way.
Then I moved to the other figure from behind the move here.
So now getting a direction going that way with the arm going over here.
So now I've created a strong group here.
I have it tied to this figure.
And we've got this group going on here.
This one is now taking and turning its head, looking back.
We could be having another figure then becomes thinking like, what
am I going to deal with here.
Where are we at?
Well, we could actually even have other groups of figures back in here.
Doing - we could end up with three groups of figures.
Now I've created a block with this figure.
I created a pull coming across, I'm creating an arabesque
going across over to here.
So you have to take, and whether it's physically or subjectively, you
have to have some way of getting the eye led from one group to the other.
I mean, this could even be here, that maybe this child was taking
it and trying to hand something, maybe we got some drapery.
Now that makes a really strong line there.
So you can see now all I'm doing things that in terms of looking at say the Greuze
paintings, it's a very strong movement.
I could take and the chances are, if I'm looking at this and I'm saying,
well, this is a very, a blockage shape.
Maybe I would want to come over here and make this very maybe roundish shape.
So just to take and be a compliment.
So you're designing these groups.
We could have another group back here,
we could have this into maybe turn this into a restaurant.
Maybe we get as a shopping mall, ceiling lights, racks and clothes.
You can take and be working in a park, a playground.
You can have people bathing on the beach, a beach scene.
And, in other words, you could be taking and very simply
you got a beach, maybe somebody coming into beach, carrying all kinds of stuff.
You're gonna have people out here sitting under umbrellas with many other figures
coming through and we could take an, how are you going to physically take
and attach this figure to that group?
How you're going to make the eye move from one group to the other.
And then how are we going to get the space going back behind?
Maybe you can talk about clouds and airplane coming, taking and dragging
in a banner back here, but you have to consciously think about how the eye moves
from one group to the other and how we're moving through the picture, rather than
just drawing a series of static figures, setting them one on top of the other.
Now, first thing we're talking about groups of figures.
And I'm going to ghost this down so that we can take, and
you can see my drawing when I'm going over it.
First of all, I'm going to - there's several different
steps that we go through on this.
And so I want to take and sort of in a way, go back through all the different
things we've been talking about.
Now, first one of the ideas is the idea of transition and
also talking about the frame.
So let's sort of obviously here to begin with we can see how we've got a very
clear cut sense across all of them.
We've got obvious verticals through here.
You got stuff going across the top.
You're getting mass and space.
Now let's just take and take some time here and go through this.
Notice, first of all, this is the it was a dead baby.
Notice the angle here.
We're going back in the picture there.
Notice now this is the reverse of what we have on the other side.
So we've got the two ads.
Now we started looking at the lines here.
This gal's leg and literally drawing drawing lines and you can feel
the drapery she's going back in.
But the next figure, then see, this is all what you've got here.
This is building up.
This is going in.
Look at the, even the stairs here, align leading you in.
So all of this stuff just is moving you into the picture.
Also notice the way he's taking and working with the light, dropping
her in the shadow with using the cast shadows, going over the
surface, draper, wrapping around.
The head's being pulled back.
We could even be - could be talked about in terms of the emotion.
Now this figure is taking and building through, leaning over, looking down, and
notice that the arm now we're way up here.
This is taking and coming down.
Well, the whole movement now is we can see this, started with these - got
her hair, putting her head back.
Okay, but this didn't just start right here.
This is starting notice look in the back of look at where we're going.
Start all the way back here.
This is taking and coming through.
Even all the lines, the sword is coming down.
This is all the stuff that's pushing.
He's taking and all this stuff is coming together.
Now this in itself is a group.
These two figures is a group.
And now, so we've noticed that this group, he is actually going in, he's got
her leg on top of her holding her down.
Now as we're looking at this, we've got the line building up into the next figure.
All of this is just building up, building up, building up.
So this now becomes a transition.
This line, and this is really leading you right into this big group.
And even here you have separate bits of action going.
You've got the action of this guy here taking you and grabbing
the baby is coming through with this knife and the sword up here.
And that figure.
now we want to take you in, and this is sort of a jumping a little
bit here, but notice that what this is doing we're lining up, this is
stuff is carrying you back through.
Okay, he's taking and first we have the - look at the vertical we got going here.
He's pulling past the vertical here.
We have the vertical here.
Now this creates coming, working off of these verticals.
So we come through now, the next figure, as he's stretching across
looking - woman looking back,
he's taking and grabbing the baby.
The baby notice the line continues, coming through, going over this.
Now, at the same time notice now, as I was drawing this, I
took my first figure right here.
I took and came down the notice that, that is also working directly with the color
here, the changes taking place in here.
This is a dropping, this is a dropping movement that is going down the
leading up to the final thing here.
This guy has got his foot over the baby.
The sword up on the top of here is going to come down and chop off the baby's head.
So we have three different play or four actually because they're all the different
emotional state at - or time type thing.
It's just building up here.
So now we've got this movement going here, coming through.
The arm coming through notice as we're doing this.
This guy's robe back here going through his head, you feel the pull here.
Got the pull taking, going off through here.
Now, one of the things that he's doing here is that when you look
at this thing, what do we see?
What we see is this strong shape thing like that.
This is like something that's leaning over and the foot is down
here and he's going to chop off the bag, but you see this dark shape.
So he's using the shape, the light and dark pattern to take and emphasize
all of this is taking and coming down, leg coming out from behind this.
Now, as we're building the pillar, he keeps working and
he sort of like coming through.
so we've gone progressively we're taking, coming down.
So what we've been doing now, we're going up.
Look at these - look at the line.
He's coming through.
He's building, building up.
This is working right into the next figure, pushing up this figure is now
leaning way over, the head is in shadow.
Arm coming through..
Notice that there's another figure back here.
It's a very subtle little play, but what this does, this continues the eye moving.
Use of the light and dark here, all of this dark creating a large
pattern along with this woman's hair and stuff and shape of her gown.
All of this.
Tends to make this very strong two-dimensional shape that helps
make us feel that this whole thing is going to take and come down.
So as you look at the children here, now we find this is going
to take and come back down, works to the frame, to the pillar.
This is at a slightly different angle now flying in or coming out.
However you want to look at it, through, the next one is going back, over this way.
So what you have here then is you having a series of lines going
in, coming out, going in, and out throughout the whole thing.
So you actually have, then you have four groups.
Well, actually five, you have another group over here with a child.
And trying to fend off somebody else with a sword over here.
Once you get, so we can look at one, two, this is a group, these two number ones.
This is one, two, two, three.
And finally, this is four.
They're all actually separated by tone.
And we work within a very fixed structural element within the whole thing and
coming forward, he, the everything builds one thing on top of the other.
Let's take and close this now and go back here and let you see.
Now here, you can really see the effect of the dark pattern that he has created.
And the way we can see the lights or the tones that are created with the figures,
how they all build the dropping, the dropping, going from the light to a
dark, to a light and dropping down dark.
It's a marvelous piece of organization.
It's pretty amazing, actually.
So, but it's still a very clear kind of structure.
It has a strong two dimensional and strong three-dimensional.
But the idea of he creates within that structure, he has
created an incredible sense of movement and building to a climax.
And this is a painting - Poussin is one of those artists.
There's so much to be learned from looking at.
But let's take and ghost the thing - the color on this one it seems to
be a pretty pretty extreme, or while I'm used to looking, working with
one, the drawings for this thing, but let's take and play with this.
Npow let's first take and see if we can take in see it as a group.
So first of all, you can see now this first figure here,
through, notice that he's.
Isolated it by taking it and way he's working with the tone.
So this group and the baby here, coming through this figure here
and in the way it is in space.
Now he's done various variations on this painting.
But this is a totally separate figure.
In one of the variation, there's actually another baby right here on the
left-hand side that's going dramatically into the picture, something like this.
But he's doing exactly the same thing with the figure that he's got going back here.
So he's actually surrounding that figure.
He's using a dark against the light to separate it.
Okay, but anyway, we have the group here.
Now notice the way she's coming - ghost this down a little bit.
Notice where the she's looking down, baby's looking over there, this one
looking back down, all of this is taking and basically this is figure here is tying
and the gesture here is coming through.
So now as these figures are leaning forward now we get another figure that's
leaning forward, this in here the gesture coming forward, the drapery went back
into the head back here, looking up.
So we've got, we created a two, three figures here.
We've got the next figure here.
This one tends to be sort of an isolated one in between, and we're
going back in, but what you have is a whole wall of figures, going
back in with the light coming in between and now, what happened here
you can notice that with this figure he's taking and turning, coming through.
Again, look at the space that he's creating.
He creates all these things, he creates a shelf, or this figure
is actually leaning his elbow.
And here notice that this figure is now this is the foreground figure,
but he's relating these two guys are relating to thing he's coming in.
So all of these figures are built one, even here, the dog coming in, nice dog.
This is a diagonal coming into the picture.
So we've got these groups in front, then we're going to the next big group in here.
And then he's dropping all of his tone in between, but you can see now what happens.
You've got this next section here
is all being dropped into shadow of this is another group.
So he's building, but the action of this figure works with the action that figure.
And of course, these are all related to what's going on here.
Now this is a Ruben's pretty complex.
And let's ghost it down and see if we can take and bring a little,
make a little sense out of it.
It doesn't, it's not very difficult to see that what you
have here is this very large group.
That's a big major group.
And also what you can see is that we have this next group here.
Now, this is really very much a Baroque painting in that we're seeing this very
very strong diagonal in space going in.
So this is another group in here, and then we find that we have this whole
mass coming through and he separated these by the space in between.
I let them want to take and let's take and work a little bit within the group.
Now here, what we're doing is we're moving up.
No notice that all of this action let's just take and start with
this figure here, coming through.
Notice the use and just, this is like the Poussin, the use of value change
to take and help create a movement.
Okay pushing up.
The next figure is leaning in on that one also.
Going up the arms going up.
Now look at the shapes here, building going up.
So the next shape then is the continuous pulling and going up, arm.
And we keep the movement.
No, all of these shapes, see what we're doing is we're repeating.
This is sequence taking and transition from one shape to the next shape, to
the next shape, to the next shape.
And as we've figured into this figured now is leaning, looking in.
Arms wrapping around those give sense of volume, but look at the shape.
This is leading right into the next.
There's very little question about what he's trying to get you to do.
Notice that the shape and the looking way, the figure looks going back up.
The gesture going up then at the same time that we're doing all of
this going up, look at the soldiers are going the opposite direction.
You get these guys with their stuff coming down.
The yes, you, now the arm is going same way, but the whole movement
of the soldiers is going in the opposite direction of the movement
that you've got going here.
And see this continues into the group in the background.
Now this is a total separate group back here, but the lines are, and
actually the pattern are continuous.
This is lifting up and we're building to the baby up in here, building up,
and the figure is like leaning back.
So it's a flow, one to the next, to the next to the next.
Then eventually when you get up here, you see that these are figures that are
actually babies falling down the stairs.
So now let's go back to the group here.
Notice of what you're starting with, and this is a part of the dramatics.
Is that he creates a ground plane.
And you can see that then with you working with the values here, he
creates a wine list taking, coming down.
So we got the baby stepping down, coming through the head, the mother trying
to protect the baby, coming through.
They're all really dramatic.
This is if you look at the play, this is building up.
Another dead baby coming through, so now as we're building this thing up, okay,
we've got the main center of this group.
This guy right here.
Think the ribcage, we can treat this as a simple spherical form and
notice the way the drapery now takes and is going over surface before.
Coming forward using the shadows to help describe the form
the leg, coming back in, he's lifting, he's going over this figure
and the way the drapery is drawn.
We feel the thing going over.
So now as we pull, see, we've got all of this now look at
the movement taking place.
So lifting up, going up.
The mother's, clawing at the face, trying to take and protect their child.
So this pull, these lines taking and going back, but you see that this
is an echo of the next group, except it's going in the opposite direction.
Where we get this going up.
This is going in the opposite direction.
And so we can feel these pull.
what did the wines look at?
The why's it, everything is building building.
And again, we've mentioned numerous times.
Now we have the mass on the right blocking off the space on the left.
It is divided right down the center.
And that will be carried through.
So now you can see that we get the space, we get this open area in
between the groups on the right.
We get the stepping in you can see so actually creating a path for the eye to
go in between these groups of figures.
As the figures on the center, there are going up this figure is now really pulling
back and going so this is dropping down right next to the ones going forward.
And we get that transition that dropping to the next figure, dropping
down here and the leg is dropping.
So it's constantly pushing the contrast of how these figures go.
A School of Athens by Rafael.
This is of course, a very historical painting.
It's in the next room to the Michelangelo Sistine Chapel ceiling.
And this is in the basically the private chambers of the Pope.
Now the whole point of the - whole point of the picture is that school of Athens,
you have Aristotle and Plato in the center, but then you have also all of the
people that have in here, I think Archimedes and all of the various
philosophers, but what's useful here is you even have Rafael I think
that's a self portrait in there.
Is that we can take and look at this from the point of view of groups of figures.
And so now you have obvious groups.
We have the group on the left.
Or I should say in the group on the right plus one group,
you have another group in here.
And I think that this is actually the figure here sitting.
I think that's supposed to be mental Andrew.
And then you have this groups, all these groups on the left, on the center, and
you've got the groups on the right.
And then you've got the figures coming in.
And so what do you deal with here
and this is something that you should take time and go through,
to take in and look at analyze.
And what is this figure on the steps here was something that was added quite late.
It wasn't part of the original composition.
Now, what we've got then as, and this is the point here that you take and you
start with a group and we try to see how one group relates to the next group.
So, and beginning here on the left, take and take this figure here.
Now this is really neat.
Look at the way they also remember this he's working with it on the architecture.
So he's much, definitely, dealing with the space.
So he noticed that he, with the figure here is copying a note.
I'm not sure which philosopher this is supposed to be.
But he's taking and reading.
Notice just the lines.
Notice just the lines.
So really looking over at him.
And again, like I keep saying, look at the lines, draw the lines, look at how
one line leads you into the next line.
We get all these figures down, looking over, looking down, trying to look in.
As we're going through.
And as of now, what we really see even here, because the drapery cut
this pole, look at how this is taking, carrying in slides, right into the
look, we've got the we're going down, down, down, and this gal holding a
slate here, or a guy, probably a guy.
Okay, so all of this now, so you've got this really clear group.
Now, well, we have within that, this is ties us this next figure here ties into
that by the mere fact of the subjective, looking over but at the same time, look at
the line. Look at the line also, the fact that we're dealing with slates, books,
taking and coming through the gesture that this pull coming through, a line coming
in now, as you can look at this line, look at this figure and we're picking up the
all of the same manipulation of movements
or repetition of shapes to keep the eye moving.
So like even here as we've been building up the leg, going behind
the leg coming forward, these are directional things now looking back.
So now then we, like I said, I think this was supposedly a self portrait,
although I'm not sure of that.
But this though is a thing in between.
Now, if we, if we're just looking at these figures in the foreground,
see these are going to relate to the figures in the background.
So what we have is a very clear cut foreground.
In other words, these groups are all actually on a stage in the
foreground as the perspective he's taking and building this thing up.
All of these next group of figures or the background, this
becomes the middle ground in here.
It, originally that figure wasn't there.
Now put well let's taking, let's start with one on the right here.
We can take these group of figures.
Notice what he's doing is he's doing the same thing here.
He's got a group here and that this group there.
And then he's got this simple form in between and was with the sphere here.
This figure is functioning in the same way as while we're here.
It's sort of a physical tie between the two groups.
Okay now as we start to look at these groups in here, maybe
still looking, I guess, I guess
this figure over here is actually the one that's supposed to be the
self portrait, one with the dark hat.
The other one is too young.
So now what does it come off the frame
He's looking back through and get this group.
They're all looking at each other.
And at the same time now, as we're looking at these figures coming in
the self-portrait is looking at you.
We have - look at this back here that this figure going out of the picture,
then we got these figures coming in, coming through.
Now these figures are involved in a conversation.
There's three groups.
This figure now is leaning towards us, taking and
making diagrams on a slate.
Students are standing around looking here, but even here now look at, as
we go back in this, you can see that the lines now are feeding back and
working into what's going on here.
As we come across here now with this figure here, and you can
see the transition of the lines taking and pulling through now,
but here's, this is really strong
now look at the line here.
This leads in the next figure, coming through, then we find the drapery here.
This figure is leaning in and gesturing that way.
So as we come off of this figure, leaning in, so you can see right away, we got,
this is taking and holding, going back, head's turn looking at that figure.
And so all of these things are constantly building up, lead
- follow the lines, carry he's gesturing or coming back, turning,
looking back the opposite direction is going to be contrapposto
type pose, then coming through.
Now, one of the things that everybody talks about is okay.
I shouldn't say everybody talks about only fanatics like me, but this was
actually literature where they do talk about this this figure here in the center.
I think that's probably a Diogenes figure anyway.
But if you take that figure out
they're really, it doesn't work as well.
It takes and this almost becomes too rigid.
It really didn't need that.
It didn't really did need that figure in here, but at the same time as an
afterthought, it feels stuck in there.
But it does work.
It does take and it makes the line
that's created across here as we're going into the picture.
It makes it less rigid and makes the thing feel a little bit more relaxed.
So as you constantly notice that the way these guys robes are going with
the gesture is taking and building.
This, by the way, is working exactly down the center.
And he split the thing right in half.
And so each one of these groups, even the slate here, look at the figure leading,
you're leading in the building, and then these become a progression of volumes
going that way and then immediately get thing going in the opposite direction.
So here you look at the opposite direction
you can see already now we, so we see this arm being carried through into that arm.
So that becomes a transition now, the figure looking that
way is part of this group.
And you could actually break this down into separate sections of the
group that you really feel that group.
And now we got this figure coming in.
Moving is it just the same as on the other side.
On the other side of we have the feet going out here, we
got the figure coming in.
So we've we, we build on these things.
They get the pulling off the vertical right here, the arm
coming past the vertical.
So we're pulling in, pulling in, coming through.
It's a pretty take, I would suggest that you take and get a good reproduction
of this and blow it up, blow up the sections and draw them and do
essentially what I'm doing here is to take and follow the lines through it.
But to see every time you put a line down extended to see what does it reach into
and to also then think of the figures as
three-dimensional objects as I've been doing in many of my diagrams, I draw
things as boxes and cylinders and spheres, so that you can take and very clearly, see
which way these farms are going in space.
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1. Lesson Overview1m 21sNow playing...
1. Overview and Lecture19m 7sNow playing...
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2. Suggested Assignment8m 40s
3. Massacre of the Innocents12m 15s
4. Madonna Del Popolo4m 41s
5. Massacre of the Innocents9m 1s
6. School of Athens13m 31s